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Encyclopedia > Bengal Presidency

Bengal, known as Bango ( This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to the intended page. The Bengali language, spoken by the people... Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in This article is about the Bengali language. For the script, see Bengali script. Bānglā (বাংলা) or Bengali is the language spoken by the populations of Bangladesh and the neighboring state of West Bengal in India. There are also significant Bengali-speaking communities in... Bengali, is a region in the northeast of Map of South Asia South Asia is a subregion of Asia comprising the modern states of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, . It covers about 4,480,000 km², or 10 percent of the continent, and is also known as the Indian subcontinent. These states are all... South Asia. Today it is mainly divided between the independent country of The Peoples Republic of Bangladesh ( Bangla: গনপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলােদশ) is a country in South Asia that forms the eastern part of the ancient region of Bengal. Bangladesh (বাং... Bangladesh and the The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. India has grown significantly, both in population and in strategic importance in the last two decades. The Indian economy is... Indian state of West Bengal (পশ্চিম বঙ্গ, Pôščim Bôngô) is a state in the northeast of India. Neighbouring regions are Nepal and Sikkim to the northwest, Bhutan to the north, Assam to the northeast, Bangladesh to the east, the Bay of... West Bengal, although some regions of the previous state of Bengal (during local monarchial regimes and British rule) are part of the Indian states of For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). Bihar (बिहार) is a India. Its capital is Patna. It is bordered on the north by the Kingdom of Nepal, on the west by Uttar Pradesh, south by Jharkhand, and the east by West Bengal. Bihar lies in the very... Bihar, Categories: States and territories of India | Tripura | Seven Sister States | India geography stubs ... Tripura and Orissa (ଓଡ଼ିଶା) is a state situated in the east coast of India. Orissa is bounded on the north by Bihar, on the north-east by West Bengal, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, on the south by Andhra Pradesh and on the west... Orissa.

Contents

History

The History is a term for information about the past. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. The term history comes from the Greek ιστορία historia, an account of... history of Bengal can be divided according to the Religion, sometimes used interchangeably with faith, is commonly defined as belief concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the practices and institutions associated with such belief. In its broadest sense some have defined it as the sum total of answers given to explain humankinds relationship with the universe. Religion... religion of its rulers.


Early History

Bengal became a political entity in the (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded... 6th century, with the first recorded independent king of Bengal - Shashanka - reigning around Events Shashanka is the first recorded independent king of Bengal (approximate date). Cearl becomes king of Mercia. The diocese of Aquileia becomes a patriarchate. Births Fatima Zahra, daughter of Muhammad Deaths Aidan, king of Dalriada February 22 - Pope Sabinianus Pybba of Mercia (possible date) Categories: 606 ... 606.

Buddha, Mahayana tradition, Pala Dynasty, 11th century. Musee Guimet, Paris. Personal photograph, 2004. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete...
Buddha, Mahayana tradition, Pala Dynasty, 11th century. Musee Guimet, Paris. Personal photograph, 2004. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete... Enlarge
A stone image of the Buddha. Buddha (Sanskrit, Pali, others: literally Awakened One, Enlightened One, from the Sanskrit: √budh, to awaken) can refer to the historical Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama, or to anyone who has attained the same depth and quality of enlightenment. Buddhism recognises three types of Buddha, of... Buddha and Prince Siddhartha Gautama as a bodhisattva, before becoming a Buddha. He is characteristically depicted as an Indian nobleman, posing with left hand on the hip, Gandhara, 2nd-3rd century. In Buddhist thought, a bodhisattva is a being that, while not yet fully enlightened, is actively striving toward that goal. Conventionally... Bodhisattvas, (10th century - 11th century - 12th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. Events 1000 (cca), Vikings, led... 11th century, Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. The Pala Empire controlled Bihar and Bengal India, from the 8th to the 12th century. The name Pala means protector and was used as an ending to the names of all Pala monarchs. The founder of the empire was Gopala. He reigned from... Pala Empire.

The first Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, who lived between approximately 563 and 483 BCE. Originating in India, Buddhism gradually... Buddhist Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. The Pala Empire controlled Bihar and Bengal India, from the 8th to the 12th century. The name Pala means protector and was used as an ending to the names of all Pala monarchs. The founder of the empire was Gopala. He reigned from... Pala king of Bengal came to Sociologists usually define power as the ability to impose ones will on others, even if those others resist in some way. By power is meant that opportunity existing within a social relationship which permits one to carry out ones own will even against resistance and regardless of the... power in Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Categories: 750 | 750s ... 750 in Binomial name Bos gaurus H. Smith, 1827 The Gaur (Bos gaurus, previously Bibos gauris) is a large, dark-coated ox of the hilly areas of India and Southeast Asia, which may be found wild or domesticated. It is also called the seladang. The wild group and the domesticated group are... Gaur by election. The dynasty's most powerful kings, Dharampala (reigned Events Leo IV succeeds Constantine V as Byzantine Emperor. Battle of Otford between Mercia and Kent. Alpin II succeeds Ciniod as king of the Picts. Births Deaths Al-Mansur, second Abbasid caliph September 14 - Constantine V, Byzantine Emperor Categories: 775 ... 775- Events October 1 - A man with a sword makes an attempt on emperor Nicephorus Is life. In the following trial, the assassin claims insanity as his defense. Births Emperor Nimmyo of Japan Kenneth I, king of Scotland (approximate date) Kassia, poet and composer (approximate date) Deaths Pepin, King of... 810) and Devapala (reigned Events October 1 - A man with a sword makes an attempt on emperor Nicephorus Is life. In the following trial, the assassin claims insanity as his defense. Births Emperor Nimmyo of Japan Kenneth I, king of Scotland (approximate date) Kassia, poet and composer (approximate date) Deaths Pepin, King of... 810- Events April 20 - Guntherus becomes Bishop of Cologne. Montoku succeeds Nimmyo as emperor of Japan. Louis II is crowned co-emperor with his father Lothair I. First recorded Viking attack on the Welsh coast. Births Emperor Seiwa of Japan, 56th imperial ruler of Japan (+ 881). Al-Batani, Arab prince and... 850) united Bengal and made the Pala family one of the most important dynasties in ninth-century India. Internecine strife during the reign of Narayanpala (reigned Events Charles the Bald, Louis the German and Lothar meet at Attigny. Horik II succeeds Horik I as king of Denmark. Jayavarman III succeeds his father Jayavarman II as ruler of the Khmer Empire. First written record of Novgorod. First known pilgrimage to Rome of a Welsh ruler (Cyngen of... 854- Events Births Deaths Categories: 908 ... 908) and administrative excesses led to the decline of the dynasty.


A brief revival of the kingdom under Mahipala I (reigned Events Births Deaths Hunain ibn Ishaq, Egyptian physician Categories: 977 ... 977- Events March 26 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II Holy Roman Emperor. May 14 - Henri I is crowned king of France at Reims Cathedral. Aldred becomes abbot of Tavistock. Births William I, king of England (1036-1087) Margrave Ernest the Brave of Austria Deaths Categories: 1027 ... 1027) ended in battle against the powerful, South Indian The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. The other two were the Cheras and the Pandyas. Early Cholas The early Cholas ruled between the 1st and the 4th centuries A.D. The first and the most famous king of the early Cholas... Chola kingdom. The rise of the In Hindu mythology, Chandra is a lunar deity, later identified with Soma. He is white and rides his chariot (the moon) across the sky every night, pulled by ten white horses. He is said to be connected with dew, and as such, is a god of fertility. He is the... Chandra dynasty in southern Bengal expedited the decline of the Palas, and the last Pala king, Madanpala, died in Events Bartholomew Iscanus becomes Bishop of Exeter. Births Emperor Takakura of Japan Deaths Heads of states England - Henry II Curt Mantle, King of England (reigned 1154 - 1189). France - Louis VII, King of France (reigned 1137 - 1180). Categories: 1161 ... 1161.


The Malla dynasty emerged in Bengal in the seventh century, although they only rose to prominence in the 10th century under Jagat Malla who moved his capital to Vishnupur. Unlike the Buddhist Palas and Chandras, the This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). Aum, the most sacred syllable and quintessential symbol of Hinduism, represents the first manifestation of the unmanifest Brahman. Hinduism (सनातन धर्म; commonly called Sanātana Dharma... Hindu Mallas worshipped first the Hindu god This article is about the Hindu God. For the Jewish ritual of mourning, see Shivah. For the Slavic goddess, see Siwa. Lord Shiva. The water flowing from his locks is a depiction of the River Ganga considered to be a goddess in Hinduism. In Hindu mythology, when Ganga descended... Shiva, then the Hindu god Vishnu (Hindi: (विष्‍णु) is a form of God, whom Hindus pray to. For Vaishnavites, He is the only Ultimate Reality or God. In Trimurti belief, He is the second aspect of God in the Trimurti (also called the Hindu Trinity), along with Brahma and... Vishnu. The Mallas built temples and spectacular religious monuments during their rule in Bengal.


Under the The word sena literally means army in many South Asian languages. Sena could refer to the Shiv Sena, a political party in India American movie director Dominic Sena (b. 1949) Also, the Bharatiya Vayu Sena (Bharatiya = Indian, Vayu = Air) refers to the Indian Air Force the Bharatiya Nau Sena refers... Sena dynasty, which lasted from Events The county of Portugal is established for the second time. Pembroke Castle is built in Wales. The cathedral in Valence, France is consecrated. Coloman becomes King of Hungary. March - Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus sends ambassadors to Pope Urban II at the Council of Piacenza, to discuss sending mercenaries... 1095 to Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fukakusa of Japan Emperor Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan September 3 - Mongols defeated by Mameluks at Battle of Ain Jalut Samogatians and Curonians defeats Teutonic knights in Battle of Durbe Births Maximus Planudes, Byzantine grammarian and theologian Deaths Monarchs/Presidents... 1260, This article is about the Bengali language. For the script, see Bengali script. Bānglā (বাংলা) or Bengali is the language spoken by the populations of Bangladesh and the neighboring state of West Bengal in India. There are also significant Bengali-speaking communities in... Bengali emerged as a distinct and important language in northern India, and Hinduism began to displace older Buddhism.


Muslim Rule

The The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. These people, possibly numbering 150 million in population, are probably the diverse descendants of large groups of tribespeople who originated in Central Asia. Nomenclature The first mention of the term Turk which... Turkic invasion of India (including Bengal) came in the early 13th century. The invaders defeated the Sena king Laxmansena at his capital, Nabadwip in Events April 16 - Philip II of France enters Rouen, leading to the eventual unification of Normandy and France. June 23 - Fleet of the Fourth Crusade enters Bosphorus July 17 - Fourth Crusade captures Constantinople by assault; the Byzantine emperor Alexius III flees from his capital into exile. August 1 - Fourth Crusade... 1203 ( Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. April 12 - The Fourth Crusade take Constantinople by storm, and pillage the city for three days. End of the Fourth Crusade. May 16 - Baldwin, Count of Flanders is crowned emperor of the Latin... 1204?) The Deva family — the last Hindu dynasty to rule in Bengal — ruled briefly in eastern Bengal, although they were suppressed by the mid-fourteenth century.


During the early Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. Etymology In Arabic, Islām means submission and is described as a Dīn, meaning way of life... Muslim period, the former kingdom became known as the Sultanate of Bangala, ruled intermittently from the The Delhi Sultanate, or Sulthanath-e-Hind/Sulthanath-e-Dilli refers to the various dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. Several Turko-Afghan dynasties ruled from Delhi: the Slave dynasty (1206-90), the Khilji dynasty (1290-1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1413), the Sayyid dynasty (1414-51... Sultanate of Delhi. The chaotic shifts in power between the Look up Afghan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Afghan can refer to any of the following: A Pashtun (ethnicity) The Pushtu language The Afghan hound since 1964, a citizen of Afghanistan An Afghan carpet This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Afghan and The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. Until 1922, the country was the center of the Ottoman Empire. The Anatolian peninsula, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, forms the core of the country... Turkish rulers of that sultanate came to an end when The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. It was largely conquered by Sher Shah during the time of... Moghul rule became established in Bengal during the sixteenth century.


In Events May 10 - Jacques Cartier explores Newfoundland while searching for the Northwest Passage. June 9 - Jacques Cartier is the first European to discover the St. Lawrence River. July 7 - First known exchange between Europeans and natives of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, in New Brunswick. Cambridge University Press given Royal... 1534, the Afghan Sher Khan Suri is considered to be the hero of Indo-Muslim revival by many historians. He was born in 1472 with the name of Farid Khan. Farids father Hasan Khan was the jagirdar or landlord of Sasaram in Bihar. Farid left home at the age of 22 and... Sher Shah Suri, or Farid Khan — a man of incredible military and political skill — succeeded in defeating the superior forces of the The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. It was largely conquered by Sher Shah during the time of... Mughals under Humayun was the second Mughal Emperor, and ruled from 1530-1556. He was 22 and inexperienced when he came to power. In 1540 he was challenged by Farid Khan Sur, or Sher Shah, an ethnic Afghan from Eastern India and the Shahs ally, the Lodi dynasty. The rule of... Humayun at Chausa ( Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. Hernando de Soto introduced Pigs into North America 6 Articles Statute of English Parliament, important in the English Reformation Lutheranism is forcefully introduced to Iceland, despite the opposition of... 1539) and Kanauj, or Kannauj, is an ancient city of Uttar Pradesh state of India (1991 pop. 58,932). Kanauj is the administrative center of Kannauj District. Kanauj in early times formed the capital of a great Hindu kingdom. Kanauj, which is traditionally said to be derived from Kanyakubja (the crooked maiden... Kannauj ( Events January 6 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne of Cleves, his fourth Queen consort. July 9 - King Henry VIII of England divorces Anne of Cleves, his fourth Queen consort. July 28 - One of the most important political figures of the reign of Henry VIII of England, Thomas Cromwell... 1540). Sher Shah fought back and captured both Delhi (दिल्ली or Dillī in Hindi and Bengali and دیلی in Urdu) is a term that refers to either the State of Delhi or the National Capital Territory (NCT) of the Republic of India. In popular use, the term NCT includes... Delhi and For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). Taj Mahal Āgra is a city on the Yamuna River in India. It belongs to the state of Uttar Pradesh. It was most celebrated when it was the capital of the Mughal sovereigns (1526 to 1658). Many splendid buildings of that time are... Agra as he established the most powerful Bengali kingdom that would ever exist, stretching far into Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (sometimes spelt Panjab) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. Once a single entity, it is now split between two nations: see Punjab, India and Punjab, Pakistan. Punjab, India covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres (19,445 square... Panjab. Sher Shah's administrative skill showed in his public works, including the The Grand Trunk Road is the Indian Subcontinents first, largest and oldest major road, linking Calcutta on the Bay of Bengal coast with Kabul in Afghanistan via the Khyber Pass. The Grand Trunk Road spans a distance of over 2,500 km, and connects up the important cities of... Grand Trunk Road connecting Sonargaon in Bengal with Peshāwar (known as Purushapura in the old days of South Asian history) is a city in Pakistans North-West Frontier Province (pop. ca. 570,000) near the eastern end of the Khyber Pass. Peshawars inhabitants consist mainly of two groups: minority Pishoris (native Peshawar people speaking... Peshawar in the The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. It is the westernmost extension of the Pamir Mountains, the Karakoram Range, and the Himalaya. It was previously known as the Caucasus... Hindu Kush. Sher Shah's rule ended with his death in Events December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Births Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza Luzzasco Luzzaschi, Italian (Ferrarese) composer of madrigals, also an organist and influential teacher Giulio Caccini, Italian (Florentine) composer, sometimes called the founder of opera Deaths October 18 - John Taverner, composer... 1545, although even in those five years his reign would have a powerful influence on Indian society, politics, and economics.


Shah Suri's successors lacked his administrative skill, and quarrelled over the domains of his empire. Humayun, who then ruled a rump Mughal state, saw an opportunity and in Events February 12 - After claiming the throne of England the previous year, Lady Jane Grey is beheaded for treason alongside her husband. March 17 - Princess Elizabeth imprisoned in The Tower April 12 - Mary of Guise becomes Regent of Scotland July 23 - 25 - Wedding of Queen Mary I of England and... 1554 seized Lahore (لاةور) is a major city in Pakistan that is the capital of the province of Punjab. A native of Lahore is called a Lahori It is located near the river Ravi and the Indian border. Lahore has 6.5 million inhabitants and thus is the... Lahore and Delhi. Humayun's death in Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. 830,000 people may have been killed. February... 1556 led to the accession of Jalauddin Akbar Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbár, (alternative spellings include Jellaladin) also known as Akbar the Great (Akbar-e-Azam) (October 15, 1542 – 1605) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from the time of his accession in 1556 until 1605. He is considered the greatest of the Mughal emperors... Akbar, the greatest of the The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. It was largely conquered by Sher Shah during the time of... Mughal emperors, who defeated the Karani rulers of Bengal in Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). End of the Fifth War of Religion Once again, the Protestants are granted freedom of worship. October 3 - The Spanish Terror. Mutinous Spanish troops capture and sack... 1576 and ruled through governors. Jalauddin Akbar Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbár, (alternative spellings include Jellaladin) also known as Akbar the Great (Akbar-e-Azam) (October 15, 1542 – 1605) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from the time of his accession in 1556 until 1605. He is considered the greatest of the Mughal emperors... Akbar exercised progressive rule and oversaw a period of prosperity (through trade and development) in Bengal and northern India.


Bengal's trade and wealth so impressed the Moghuls that they called the region the "Paradise of the Nations". Administration by governors appointed by the court of the The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. It was largely conquered by Sher Shah during the time of... Mughal Empire court ( Events August 5 - Henry Sidney is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. October 10 - Battle of Dormans: Catholic forces under Duke Henry of Guise defeat the Protestants, capturing Philippe de Mornay among others. The Fifth War of Religion erupts in France. Stephen Báthory becomes king of Poland. Edmund Grindal succeeds... 1575- Events January 4 — The Britain & France sign Triple Alliance March 2 — Dancer John Weaver performs in the first ballet in Britain shown in Drury Lane The Loves of Mars and Venus March 31 - Bishop Benjamin Hoadly, acting on the advice of King George begins the Bangorian Controversy... 1717) gave way to four decades of semi-independence under the A Nawab was originally the provincial governor or viceroy of a province or region of the Mughal empire. The term is derived from the Arabic naib, meaning deputy. In some areas, especially Bengal, the term was pronounced Nabob. (The last variation has entered the English language. See below.) Most of... Nawabs of Murshidabad is a town located in the northern part of present day state of West Bengal, India. Murshidabad (also locally known as Ingrez Bazaar) served as the capital of the last independent Bengali speaking muslim princes of Afghan and Turkish descent before the advent of the British. Categories: India geography... Murshidabad, who respected the nominal sovereignty of the The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. It was largely conquered by Sher Shah during the time of... Mughals in Delhi. The Nawabs granted permission to the The French East India Company (French Compagnie des Indes Orientales) was a commercial enterprise, founded in 1664 to compete with the British and Dutch East India companies. Planned by Jean Baptiste Colbert, it was chartered by King Louis XIV for the purpose of trading in the Eastern Hemisphere. The Company... French East India Company to establish a trading post at Chandernagore in Events The English Test Act was passed. It disallowed Catholics from holding high public office. France begins its expedition against Ceylon. March 18 - John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton sells his part of New Jersey to the Quakers. May 17 - Trader Louis Joliet and Jesuit missionary-explorerJacques Marquette begin... 1673, and the The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was a joint-stock company of investors, which was granted a Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intent to favor trade privileges in India. The Royal Charter effectively gave the newly created British East... British East India Company at This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. For the gambling term, see Indian state of West Bengal. Its original name was Kalikata and is, in higher literature, still referred to as such. Speakers of the regions native language of Bengali have always known it as Kolkata (কল... Calcutta in Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. January 6 - Joseph, son of Emperor Leopold I becomes King of the Romans January 14 - The clarinet is invented in Nuremberg, Germany May 20 - England passes Act of Grace, forgiving followers of James II July 1 - The Battle of... 1690.


When the British East India Company began strengthening the defences at Fort William (Calcutta), the Nawab, Siraj-ud-daulah acquired much notoriety both among the British and the Indians. He succeeded as the Nawab of Bengal in April 1756 at the age of 27. He resented British presence in Bengal, and managed to capture Calcutta from the British in June 1756. During this time, he is... Siraj Ud Daulah, at the encouragement of the French, attacked. Under the leadership of Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive Another Robert Clive was formerly British ambassador to Japan. See Robert Clive (diplomat). Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (September 29, 1725 - November 22, 1774) was the statesman and general who established the empire of British India. Early Life Robert Clive was born at... Robert Clive, British troops and their local allies captured Chandernagore in March Events March 14 - On-board the HMS Monarch, Admiral John Byng is executed by firing squad for neglecting his duty. June 23 - Indian Mutiny: Battle of Plassey - 3000 British troops under Robert Clive defeat a 50,000 strong Indian army under Siraj-ud-Dawlah at Plassey. Change of emperor of... 1757 and seriously defeated the Nawab on June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. Events 1300-1899 1314 - The Battle of Bannockburn south of Stirling, Edward II of England & Robert I of Scotland met in battle. Scotland won and Edward fled the... June 23 1757 at the The Battle of Plassey was a battle that took place in June 1757, at Plassey (pronounced Palashee, in Bengali ), a small village between Calcutta and Murshidabad. It was a battle between the forces of the British East India Company and of Siraj Ud Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal... Battle of Plassey, when the Nawab's soldiers betrayed him. The Nawab was assassinated in Murshidabad, and the British installed their own Nawab for Bengal and extended their direct control in the south. Chandernagore was restored to the French in Events February 10 - French and Indian War: The 1763 Treaty of Paris ends the war and France cedes Great Britain. 15 February - the Treaty of Hubertusburg puts an end to the Seven Years War between Prussia and Austria and their allies March 1 - Charles Townshend becomes President of the Board... 1763. The Bengalis attempted to regain their territories in Events March 9 - Judges in Paris find Jean Calas innocent, (after having been tortured and executed in 1762) of murdering his son, Marc-Antoine, who had committed suicide), mainly because Voltaire wrote a series of articles calling for the case to be re-opened. March 22 - The British Parliament passes... 1765 in alliance with the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, but were defeated again at the Battle of Buxar (1765).


The center of northern Indian culture and trade shifted from Delhi to This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. For the gambling term, see Indian state of West Bengal. Its original name was Kalikata and is, in higher literature, still referred to as such. Speakers of the regions native language of Bengali have always known it as Kolkata (কল... Calcutta when the The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. It was largely conquered by Sher Shah during the time of... Mughal Empire fell. The An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from the British perspective. 1857–1858 was a period of armed uprising and rebellions in northern and central India against British colonial rule on the subcontinent. The war... Indian Mutiny of 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). Events January 9 - Earthquake at Fort Tejon, California with an estimated magnitude of 7.9 February 16 - The National Deaf Mute College (later renamed Gallaudet University) is established in Washington, DC becoming the first school for the advanced... 1857 replaced rule by the Company with the direct control of Bengal by the British crown.


British Rule

A centre of Species Oryza barthii Oryza glaberrima Oryza latifolia Oryza longistaminata Oryza punctata Oryza rufipogon Oryza sativa References ITIS 41975 2002-09-22 This article is about the food grain, not the university or Condoleezza Rice; see also rice (disambiguation). Rice (genus Oryza) is a plant of the grass family which feeds... rice cultivation as well as fine cotton called Muslin is a type of finely-woven cotton fabric, introduced to Europe from the Middle East in the 17th century. It was named for the city where it was first made, Mosul in what is now Iraq. Muslin is typically a closely woven unbleached or white cloth, produced from corded... muslin and the world's main source of Jute is also occasonally used to refer to Jutes, a Germanic people of Europe. Jute is a long, soft, shiny fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is one of the cheapest natural fibers, and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses... jute fibre, Bengal, from the Events and Trends Crimean war (1854 - 1856) fought between Imperial Russia and an alliance consisting of the United Kingdom, the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Ottoman Empire. The majority of the conflict takes place around Crimea, on the northern coasts of the Black Sea. World Leaders... 1850s became one of India's principal centres of industry, concentrated in the capital This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. For the gambling term, see Calcutta A simulated-color satellite image of Calcutta taken by NASAs Landsat 7 satellite. Calcutta is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Its original name was Kalikata and is, in higher literature, still... Kolkata (known as Calcutta under the British, always called 'Kolkata' in the native tongue of This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to the intended page. The Bengali language, spoken by the people... Bengali) and its emerging cluster of suburbs. Most of the population nevertheless remained dependent on Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals ( livestock). Agriculture is also known as farming. More people in the world are involved in agriculture as their primary economic... agriculture, and despite its leading role in Indian political and intellectual activity, the province included some very undeveloped districts, especially in the east. In 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Events January - April January 1 - Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India by the Royal Titles Act, introduced by United Kingdom Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. January 8 - Crazy Horse and his warriors fight their last battle with the United... 1877, when Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. Her reign lasted more than sixty-three years—longer than... Victoria took the title of "Empress of India", the British declared Calcutta the capital of the The British Raj is an informal term for the period of British colonial rule of most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (previously known as Ceylon). It lasted from 1858, when the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the... British Raj.


India's most populous province (and one of the most active provinces in freedom fighting), in 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events January-April January 22 - Massacre of Russian demonstrators at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, one of the triggers of the abortive Russian Revolution of 1905. January 26 - The Cullinan Diamond is found near Pretoria, South Africa... 1905 Bengal was divided by the British rulers for administrative purposes into an overwhelmingly This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). Aum, the most sacred syllable and quintessential symbol of Hinduism, represents the first manifestation of the unmanifest Brahman. Hinduism (सनातन धर्म; commonly called Sanātana Dharma... Hindu west (including present-day For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). Bihar (बिहार) is a India. Its capital is Patna. It is bordered on the north by the Kingdom of Nepal, on the west by Uttar Pradesh, south by Jharkhand, and the east by West Bengal. Bihar lies in the very... Bihar and Orissa (ଓଡ଼ିଶା) is a state situated in the east coast of India. Orissa is bounded on the north by Bihar, on the north-east by West Bengal, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, on the south by Andhra Pradesh and on the west... Orissa) and a predominantly A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. The word Muslim means one who submits and implies complete submission to the will of God ( Allah). Muslims believe that nature is itself Islamic, since it follows natural laws placed by God. Thus, a Muslim strives to surrender to God... Muslim east (including Assam (অসম) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur. Located just below the eastern Himalayan foothills, it is surrounded by the other northeastern states: Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and Meghalaya. Assam and its commercial capital Guwahati form the gateway to the northeastern... Assam). Indian nationalists regarded this as a way of dividing a Bengali population united by language and history. Following a violent agitation, the British reunited east and west Bengal in 1912 is a leap year starting on Monday. Events January-March January 1 - Establishment of Republic of China. January 6 - New Mexico is admitted as the 47th U.S. state. January 17 - British polar explorer Robert Falcon Scott and a team of four begin the second expedition to reach the... 1912, and made Bihar and Orissa a separate province.


Independence

As partition of British India into This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). Aum, the most sacred syllable and quintessential symbol of Hinduism, represents the first manifestation of the unmanifest Brahman. Hinduism (सनातन धर्म; commonly called Sanātana Dharma... Hindu and A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. The word Muslim means one who submits and implies complete submission to the will of God ( Allah). Muslims believe that nature is itself Islamic, since it follows natural laws placed by God. Thus, a Muslim strives to surrender to God... Muslim This is a page about Dominions of the British Empire/Commonwealth. For other meanings, please see Dominion (disambiguation). A Dominion is a wholly self-governing or virtually self-governing state of the British Empire or British Commonwealth, particularly one which reached that stage of constitutional development in the late 19th... dominions approached in 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 1 - British mines nationalized January 1 - Nigeria gains limited autonomy January 1 - The Canadian Citizenship Act went into effect January 3 - Proceedings of the U.S. Congress are televised for the first time... 1947, Bengal again split into the This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). Aum, the most sacred syllable and quintessential symbol of Hinduism, represents the first manifestation of the unmanifest Brahman. Hinduism (सनातन धर्म; commonly called Sanātana Dharma... Hindu state of West Bengal (পশ্চিম বঙ্গ, Pôščim Bôngô) is a state in the northeast of India. Neighbouring regions are Nepal and Sikkim to the northwest, Bhutan to the north, Assam to the northeast, Bangladesh to the east, the Bay of... West Bengal and a Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. Etymology In Arabic, Islām means submission and is described as a Dīn, meaning way of life... Muslim region of This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to the intended page. East Bengal (football club) is a football... East Bengal under The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (پاکستان in Urdu), or Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia. Pakistan borders India, Iran, Afghanistan, China and the Arabian Sea. With over 150 million inhabitants it is the sixth most populous country in the world. It also... Pakistan (later renamed East Pakistan, which is now Bangladesh, was the eastern half of Pakistan, created from the eastern half of the Bengal region of British India in 1947. The province was known as East Bengal from 1947 to 1955. East Bengal from 1905-1912 With the assumption of Lord Curzon to the... East Pakistan in 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 1 - Treaty of Rome founding the EU is implemented January 4 - Sputnik 1 falls to Earth from its orbit (launched on October 4, 1957) January 8 - 14 year old Bobby Fischer wins the... 1958). East Pakistan (East Bengal) later rebelled against The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (پاکستان in Urdu), or Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia. Pakistan borders India, Iran, Afghanistan, China and the Arabian Sea. With over 150 million inhabitants it is the sixth most populous country in the world. It also... Pakistani military rule to become independent In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people that dont found their power status on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country. This definition encompasses most of the specific definitions that are (or were... republic of The Peoples Republic of Bangladesh ( Bangla: গনপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলােদশ) is a country in South Asia that forms the eastern part of the ancient region of Bengal. Bangladesh (বাং... Bangladesh, literally "Land of Bengal", after a The Bangladesh Liberation War (two other names are also used occasionally) refers to an approximately nine month long armed conflict between current day Pakistan and Bangladesh. The war resulted in independence of Bangladesh from Pakistan. Brief overview and figures Location: Bangladesh Directly involved parties: Bangladesh Mukti Bahini (composed of Bangladesh... war of independence against the Pakistani army in 1971 is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). Events January January 1 - British divorce Reform Act comes into force January 2 - 66 die in stairway crush at Rangers v Celtic football match, Glasgow, Scotland. See Ibrox disaster. January 2 - A ban on television cigarette advertisements... 1971. The western part of Bengal, now the state of West Bengal (পশ্চিম বঙ্গ, Pôščim Bôngô) is a state in the northeast of India. Neighbouring regions are Nepal and Sikkim to the northwest, Bhutan to the north, Assam to the northeast, Bangladesh to the east, the Bay of... West Bengal, remains a part of The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. India has grown significantly, both in population and in strategic importance in the last two decades. The Indian economy is... India. However, culturally and sociologically, the two segments of Bengal share considerably more than just a single language.


Bengal experienced two devastating A famine is an phenomenon in which a large percentage of the population of a region or country are undernourished and death by starvation becomes increasingly common. Famine was so well known in the ancient world that Famine was one of the biblical Four horsemen of the Apocalypse. In spite... famines costing millions of lives in Events March 5 - Boston Massacre: 5 Americans killed by British troops in an event that would help start the American Revolutionary War 5 years later. May 14 - Marie Antoinette arrives to French Court. May 16 - 14-year old Marie Antoinette marries 15-year old Louis-Auguste (who later becomes Louis... 1770 and 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. Events January January 4 - End of term for Culbert Olson, 29th Governor of California. He is succeeded by Earl Warren. January 11 - The United States and United Kingdom give up territorial rights in China. January 11 - General Juanto dies in Argentina - Ramon... 1943. However, the people of Bengal have been able to overcome such disasters and, some would say, rebuild their land in the fashion the The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... Nobel Laureate Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore (or Rabindranath Thakur) (May 6, 1861 – August 7, 1941), also called Gurudev, was an Indian poet, Brahmo philosopher and nationalist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1913, becoming the first Asian to be awarded a Nobel Prize. Tagore was born into a Brahmo family... Tagore described as "Golden Bengal".


See also

  • The Peoples Republic of Bangladesh ( Bangla: গনপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলােদশ) is a country in South Asia that forms the eastern part of the ancient region of Bengal. Bangladesh (বাং... Bangladesh
  • This article is about the Bengali language. For the script, see Bengali script. Bānglā (বাংলা) or Bengali is the language spoken by the populations of Bangladesh and the neighboring state of West Bengal in India. There are also significant Bengali-speaking communities in... Bengali language
  • Bengali cuisine is a style of food preparation that originated in Bengal. Characteristics Characteristic ingredients include rice, broken red lentils, broken mung beans, mustard oil, mustard paste, and coconut. Bengali cuisine is particularly rich in seafood. More than forty types of mostly freshwater fish are common, including carp, catfish, prawn... Bengali cuisine
  • Bangladesh is traditionally very rich in its musical heritage. From the ancient times, music documented the lives of the people. Also, music was widely patronized by the rulers. History Bangla music in ancient times was mostly linked to prayer. Due to the immense influence of Hindu mythology, most folk songs... Music of Bangladesh
  • The music of Bengal, otherwise referred to as Bangla music, comprises a long tradition of religious and secular song-writing over a period of almost a millennium. Composed, as might be assumed, in the Bengali language, Bengali music spans a gamut of styles, though is most strongly affected by Hindustani... Music of Bengal
  • West Bengal (পশ্চিম বঙ্গ, Pôščim Bôngô) is a state in the northeast of India. Neighbouring regions are Nepal and Sikkim to the northwest, Bhutan to the north, Assam to the northeast, Bangladesh to the east, the Bay of... West Bengal

Maps during British rule on external sites

Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection at The University of Texas System comprises fifteen educational institutions in Texas, of which nine are general academic universities, and six are health institutions. Its flagship institution is the University of Texas at Austin. The University of Texas System consists of: General universities The University of Texas at Arlington (description, website... University of Texas Libraries


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bengal - LoveToKnow 1911 (4919 words)
The presidency of Bengal, in contradistinction to those of Madras and Bombay, eventually included all the British territories north of the Central Provinces, from the mouths of the Ganges and Brahmaputra to the Himalayas and the Punjab.
The other principal rivers in Bengal are the Sone, Gogra, Gandak, Kusi, Tista; the Hugh, formed by the junction of the Bhagirathi and Jalangi, and farther to the west, the Damodar and Rupnarayan; and in the south-west, the Mahanadi or great river of Orissa.
In Bengal the rising began at Barrackpore, was communicated to Dacca in Eastern Bengal, and for a time raged in Behar, producing the memorable defence of the billiard-room at Arrah by a handful of civilians and Sikhs - one of the most splendid pieces of gallantry in the history of the British arms.
AllRefer.com - Bengal, India (Indian Political Geography) - Encyclopedia (552 words)
Bengal was conquered (c.1200) by Muslims of Turki descent.
It is bordered by Bangladesh and the state of Assam on the east; Nepal, Bhutan, and the state of Sikkim on the north; the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, and Orissa on the west; and the Bay of Bengal on the south.
West Bengal is governed by a chief minister and cabinet responsible to a bicameral legislature with one elected house and by a governor appointed by the president of India.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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