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Encyclopedia > Bengal
Bengal

Map of the Bengal region: West Bengal and Bangladesh
Largest city Kolkata[1]
23.42° N 90.22° E
Main language Bengali
Area 232,752 km² 
Population (2001) 209,468,404[2][3]
Density 951.3/km²[2][3]
Infant mortality rate 55.91 per 1000 live births[4][5]
Websites bangladesh.gov.bdand wbgov.com

Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. Today it is mainly divided between the independent nation of Bangladesh (previously East Bengal), and the Indian federal republic's constitutive state of West Bengal, although some regions of the previous kingdoms of Bengal (during local monarchical regimes and British rule) are now part of the neighboring Indian states of Bihar, Tripura and Orissa. The majority of Bengal is inhabited by Bengali people (বাঙালি Bangali) who speak Bengali (বাংলা Bangla).[citation needed] Bengal is a region in South Asia. ... Image File history File links Location-Bangla01. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Bangla redirects here. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Infant mortality is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ... Bangla redirects here. ...


The region of Bengal is one of the most densely populated regions on earth, with a population density exceeding 900/km². Most of the Bengal region lies in the low-lying GangesBrahmaputra River Delta or Ganges Delta, the world's largest delta. In the southern part of the delta lies the Sundarbans—the world's largest mangrove forest and home of the Bengal tiger. Though the population of the region is mostly rural and agrararian, two megacities, Kolkata (previously Calcutta) and Dhaka, are located in Bengal. The Bengal region is notable for its contribution to the socio-cultural uplift of Indian society in the form of the Bengal Renaissance, and revolutionary activities during the Indian independence movement. Ganga redirects here. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Ganges Delta (also Sunderban Delta or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the South Asia region of Bengal, consisting of Bangladesh and the state of West Bengal, India. ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Sundarbans delta is the largest mangrove forest in the world. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bengal tiger, or Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris or Panthera tigris bengalensis), is a subspecies of tiger primarily found in Bangladesh, India, and also Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and southern Tibet. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Megacity. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... The Bengal Renaissance refers to a social reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the region of Bengal in undivided India during the period of British rule. ... Revolutionary movement for Indian independence is often a less-highlighted aspect of Indian independence movement - the underground revolutionary factions. ... The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial...

Contents

Etymology and ethnology

The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown, though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang that settled in the area around the year 1000 BCE.[6]


Other accounts speculate that the name is derived from Vanga(বঙ্গ bôngo), which came from the Austric word "Bonga" meaning the Sun-god. The word Vanga and other words speculated to refer to Bengal (such as Anga) can be found in ancient Indian texts including the Vedas, Jaina texts, the Mahabharata and Puranas. The earliest reference to "Vangala" (বঙ্গাল bôngal) has been traced in the Nesari plates (805 AD) of Rashtrakuta Govinda III which speak of Dharmapala as the king of Vangala.[7] The Austric language superfamily is a large theoretical grouping of languages primarily spoken in South East Asia and the Pacific. ... Map of the Mahajanapadas Earliest reference to Angas (अंग) occurs in Atharava Veda (V.22. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... Jaina Solo (b. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit/Maharashtri Prakrit [1]/Marathi[2][3]:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Govinda III was King of Rashtrakuta from 793 to 814. ... Dharamapala (rule: 770 AD - 810 AD) was the second and very illustrious ruler of Bengal. ...


Some accounts claim that the word may derive from bhang, a preparation of cannabis which is used in some religious ceremonies in Bengal.[1][2] A bhang shop in India. ... Cannabis has a long history of spiritual use, especially in India, where it has been used by wandering spiritual sadhus for centuries. ...


The Proto-Australoids were one of the earliest inhabitants of Bengal.[8] Dravidians migrated to Bengal from the south, while Tibeto-Burman peoples migrated from the Himalayas,[8] followed by the Indo-Aryans from north-western India. The modern Bengali people are a blend of these people. Pathans, Iranians, Arabs and Turks also migrated to the region in the late Middle Ages while spreading Islam. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... The Tibeto-Burman linguistic subfamily of the proposed Sino-Tibetan language family is spoken in various central and south Asian countries: Myanmar (Burmese language), Tibet (Tibetan language), northern Thailand (Mong language), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and the Ladakh region of... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ... Language(s) Pashto Religion(s) Islam (predominantly Sunni) Pashtuns (Pashto: پشتون or پختون , also rendered as Pushtuns, Pakhtuns, Pukhtuns), also called Pathans (Urdu: پٹھان, Hindi: पठान ), ethnic Afghans,[10] or synonymously Afghans[11] (Persian: افغان ), are an Eastern Iranian ethno-linguistic group with populations primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in the North-West... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Dante by Michelino The Late Middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th to 16th centuries (AD 1300–1500). ...


History

Main article: History of Bengal
Robert Clive, of British East India Company, after winning the Battle of Plassey in 1757.
Robert Clive, of British East India Company, after winning the
Battle of Plassey in 1757.
The Bengal Presidency at its greatest extent in 1858
The Bengal Presidency at its greatest extent in 1858
Map of the Bengal province, 1893
Map of the Bengal province, 1893

Remnants of Copper Age settlements in the Bengal region date back 4,300 years,[9][10] when the region was settled by Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman and Austro-Asiatic peoples. After the arrival of Indo-Aryans, the kingdoms of Anga, Vanga and Magadha were formed by the 10th century BCE, located in the Bihar and Bengal regions. Magadha was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of Buddha and consisted of several Janapadas.[8] One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is the mention of a land named Gangaridai by the Greeks around 100 BCE, located in an area in Bengal.[11] From the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire. Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire Further information: History of Bangladesh The history of Bengal (including Bangladesh and West Bengal) dates back four millennia. ... Buddha, Mahayana tradition, Pala Dynasty, 11th century. ... Buddha, Mahayana tradition, Pala Dynasty, 11th century. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... Clive This work is copyrighted. ... Clive This work is copyrighted. ... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (September 29, 1725 - November 22, 1774) was the statesman and general who established the empire of British India. ... Combatants British East India Company Siraj Ud Daulah (Nawab of Bengal), La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Commanders Colonel Robert Clive (later Governor of Bengal and Baron of Plassey) Mir Jafar Ali Khan, defected (Commander-in-chief of the Nawab), M. Sinfray (French Secretary to the Council) Strength 2,200 European... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 589 pixel Image in higher resolution (2310 × 1700 pixel, file size: 979 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Map of the Bengal Presidency at its fullest extent in 1858 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 589 pixel Image in higher resolution (2310 × 1700 pixel, file size: 979 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Map of the Bengal Presidency at its fullest extent in 1858 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1063x1327, 396 KB) map from [1] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bengal History of Bengal Maps of India Maps of Bangladesh ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1063x1327, 396 KB) map from [1] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bengal History of Bengal Maps of India Maps of Bangladesh ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period or Copper Age period (also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic)), is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... The Tibeto-Burman family of languages (often considered a sub-group of the Sino-Tibetan language family) is spoken in various central and south Asian countries, including Myanmar (Burma), northern Thailand, and parts of Western China (Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai (Amdo), Gansu, Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Hunan), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal... Austro-Asiatic languages The Austro-Asiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia, and also scattered throughout India and Bangladesh. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... Map of the Mahajanapadas Earliest reference to Angas (अंग) occurs in Atharava Veda (V.22. ... Genera Calicalicus Schetba Vanga Falculea Artamella Leptopterus Cyanolanius Oriolia Euryceros Tylas Hypositta Xenopirostris The vangas are a group of little-known small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to Madagascar. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... The Janapadas are the major realms or kingdoms of Vedic (Iron Age) India, by the 6th century BC evolving into the sixteen classical Mahajanapadas . ... Gangaridai was the name of a country in the 300 BC in the Indian subcontinent. ... BCE redirects here. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ...


The first recorded independent king of Bengal was Shashanka, reigning around early 7th century.[12] After a period of anarchy, the native Buddhist Pala Empire ruled the region for four hundred years, and expanded across the northern Indian subcontinent into Afghanistan during the reigns of Dharmapala and Devapala. The Pala dynasty was followed by a shorter reign of the Hindu Sena dynasty. Islam was introduced to Bengal in the twelfth century by Sufi missionaries. Subsequent Muslim conquests helped spread Islam throughout the region.[13] Bakhtiar Khilji, a Turkic general of the Slave dynasty of Delhi Sultanate, defeated Lakshman Sen of the Sena dynasty and conquered large parts of Bengal. Consequently, the region was ruled by dynasties of sultans and feudal lords under the Delhi Sultanate for the next few hundred years. In the sixteenth century, Mughal general Islam Khan conquered Bengal. However, administration by governors appointed by the court of the Mughal Empire gave way to semi-independence of the area under the Nawabs of Murshidabad, who nominally respected the sovereignty of the Mughals in Delhi. The most notable among them is Murshid Quli Khan, who was succeeded by Alivardi Khan. Shashanka (Bangla: শশাঙ্ক) is often attributed with creating the first unified political entity in Bengal. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Dharamapala (rule: 770 AD - 810 AD) was the second and very illustrious ruler of Bengal. ... Devapala (rule: 810 AD - 850 AD) was a powerful king of Pala dynasty of Bengal. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... Bakhtiyar Khalji, also known as Malik Ghazi Ikhtiyaru l-Din Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji, was a Khilji, a Muslim Turk, who was head of the armies that conquered much of northeastern India. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Slave dynasty (Urdu: سلطنت غلامان) served as the first Sultans of Delhi in India from 1206 to 1290. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... Lakshman Sen or Lakshman Sena (1179 - 1206 CE) was the fourth ruler of the Sena dynasty of Bengal. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Shaikh Alauddin Chisti was a subedar and general of the army of the Mughal empire in Bengal, and the first governor of the city of Dhaka, the capital of modern Bangladesh. ... Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Lahore, Delhi, Agra , Kabul, Lucknow and Bhopal Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Absolute Monarchy , Unitary Government with a federal structure Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605... Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... Murshidabad is a city in West Bengal, India as well as a district in the state. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Murshid Quli Khan[1] (died 1725), earlier known as Kartalab Khan, was the first effectively independent Nawab of Bengal. ... Ali Vardi Khan was the independent nawab or ruler of Bengal between 1740 and 1756. ...


European traders arrived late in the fifteenth century. Their influence grew until the British East India Company gained taxation rights in Bengal subah, or province, following the Battle of Plassey in 1757, when Siraj ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab, was defeated by the British.[14] The Bengal Presidency was established by 1766, eventually including all British territories north of the Central Provinces (now Madhya Pradesh), from the mouths of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra to the Himalayas and the Punjab. The Bengal famine of 1770 claimed millions of lives.[15] Calcutta was named the capital of British India in 1772. The Bengal Renaissance and Brahmo Samaj socio-cultural reform movements had great impact on the cultural and economic life of Bengal. The failed Indian rebellion of 1857 started near Calcutta and resulted in transfer of authority to the British Crown, administered by the Viceroy of India.[16] Between 1905 and 1911, an abortive attempt was made to divide the province of Bengal into two zones.[17] The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... A Subah is a province of the former Mughal Empire. ... Combatants British East India Company Siraj Ud Daulah (Nawab of Bengal), La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Commanders Colonel Robert Clive (later Governor of Bengal and Baron of Plassey) Mir Jafar Ali Khan, defected (Commander-in-chief of the Nawab), M. Sinfray (French Secretary to the Council) Strength 2,200 European... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shirajuddaula. ... Bengal, known as Bango ( Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bengali, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... A British Raj province comprising British conquests from the Mughals and Marathas in central India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... The Bengal Renaissance refers to a social reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the region of Bengal in undivided India during the period of British rule. ... Brahmo Samaj is a social and religious movement founded in Kolkata, India in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. ... Belligerents Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of the independent states of Oudh, Jhansi Some Indian civilians. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ... The Partition of Bengal in 1905, was made on 16 October by then Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon. ...


Bengal has played a major role in the Indian independence movement, in which revolutionary groups were dominant. Armed attempts against to overthrow the British Raj reached a climax when Subhash Chandra Bose led the Indian National Army against the British. Bengal was also central in the rising political awareness of the Muslim population—Muslim League was established in Dhaka in 1906. In spite of a last ditch effort to form a United Bengal,[18] when India gained independence in 1947, Bengal was partitioned along religious lines.[19] The western part went to India (and was named West Bengal) while the eastern part joined Pakistan as a province called East Bengal (later renamed East Pakistan, giving rise to Bangladesh in 1971). The circumstances of partition was bloody, with widespread religious riots in Bengal.[19][20] The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial... Revolutionary movement for Indian independence is often a less-highlighted aspect of Indian independence movement - the underground revolutionary factions. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: নেতাজী সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু ( सुभाष चदंर वसु ) Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj and was a prominent supporter of the Axis dictatorships as... The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developed into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... The History of the Republic of India began on August 15, 1947 when India became an independent Dominion within the British Commonwealth. ... The Partition of Bengal in 1947 divided Bengal into the two separate entities of West Bengal belonging to India, and East Bengal belonging to Pakistan. ... East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ...


The post-partition political history of East and West Bengal diverged for the most part. Starting from the Bengali Language Movement of 1952.[21] political dissent against West Pakistani domination grew steadily. Awami League, led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, emerged as the political voice of the Bengali-speaking population of East Pakistan by 1960s.[22] In 1971, the crisis deepened when Rahman was arrested and a sustained military assault was launched on East Pakistan.[23] Most of the Awami League leaders fled and set up a government-in-exile in West Bengal. The guerrilla Mukti Bahini and Bengali regulars eventually received support from the Indian Armed Forces in December 1971, resulting in a decisive victory over Pakistan on 16 December in the Bangladesh Liberation War or Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.[24] The post independence history of Bangladesh was strife with conflict, with a long history of political assassinations and coups before parliamentary democracy was established in 1991. Since then, the political environment has been relatively stable. This article is about the language movement in Bangladesh. ... West Pakistan was the popular and sometimes official (1955–1970) name of the western wing of Pakistan until 1971, when the eastern wing (East Pakistan) became independent as Bangladesh. ... The Bangladesh Awami League (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ Bangladesh Aoami Lig) or the Bangladesh Peoples League is the main opposition party in Bangladesh and the political catalyst for Bengali discontent and rebellion in 1971. ... Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Bangla: শেখ মুজিবর রহমান Shekh Mujibur Rôhman) (March 17, 1920 – August 15, 1975) was a Bengali political leader in East Pakistan and the founding leader of Bangladesh. ... Combatants Bengali units of Pakistan Army and civilian volunteers Pakistan Armed Forces Commanders Prime Minister Tajuddin Ahmed (April 17 -December 16) Col(ret). ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Liberation War commemoration poster Mukti Bahini (Bengali: ) (Liberation Army), also termed as the Freedom Fighters or FFs was a guerrilla force which fought against the Pakistan Army during the Bangladesh War of Independence in 1971. ... The Indian Armed Forces is the primary military organization responsible for the territorial security and defence of India. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents India Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora G.G Bewoor K. P. Candeth Gul Hassan Khan Abdul Hamid Khan Tikka Khan A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 100,000 Mukti BahiniRebels 400,000+ troops Casualties and losses 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] Unknown... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ...


West Bengal, the western part of Bengal, became a state in India. In the 1960s and 1970s, severe power shortages, strikes and a violent Marxist-Naxalite movement damaged much of the state's infrastructure, leading to a period of economic stagnation. The Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 resulted in the influx of millions of refugees to West Bengal, causing significant strains on its infrastructure.[25] West Bengal politics underwent a major change when the Left Front won the 1977 assembly election, defeating the incumbent Indian National Congress. The Left Front, led by CPI(M) has governed for the last three decades.[26] The state's economic recovery gathered momentum after economic reforms in India were introduced in the mid-1990s by the central government, aided by election of a new reformist Chief Minister in 2000. , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Map showing the districts affected by the Naxalite movement Naxalite or Naxalism is an informal name given to radical, often violent, revolutionary communist groups that were born out of the Sino-Soviet split in the Indian communist movement. ... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Pakistan Commanders Col. ... Left Front election propaganda in Kolkata 2004 DSP-meeting in Kolkata West Bengal Left Front Committee meeting for solidarity with Tripura Left Front is an alliance of Indian leftist parties. ... Indian National Congress, Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... CPI(M) flag The Communist Party of India (Marxist), or CPI(M), is a political party in India. ... Economic reform in India is something which is under close study. ... Judiciary Supreme Court of India Chief Justice of India High Courts District Courts Elections Political Parties Local & State Govt. ... A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ...


Geography

See also: Geography of West Bengal
The Bengal Tiger
The Bengal Tiger

Most of the Bengal region is in the low-lying GangesBrahmaputra River Delta or Ganges Delta. The Ganges Delta arises from the confluence of the rivers Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna rivers and their respective tributaries. The total area of Bengal is 232752  km²—West Bengal is 88,752 km² and Bangladesh 144,000 km². Landform of West Bengal 1. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (533x800, 154 KB) A tiger licking his paw, photo taken by Bernard Landgraf File links The following pages link to this file: Bengal Tiger ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (533x800, 154 KB) A tiger licking his paw, photo taken by Bernard Landgraf File links The following pages link to this file: Bengal Tiger ... Ganga redirects here. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Ganges Delta (also Sunderban Delta or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the South Asia region of Bengal, consisting of Bangladesh and the state of West Bengal, India. ... Ganga redirects here. ... Map of the Brahmaputra Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Most parts of Bangladesh are within 10 meters (33 ft) above the sea level, and it is believed that about 10% of the land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by 1 metre (3 ft).[27] The highest point in Bangladesh is in Mowdok range at 1,052 metres (3,451 ft) in the Chittagong Hill Tracts to the southeast of the country.[28] A major part of the coastline comprises a marshy jungle, the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world and home to diverse flora and fauna, including the Royal Bengal Tiger. In 1997, this region was declared endangered.[29] This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The Chittagong Hill Tracts comprise an area of 13,180 km2 in south-eastern Bangladesh, and borders India and Myanmar (Burma). ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... Box Log Falls, Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia Jungle usually refers to a dense forest in a hot climate, such as a tropical rainforest. ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Sundarbans delta is the largest mangrove forest in the world. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bengal Tiger or Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a subspecies of tiger found through the rainforests and grasslands of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India and Nepal. ...


West Bengal is on the eastern bottleneck of India, stretching from the Himalayas in the north to the Bay of Bengal in the south. The state has a total area of 88,752 km² (34,267 sq mi).[30] The Darjeeling Himalayan hill region in the northern extreme of the state belongs to the eastern Himalaya. This region contains Sandakfu (3,636 m (11,929 ft))—the highest peak of the state.[31] The narrow Terai region separates this region from the plains, which in turn transitions into the Ganges delta towards the south. The Rarh region intervenes between the Ganges delta in the east and the western plateau and high lands. A small coastal region is on the extreme south, while the Sundarbans mangrove forests form a remarkable geographical landmark at the Ganges delta. At least nine districts in West Bengal and 42 districts in Bangladesh have arsenic levels in groundwater above the World Health Organization maximum permissible limit of 50 µg/L.[32] Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Darjeeling Himalayan hill region is situated on the North-Western side of the state of West Bengal in India. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... The view from the highest point in West Bengal Sandakfu or Sandakphu (3636 m) is the highest peak in the state of West Bengal, India. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The Terai, or Tarai (i. ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Ganges Delta (also Sunderban Delta or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the South Asia region of Bengal, consisting of Bangladesh and the state of West Bengal, India. ... Rarh region of West Bengal is the region that intervenes between the Western plateau and high lands and the Ganges delta. ... The Western plateau and highlands is the eastern border of the chhotanagpur plateau. ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Sundarbans delta is the largest mangrove forest in the world. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Arsenic contamination of groundwater has occurred in various parts of the world, most notably the Ganges Delta of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, causing serious arsenic poisoning among large numbers of people. ...


Demographics

Main article: Bengali people

About 210 million people live in Bengal, around 60% of them in Bangladesh and the remainder in West Bengal.[2][33] The population density in the area is more than 900/km²; making it among the most dnsely populated areas in the world.[2][3] The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ...


Bengali is the main language spoken in Bengal. English is often used for official work. There are small minorities who speak Hindi, Urdu, Chakma, and several other tribal languages. Nepali is spoken primarily by the Gorkhas of Darjeeling district of West Bengal. Bangla redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... The Chakma language (Changma Vaj or Changma Kodha) is an Indo-European language spoken in southeastern Bangladesh and neighboring areas of India. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... Gurkha Soldiers (1896) Wives and children of Gurkha Soldiers (1896) Gurkha (or Gorkha) are a people from Nepal who take their name from the former city-state of Gorkha, which went on to found the Kingdom of Nepal later on. ... Darjeeling is a district of West Bengal whose headquarters are at the hill station of Darjeeling. ...


66% of the total Bengali population is Muslim, and 33% is Hindu. In Bangladesh 89.7% of the population is Muslim and 9.2% are Hindus (Bangladesh Census 2001). In West Bengal, Hindus are the majority with 72.5% of the population while Muslims comprise 25%, and other religions make up the remainder.[34] Other religious groups include Buddhists, Christians, and Animists. About 2% of the population is tribal.[35] There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Buddha giving the first sermon About 0. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ...


Life expectancy is around 63 years, and are almost same for the men and women.[36][37] In terms of literacy, West Bengal leads with 69.22% literacy rate,[2] in Bangladesh the rate is approximately 41%.[38] The level of poverty is high, the proportion of people living below the poverty line is more than 30%.[39][35]


Economy

Worker in a paddy, a common scene all over Bengal
Worker in a paddy, a common scene all over Bengal

Agriculture is the leading occupation in the region. Rice is the staple food crop. Other food crops are pulses, potato, maize, and oil seeds. Jute is the principal cash crop. Tea is also produced commercially; the region is well known for Darjeeling and other high quality teas. The service sector is the largest contributor to the gross domestic product of West Bengal, contributing 51% of the state domestic product compared to 27% from agriculture and 22% from industry.[40] State industries are localized in the Kolkata region and the mineral-rich western highlands. Durgapur–Asansol colliery belt is home to a number of major steel plants.[41] West Bengal has the third largest economy (2003–2004) in India, with a net state domestic product of US$ 21.5 billion.[40] During 2001–2002, the state's average SDP was more than 7.8%—outperforming the National GDP Growth.[42] The state has promoted foreign direct investment, which has mostly come in the software and electronics fields;[43] Kolkata is becoming a major hub for the Information technology (IT) industry. Owing to the boom in Kolkata's and the overall state's economy, West Bengal is now the third fastest growing economy in the country.[44] Terrace of paddy fields in Yunnan Province, southern China. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... The Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) defines pulses as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to 12 grains or seeds of variable size, shape and colour within a pod. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Vegetable oil or vegoil is fat extracted from plant sources. ... This article is about vegetable fibre. ... In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for money. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Darjeeling tea has traditionally been prized above all other black teas, especially in the UK and the countries comprising the former British Empire. ... The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ... GDP redirects here. ... The Net Domestic Product (NDP) equals the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) minus depreciation on a countrys Capital (economics) goods. ... USD redirects here. ... This article is about economics. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information Technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ...


Since 1990, Bangladesh has achieved an average annual growth rate of 5% according to the World Bank, despite the hurdles. The middle class and the consumer industry have seen some growth. Bangladesh has seen a sharp increase in foreign direct investment. A number of multinational corporations, including Unocal Corporation and Tata, have made major investments, the natural gas sector being a priority. In December 2005, the Central Bank of Bangladesh projected GDP growth around 6.5%.[45] Although two-thirds of Bangladeshis are farmers, more than three quarters of Bangladesh’s export earnings come from the garment industry,[46] which began attracting foreign investors in the 1980s due to cheap labour and low conversion cost. In 2002, the industry exported US$5 billion worth of products.[47] The industry now employs more than 3 million workers, 90% of whom are women.[48] A large part of foreign currency earnings also comes from the remittances sent by expatriates living in other countries. The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Consumers refers to individuals or households that use goods and services generated within the economy. ... This article is about economics. ... multinational corporation (or transnational corporation) (MNC/TNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... Union Oil Company of California, dba Unocal was incorporated in California in 1890. ... Tata may refer to: Tata Group, a multinational company based in India Tata Motors, one of Indias largest automobile company known for its hatchback motorvehicle Tata Indica Tata Steel, worlds fifth largest steel producer Tata Consultancy Services, Indias largest IT company Tata Airlines, now Air India Tata... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Bangladesh Bank is the central bank of Bangladesh. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into textile. ... For the band, see Expatriate (band). ...


One significant contributor to the development of the economy of Bangladesh has been the widespread propagation of microcredit by Grameen Bank and other similar orgamizations. Together, these organizations had about 5 million members by late 1990s.[49] Microcredit is the extension of very small loans (microloans) to the unemployed, to poor entrepreneurs and to others living in poverty who are not considered bankable. ... The Grameen Bank (Bangla: গ্রামীণ ব্যাংক) is a microfinance organization and community development bank started in Bangladesh that makes small loans (known as microcredit) to the impoverished without requiring collateral. ...


Culture

Baul singers at Basanta-Utsab, Shantiniketan
Baul singers at Basanta-Utsab, Shantiniketan
Pohela Baishakh celebration in Dhaka
Bride and groom wearing traditional Bengali wedding costumes

The common Bengali language and culture anchors the shared tradition of two parts of politically divided Bengal. Bengal has a long tradition in folk literature, evidenced by the Charyapada, Mangalkavya, Shreekrishna Kirtana, Maimansingha Gitika or Thakurmar Jhuli. Bengali literature in the medieval age was often either religious (e.g. Chandidas), or adaptations from other languages (e.g. Alaol). During the Bengal Renaissance of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Bengali literature was modernized through the works of authors such as Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Rabindranath Tagore and Kazi Nazrul Islam. Baul singers at Vasantotsav, Shantiniketan, Mar 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Baul singers at Vasantotsav, Shantiniketan, Mar 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holi. ... Santiniketan is a small town in the Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, and approximately 180 kilometres north of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Pohela_boishakh_2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Pohela_boishakh_2. ... Poila Boishakh (Bengali: পহেলা বৈশাখ) is the first day of the Bangla Calendar. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x684, 130 KB) Edit of Image:Bengali wedding. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x684, 130 KB) Edit of Image:Bengali wedding. ... Bengali wedding refers to both Muslim wedding and Hindu wedding in Bangladesh and West Bengal. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Charyapada is the oldest known Bengali written form. ... Mangalkavya (Bengali: মঙ্গলকাব্য lit. ... Shreekrishna Kirtana Kabya was composed by Boru Chandidas. ... Maimansingha gitika or Môemonshingha gitika is a collection of folk ballads from the region of Mymensingh and around of Bangladesh. ... Thakurmar Jhuli (Tales my Grandmother Told Me) is a collection of Bengali folk tales and fairy tales. ... Chandidas (Bangla: চন্ডীদাস) (born 1408 CE) refers to (possibly more than one) medieval poet of Bengal. ... Alaol is arguably the greatest of the medieval poets of Bengal. ... The Bengal Renaissance refers to a social reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the region of Bengal in undivided India during the period of British rule. ... The first evidence of Bengali literature is known as Charyapada or Charyageeti, which were Buddhist hymns from the 8th century. ... Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (26 June 1838 - 8 April 1894) (Bengali: Bôngkim Chôndro Chôţţopaddhae) (Chattopadhyay in the original Bengali; Chatterjee as spelt by the British) was a Bengali Indian poet, novelist, essayist and journalist, most famous as the author of Vande Mataram or Bande Mataram... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Nazrul playing a flute, Chittagong, 1926 Kazi Nazrul Islam (Bangla: কাজী নজরুল ইসলাম) (b. ...


The Baul tradition is a unique heritage of Bangla folk music.[50] Other folk music forms include Gombhira, Bhatiali and Bhawaiya. Folk music in Bengal is often accompanied by the ektara, a one-stringed instrument. Other instruments include the dotara, dhol, flute, and tabla. The region also has an active heritage in North Indian classical music. Baul on a train in West Bengal Bauls (Bengali: বাউল) are a group of mystic minstrels from Bengal, which comprises Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. ... Gambhira is a type of song (originating in Chapai Nawabganj, in the Northern region of Bangladesh). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A musical form popular in Northern Bangladesh, specially Rangpur Categories: | | ... Ektara (Bangla: একতারা) is a one string instrument used in Bangladesh and India. ... Dotara is a stringed musical instrument, commonly used in Bangladesh and West Bengal. ... The dhol (Punjabi: ਢੋਲ, ڈھول; Hindustani: ढोल, ڈھول; Armenian: Դոլ) dohol (Persian: ), is a drum (a percussion musical instrument) widely used in India and Pakistan, usually the Punjab region, the Indian/Pakistani province of Punjab, Maharastra and Gujarat. ... For other uses, see Flute (disambiguation). ... The tabla (Hindi: तब्ला, tablā, Urdu: تبلہ) is a popular Indian percussion instrument used in the classical, popular and religious music of the Indian subcontinent and in Hindustani classical music. ... Hindustani Classical Music is an Indian classical music tradition that took shape in northern India in the 13th and 14th centuries AD from existing religious, folk, and theatrical performance practices. ...


Bengal had also been the harbinger of modernism in Indian fine arts. Abanindranath Tagore, one of the important 18th century artist from Bengal is often referred to as the father of Indian modern art. He had established the first non-British art academy in India known as the Kalabhavan within the premises of Santiniketan. Santiniketan in course of time had produced many important Indian artists like Gaganendranath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, Jamini Roy, Benode Bihari Mukherjee and Ramkinkar Baij. In the post-independence era, Bengal had produced important artists like Somenath Hore, Meera Mukherjee and Ganesh Paine. For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... , Santiniketan (Bangla: শান্তিনিকেতন Shantiniketôn) is a small town near Bolpur in the Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, approximately 180 kilometres north of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta). ... Gaganendranath Tagore (Bengali: ) (September 18, 1867--1938) was an Indian painter and cartoonist of the Bengal school. ... The paintings of Nandalal Bose are considered among Indias best modern paintings by many critics. ... Jamini Roy (1887-1972) was an Indian painter from Kolkata (Calcutta in West Bengal). ... Ramkinkar Baij (Bengali: রামকিন্কর বেজ)(May 20, 1906 - August 2, 1980) is an Indian sculptor, known as the Pioneer of Modern Indian Sculpture. ...


Rice and fish are traditional favorite foods, leading to a saying that in Bengali, mach ar bhaath bangali baanaay, that translates as "fish and rice make a Bengali".[51] Bengal's vast repertoire of fish-based dishes includes Hilsa preparations, a favorite among Bengalis. Bengalis make distinctive sweetmeats from milk products, including Rôshogolla, Chômchôm, and several kinds of Pithe. Hilsa, also pronounced Ilish (Bangla: ইলিশ) is the national fish of Bangladesh and also relished in Indias Bengali and Oriya speaking populace. ... The term confectionery refers to food items rich in sugar. ... Rasgulla (Oriya: Rasagolla; Bangla: রসগোল্লা Rôshogolla [ˈrɔʃoËŒgolːa]; Hindi: Rasgulla) is a dessert from Orissa and Bengal consisting of balls of unripened cheese or cottage cheese (chenna) soaked in a sugary syrup. ... Pithe or PiÅ£ha are a kind of sweet cuisine of Bengal region — Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. ...


Bengali women commonly wear the shaŗi and the salwar kameez, often distinctly designed according to local cultural customs. In urban areas, many women and men wear Western-style attire. Among men, European dressing has greater acceptance. Men also wear traditional costumes such as the panjabi with dhuti or pyjama, often on religious occasions. The lungi, a kind of long skirt, is widely worn by Bangladesh men. For the city, see Sari, Iran. ... Salwar kameez, from Max Tilkes Oriental Costume, 1922 Salwar kameez (also spelled shalwar kameez and shalwar qamiz) is a traditional dress worn by both women and men in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan. ... A kurta (or sometimes kurti, for women) is a traditional piece of clothing worn in Afghanistan, northern India, and Pakistan. ... Similar to sarongs, dhotis are commonly worn with western-style oxford shirts by the men of South India. ... Categories: Stub | Clothing ... A boy in a village of Narail, Bangladesh wearing a lungi with single knot. ...


The greatest religious festivals are the two Eids (Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha) for the Muslims, and the autumnal Durga Puja for Hindus.[52] Christmas (called Bôŗodin (Great day) in Bangla), Buddha Purnima are other major religious festivals. Other festivities include Pohela Baishakh (the Bengali New Year), Basanta-Utsab, Nobanno, and Poush parbon (festival of Poush). The word Eid can mean several things: There are two Islamic festivals of Eid: One is called Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) that marks the end of the holy month of Ramadan, The other is Eid ul-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى) or Eid-e Qurban (Persian: عید قربان) which is celebrated to commemorate Prophet Ibrahim... Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiá¹­r), often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the holy month of fasting. ... Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) is a religious festival celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Ibrahims (Abrahams) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah, but a voice from heaven allows Ibrahim to sacrifice a goat instead. ... In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Vesak (Sinhalese) is an annual holiday observed by practicing Buddhists. ... Poila Boishakh (Bengali: পহেলা বৈশাখ) is the first day of the Bangla Calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holi. ... Nobanno (Bangla: নবান্ন) is the festival of harvest in Bengal. ... Poush is the 9th month in both the Bangla Calendar used in Bangladesh and in the Bikram Sambat calendar used in Nepal. ...


Bengali cinema are made both in Kolkata and Dhaka. The Kolkata film industry is older and particularly well known for its art films. Its long tradition of film making has produced acclaimed directors like Satyajit Ray, while contemporary directors include Buddhadev Dasgupta and Aparna Sen. Dhaka also has a vibrant commercial industry and more recently has been home to critically acclaimed directors like Tareque Masud. Mainstream Hindi films of Bollywood are also quite popular in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Around 200 dailies are published in Bangladesh, along with more than 1800 periodicals. West Bengal had 559 published newspapers in 2005,[53] of which 430 were in Bangla.[53] Cricket and football are popular sports in the Bengal region. Local games include sports such as Kho Kho and Kabaddi, the later being the national sport of Bangladesh. An Indo-Bangladesh Bangla Games has been organized among the athletes of the Bengali speaking areas of the two countries.[54] Bengali cinema, or the Bengali film industry, is one of the earliest film industries in India. ... Andrei Tarkovskys The Mirror Le Fantôme de la liberté, one of the last films by Luis Bunuel (1974), which depicts seemingly random events, disrupting the conventions of storytelling in film. ... Director Herbert Brenon with actress Alla Nazimova on the set of War Brides, 1916 A director is a person who directs the making of a film. ... Satyajit Ray (Bengali:  ) (May 2, 1921–April 23, 1992) was a Bengali Indian filmmaker and polymath. ... Buddhadev Dasgupta is a poet and prominent contemporary Indian filmmaker. ... Aparna Sen (née Dasgupta) (Bengali: অপর্ণা সেন Ôporna Shen) (October 25, 1945 - ) is a Bengali Indian actress and film director and mother of actress Konkona Sen Sharma. ... Tareq Masud (Bangla: তারেক মাসুদ) is a Bangladeshi film director. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal term popularly used for Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... This article is about the sport. ... Soccer redirects here. ... Kho Kho is an Indian sport played by teams of twelve players who try to avoid being touched by members of the opposing team. ... Kabaddi (sometimes written Kabbadi or Kabadi) (Telugu: , Punjabi: , Marathi: , Hindi: ,Urdu: ; IPA: ) is a team sport originally from the Indian subcontinent. ...


Intra-Bengal relations today

India is Bangladesh's most important neighbor.[55] Geographic, cultural, historic, and commercial ties are strong, and both countries recognize the importance of good relations. During and immediately after Bangladesh's struggle for independence from Pakistan in 1971, India assisted refugees from East Pakistan, intervened militarily to help bring about the independence of Bangladesh, and furnished relief and reconstruction aid.[55] Of the Indo-Bangladesh border length of 4,095 km (2,545 mi), West Bengal has a border length of 2,216 km (1,377 mi).[56] Despite overlapping historic, geographic and cultural ties, the relation between West Bengal and Bangladesh is still well below the potential.[57] The pan-Bengali sentiment among the people of two parts of Bengal was at its height during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War.[58] While the government radio and national press in India might have backed the struggle out of strategic considerations, the Bengali broadcast and print media went out of its way to lend overwhelming support.[58] , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ...


Frequent air services link Kolkata with Dhaka and Chittagong. A bus service between Kolkata and Dhaka is operational. The primary road link is the Jessore Road which crosses the border at Petrapole-Benapole about 175 km north-west of Kolkata. The Train service between Kolkata and Dhaka, which was stopped after Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, was resumed in 2008.[59] , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... This article is about Chittagong as a city in Bangladesh. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... Petrapole is the Indian side of Petrapole-Benapole border checkpoint between India and Bangladesh. ... Benapole is the Bangladesh side of the Petrapole-Benapole border checkpost between Bangladesh and India. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) The Indo-Pakistani War...


Visa services are provided by Bangladesh's consulate at Kolkata's Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Road and India's high commissions in Dhaka, Chittagong and Rajshahi. India has a liberal visa policy and nearly 500,000 visas[57] are issued every year to Bangladeshi students, tourists, health-tourists and others who visit West Bengal and often transit to other parts of India. West Bengalis visit Bangladesh for limited numbers of tourism, pilgrimage, trade, expatriate assignments; there is significant potential for growth as Bangladesh's stability, economy, moderation in religion and tourist infrastructure improves. In addition West Bengal hosts the celebrated and controversial Bangladeshi author Taslima Nasreen. Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... This article is about Chittagong as a city in Bangladesh. ... Padma River flows besides Rajshahi City Rajshahi (Bangla: রাজশাহী) is a city in Rajshahi District in northwestern Bangladesh. ... Visa or VISA has several meanings: Look up visa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Visa (document) — a document required to enter a specific country. ... For other uses, see Student (disambiguation). ... A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Taslima Nasrin, also known as Taslima Nasreen, (born 25 August 1962 in Mymensingh, Bangladesh) is a writer. ...


Undocumented immigration of Bangladeshi workers is a controversial issue[57] championed by right-wing nationalist parties in India but finds little sympathy in West Bengal. India has fenced the border to control this flow but immigration is still continuing.[60] A rallying cry for the right-wing Hindu parties in India is that the demographics changed such as in West Bengal's border district of Malda from Hindu-majority to Muslim-majority. , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Malda is a district of the Indian state of West Bengal. ...


The official land border crossing at Petrapole-Benapole is the primary conduit for the over $1 billion trade between the two halves of Bengal. The volume of unofficial exports to Bangladesh from India is reportedly in the range of $350–500 million each year.[61] Bangladesh argues with merit that India needs to open up its border more to Bangladeshi exports. Other landports between the two Bengals are Changrabandha-Burimari and Balurghat-Hili.


Cultural exchanges between the two parts of Bengal have been somewhat (but not fully) impacted by ups and downs in India-Bangladesh relations and in the influence of extremist Islamist groups in Bangladesh. West Bengal singers and actors complained about being rejected visas in previous years. Bangladesh television channels are widely watched in West Bengal. West Bengal media have an audience in Bangladesh. In foreign countries such as the U.S., Canada, UK, and UAE, it is common for Bengalis from both sides to form joint cultural associations and friendships, although inter-marriage is not significant, especially across religious barriers. , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ...


See also

Bengal Portal

Image File history File links BengaliScriptKo. ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ... The Bangals were the Hindus of East Bengal (as opposed to the Ghotis of the west). ... The Ghotis are the people of western Bengal (as opposed to the Bangals of the east), who have a culture, traditions, and cuisine distinct from their Bangal counterparts of East Bengal. ... This article provides lists of famous and notable Bengali people, from India or Bangladesh, or people with Bengali ancestry. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Bengali cuisine is a style of food preparation originating in Bengal, a region in the eastern South Asia which is now divided between the independent country of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. ... Baul singers at Shantiniketan, during the colour festival Holi, Mar 2004 Bangladesh is traditionally very rich in its musical heritage. ... The music of Bengal, also referred to as Bangla music, comprises a long tradition of religious and secular song-writing over a period of almost a millennium. ... Bengali cinema, or the Bengali film industry, is one of the earliest film industries in India. ... East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Kolkata metropolitan area has a population of over 14 million, making it the largest urban agglomeration in Bengal.
  2. ^ a b c d e Provisional Population Totals: West Bengal. Census of India, 2001. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  3. ^ a b c World Bank Development Indicators Database, 2006.
  4. ^ West Bengal - Human development fact sheet (HTML version of PDF). United Nations Development Programme (2001). Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  5. ^ The World Factbook - Bangladesh (HTML). CIA World Factbook (2001). Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  6. ^ (1989) "Early History, 1000 B. C.-A. D. 1202", in James Heitzman and Robert L. Worden: Bangladesh: A country study. Library of Congress. 
  7. ^ M.A. Amitabha Bhattacharyya, Historical Geography of Ancient and Early Mediaeval Bengal, Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar, 1977, pp. 61–62.
  8. ^ a b c Sultana, Sabiha. Settlement in Bengal (Early Period). Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved on 2007-03-04.
  9. ^ History of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Student Association. Retrieved on 2006-10-26.
  10. ^ "4000-year old settlement unearthed in Bangladesh", Xinhua, 2006-March. 
  11. ^ Chowdhury, AM. Gangaridai. Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved on 2006-09-08.
  12. ^ Shashank. Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved on 2006-10-26.
  13. ^ Islam (in Bengal). Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved on 2006-10-26.
  14. ^ Sirajuddaula. Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved on 2006-10-26.
  15. ^ Fiske, John. The Famine of 1770 in Bengal. The Unseen World, and other essays. University of Adelaide Library Electronic Texts Collection. Retrieved on 2006-10-26.
  16. ^ (Baxter 1997, pp. 30-32)
  17. ^ (Baxter 1997, pp. 39-40)
  18. ^ Chitta Ranjan Misra. United Bengal Movement. Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  19. ^ a b Harun-or-Rashid. Partition of Bengal, 1947. Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved on 2006-10-26.
  20. ^ Suranjan Das. Calcutta Riots (1946). Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  21. ^ (Baxter 1997, pp. 62-63)
  22. ^ (Baxter 1997, pp. 78-79)
  23. ^ Salik, Siddiq (1978). Witness to Surrender. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-577264-4. 
  24. ^ Burke, S (1973). "The Postwar Diplomacy of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971". Asian Survey 13 (11): 1036-1049. 
  25. ^ (Bennett & Hindle 1996, pp. 63-70)
  26. ^ Biswas, Soutik. "Calcutta's colourless campaign", BBC, 2006-04-16. Retrieved on 2006-08-26. 
  27. ^ Ali, A (1996). "Vulnerability of Bangladesh to climate change and sea level rise through tropical cyclones and storm surges". Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 92 (1-2): 171-179. doi:10.1007/BF00175563. 
  28. ^ Summit Elevations: Frequent Internet Errors. Retrieved 2006-04-13.
  29. ^ IUCN (1997). "Sundarban wildlife sanctuaries Bangladesh". World Heritage Nomination-IUCN Technical Evaluation. 
  30. ^ Statistical Facts about India. www.indianmirror.com. Retrieved on 2006-10-26.
  31. ^ National Himalayan Sandakphu-Gurdum Trekking Expedition: 2006. Youth Hostels Association of India: West Bengal State Branch. Retrieved on 2006-10-26.
  32. ^ Chowdhury U. K., Biswas B. K., Chowdhury T. R. (2000). "Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India". Environmental Health Perspectives 108 (4): 393-397. 
  33. ^ Adjusted population, p.4, Population Census 2001, Preliminary Report. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (2001-08).
  34. ^ Data on Religion. Census of India (2001). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  35. ^ a b [May 2004] "Introduction and Human Development Indices for West Bengal", West Bengal Human Development Report 2004 (PDF), Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, pp4–6. ISBN 81-7955-030-3. Retrieved on 2006-08-26. 
  36. ^ An Indian life: Life expectancy in our nation. India Together. Civil Society Information Exchange Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  37. ^ World Health Report 2005. World Health Organization.
  38. ^ 2005 Human Development Report. UNDP.
  39. ^ Bangladesh Country Statistics, Unicef
  40. ^ a b The State Economy (PDF). Indian States Economy and Business: West Bengal 9. India Brand Equity Foundation, Confederation of Indian Industry. Retrieved on 2006-09-07.
  41. ^ Economy. West Bengal. Suni System (P) Ltd. Retrieved on 2006-09-07.
  42. ^ Basic Information. About West Bengal. West Bengal Industrial Development Corporation. Retrieved on 2006-09-07.
  43. ^ Dasgupta, 2002. Retrieved on 2006-04-11.
  44. ^ Consul General Henry V. Jardine to The Indo-American Chamber of Commerce, October 20, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-04-11.
  45. ^ Annual Report 2004-2005, Bangladesh Bank
  46. ^ Roland, B. "Bangladesh Garments Aim to Compete", BBC, 2005. 
  47. ^ Rahman, S (2004). "Global Shift: Bangladesh Garment Industry in Perspective". Asian Affairs 26 (1). 
  48. ^ Begum, N (2001). "Enforcement of Safety Regulations in Garment sector in Bangladesh", Proc. Growth of Garment Industry in Bangladesh: Economic and Social dimension, 208-226. 
  49. ^ Schreiner, Mark (2003). "A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh,". Development Policy Review 21 (3): 357-382. 
  50. ^ The Bauls of Bengal. Folk Music. BengalOnline. Retrieved on 2006-10-26.
  51. ^ Gertjan de Graaf, Abdul Latif. Development of freshwater fish farming and poverty alleviation: A case study from Bangladesh. Aqua KE Government. Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
  52. ^ Durga Puja. Festivals of Bengal. West Bengal Tourism, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved on 2006-10-28.
  53. ^ a b General Review. Registrar of Newspapers for India. Retrieved on 2006-09-01.
  54. ^ Bangladesh dominate Indo-Bangla Games, clinch 45 gold medals. Yahoo Web Services India Pvt Ltd (February 27 2008). Retrieved on 2008-02-27.
  55. ^ a b Background Note: Bangladesh. Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affairs, U.S. State Department. Retrieved on 2008-03-29.
  56. ^ Union Home Secretary Chairs a High Level Empowered Committee. Embassy of India: Foreign Relations. Government of India (December 10, 1998). Retrieved on 2008-03-29.
  57. ^ a b c Address by External Affairs Minister Shri Natwar Singh at India-Bangladesh Dialogue Organised by Centre for Policy Dialogue and India International Centre. Speeches. Ministry of External Affairs, New Delhi (7 August 2005). Retrieved on 2008-02-26.
  58. ^ a b Sinha, Dipankar (July–August 2005). "E par Bangla, O par Bangla, no thank you". Himal South Asian 17 (1). Kathmandu, Nepal: The Southasia Trust. Retrieved on 2008-03-29. 
  59. ^ "India-Bangladesh train to resume in April - official", Reuters, 25 February 2008. Retrieved on 2008-02-26. 
  60. ^ Chattopadhyay, S.S (June 2007). "Constant traffic". Frontline 24 (11). The Hindu. Retrieved on 2008-02-26. 
  61. ^ Mishra, Richa. "Indo-Bangla informal trade cause for concern: FICCI", The Hindu Business Line, The Hindu, November 11, 2004. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. 

, “Calcutta” redirects here. ... In the study of human settlements, an agglomeration is an extended city or town area comprising the built-up area of a central place (usually a municipality) and any suburbs or adjacent satellite towns. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Banglapedia is a National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Banglapedia is a National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Banglapedia is a National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Banglapedia is a National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Banglapedia is a National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Banglapedia is a National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Environmental Health Perspectives is a peer-reviewed journal of the United States National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... WHO redirects here. ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ... UNICEF Logo Org type: Fund Acronyms: UNICEF Head: Ann Veneman Status: Active Established: 1946 Website: http://www. ... India Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF) is an Indian organisation that collects, collates and disseminates accurate, comprehensive and current information on India. ... The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) is a non-government, not-for-profit, industry led and industry managed organisation, playing a proactive role in India’s development process. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Baxter, C (1997), Bangladesh, From a Nation to a State, Westview Press, 0813336325, ISBN 185984121X
  • Bennett, A & J Hindle (1996), London Review of Books: An Anthology, Verso, 63-70, ISBN 185984121X

External links

  • Banglapedia- specialised site
  • www.hostkingdom.net- List of rulers of Bengal
  • WorldStatesmen- here India
Maps

Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection at University of Texas at Austin Libraries University of Texas redirects here. ...

  • India from The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923
  • India 1760 from The Public Schools Historical Atlas edited by C. Colbeck. Longmans, Green, and Co. 1905
  • India 1882 from A Dictionary Practical, Theoretical, and Historical of Commerce and Commercial Navigation by J.R. M'Culloch. Longmans, Green and Co. London, 1882
  • Art and artists of Bengal

Coordinates: 24°00′N, 88°00′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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The brown spotted tabby (leopard spotted) Bengals have dark spots on a lighter ground color ranging from gray or tawny to sorrel to golden, very rufused (bright orange) and to a rich mahogony.
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The other principal rivers in Bengal are the Sone, Gogra, Gandak, Kusi, Tista; the Hugh, formed by the junction of the Bhagirathi and Jalangi, and farther to the west, the Damodar and Rupnarayan; and in the south-west, the Mahanadi or great river of Orissa.
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In Bengal the rising began at Barrackpore, was communicated to Dacca in Eastern Bengal, and for a time raged in Behar, producing the memorable defence of the billiard-room at Arrah by a handful of civilians and Sikhs - one of the most splendid pieces of gallantry in the history of the British arms.
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