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Encyclopedia > Benedict Arnold
Benedict Arnold V
January 14, 1741June 14, 1801

Benedict Arnold
Copy of engraving by H.B. Hall after John Trumbull
Place of birth Norwich, Connecticut
Place of death London, England
Service/branch Army
Years of service Continental Army: 1775-1780
British Army: 1780-1781
Rank Major General
Commands Philadelphia
West Point
Battles/wars
Awards Boot Monument

Benedict Arnold V (January 14, 1741 [O.S. January 3, 1740][1][2]June 14, 1801) originally fought for American independence from the British Empire as a general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War until he obtained command of the American fort at West Point, New York and, switching sides, plotted unsuccessfully to surrender it to the British. Benedict Arnold is the name of: Benedict Arnold (1741-1801), General of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War Benedict Arnold (congressman) (1780-1849), an American politician and member of the House of Representatives Benedict Arnold (governor), an early governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and great grandfather... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Image File history File links Benedict_arnold_illustration. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... West Point painting West Point is a federal military base (and a census-designated place) located in the Town of Highlands in Orange County, New York. ... This article is about military actions only. ... Combatants Vermont, Connecticut Great Britain Commanders Ethan Allen, Benedict Arnold William Delaplace Strength 83 48 Casualties None 48 captured The capture of Fort Ticonderoga was an event early in the American Revolutionary War. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Battle of Valcour Island, 11 October 1776, also known as Battle of Valcour Bay, was a naval engagement fought on Lake Champlain in a narrow strait between the New York mainland and Valcour Island. ... The Battle of Bemis Heights on October 7, 1777 is also known as the 2nd Battle of Saratoga since it was the second and last major engagement in the Battle of Saratoga of the American Revolutionary War. ... Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Major Generals V. Riedesel, 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ... An American Revolutionary War memorial erected in Saratoga National Historical Park and dedicated to Benedict Arnold. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... Old Style redirects here. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ... This article is about military actions only. ... West Point painting West Point is a federal military base (and a census-designated place) located in the Town of Highlands in Orange County, New York. ... Union Flag (1606-1800 The united Kingdom of Great Britain, also sometimes known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was created by the merger of the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England under the 1707 Act of Union to create a single kingdom encompassing the whole of...


Arnold was considered by many to be the best general and most accomplished leader in the Continental Army. In fact, without Arnold's earlier contributions to the American cause, the American Revolution might well have been lost; but after he switched sides, his name, like those of several other prominent traitors throughout history, has become a byword for treason in the United States.[3][4] John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


Arnold distinguished himself early in the war through acts of cunning and bravery. His many successful campaigns included the Capture of Fort Ticonderoga (1775), victory at the Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain in 1776, the battles of Danbury and Ridgefield in Connecticut (after which he was promoted to Major General), and the Battle of Saratoga in 1777. Combatants Vermont, Connecticut Great Britain Commanders Ethan Allen, Benedict Arnold William Delaplace Strength 83 48 Casualties None 48 captured The capture of Fort Ticonderoga was an event early in the American Revolutionary War. ... The Battle of Valcour Island, 11 October 1776, also known as Battle of Valcour Bay, was a naval engagement fought on Lake Champlain in a narrow strait between the New York mainland and Valcour Island. ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... Nickname: Located in Fairfield County, Connecticut Coordinates: , NECTA Region Incorporated (town) 1702 Incorporated (city) 1889 Consolidated 1965 Government  - Type Mayor-council  - Mayor Mark D. Boughton (R) Area  - City 114. ... Ridgefield is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Major Generals V. Riedesel, 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ...


In spite of his success, Arnold was passed over for promotion by the Continental Congress while other general officers took credit for his many accomplishments.[5] As his personal debts mounted, Congress investigated his accounts, and charges of corruption were brought by political adversaries. Frustrated, bitter, disaffected by the assaults on his honor and strongly opposed to the new American alliance with France, Arnold changed sides. In July 1780, he sought and obtained command of West Point in order to surrender it to the British. Arnold's scheme was detected when American forces captured British Major John André carrying papers that revealed Arnold's plan. The Continental Congress was the first national government of the United States. ... West Point painting West Point is a federal military base (and a census-designated place) located in the Town of Highlands in Orange County, New York. ... Major John André John André (May 2, 1750 - October 2, 1780) was a British officer hanged as a spy during the American Revolutionary War for an incident in which he assisted Benedict Arnolds attempted surrender of the fort at West Point, New York to the British. ...


Upon learning of André's capture, Benedict Arnold escaped down the Hudson River to the British Sloop-of-War Vulture, narrowly avoiding capture by the forces of General Washington who had departed for West Point immediately upon learning of Arnold's plan. Arnold received a commission as a Brigadier General in the British Army and £6,000 (approximately £500,000 today). [6] The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and... USS Constellation, a United States Navy sloop-of-war. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


In the winter of 1782, Arnold left the army and moved to London with his second wife, Margaret "Peggy" Shippen Arnold. He was well received by the King and the Tories but frowned upon by the Whigs. In 1787 he entered into mercantile business with his sons Richard and Henry in Saint John, New Brunswick, but returned to London to settle permanently in 1791. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Peggy Shippen, or Margaret Shippen (1760 - August 24, 1804), was the second wife of General Benedict Arnold, (following Margaret Mansfield, who died in 1775). ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Saint John[3] is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick, and the oldest incorporated city in Canada. ...

Contents

Early life

Arnold was born the last of six children to Benedict Arnold III (1683-1761) and Hannah Waterman King in Norwich, Connecticut in 1741. He was named after his great-grandfather Benedict Arnold, an early governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Benedict IV, who died in infancy before Benedict Arnold V was born. Only Benedict and his sister Hannah survived to adulthood; his other siblings succumbed to yellow fever in childhood. Through his maternal grandmother, Arnold was a descendant of John Lothropp, an ancestor of at least four Presidents of the United States. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Providence Plantation was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a non-conformist minister fleeing from religious persecution in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ... John Lothropp[1] (born Etton, Yorkshire, 1584; died 1653) was an English Anglican clergyman, who became a Congregationalist minister and emigrant to New England. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ...


The Arnold family was well off until the future general's father made several bad business deals that plunged the family into debt, and became an alcoholic, forcing his son to withdraw from school at 14 because the family could not afford the expense. King Alcohol and his Prime Minister circa 1820 Alcoholism is the consumption of or preoccupation with alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the alcoholics normal personal, family, social, or work life. ...


His father's alcoholism and ill-health prevented him from training his son in the family mercantile business, but his mother's family connections secured an apprenticeship for him with two of her cousins, brothers Daniel and Joshua Lathrop, who operated a successful apothecary and general merchandise trade in Norwich. Interior of an apothecarys shop. ...


French and Indian War

At 15, Arnold enlisted in the Connecticut militia. The militia marched to Albany and Lake George to oppose the French invasion from Canada at the Battle of Fort William Henry. However he never engaged in battle during the war. The British suffered a humiliating defeat at the hands of the French under Montcalm. The British surrendered on the conditions that they could evacuate the fort under safe conduct and could keep their weapons, but the Indian allies of the French, who had been promised scalps, arms, and booty, attacked and massacred several hundred of the men, women, and children. The French regulars could not or did not stop the Indians.[7] This event may have created an abiding hatred for the French in a young and impressionable Arnold that influenced his actions later in life. Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... For other uses, see Albany. ... Lake George, nicknamed the Queen of American Lakes, is a long narrow lake at the southeast base of the Adirondack Mountains, northern New York, USA. The lake extends about 32. ... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis-Joseph de Montcalm Lieutenant-Colonel George Monro Strength 1,600 natives 6,000 regulars and militia 2,500 regulars and militia Casualties Unknown 297 dead or wounded 2,308 captured The Battle of Fort William Henry in August 1757 resulted in Britains loss of... Portrait of Montcalm Image of Montcalm leading his troops by Toronto printer Ralph Clark Stone. ... Look up surrender in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Evacuation can have several meanings: In wilderness first aid, evacuation is the transport of a seriously injured person out of the wilderness to the nearest point an ambulance can reach to take them to the hospital, or to the nearest emergency room. ... Safe conduct signifies the security given by authority of a government to a stranger for his quietly coming into and passing out of the territories over which the government has jurisdiction or control. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face anteriorly and the neck to the sides and posteriorly. ...


Parents' deaths

Arnold's mother, to whom he was very close, died in 1759. The youth took on the responsibility of supporting his ailing father and younger sister. His father's alcoholism worsened after the death of his wife; he was arrested on several occasions for public drunkenness and was even refused communion by his church; he died in 1761. For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Pre-revolutionary activities

In 1762, with the help of the Lathrops, Arnold established himself in business as a pharmacist and bookseller in New Haven, Connecticut. The mortar and pestle is an international symbol of pharmacists and pharmacies. ... New Haven redirects here. ...


Arnold was ambitious and aggressive, quickly expanding his business. In 1763 he repurchased the family homestead that his father had sold when deeply in debt, and re-sold it a year later for a substantial profit. In 1764 he formed a partnership with Adam Babcock, another young New Haven merchant. Using the profits from the sale of his homestead they bought three trading ships and established a lucrative West Indies trade. During this time he brought his sister Hannah to New Haven and established her in his apothecary to manage the business in his absence. He traveled extensively in the course of his business, throughout New England and from Quebec to the West Indies, often in command of one of his own ships. The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


The Stamp Act of 1765 severely curtailed mercantile trade in the colonies. Arnold initially took no part in any public demonstrations but, like many merchants, continued to trade as if the Stamp Act did not exist, in effect becoming a smuggler in defiance of the act. The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ...


On the night of January 31, 1767 Arnold took part in a demonstration denouncing the acts of the British Parliament and their oppressive colonial policy in which the effigies of local crown officials were burned. He and members of his crew roughed up a man suspected of informing on smugglers. Arnold was arrested and fined 50 shillings for disturbing the peace. is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1767 (MDCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist...


The oppressive taxes levied by Parliament forced many New England merchants out of business. Arnold himself came near to personal ruin, falling £15,000 in debt.


Arnold fought a duel in Honduras with a British sea captain who had called him a "d--d Yankee, destitute of good manners or those of a gentleman".[8] The captain was wounded, and apologized.


Arnold was in the West Indies when the Boston Massacre occurred on March 5, 1770, but later he wrote "very much shocked" and wondered "good God; are the Americans all asleep and tamely giving up their liberties, or are they all turned philosophers, that they don't take immediate vengeance on such miscreants". Engraving by Paul Revere The Boston Massacre refers to an incident involving the deaths of five civilians at the hands of British troops on March 5, 1770, the legal aftermath of which helped spark the rebellion in some of the British colonies in America which culminated in the American Revolution. ... This article is about the day. ... For the village in Queensland, see 1770, Queensland. ...


On February 22, 1767 he married Margaret, daughter of Samuel Mansfield. They had three sons, Benedict, Richard and Henry. Margaret died during the revolution, on June 19, 1775, while Arnold was away following the Battle of Ticonderoga. Arnold's sister Hannah took the children in. is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1767 (MDCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Revolutionary War

Colonel Benedict Arnold in 1776

In March 1775, a group of 65 New Haven residents formed the Governor’s Second Company of Connecticut Guards. Arnold was chosen as their captain, and he organized training and exercises in preparation for war. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (466x640, 44 KB) Summary Subject: Benedict Arnold Artist: Thomas Hart Date: 1776 Source: Library of Congress Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (466x640, 44 KB) Summary Subject: Benedict Arnold Artist: Thomas Hart Date: 1776 Source: Library of Congress Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of...


On April 21, 1775, when news reached New Haven of the opening battles of the revolution at Lexington and Concord, a few Yale College student volunteers were admitted into the guard to boost their numbers, and they began a march to Massachusetts to join the revolution. During the march Arnold met with Connecticut legislator Colonel Samuel Holden Parsons. They discussed the shortage of cannons in the revolutionary forces and, knowing of the large number of cannons at Fort Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain, agreed that an expedition should be sent to capture the fort. Parsons continued on to Hartford, where he raised funds to establish a force under the command of Captain Edward Mott. Mott was instructed to link up with Ethan Allen and Allen's Green Mountain Boys at Bennington, Vermont. Meanwhile, Arnold and his Connecticut militia continued on to Cambridge, where Arnold convinced the Massachusetts Committee of Safety to fund an expedition to take the fort. They appointed him a colonel in the Massachusetts militia and dispatched him, and several captains under his command, to raise an army in Massachusetts. As his captains mustered troops Arnold rode north to rendezvous with Allen and take command of the operation. is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775 was the first battle of the American Revolutionary War and was described as the shot heard round the world in Emersons Concord Hymn. ... Yale redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Samuel Holden Parsons (May 14, 1737–November 17, 1789) was an American lawyer, jurist, and military leader. ... Fort Ticonderoga is a large 18th century fort built at a strategically important narrows in Lake Champlain where a short traverse gives access to the north end of Lake George in the state of New York, USA. The fort controlled both commonly used trade routes between the English-controlled Hudson... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... Hartford redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ethan Allen (disambiguation). ... The Green Mountain Boys was historically, the militia of the Vermont Republic. ... Bennington (town), Vermont Old Bennington, Vermont Bennington County, Vermont North Bennington, Vermont Bennington (CDP), Vermont This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-City Council  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - Total 7. ...


Battle of Ticonderoga

See also: Capture of Fort Ticonderoga

By early May the army was assembled; on May 10, 1775 Fort Ticonderoga was assaulted in a dawn attack and taken without a battle, the colonial forces having surprised the outnumbered British garrison. Expeditions to Crown Point and Fort George were also successful, as was another foray to Fort St. Johns (now named Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec), but this fort had to be abandoned when British troops arrived from Montreal. Throughout the campaign Arnold and Allen disputed who was in overall command; Allen, the leader of the Green Mountain Boys, eventually withdrew his troops, leaving Arnold in sole command of the garrisons of the three forts. However, a Connecticut force of 1,000 men under Colonel Benjamin Hinman arrived with orders placing him in command with Arnold as his subordinate. This act by the Continental Congress incensed Arnold, who felt his efforts on behalf of the revolution were not being recognized; he resigned his commission and returned to Massachusetts.[9] Combatants Vermont, Connecticut Great Britain Commanders Ethan Allen, Benedict Arnold William Delaplace Strength 83 48 Casualties None 48 captured The capture of Fort Ticonderoga was an event early in the American Revolutionary War. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Crown Point is a town located in Essex County, New York. ... Fort George is a historic military structure at Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, that was the scene of several battles during the War of 1812. ... Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu is a city in the province of Quebec, Canada about 50 kilometres (31 mi) southeast of Montreal. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Colonel Benjamin Hinman (January 22, 1719 – March 22, 1810) was a US soldier and member of the Connecticut legistature. ...


Quebec expedition

See also: Invasion of Canada (1775) and Battle of Quebec (1775)

Shortly after the formation of the Continental Army in June 1775 Major General Philip Schuyler, commander of the Northern Department, developed a plan to invade Canada overland from Fort St. Johns at the northern end of Lake Champlain, down the Richelieu River to Montreal. The objective was to deprive the Loyalists of an important base from which they could attack upper New York. General Richard Montgomery was given command of this force. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants United States Britain Commanders Richard Montgomery † Benedict Arnold James Livingston (American Revolution) Guy Carleton Strength 1,200 Continentals 1,200 British Regulars and Militia Casualties 60 dead or wounded, 426 captured 6 dead, 19 wounded Canadian theater, 1775–1776 Ticonderoga – Crown Point – Longue-Pointe – Fort St. ... Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ... Philip Schuyler Philip John Schuyler (November 10, 1733 – November 18, 1804) was a general in the American Revolution and a United States Senator from New York. ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... For other uses, see Loyalist (disambiguation). ... An engraving depicting the death of General Montgomery at the Battle of Quebec. ...


Arnold proposed that a second force, in concert with Schuyler’s, attack by traveling up the Kennebec River in Maine and descending the Chaudière River to Quebec City. With the capture of both Montreal and Quebec City he believed the French-speaking colonists of Canada would join the revolution against the British. General George Washington and the Continental Congress approved this amendment and commissioned Arnold a colonel in the Continental Army to lead the Quebec City attack. The course of the Kennebec River The Kennebec River is a river, 150 mi (240 km) long, in the state of Maine in the northeastern United States. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... The Chaudière is a 185 km (115 miles) long river rising in Lac Mégantic, in southeast Quebec, Canada and running northwards to flow into the St. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ...


Just before leaving for Maine, Arnold learned of the death of his first wife Margaret. He stopped in New Haven to see to the welfare of his children, and asked his sister Hannah to mother them.


The force of 1,100 recruits embarked from Newburyport, Massachusetts on September 19, 1775, arriving at Gardinerston, Maine, where Arnold had made prior arrangements with Major Reuben Colburn to construct 200 bateaux, on September 22. These were to be used to transport the troops up the Kennebec and Dead rivers, then down the Chaudiere to Quebec City. A lengthy portage was required over the Appalachian range between the upper Dead and Chaudiere rivers. Newburyport is a small coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, 38 miles (61 km) northeast of Boston. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Gardiner is a city in Kennebec County, Maine, United States. ... Reuben Colburn, was a patriot and shipbuilder of Pittston, Maine. ... Bateau men poling the James River The James River Bateau was a shallow draft river craft used during the period from 1775 to 1840 to transport tobacco and other cargo on the James river and its tributaries in the state of Virginia. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Dead River in northern Maine (USA) originates at Flagstaff Lake and joins the Kennebec River at the West Forks. ... The Chaudière is a 185 km (115 miles) long river rising in Lac Mégantic, in southeast Quebec, Canada and running northwards to flow into the St. ... For the Gentoo Linux package manager, see Portage (software). ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ...


The British were aware of Arnold’s approach and destroyed most of the serviceable watercraft (boats, ships, gunboats, etc. etc.) on the southern shore. Although two warships, the frigate Lizard (26 guns) and the sloop-of-war Hunter (16 guns), kept up a constant patrol to prevent a river crossing, Arnold was able to procure sufficient watercraft, and crossed to the Quebec City side on November 11. He then realized his force was not strong enough to capture the city and sent dispatches to Brigadier General Richard Montgomery requesting reinforcements. For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... USS Constellation, a United States Navy sloop-of-war. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On September 16, 1775 Montgomery had marched north from Fort Ticonderoga with about 1,700 militiamen. He captured Montreal on November 13. Montgomery joined Arnold in early December, and with their combined force of about 950 soldiers, they attacked Quebec on December 31, 1775. The colonial forces suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of General Guy Carleton, governor of Canada and commander of the British forces. Montgomery was killed leading an assault along with all but one of his officers (Col. Donald Campbell) who ordered a retreat; Montgomery's force never got close to the walls. Arnold's force on the other side of the city were left by themselves without the help of Montgomery. While attacking Arnold was wounded in the leg, but stayed on the battlefield encouraging his troops on. Daniel Morgan's rifle company, the most successful of the American troops, fought inside the city until Morgan was cornered and forced to surrender. Many others were killed or wounded, and hundreds were taken prisoner. is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester. ...


The remnants, reduced to some 350 volunteers and now under the command of Colonel Arnold, continued an ineffectual siege of the city until the spring of 1776, when reinforcements under Brigadier General David Wooster arrived. Upon being relieved of command, Arnold retreated to Montreal with what remained of his forces.[10][11] David Wooster (1710–1777) was an American military leader from Connecticut. ...


Promotion

Arnold was promoted to Brigadier General after the Quebec invasion, and was given the job of blocking British invasion of the Hudson River valley from Canada via Lake Champlain. During the summer of 1776 Arnold constructed at Skenesborough (now Whitehall), New York, a flotilla of small warships and gunboats which controlled the lake from Fort Ticonderoga, New York. The British responded by building a much larger lake flotilla at Saint John's, Québec. The British destroyed Arnold's flotilla at the Battle of Valcour Island, New York, in October but by that time the winter had begun. So the British invasion was called off and Arnold's defensive strategy had succeeded. A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... The Battle of Valcour Island, 11 October 1776, also known as Battle of Valcour Bay, was a naval engagement fought on Lake Champlain in a narrow strait between the New York mainland and Valcour Island. ...


In the same year Arnold met and seriously courted the daughter of a well known Boston loyalist, Betsy Deblois, described as the belle of Boston, but she did not accept his repeated proposals[12].


Eastern Department

Late in 1776, Arnold was made Deputy Commander of the Eastern Department of the Continental Army under Major General Joseph Spencer. On December 8, 1776, a sizeable British force under Lt. Gen. Henry Clinton captured Newport, Rhode Island. Arnold, who had not seen his family for over a year, spent a week with them in New Haven, and arrived at Providence, on January 12, 1777, to command the defense of Rhode Island. The Continental forces in Rhode Island had been depleted to about 2,000 troops by detachments sent to Washington for his attack at Trenton, New Jersey. Since Arnold was facing 15,000 redcoats, he stayed on the defensive. The overall Continental Army of the American Revolutionary War was organized into six departments for command and administrative purposes. ... Joseph Spencer (1714–1789) was an American lawyer, soldier, and statesman from Connecticut. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... General Sir Henry Clinton K.B. Commander-in-Chief of British troops in America. ... Newport, Rhode Island Newport is a city in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about 30 miles (48 km) south of Providence. ... New Haven redirects here. ... Providence redirects here. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Belligerents Continental Army a Hessian Brigade Commanders George Washington Johann Rall† Strength 2,400 18 guns [1] 1,400 6 guns [2] Casualties and losses 2 dead, On the march 4 wounded 23 dead, 92 wounded, 913 captured The Battle of Trenton was a battle which took place on December... Depiction of a British soldier in 1742 Red coat is a term often used to refer to a soldier of the historical British Army, because of the colour of the military uniforms formerly worn by the majority of regiments. ...


On April 26, 1777, Arnold was on his way to Philadelphia to meet with the Continental Congress, and stopped in New Haven to visit his family once again. A courier notified him that a British force 2,000 strong under Major General William Tryon, the British Military Governor of New York, had landed at Norwalk, Connecticut. Tryon marched his force to Fairfield on Long Island Sound and inland to Danbury, a major supply depot for the Continental Army, destroying both towns by fire. He also torched the seaport of Norwalk as his forces retreated by sea. is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... William Tryon (January 27, 1729 to 1788) was colonial governor of the Province of North Carolina (1765-1771) and the Province of New York (1771-1780, though he did not retain much power in the colony beyond 1777). ... Norwalk is a city in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. ... Fairfield is a town located in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. ... Nickname: Located in Fairfield County, Connecticut Coordinates: , NECTA Region Incorporated (town) 1702 Incorporated (city) 1889 Consolidated 1965 Government  - Type Mayor-council  - Mayor Mark D. Boughton (R) Area  - City 114. ... Norwalk is a city in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. ...


Arnold hurriedly recruited about 100 volunteers locally. He was joined by Major General Gold S. Silliman and Major General David Wooster of the Connecticut militia, who together had mustered a force of 500 volunteers from eastern Connecticut. David Wooster (1710–1777) was an American military leader from Connecticut. ...


Arnold and his fellow officers moved their small force near Danbury so they could intercept and harass the British retreat. By 11 a.m. on April 27, Wooster’s column had caught up with and engaged Tryon’s rear guard. Arnold moved his force to a farm outside Ridgefield, Connecticut, in an attempt to block the British retreat. During the skirmishes that followed, Wooster was killed. Arnold injured his leg when his horse was shot and fell on him. is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ridgefield is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. ...


Philadelphia

After the Danbury raid, Arnold continued his journey to Philadelphia to meet with congressional members, arriving on May 16. General Schuyler also was in Philadelphia at that time but soon left for his headquarters at Albany, New York. This left Arnold as the ranking officer in the Philadelphia region, so he assumed command of the forces there. But the Continental Congress, once again, due to political ties, preferred Pennsylvania's newly promoted Major General Thomas Mifflin. Arnold had earlier been passed over for promotion in favour of less experienced generals junior to him and of lower grade. He resigned his commission on July 11, 1777, but shortly afterwards General Washington asked Congress to post him to the Northern Department because Fort Ticonderoga had fallen to the British. is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Albany. ... Thomas Mifflin , John Singleton Copley, 1773. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The overall Continental Army of the American Revolutionary War was organized into six departments for command and administrative purposes. ... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders John Burgoyne General Arthur St. ...


Saratoga

See also: Saratoga Campaign

The summer of 1777 marked a turning point in the war. The Saratoga campaign was a series of battles fought in upper New York near Albany that culminated in the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga and the surrender of the British army led by Lieutenant General John Burgoyne on October 17, 1777. Arnold played a decisive role in several of these battles. For example, in August, 1777 he led a force which relieved the siege of Fort Stanwix. Commanders Horatio Gates John Burgoyne Template:Campaignbox American Revolutionary War: Campaign of 1777 The campaign of 1777 was a series of battles in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War for control of the Hudson River. ... Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Major Generals V. Riedesel, 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ... General John Burgoyne (February 24, 1722 – August 4, 1792) was a British army officer, politician and dramatist. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Fort Stanwix was a colonial fort erected in 1758 by British General John Stanwix, at the location of present-day Rome, New York. ...


The Battle of Bemis Heights was the final battle of the Saratoga Campaign. Outnumbered, out of supplies, and cut off from retreat largely by Arnold's doing, Burgoyne was forced to surrender on October 17, 1777. The Battle of Bemis Heights on October 7, 1777 is also known as the 2nd Battle of Saratoga since it was the second and last major engagement in the Battle of Saratoga of the American Revolutionary War. ... Commanders Horatio Gates John Burgoyne Template:Campaignbox American Revolutionary War: Campaign of 1777 The campaign of 1777 was a series of battles in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War for control of the Hudson River. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


During the fighting, Arnold was wounded in the same leg as at Quebec and below the buttock. The television History Channel commented that if his wound had been mortal he would be remembered as a hero, not a traitor. The History Channel is a cable television channel, dedicated to the presentation of historical events and persons, often with frequent observations and explanations by noted historians as well as reenactors and witnesses to events, if possible. ...


Historians agree that Arnold was instrumental to the successful outcome of the Saratoga campaign, showing courage, initiative, and military brilliance. He is said to have single-handedly cut off Burgoyne's attempt to escape in the decisive Battle of Bemis Heights. But Arnold received no credit because of bad feelings between him and General Horatio Gates. Even though Arnold was vital in winning the final battle of Saratoga, Gates vilified him for exceeding his authority and disobeying orders. Arnold made no secret of his contempt for Gates' military tactics, which he considered too cautious and conventional. Many of the Continental Army's senior officers agreed on Arnold's assessment of General Gates. Horatio Gates Horatio Lloyd Gates (1727–1806) was an American general during the Revolutionary War. ...


A monument in Saratoga National Historical Park was erected in recognition of Arnold's victory, heroism and for the injury he sustained during the campaign. However, due to his later treachery, it does not bear his name, only a cryptic dedication to "the most brilliant soldier of the Continental army... winning for his countrymen the decisive battle of the American Revolution and for himself the rank of Major General." It is the only war memorial in the United States that does not bear the name of the man commemorated[1]. An American Revolutionary War memorial erected in Saratoga National Historical Park and dedicated to Benedict Arnold. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Military command of Philadelphia

In mid-October 1777 Arnold lay in an Albany hospital convalescing from the wound he had received at Saratoga. His left leg was ruined, but Arnold would not allow it to be amputated. Several agonizing months of recovery left it 2 inches (5 cm) shorter than the right. He spent the winter of 1777-78 with the army at Valley Forge, recovering from the injury. This article is about the American Revolutionary War winter encampment. ...


After the British withdrew from Philadelphia in June 1778, Washington appointed Arnold military commander of that city. In June he learned of the Franco-American alliance, which he strongly opposed because of his earlier experiences in the French and Indian War. Ironically, it was the victory at Saratoga, in which Arnold played a decisive part, that convinced France's King Louis XVI to agree to the alliance and aid the Americans in their war. Louis XVI Louis XVI (August 23, 1754 - January 21, 1793), was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French in 1791-1792. ...


By then, Arnold was embittered and resentful toward Congress for passing him over for promotion and not approving his wartime expenses; Arnold himself had paid nearly all of the expenses of his force's campaigns in Canada. Arnold threw himself into the social life of Philadelphia, hosting grand parties and falling deeply into debt. Arnold's extravagance drew him into shady financial schemes and into further disrepute with Congress, which investigated his accounts. He also faced corruption charges filed by the Pennsylvania civil authorities at the instigation of a man politically connected to the Continental Congress, whom Arnold had stripped of command at Ticonderoga.


On June 1, 1779 he faced a court martial for malfeasance (and was convicted of two misdemeanors).[13] "Having become a cripple in the service of my country, I little expected to meet [such] ungrateful returns," he complained to General George Washington. is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The expressions misfeasance and nonfeasance, and occasionally malfeasance, are used in English law with reference to the discharge of public obligations existing by common law, custom or statute. ... Misdemeanors are lesser criminal acts which are generally punished less severely than felonies; but more so than infractions. ...


On March 26, 1779 he met Peggy Shippen, the 18-year-old daughter of Judge Edward Shippen, who had been courted by British Major John André during the British occupation of Philadelphia.[14] They married on April 8, 1779. March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Peggy Shippen, or Margaret Shippen (1760 - August 24, 1804), was the second wife of General Benedict Arnold, (following Margaret Mansfield, who died in 1775). ... Edward Shippen (February 16, 1729-April 16, 1806) was a lawyer, judge, government official, and prominent figure in colonial and post-revolutionary Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Major John André John André (May 2, 1750 - October 2, 1780) was a British officer hanged as a spy during the American Revolutionary War for an incident in which he assisted Benedict Arnolds attempted surrender of the fort at West Point, New York to the British. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Betrayal at West Point

In July 1780, Arnold sought and obtained command of the fort at West Point. He already had begun a year-long correspondence with General Sir Henry Clinton in New York City through Major André and was closely involved with Beverley Robinson, a prominent loyalist in command of a loyalist regiment. Arnold offered to hand the fort over to the British for £20,300 and a brigadier's commission.[15] He chose West Point for its strategic importance. The Americans had been using its position to prevent British ships from moving northward from New York City up the Hudson and connecting with British forces in Canada - a move that would have split the north from the south. [16][17][18][19][20] His plans were thwarted when André was captured September 23, 1780 with a pass signed by Arnold. André was carrying documents that disclosed the plot and which incriminated Arnold; André was later hanged as a spy. West Point painting West Point is a federal military base (and a census-designated place) located in the Town of Highlands in Orange County, New York. ... General Sir Henry Clinton K.B. Commander-in-Chief of British troops in America. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Major John André John André (May 2, 1750 - October 2, 1780) was a British officer hanged as a spy during the American Revolutionary War for an incident in which he assisted Benedict Arnolds attempted surrender of the fort at West Point, New York to the British. ... Beverley Robinson (1723-1792), a wealthy colonist from New York, was a son of the Hon. ... The symbol £ represents the pound currency which Britain uses. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Arnold learned of André's capture and fled to Vulture, a British ship waiting for him on the Hudson River, with the help of John Borns. Arnold wrote a letter to Washington,[21] requesting that Peggy be given safe passage to her family in Philadelphia, a request Washington ensured.[22]


The British made him a brigadier general in the British forces, with an annual income of several hundred pounds, but only paid him some £6,315 (plus an annual pension of £360) because his plot had failed.[9] Had the plot succeeded, British forces would have been in position to divide the northern and southern American forces, and potentially end up defeating the revolution.


Reportedly when presented with evidence of Arnold's betrayal Washington was calm.[23][24]


Life after switching sides

Arnold saw some action in the American theater. In December, under orders from Clinton, Arnold led a force of 1,600 troops into Virginia and captured Richmond, cutting off the major artery of material to the southern colonial effort. It is said that Arnold asked an officer he had taken captive about what the Americans would do if they captured him, and the captain is said to have replied "Cut off your right leg, bury it with full military honors, and then hang the rest of you on a gibbet." In the Southern Theater, Lord Cornwallis marched north to Yorktown, which he reached in May 1781. Arnold, meanwhile, had been sent north to attack the town of New London, Connecticut, in hope it would divert Washington from Cornwallis. On 8 September 1781 Benedict Arnold's force raided and burned the port of New London and captured Fort Griswold. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Gibbet is a term applied to several different devices used in the capital punishment of criminals and/or the deterrence of potential criminals. ... Cornwallis redirects here. ... York Hall is a government building on Yorktowns historic Main Street. ... Nickname: Motto: MARE LIBERUM Coordinates: , NECTA Norwich-New London Region Southeastern Connecticut Settled 1646 (Pequot Plantation) Named 1658 (New London) Incorporated (city) 1784 Government  - Type Council-manager  - City council Margaret Mary Curtin, Mayor Kevin J. Cavanagh, Dep. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Classical drawing of Fort Griswold by Benedict Arnold Fort Griswold is an American military base, now decommissioned, in Groton, Connecticut that played a key role in the early stages of the American Revolutionary War. ...


In December, Arnold was recalled to England with various other officers as the Crown de-emphasized the American Theater for others which were deemed more important. In London, he aligned himself with the Tory Party, advising King George III to renew the fight against the Americans. In the Commons, Edmund Burke expressed the hope that the government would not put Arnold "at the head of a part of a British army" lest "the sentiments of true honor, which every British officer [holds] dearer than life, should be afflicted."[22] When the Whigs in parliament eventually compelled the king to make peace with the Americans, the government of Lord North fell and Arnold lost favour in London.[22] The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... George III redirects here. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford, KG, PC (13 April 1732 – 5 August 1792), more often known by his courtesy title, Lord North, which he used from 1752 until 1790, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782, and a major actor in the American Revolution. ...


Benedict Arnold pursued interests in the shipping trade in Canada from 1787 until 1791, when an angry mob overran the front lawn of his home, burning an effigy labeled "traitor", and troops were required to disperse them.[22] Returning to England, he was unable to obtain a desired military command, and in July 1792 he fought a bloodless duel with the Earl of Lauderdale after the Earl had impugned his honour in the House of Lords.[9] A duel is a formalized type of combat. ... James Maitland, 8th Earl of Lauderdale KT PC (January 26, 1759 - September 10, 1839), was a representative peer for Scotland in the House of Lords. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


Death

Gout attacked his unwounded leg; the other ached constantly, and he walked only with a cane. His doctors diagnosed him as having dropsy. He died, after four days of delirium, on 14 June 1801 at age 60.[22] This page is about the condition called edema. ... This article is about the mental state and medical condition. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


On his death bed in Gloucester Place,[25] legend has it that Arnold said "Let me die in this old uniform (Colonial) in which I fought my battles. May God forgive me for ever having put on another".[26] This may be fictitious, as James Martin notes.[5] Arnold was buried at St. Mary's Church, Battersea in London, England. It is unknown whether he was buried in any uniform at all. St. ...


Some American sources maintain that he died poor, in bad health, and essentially unknown, though one obituary in the Gentleman's Magazine records that his funeral procession boasted "seven mourning coaches and four state carriages".[22] He left a small estate, reduced in size by his debts, which Peggy undertook to clear.[9][22]


The house on Gloucester Place where Arnold lived in central London still stands, bearing a plaque which describes Arnold as an "American Patriot".


Legacy

Boot Monument commemorates Arnold's wounded foot at the Battle of Saratoga. However he is not mentioned by name.
Boot Monument commemorates Arnold's wounded foot at the Battle of Saratoga. However he is not mentioned by name.

Arnold attempted to justify his actions in an open letter titled To the Inhabitants of America. In a letter to his former friend Washington, he stated, "Love to my country actuates my present conduct, however it may appear inconsistent to the world, who very seldom judge right of any man's actions."[21] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1390x2190, 766 KB) Summary Boot Monument at Saratoga National Battlefield commemorating the wounded foot of Benedict Arnold. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1390x2190, 766 KB) Summary Boot Monument at Saratoga National Battlefield commemorating the wounded foot of Benedict Arnold. ... An American Revolutionary War memorial erected in Saratoga National Historical Park and dedicated to Benedict Arnold. ... Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Major Generals V. Riedesel, 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Benedict Arnolds letter To the Inhabitants of America Benedict Arnolds To the Inhabitants of America was an open letter he wrote and published after his defection to the Kingdom of Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War. ...


Benedict Arnold is a paradoxical figure in American history. While there can be no doubt as to his eventual loyalty to the Crown, neither can there be any doubt as to his role as a hero in the Battle of Saratoga. It was Saratoga which persuaded the French, who had been skeptical of the colonists' chances, to intervene in the war on the American side. This alliance tipped the balance and ultimately helped ensure the American victory.


On the battlefield at Saratoga, a lone monument stands in memorial to this man, but there is no mention of his name on the engraving. The inscription reads: "In memory of the most brilliant soldier of the Continental army, who was desperately wounded on this spot, winning for his countrymen the decisive battle of the American Revolution, and for himself the rank of Major General."


Another memorial to Arnold resides at the United States Military Academy. It bears only a rank, "major general," and a date, "born 1740." The name has been left out. That the plaque exists at all is tribute to the undeniable contribution he made to American independence, a contribution indelibly tarnished by his betrayal of the Americans.


A "Benedict Arnold"

"Benedict Arnold" has become an American expression used to describe traitors and remains widely recognized as such even in 21st century America. The term is thus an American equivalent to calling someone a Quisling (the term Quisling is known to few in America). From a British perspective, he is considered a patriot, though according to many sources the British never fully trusted him.[citation needed] Quisling, after Norwegian fascist politician Vidkun Quisling, is a term used to describe traitors and collaborationists. ...


Family

During his marriage to Margaret Mansfield, Arnold had the following children:

Benedict Arnold VI (1768 - 1795)
Richard Arnold (1769 - 1847)
Henry Arnold (1772 - 1826)

and with Peggy Shippen, he raised: Peggy Shippen, or Margaret Shippen (1760 - August 24, 1804), was the second wife of General Benedict Arnold, (following Margaret Mansfield, who died in 1775). ...

Edward Shippen Arnold (1782 - 1813)
James Robertson (Lieutenant General) Arnold (1783 - 1852)
George (Lieutenant Colonel) Arnold (1784 - 1828)
William Fitch Arnold (born 1786, date of death unknown)

Literature

Benedict Arnold appears in several of Pulitzer Prize winning novelist Kenneth Roberts' best selling books. Arnold features prominently in Arundel, which takes place during the campaign to capture Quebec early in the American Revolution, and again in its sequel, Rabble in Arms. He also appears briefly in Oliver Wiswell, which tells the story of the American Revolution from the viewpoint of a young Loyalist. The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... Kenneth Lewis Roberts (December 8, 1885 – July 21, 1957) was an American author of historical novels. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Science fiction writer H. Beam Piper paid tribute to Arnold's crucial role in his story He Walked Around the Horses, an alternative history in which Arnold was killed during the attack on Quebec in 1776, and as a result of his absence the British won at Saratoga and subsequently the entire war, retaining their control of the 13 colonies. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Alternative history or alternate history develops out of historiography to identify historical points of view that have been ignored, overlooked, or unseeable. ...


Author Gary Blackwood included Arnold in The Year of the Hangman, also an alternative history in which Washington was killed and the Patriots lost the Revolution. Gary L. Blackwood (born October 23, 1945 in Meadville, Pennsylvania) is an American author and playwright. ... The Year of the Hangman is an alternate history novel for young adults, published in 2002 and written by Gary Blackwood. ... Alternative history or alternate history develops out of historiography to identify historical points of view that have been ignored, overlooked, or unseeable. ...


In his story/essay "I Remember Babylon" (1962), Arthur C. Clarke remarks: "I have always had a sneaking sympathy for Benedict Arnold, as must anyone who knows the full facts of the case". I Remember Babylon is a science fiction short story written by Arthur C. Clarke. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE, Sri Lankabhimanya (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British (lived in Sri Lanka since 1956) science fiction author, inventor, and futurist, most famous for the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, written in collaboration with director Stanley Kubrick, a collaboration which led also to...


Arnold appears in the 1979 John Barth novel, LETTERS. John Simmons Barth (born May 27, 1930) is an American novelist and short-story writer, known for the postmodernist and metafictive quality of his work. ...


See also

Military of the United States Portal

Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_the_United_States. ... The Arnold Cipher was a book cipher developed by Benedict Arnold, the famous turncoat of the American Revolution. ... Major John André John André (May 2, 1750 - October 2, 1780) was a British officer hanged as a spy during the American Revolutionary War for an incident in which he assisted Benedict Arnolds attempted surrender of the fort at West Point, New York to the British. ... An American Revolutionary War memorial erected in Saratoga National Historical Park and dedicated to Benedict Arnold. ... The Newport Tower. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Benedict Arnolds letter To the Inhabitants of America Benedict Arnolds To the Inhabitants of America was an open letter he wrote and published after his defection to the Kingdom of Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War. ...

References

  1. ^ Digby, William (1887), The British Invasion from the North, J. Munsell's Sons, pp. 146, <http://books.google.com/books?id=UAwtAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA146&lpg=PA146&dq=%22benedict+arnold%22+born+%22january+3+1741%22&source=web&ots=pNKFKmVjb8&sig=4uJCksVexK8F6dxhskVdGmVU32U>. Retrieved on 25 January 2008
  2. ^ Vital Records of Norwich, 1659-1848, Norwich (CT): Hartford: Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut, 1913, pp. 153, OCLC 1850353, <http://books.google.com/books?id=QPULAAAAYAAJ&q=%22benedict+arnold%22+1740/41&dq=%22benedict+arnold%22+1740/41&pgis=1>. Retrieved on 25 January 2008
  3. ^ Arnold, Benedict. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-09-18.
  4. ^ Roget's New Millennium™ Thesaurus, First Edition (v 1.3.1). Lexico Publishing Group, LLC. 03 Aug. 2007.
  5. ^ a b Martin, James Kirby (1997). Benedict Arnold, Revolutionary Hero: An American Warrior Reconsidered. New York University Press. ISBN 0814756468. 
  6. ^ Randall, William Stearn: "Benedict Arnold: Patriot and Traitor", William Morrow and Company, 1990. Adjusted figure from measuringworth.com
  7. ^ U-S-History.com (2005). The French and Indian War, Fort William Henry “Massacre” August 1757. Retrieved on 2006-06-01.
  8. ^ Arnold, Isaac Newton (1979). The Life of Benedict Arnold (Reprint of the 1880 ed. published by Jansen, McClurg, Chicago). Ayer Publishing, 31. 
  9. ^ a b c d Curtis Fahey (2000). Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  10. ^ Siege of Quebec and death of General Montgovery. Retrieved on 2007-09-18.[unreliable source?]
  11. ^ The Battle of Quebec. theamericanrevolution.org. Retrieved on 2007-09-18.
  12. ^ Louis Quigley (2001). Treachery and Fidelity, The Love Letters of Benedict Arnold reveal a true heart. Retrieved on 2006-06-01.
  13. ^ Willard Sterne Randall (September/October 1990), Why Benedict Arnold Did It, vol. 41, American Heritage Magazine, <http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1990/6/1990_6_60.shtml>. Retrieved on 14 October 2007
  14. ^ Edward Shippen (1729-1806). University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved on 2007-09-18.
  15. ^ "July 15, 1780 -- Benedict Arnold to John André (Code)", Spy Letters of the American Revolution &mdash From the Collection of the Clements Collection, <http://www.si.umich.edu/spies/letter-1780july15-code.html>. Retrieved on 21 October 2007
  16. ^ A Brief History of the Academy. United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. Retrieved on 2007-12-14. “General George Washington considered West Point to be the most important strategic position in America Washington personally selected Thaddeus Kosciuszko, one of the heroes of Saratoga, to design the fortifications for West Point in l778, and Washington transferred his headquarters to West Point in l779. Continental soldiers built forts, batteries and redoubts and extended a l50-ton iron chain across the Hudson to control river traffic. Fortress West Point was never captured by the British, despite Benedict Arnold's treason. West Point is the oldest continuously occupied military post in America.”
  17. ^ West Point, Hudson Valley, NY. Hudson Valley Network, Inc. Retrieved on 2007-12-14. “From this strategically important location all shipping and river traffic was under his control, effectively bottling up the British in Manhattan”
  18. ^ Harold Faber. "Metropolitan Baedeker; Living History at West Point", NY Times, 1988-08-19. Retrieved on 2007-12-14. "Standing on the promontory overlooking the Hudson River, you don't have to be a soldier to understand West Point's commanding strategic importance in American history. Below, the river curves in a beautiful S-shape, putting any vessels that pass in peril from cannon shot from above.... Back in 1775, Gen. George Washington and other revolutionists decided that a fort was needed at West Point to protect the heartland of New York from the British fleet." 
  19. ^ West Point, NY. Retrieved on 2007-12-14. “George Washington stands above all others as the conceptual founder of the Military Academy. He considered the site of West Point to be so strategic and significant during the American Revolution that he called it the key to the continent. Washington felt that if the British ever commanded the fortifications at West Point they would have a stranglehold on the colonies. He spent a significant portion of his tenure as Commander of the Continental Army at West Point and nearby Newburgh.”
  20. ^ "Benedict Arnold, Traitor;Story of His Attempt to Surrender West Point", NY Times, 1894-09-09. Retrieved on 2007-12-14. "There was no military post on the Hudson that the British coveted more than West Point. They looked upon that stronghold as a second Gibraltar, and used every strategy to accomplish its downfall. Washington had early foreseen the advantage to be gained by having fortifications of more than ordinary strength on such a commanding position, controlling as it did the principal waterway of the Northern States." 
  21. ^ a b Letter, Benedict Arnold to George Washington pleading for mercy for his wife. Library of Congress (George Washington Papers) (1780-09-25). Retrieved on 2007-12-14.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g Milton Lomask (October 1967). Benedict Arnold: The Aftermath of Treason. American Heritage Magazine.
  23. ^ Lodge, Henry Cabot (1899). George Washington, Volume I. The Gutenberg Project. Retrieved on 2007-12-25. “When they came out, Washington looked as calm as ever, and calling to Lafayette and Knox gave them the papers, saying simply, "Whom can we trust now?"”
  24. ^ Lossing, Benson John (1852). The Pictorial Field-book of the Revolution 160. Harper & Brothers. “Washington called in Knox and La Fayette for counsel. "Whom can we trust?", said the chief with calmness, while the deepest feeling of sorrow was evidently at work in his bosom.”
  25. ^ American Encyclopedia - Benedict Arnold. encyclopaedic.net. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  26. ^ Clifton Johnson (1915). The Picturesque Hudson. The MacMillan Company.

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Further reading

  • Barry K. Wilson, 2001, Benedict Arnold: A Traitor in Our Midst, McGill Queens Press. ISBN 077352150X (This book is about Arnold's time in Canada both before and after his treachery)
  • James L. Nelson, 2006, Benedict Arnold's Navy: The Ragtag Fleet that Lost the Battle of Lake Champlain but Won the American Revolution, McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-146806-4 (This book shows how Pauls leadership against the British forces on Lake Champlain secured for America the independence that he would try later to betray.)
  • Willard Sterne Randall, 1990, "Benedict Arnold: Patriot and Traitor", William Morrow and Inc. ISBN 1-55710-034-90. (This book is a comprehensive biography, and goes into great detail about Arnold's part in military operations in Canada, as well as much of the behind-the-scenes political and military wrangling and infighting that occurred prior to his defection).
  • James Kirby Martin, 1997, Benedict Arnold: Revolutionary Hero (An American Warrior Reconsidered), New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-5560-7 (alk. paper) 0-8147-5646-8 (pbk)(This book is about the life of General Benedict Arnold. It shows the biased statements of authors and demythifies a lot of the stories about Benedict Arnold)

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Benedict Arnold - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4414 words)
Benedict Arnold (January 14, 1741 – June 14, 1801) was a general in the Continental Army during the American Revolution.
Arnold had distinguished himself as a hero of the revolution early in the war through acts of cunning and bravery at Fort Ticonderoga in 1775 and at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777.
Benedict Arnold V was born the second of six children to Benedict Arnold III and Hannah Waterman King in Norwich, Connecticut.
Benedict Arnold - definition of Benedict Arnold - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (710 words)
Benedict Arnold, V (January 14, 1741–June 14, 1801) was a Continental Army and British military leader.
Born in Norwich, Connecticut, Arnold was appointed a colonel in the Massachusetts's militia in 1775.
Arnold was eventually promoted to the rank of brigadier general and in 1776 oversaw the construction of America's first gunships on Lake Champlain, in the town of Whitehall, NY.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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