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Encyclopedia > Benedict of Nursia
"Saint Benedict" redirects here. This article is about the founder of Western monasticism; for other saints named Benedict, see Benedict.
Saint Benedict

Detail from fresco by Fra Angelico
Abbot and Patron of Europe
Born c. 480, Norcia, Umbria, Italy
Died c. 547
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church, Anglican Communion, Eastern Orthodox Church, Lutheran Church
Canonized 1220 AD
Major shrine Monte Cassino Abbey, with his burial

Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, near Orléans, France
Sacro Speco, at Subiaco, Italy Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Look up Benedict in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 492 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2468 pixel, file size: 635 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Maestà (Madonna enthroned) with Saints Cosmas and Damian, Saint Mark and Saint John, Saint Lawrence and three Dominicans, Saint Dominic, Saint Thomas Aquinas and Saint Peter Martyr; San Marco, Florence. ... The church of St. ... Umbria is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany to the west, the Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... The restored Abbey. ... Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire is a commune of the Loiret département, in France. ... Orléans (Latin, meaning golden) is a city and commune in north-central France, about 130 km (80 miles) southwest of Paris. ... Subiaco is a city in the Province of Rome, in Lazio, Italy, twenty-five miles from Tivoli alongside the river Aniene. ...

Feast 11 July and 21 March (for Benedictine monks and nuns) in Latin Rite and Lutheran Church; 14 March in Byzantine Rite (Catholic and Eastern Orthodox)
Attributes bell; broken cup; broken cup and serpent representing poison; broken utensil; bush; crosier; man in a Benedictine cowl holding Benedict's rule or a rod of discipline; raven
Patronage against poison; against witchcraft; agricultural workers; cavers; civil engineers; coppersmiths; dying people; erysipelas; Europe; farmers; fever; gall stones; Heerdt, Germany; inflammatory diseases; Italian architects; kidney disease; monks; nettle rash; Norcia, Italy; people in religious orders; schoolchildren; servants who have broken their master's belongings; speliologists; spelunkers; temptations
Saints Portal

Saint Benedict of Nursia (born in Nursia, Italy c. 480 - died c. 547) was a founder of Christian monastic communities and a rule giver for monks living in community. His purpose may be gleaned from his Rule, namely that "Christ … may bring us all together to life eternal" (RB 72.12). The Roman Catholic Church canonized him in 1220. The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... For the General Roman Calendar as it was in 1955, see Traditional Catholic Calendar. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Rite particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... A coppersmith is a person who works with copper and brass. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... For other uses, see Saint (disambiguation). ... Country Italy Region Umbria Province Perugia (PG) Mayor Nicola Alemanno (since June 2004) Elevation 604 m Area 274 km² Population  - Total 4,695  - Density 17/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Nursini Dialing code 0743 Postal code 06046 Frazioni see list Patron St. ... Events Odoacer defeats an attempt by Julius Nepos to recapture Italy, and has Julius killed; Odoacer also captured Dalmatia. ... Events Ida founds the kingdom of Bernicia at Bamburgh (traditional date). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... The cenobitic tradition is a monastic tradition that stresses community life. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... St. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Immortality is the concept of existing for a potentially infinite or indeterminate length of time. ... St. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ...


Benedict founded twelve communities for monks, the best known of which is his first monastery at Monte Cassino in the mountains of southern Italy. There is no evidence that he intended to found also a religious order. The Order of St Benedict is of modern origin and, moreover, not an "order" as commonly understood but merely a confederation of congregations into which the traditionally independent Benedictine abbeys have affiliated themselves for the purpose of representing their mutual interests, without however ceasing any of their autonomy.[1] The cenobitic tradition is a monastic tradition that stresses community life. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... The restored Abbey. ... Catholic religious orders (Religious Institutes, cf. ... This article is about the Roman Catholic order; see also Benedictine Confederation and Benedictine. ...


Benedict's main achievement is a "Rule" containing precepts for his monks, referred to as the Rule of Saint Benedict. It is heavily influenced by the writings of St John Cassian (ca. 360 – 433, one of the Desert Fathers) and shows strong affinity with the Rule of the Master. But it also has a unique spirit of balance, moderation, reasonableness (επιεικεια, epieikeia), and this persuaded most communities founded throughout the Middle Ages, including communities of nuns, to adopt it. As a result the Rule of St Benedict became one of the most influential religious rules in Western Christendom. For this reason Benedict is often called "the founder of western Christian monasticism". A Precept (from the Latin præcipere, to teach) is a commandment, instruction, or order intended as an authoritative rule of action. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... The Rule of St Benedict by Benedict of Nursia (fl. ... John Cassian (c. ... The Desert Fathers were Christian Hermits who lived in the Sahara desert of Egypt, beginning in about the third century. ... The Rule of the Master is an anonymous sixth century collection of monastic precepts. ... The cenobitic tradition is a monastic tradition that stresses community life. ... In general, a nun is a female ascetic who chooses to voluntarily leave the world and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. ... St. ... The Order of Friars Minor is a major mendicant movement founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. ...

Contents

Biography

The only ancient account of Benedict is found in the second volume of St Gregory's four-book Dialogues, written in 593. Book Two consists of a prologue and thirty-eight succinct chapters. 19th-century Roman historian Thomas Hodgkin praised Gregory’s life of St. Benedict as “the biography of the greatest monk, written by the greatest Pope, himself also a monk.”[2] “Saint Gregory” redirects here. ... The term dialogue (or dialog) expresses basically reciprocal conversation between two or more persons. ...


Gregory’s account of this saint’s life is not, however, a biography in the modern sense of the word. It provides instead a genuine spiritual portrait of the gentle, disciplined abbot. In a letter to Bishop Maximilian of Syracuse, Gregory states his intention for his Dialogues, saying they are a kind of floretum (an anthology, literally, ‘flowers’) of the most striking miracles of Italian holy men.[3]


Gregory did not set out to write a chronological, historically-anchored story of St. Benedict, but he did base his anecdotes on direct testimony. To establish his authority, Gregory explains that his information came from the best sources: a handful of Benedict’s disciples who lived with the saint and witnessed his various miracles. These followers, he says, are Constantinus, who succeeded Benedict as Abbot of Monte Cassino; Valentinianus; Simplicius; and Honoratus, who was abbot of Subiaco when St. Gregory wrote his Dialogues.[4] Constantinus (d. ... For other uses, see Abbot (disambiguation). ... The restored Abbey. ... Subiaco is a city in the Province of Rome, in Lazio, Italy, twenty-five miles from Tivoli alongside the river Aniene. ...


In Gregory’s day, history was not recognized as an independent field of study; it was a branch of grammar or rhetoric, and historia (defined as ‘story’) summed up the approach of the learned when they wrote what was, at that time, considered ‘history.’[5] Gregory’s Dialogues Book Two, then, an authentic medieval hagiography cast as a conversation between the Pope and his deacon Peter, is designed to teach spiritual lessons.


Benedict was the son of a Roman noble of Nursia, and a tradition, which Bede accepts, makes him a twin with his sister Scholastica. St Gregory's narrative makes it impossible to suppose him younger than 19 or 20. He was old enough to be in the midst of his literary studies, to understand the real meaning and worth of the dissolute and licentious lives of his companions, and to have been deeply affected himself by the love of a woman (Ibid. II, 2). He was capable of weighing all these things in comparison with the life taught in the Gospels, and chose the latter. He was at the beginning of life, and he had at his disposal the means to a career as a Roman noble; clearly he was not a child. If we accept the date 480 for his birth, we may fix the date of his abandonment of his studies and leaving home at about 500 AD. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Country Italy Region Umbria Province Perugia (PG) Mayor Nicola Alemanno (since June 2004) Elevation 604 m Area 274 km² Population  - Total 4,695  - Density 17/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Nursini Dialing code 0743 Postal code 06046 Frazioni see list Patron St. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... Saint Scholastica, from the San Luca Altarpiece Saint Scholastica (c. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Events Possible date for the Battle of Mons Badonicus: Romano-British and Celts defeat an Anglo-Saxon army that may have been led by the bretwalda Aelle of Sussex (approximate date; suggested dates range from 490 to 510) Note: This battle may have influenced the legend of King Arthur. ...


Benedict does not seem to have left Rome for the purpose of becoming a hermit, but only to find some place away from the life of the great city; moreover, he took his old nurse with him as a servant and they settled down to live in Enfide, near a church to St Peter, in some kind of association with "a company of virtuous men" who were in sympathy with his feelings and his views of life. Enfide, which the tradition of Subiaco identifies with the modern Affile, is in the Simbruini mountains, about forty miles from Rome and two from Subiaco. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... Country Italy Region Latium Province Province of Rome (RM) Mayor Elevation 684 m Area 15. ... “St Peter” redirects here. ... Country Italy Region Latium Province Province of Rome (RM) Mayor Elevation 684 m Area 15. ... A panorama of the Monti Simbruini. ... Subiaco is a city in the Province of Rome, in Lazio, Italy, twenty-five miles from Tivoli alongside the river Aniene. ...

St. Benedict orders Saint Maurus to the rescue of Saint Placidus, by Fra Filippo Lippi, c. 1445.
St. Benedict orders Saint Maurus to the rescue of Saint Placidus, by Fra Filippo Lippi, c. 1445.

A short distance from Enfide is the entrance to a narrow, gloomy valley, penetrating the mountains and leading directly to Subiaco. Crossing the Aniene and turning to the right, the path rises along the left face off the ravine and soon reaches the site of Nero's villa and of the huge mole which formed the lower end of the middle lake; across the valley were ruins of the Roman baths, of which a few great arches and detached masses of wall still stand. Rising from the mole upon 25 low arches, the foundations of which can even yet be traced, was the bridge from the villa to the baths, under which the waters of the middle lake poured in a wide fall into the lake below. The ruins of these vast buildings and the wide sheet of falling water closed up the entrance of the valley to St Benedict as he came from Enfide; to-day the narrow valley lies open before us, closed only by the far-off mountains. The path continues to ascend, and the side of the ravine, on which it runs, becomes steeper, until we reach a cave above which the mountain now rises almost perpendicularly; while on the right, it strikes in a rapid descent down to where, in St Benedict's day, 500 feet below, lay the blue waters of the lake. The cave has a large triangular-shaped opening and is about ten feet deep. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Saint Maurus was the first disciple of St. ... St. ... Madonna and Child 1440-45, tempera on panel National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC Fra Filippo Lippi (1406 - October 8?, 1469), commonly called Lippo Lippi, one of the most renowned painters of the Italian quattrocento, was born in Florence; his father, Tommaso, was a butcher. ... Events Discovery of Senegal and Cape Verde by Dinas Diaz Births March 1 - Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter (died 1510) March 16 - Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg, Swiss-born preacher (died 1510) Albert Brudzewski, Polish astronomer (died 1497) Nicolas Chuquet, French mathematician Deaths June 5 - Leonel Power, English composer June 11 - Henry... Country Italy Region Latium Province Province of Rome (RM) Mayor Elevation 684 m Area 15. ... The Aniene River (in Latin: Anio, formerly called the Teverone) is a 98 km river in Lazio, Italy. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... The Albertian Villa Medici in Fiesole: terraced grounds on a sloping site. ... The entrance to the Roman Baths The Roman Baths from the upper level of the site. ...


On his way from Enfide, Benedict met a monk, Romanus, whose monastery was on the mountain above the cliff overhanging the cave. Romanus had discussed with Benedict the purpose which had brought him to Subiaco, and had given him the monk's habit. By his advice Benedict became a hermit and for three years, unknown to men, lived in this cave above the lake. St Gregory tells us little of these years. He now speaks of Benedict no longer as a youth (puer), but as a man (vir) of God. Romanus, he twice tells us, served the saint in every way he could. The monk apparently visited him frequently, and on fixed days brought him food. Saint Romanus of Subiaco (d. ...


During these three years of solitude, broken only by occasional communications with the outer world and by the visits of Romanus, Benedict matured both in mind and character, in knowledge of himself and of his fellow-man, and at the same time he became not merely known to, but secured the respect of, those about him; so much so that on the death of the abbot of a monastery in the neighbourhood (identified by some with Vicovaro), the community came to him and begged him to become its abbot. Benedict was acquainted with the life and discipline of the monastery, and knew that "their manners were diverse from his and therefore that they would never agree together: yet, at length, overcome with their entreaty, he gave his consent" (ibid., 3). The experiment failed; the monks tried to poison him, and he returned to his cave. The legend goes that they first tried to poison his drink. He prayed a blessing over the cup and the cup shattered. Then they tried to poison him with poisoned bread. When he prayed a blessing over the bread, a raven swept in and took the loaf away. From this time his miracles seem to have become frequent, and many people, attracted by his sanctity and character, came to Subiaco to be under his guidance. For them he built in the valley twelve monasteries, in each of which he placed a superior with twelve monks. In a thirteenth he lived with a few, such as he thought would more profit and be better instructed by his own presence (ibid., 3). He remained, however, the father, or abbot, of all. With the establishment of these monasteries began the schools for children; and among the first to be brought were Maurus and Placid. Country Italy Region Latium Province Province of Rome (RM) Mayor Elevation 300 m Area 36. ... Saint Maurus was the first disciple of St. ... St. ...


St Benedict spent the rest of his life realizing the ideal of monasticism which he had drawn out in his rule. He died at Monte Cassino, Italy, according to tradition, on March 21 547 and was named patron protector of Europe by Pope Paul VI in 1964. His feast day is July 11, and his birthday is July 30th. St. ... The restored Abbey. ... Events Ida founds the kingdom of Bernicia at Bamburgh (traditional date). ...


Rule of St. Benedict

Main article: Rule of St Benedict

“A lamb can bathe in it without drowning, while an elephant can swim in it”; this ancient saying refers to a work of only 73 short chapters. Its wisdom is of two kinds: spiritual (how to live a Christocentric life on earth) and administrative (how to run a monastery efficiently). More than half the chapters describe how to be obedient and humble, and what to do when a member of the community is not. About one-fourth regulate the worship of God (the Opus Dei). One-tenth outline how, and by whom, the monastery should be managed. And another tenth specifically describe the abbot’s pastoral duties.[6] St. ...


The Saint Benedict Medal

Main article: Saint Benedict Medal

This medal originally came from a cross in honor of St Benedict. On one side, the St Benedict medal has an image of Benedict, holding the Holy Rule in his left hand and a cross in his right. There is a raven on one side of him, with a cup on the other side of him. Around the medal's outer margin is "Eius in obitu nostro praesentia muniamur" ("May we, at our death, be fortified by His presence"). The other side of the medal has a cross with the initials for the words "Crux Sacra Sit Mihi Lux" ("May the Holy Cross be my light") on the vertical beam and the initials for "Non Draco Sit Mihi Dux" ("Let not the dragon be my guide") on the horizontal beam. The initial letters for "Crux Sancti Patris Benedicti" ("The Cross of Our Holy Father Benedict") are on the interior angles of the cross. Around the medal's margin on this side are the initials for "Vade Retro Satana, Nunquam Suade Mihi Vana--Sunt Mala Quae Libas, Ipse Venena Bibas" ("Begone, Satan, do not suggest to me thy vanities--evil are the things thou profferest, drink thou thy own poison"). Either the inscription "Pax" (Peace) or "IHS" ("Jesus") is located at the top of the cross in most cases. The Saint Benedict Medal, as a central element of a rosary // The exact time and date of the making of the first St. ...


This medal was first struck in 1880 to commemorate the fourteenth centenary of St Benedict's birth, and is also called the Jubilee Medal; however, the exact origin is unknown. In 1647, during a witchcraft trial at Natternberg near Metten Abbey in Bavaria, the accused women testified they had no power over Metten, which was under the protection of the cross. An investigation found a number of painted crosses on the walls of the abbey with the letters now found on St Benedict medals, but their meaning had been forgotten. A manuscript written in 1415 was eventually found that had a picture of Saint Benedict holding a scroll in one hand and a staff which ended in a cross in the other. On the scroll and staff were written the full words of the initials contained on the crosses. Medals then began to be struck in Germany, which then spread throughout Europe. This medal was first approved by Pope Benedict XIV in his briefs of December 23, 1741, and March 12, 1742. Metten Abbey, or the Abbey of St. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Scholar Pope, Benedict XIV Benedict XIV, né Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini (Bologna, March 31, 1675 - Rome, May 3, 1758) was pope from 1740 to 1758. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ...


See also

For the 13th century saint, see Saint Anthony of Padua. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... St. ... Camaldolese Priory on Bielany in Kraków, Poland The Camaldolese are part of the Benedictine family of monastic communities which follow the way of life outlined in the Rule of St. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... A poustinia cabin. ... Umbanda is a religion that blends Catholicism, Kardecist Spiritualism, and Afro-Brazilian religions . ... For the 13th century saint, see Saint Anthony of Padua. ...

External links

  • Guide to Saint Benedict
  • Sacro speco, Grotta della Preghiera – general view " – enlarged view
  • The Holy Rule of St. Benedict - Online translation by Rev. Boniface Verheyen, OSB, of St. Benedict's Abbey
  • The Order of Saint Benedict
  • Benedictine College - Dynamically Catholic, Benedictine, Liberal Arts, and Residential

Notes

  1. ^ Called into existence by Pope Leo XIII's Apostolic Brief "Summum semper", 12 July 1893, see OSB-International website
  2. ^ See Life and Miracles of St. Benedict (Book II, Dialogues), translated by Odo John Zimmerman, O.S.B. and Benedict R. Avery, O.S.B. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980), p. iv.
  3. ^ See Ildephonso Schuster, Saint Benedict and His Times, Gregory J. Roettger, trans. (London: B. Herder, 1951), p. 2.
  4. ^ See Carmen Acevedo Butcher, Man of Blessing: A Life of St. Benedict (Paraclete Press, 2006), pp. 21-22.
  5. ^ See Deborah Mauskopf Deliyannis, editor, Historiography in the Middle Ages (Boston: Brill, 2003), pp. 1-2.
  6. ^ See Man of Blessing: A Life of St. Benedict, by Carmen Acevedo Butcher (Paraclete Press, 2006), p. 148.

Further reading

  • Barry, Patrick, O.S.B. St. Benedict’s Rule: A New Translation for Today. Hidden Spring, 2004. Features inclusive, contemporary language and a streamlined text.
  • Butcher, Carmen Acevedo. Man of Blessing: A Life of St. Benedict. Brewster, MA: Paraclete Press, 2006. A modernized, historically rich retelling of this vibrant saint's life, packed with short chapters, each presenting a story that has spiritual wisdom that can be read, meditated on, and lived out today in the hectic twenty-first century.
  • Canham, Elizabeth. Heart whispers: Benedictine wisdom for today. Nashville: Upper Room Books, 1999. Explains how the Rule’s spiritual guidelines can be lived out today. Popular with women’s study groups.
  • Chittister, Joan, O.S.B. The Rule of Benedict: Insights for the Ages. New York: Crossroad Publishing Company, 1992. Contemporary commentary on St. Benedict’s Rule by a prominent teacher and speaker.
  • Cornell, Tim. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic. London: Routledge, 1995. A readable Roman history.
  • Davis, Henry, S.J., trans. St. Gregory the Great: Pastoral Care. NY: Newman Press, 1978. A translation of this classic explication of pastoral duties.
  • Deferrari, Roy J., trans. Saint Basil: The letters. 4 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970-1988. Solid translations of one of St. Benedict’s greatest inspirations and sources.
  • Deliyannis, Deborah Mauskopf, ed. Historiography in the Middle Ages. Boston: Brill, 2003. A collection of essays.
  • Doyle, Leonard J., trans. The Rule of St. Benedict. Collegeville, MN.: The Liturgical Press, 2001. Retains the masculine gender of the original, one of the most widely used English translations of the Rule. Appearing in 1948, has remained in print ever since.
  • de Dreuille, Mayeul, O.S.B. The Rule of St. Benedict: A Commentary in Light of World Ascetic Traditions. New York: Paulist Press, 2002. An intelligent text putting the Rule into a global context.
  • Eberle, Luke and Charles Philippi, trans. The Rule of the Master. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1977. First English translation of the Italian RM.
  • Evans, G. R. The Thought of Gregory the Great. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought: Fourth Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. A quotation-studded overview of this Patristic Father’s seminal thought.
  • Fry, Timothy, O.S.B., ed. RB1980: The Rule of St. Benedict in English: In Latin and English with Notes. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1981. Often referred to by the shorthand “RB80” or “RB1980,” the standard masculine version.
  • Gregg, Robert C. Athanasius: The Life of Antony and the Letter to Marcellinus. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, Inc., 1980. A splendid rendering of this ancient life.
  • Gregory the Great. Dialogues. Odo John Zimmerman, O.S.B. NY: Fathers of the Church, Inc., 1959. A splendid translation.
  • —. The Life of St. Benedict (Book II, Dialogues). Hilary Costello and Eoin de Bhaldraithe, trans. Commentary by Adalbert de Vogüé, O.S.B. Petersham: St. Bede’s Publications, 1993. Solid and useful.
  • —. Life and Miracles of St. Benedict (Book II, Dialogues). Odo John Zimmerman, O.S.B. and Benedict R. Avery, O.S.B., trans. Westport, CT: Reprint. Greenwood Press, Publishers, 1980. A reprint of an excellent, scholarly translation published by St. John’s Abbey Press, (Collegeville, MN, 1949).
  • —. Life and Miracles of St. Benedict (Book II, Dialogues). A translation of this classic source, sponsored by the Order of St. Benedict, found online at http://www.osb.org/gen/greg (adapted for hypertext by Bro. Richard, July 2001, and illustrated).
  • —. Life and Miracles of St. Benedict (Book II, Dialogues). Translation by Edmund G. Gardner, 1911. See Introduction concerning the online version.
  • —. Patrologia Latina. Ed. Jacques-Paul Migne. Volumes 75-79. Paris: Imprimerie Catholique, 1841-1864. Nineteenth-century Latin texts of Gregory’s oeuvre, Dialogues Book Two found in volume 66). Twentieth-century editions of these found in Corpus Christianorum, Series Latina. Volumes 140-144. Turnhout, Belgium: Typographi Brepols, 1953-.
  • Heffernan, Thomas J. “Christian Biography: Foundation to Maturity.” In Historiography in the Middle Ages. Ed. Deborah Mauskopf Deliyannis. Boston: Brill, 2003. 115-154. Very readable scholarly article on Gregory’s historical milieu.
  • Hodgkin, Thomas. Italy and Her Invaders. Eight volumes. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1892-1899. By historian, archaeologist, and chronicler trying to supplement Edward Gibbon’s work.
  • Kardong, Terrence G., O.S.B. Benedict’s Rule: A Translation and Commentary. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1996. First English-language line-exegesis of the complete Rule, with commentary.
  • Markus, R. A. Gregory the Great and His World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. A study dealing with the major contributions made by Gregory’s mission-minded papacy.
  • McCann, Justin, O.S.B. Saint Benedict. London: Sheed and Ward, Ltd., 1979. A life of this saint, written by a twentieth-century monk and Oxford-educated classics teacher.
  • Mork, Wulstan, O.S.B. The Benedictine Way. Petersham: St. Bede’s Publications, 1987. Good background information on the Benedictines.
  • O’Donovan, Patrick. Benedict of Nursia. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1984. Enjoyable life of St. Benedict.
  • Schuster, Ildephonso. Saint Benedict and His Times. Gregory J. Roettger, trans. London: B. Herder, 1951. Helps re-create Benedict’s cultural and historical milieu.
  • Srubas, Rachel. Oblation: Meditations on St. Benedict's Rule. Brewster, MA: Paraclete Press, 2006. One of the most beautiful books of lyrical poetry ever written, Srubas makes the Rule's eternal truths vibrate in the twenty-first century.
  • Straw, Carole. Gregory the Great. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. Presents Gregory as a complex and profoundly human saint.
  • Swan, Laura. The Benedictine Tradition. Spirituality in History Series. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 2007. An anthology of famous and not-so-famous Benedictines.
  • de Waal, Esther. A Life-Giving Way: A Commentary on the Rule of St. Benedict. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1981. By a down-to-earth scholar living in a small cottage on the Welsh/English border (also a former history lecturer at Cambridge University, and a Celtic Christianity expert). A classic.

The Patrologia Latina is an enormous work published by Jacques-Paul Migne between 1844 and 1855, with indices published between 1862 and 1865. ... Jacques Paul Migne (25 October 1800 - 25 October 1875) was a French priest who published inexpensive and widely-distributed editions of theological works, encyclopedias and the texts of the Church Fathers. ... The Corpus Christianorum is a major publishing undertaking of the Belgian publisher Brepols devoted to patristic and medieval Latin texts. ...

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Benedict of Nursia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1419 words)
480 543), born at Nursia (Norcia), Italy, was the founder of western monasticism.
Benedict was the son of a Roman noble of Nursia, and a tradition, which Bede accepts, makes him a twin with his sister Scholastica.
Benedict was acquainted with the life and discipline of the monastery, and knew that "their manners were diverse from his and therefore that they would never agree together: yet, at length, overcome with their entreaty, he gave his consent" (ibid., 3).
St. Benedict of Nursia - Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon (4423 words)
Benedict was the son of a Roman noble of Nursia, a small town near Spoleto, and a tradition, which St. Bede accepts, makes him a twin with his sister Scholastica.
It is very difficult to reduce St. Benedict's teaching on prayer to a system, for this reason, that in his conception of the Christian character, prayer is coexistent with the whole life, and life is not complete at any point unless penetrated by prayer.
But if St. Benedict gives no further directions on private prayer, it is because the whole condition and mode of life secured by the Rule, and the character formed by its observance, lead naturally to the higher states of prayer.
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