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Encyclopedia > Ben Nevis
Ben Nevis

Ben Nevis from Banavie. The summit is beyond and to the left of the apparent highest point.
Elevation 1,344 metres (4,409 ft)
Location Lochaber, Scotland
Prominence 1,344 m Ranked 1st in British Isles
Parent peak none - HP Great Britain
Coordinates 56°47′49.150″N 5°0′17.222″W / 56.79698611, -5.00478389
Topo map OS Landranger 41, Explorer 392
First ascent 17 August 1771, by James Robertson
Easiest route Walk
OS grid reference NN166713
Listing Munro, Marilyn, Council top (Highland), County top (Inverness-shire)
Translation Venomous mountain or mountain with its head in the clouds (Scottish Gaelic language)

Ben Nevis (Gaelic: Beinn Nibheis) is the highest mountain in Great Britain. It is located at the western end of the Grampian Mountains in the Lochaber area of Scotland, close to the coastal town of Fort William. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 431 KB) Ben Nevis, Scotland. ... Ben Nevis (Beinn Nibheis) viewed from Banavie Banavie (Scottish Gaelic: Bainbhidh) is a small settlement near Fort William in the Highland Region of Scotland. ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... Lochaber (Scottish Gaelic, Loch Abar) refers to a large area of the central and western Scottish Highlands. ... This article is about the country. ... In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height or shoulder drop (in America) or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains, also known as peaks. ... This is a list of peaks in the British Isles and Ireland, with a relative height of 600 m or more, in descending order of relative height. ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height or shoulder drop (in America) or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains, also known as peaks. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... // Topographic maps are a variety of maps characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines in modern mapping, but historically using a variety of methods. ... Part of an Ordnance Survey map at 1 inch to the mile scale from 1945 Ordnance Survey (OS) is an executive agency of the United Kingdom government. ... In climbing, a first ascent (FA) is the first climb to reach the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Southern and northern Mount Everest climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... There are many notable lists of mountains around the world. ... For other uses, see Munro (disambiguation). ... Map of Marilyns in the British Isles and Ireland A Marilyn is a type of mountain or hill in the British Isles and Ireland, with a relative height of at least 150 metres (492 ft), regardless of absolute height or other merit. ... This is a list of the 32 council areas of Scotland by their highest point. ... The Highland council area (Roinn na Gàidhealtachd[1] in Gaelic) is a local government area in the Scottish Highlands and the largest local government area in Scotland. ... This is a list of the 33 Counties of Scotland by their highest point. ... Inverness-shire (Siorrachd Inbhir Nis in Gaelic) is one of the traditional counties of Scotland. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... The Grampian Mountains or Grampians are one of the three major mountain ranges in Scotland. ... Lochaber (Scottish Gaelic, Loch Abar) refers to a large area of the central and western Scottish Highlands. ... This article is about the country. ...


In common with many other Scottish mountains, it is known to locals as simply The Ben. However, if walkers and climbers from outwith Scotland use the term "The Ben" they usually mean Ben Nevis.[1][2] It attracts an estimated 100,000 ascents a year,[3] around three-quarters of which[4] are made using the well-constructed Pony Track from Glen Nevis on the south side of the mountain. For climbers and mountaineers the main attraction lies in the 700-metre-high cliffs of the north face: among the highest cliffs in Britain, they harbour some classic scrambles and rock climbs of all difficulties, and are one of the principal locations in the UK for ice climbing. Scotland is the most mountainous country in the United Kingdom. ... Glen Nevis is a beautiful glen in Lochaber, Scotland, with Fort William at its foot. ... An open crevasse. ... “Precipice” redirects here. ... Scrambling on Crib Goch, Snowdonia, Wales Scrambling is a method of ascending rocky faces and ridges. ... Climbers on Valkyrie at the Roaches. ... Ice climbing is the recreational activity of climbing ice formations such as icefalls, and frozen waterfalls. ...


The summit, at 1,344 metres (4,406 ft) above sea level, features the ruins of an observatory which was permanently staffed between 1883 and 1904. The meteorological data collected during this period is still important for an understanding of Scottish mountain weather. C. T. R. Wilson was inspired to invent the cloud chamber after a period spent working at the observatory. This article is about scientific observatories. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Charles Thomson Rees Wilson CH (February 14, 1869 – November 15, 1959) was a Scottish physicist. ... Discovery of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson in a cloud chamber The cloud chamber, also known as the Wilson chamber, is used for detecting particles of ionizing radiation. ...

Contents

Geography

Ben Nevis forms a massif with its neighbour to the north-east, Carn Mòr Dearg, to which it is linked by the Carn Mòr Dearg Arête.[5] Both mountains are among the eight in Great Britain over 4,000 feet (1,219 metres), as are Aonach Mòr and Aonach Beag immediately to the east; the other four are all in the Cairngorms. In geology, a massif is a section of a planets crust that is demarcated by faults or flexures. ... Carn Mòr Dearg (1,221 m) is the eighth highest mountain in Scotland. ... The Garden Wall, an arête in Glacier National Park (U.S.) An arête is a thin, almost knife-like, ridge of rock which is typically formed when two glaciers erode parallel U-shaped valleys. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Aonach Mòr is a mountain in the Highlands of Scotland. ... Aonach Beag is a mountain in the Highlands of Scotland. ... The Cairngorms: Ben Macdhui seen from Carn aMhaim This article is about the Scottish mountain range. ...


The western and southern flanks of Ben Nevis rise 1,200 metres in around 2 km from the floor of Glen Nevis—the longest and steepest hill slope in Britain[6]—with the result that the mountain presents an aspect of massive bulk on this side. To the north, in contrast, cliffs drop some 600 metres (2,000 ft) to Coire Leis. This corrie contains the Charles Inglis Clark Memorial Hut (known as the CIC Hut), a private climbing hut located at 680 metres above sea level, owned by the Scottish Mountaineering Club[7] and used as a base for the many climbing routes on the mountain's north face. “Precipice” redirects here. ... Iceberg Cirque in Glacier National Park, USA The Lower Curtis Glacier, North Cascades National Park, is a well developed cirque glacier. ... A climbing hut provides accommodation for climbers and mountaineers, close to a climbing area. ... The Scottish Mountaineering Club (SMC) was founded in 1889, in Glasgow, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Climbing (disambiguation). ...

The steep south face of Ben Nevis from Sgurr a' Mhàim.
The steep south face of Ben Nevis from Sgurr a' Mhàim.

In addition to the main 1,344-metre summit, Ben Nevis has two subsidiary "tops" listed in Munro's Tables, both of which are called Carn Dearg ("red hill").[8] The higher of these, at 1,221 metres, is situated to the north-west, and is often mistaken for Ben Nevis itself in views from the Fort William area. The other Carn Dearg (1,020 m) juts out into Glen Nevis on the mountain's south-western side. A lower hill, Meall an t-Suidhe (711 m), is located further west, forming a saddle with Ben Nevis which contains a small loch, Lochan an t-Suidhe. The popular tourist path from Glen Nevis skirts the side of this hill before ascending Ben Nevis's broad western flank. Image File history File linksMetadata Ben_Nevis_south_face. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ben_Nevis_south_face. ... Looking along the Devils Ridge from the lower slopes of Sgurr a Mhàim. ... Sgurr Fiona and the Corrag Bhuide pinnacles of An Teallach A Munro is a Scottish mountain with a height over 3000 feet (914. ... View across Loch Lomond, towards Ben Lomond. ...


Geology

Ben Nevis consists mainly of igneous rock from the Devonian period (around 400 million years ago), intruded into the surrounding metamorphic schists; the intrusions take the form of a series of concentric ring dikes. The innermost of these, known as the Inner Granite, constitutes the southern bulk of the mountain above Lochan Meall an t-Suidhe, and also the neighbouring ridge of Carn Mòr Dearg; Meall an t-Suidhe forms part of the Outer Granite, which is redder in colour. The summit dome itself, together with the steep northern cliffs, are composed of andesite and basaltic lavas. The mountain has been extensively shaped by glaciation.[9][10][11] Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... Devils Tower, an igneous intrusion exposed when the surrounding softer rock eroded away. ... Schist The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. ... A ring dike or ring dyke in geology refers to an intrusive igneous body. ... A sample of andesite (dark groundmass) with amygdaloidal vesicules filled with zeolite. ... Basalt Basalt is an extrusive igneous rock, sometimes porphyritic, and is often both fine-grained and dense. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ...


Climate

Ben Nevis's altitude, maritime location and topography frequently lead to unusually poor weather conditions, which can pose a danger to ill-equipped walkers. According to the observations carried out at the summit observatory from 1883–1904, fog was present on the summit for almost 80% of the time between November and January, and 55% of the time in May and June.[12] The average winter temperature was around -5 °C,[12] and the mean monthly temperature for the year was -0.5 °C.[13] In an average year the summit sees 261 gales,[13] and receives 4,350 millimetres (171 inches) of rainfall, compared to only 2,050 mm in nearby Fort William[14] and about 600 mm in Inverness and London. Rainfall on Ben Nevis is about twice as high in the winter as it is in the spring and summer. Snow can be found on the mountain almost all year round, particularly in the gullies of the north face - with the higher reaches of Observatory Gully holding snow until September most years and sometimes until the new snows of the following season. World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Scotland. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ...


History

The first recorded ascent of Ben Nevis was made on 17 August 1771 by James Robertson, an Edinburgh botanist, who was in the region to collect botanical specimens. Another early ascent was in 1774 by John Williams, who provided the first account of the mountain's geological structure.[15] John Keats climbed the mountain in 1818, comparing the ascent to "mounting ten St. Pauls without the convenience of a staircase".[16] It was not until 1847 that Ben Nevis was confirmed by the Ordnance Survey as the highest mountain in Britain, ahead of its rival Ben Macdui. is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Keats redirects here. ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... Part of an Ordnance Survey map at 1 inch to the mile scale from 1945 Ordnance Survey (OS) is an executive agency of the United Kingdom government. ... Ben Macdhui (also spelled Ben Macdui, Ben MacDui and Beinn MacDuibh) is the second highest mountain of Great Britain. ...


The summit observatory was built in the summer of 1883, and would remain in operation for 21 years. The first path to the summit was built at the same time as the observatory and was designed to allow ponies to carry up supplies, with a maximum gradient of one in five.[12] The opening of the path and the observatory made the ascent of the Ben increasingly popular, all the more so after the arrival of the West Highland Railway in Fort William in 1894.[17] Around this time the first of several proposals was made for a rack railway to the summit, none of which came to fruition.[16] “Footpath” redirects here. ... A Shetland Pony A pony is any of several horse breeds with a specific conformation and temperament. ... The West Highland Railway was one of the last Main Lines to be built in Scotland. ... Rack railway track using Von Roll system rack. ...


In 2000 the Ben Nevis Estate, comprising all of the south side of the mountain including the summit, was bought by the Scottish conservation charity the John Muir Trust. The John Muir Trust (JMT), is a Scottish charity, established in 1983 to conserve and protect wild places with their indigenous animals, plants and soils for the benefit of present and future generations. ...


Ascent routes

The lower part of the Ben Path, maintained at a high standard to accommodate some 75,000 people a year.
The lower part of the Ben Path, maintained at a high standard to accommodate some 75,000 people a year.

The 1883 Pony Track to the summit (also known as the Ben Path, the Mountain Path, or the Tourist Route) remains the simplest and most popular route of ascent. It begins at Achintee on the east side of Glen Nevis about 2 km (1.5 miles) from Fort William town centre, at around 20 metres above sea level. Bridges from the Visitor Centre and the youth hostel now allow access from the west side of Glen Nevis.[5][18] The path climbs steeply to the saddle by Lochan Meall an t-Suidhe at 570 m, then ascends the remaining 700 metres up the stony west flank of Ben Nevis in a series of zig-zags. It is well made and maintained throughout its length, and, thanks to the zig-zags, not unusually steep apart from in the initial stages. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (714x800, 87 KB)The Tourist route for ascending Ben Nevis is relatively straightforward. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (714x800, 87 KB)The Tourist route for ascending Ben Nevis is relatively straightforward. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Youth hostel in Rome. ...

The CMD Arête under deep snow in spring, from the summit of Carn Mòr Dearg.

A route popular with experienced hillwalkers starts at Torlundy, a few miles north-east of Fort William on the A82 road, and follows the path alongside the Allt a' Mhuilinn. It can also be reached from Glen Nevis by following the Pony Track as far as Lochan Meall an t-Suidhe, then descending slightly to the CIC Hut. The route then ascends Carn Mòr Dearg and continues along the Carn Mòr Dearg Arête ("CMD Arête") before climbing steeply to the summit of Ben Nevis. This route involves a total of 1,500 metres of ascent and requires modest scrambling ability and a head for heights.[19] In common with other approaches on this side of the mountain, it has the advantage of giving an extensive view of the cliffs of the north face, which are hidden from the Pony Track.[18] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Carn Mòr Dearg (1,221 m) is the eighth highest mountain in Scotland. ... Hillwalking or fellwalking is the recreational practice of hiking in mountainous terrain. ... The A82 is a trunk road in Scotland, and is the principal route from Lowland Scotland to the western Scottish Highlands, running from Glasgow to Inverness. ... Carn Mòr Dearg (1,221 m) is the eighth highest mountain in Scotland. ... Scrambling on Crib Goch, Snowdonia, Wales Scrambling is a method of ascending rocky faces and ridges. ...


It is also possible to climb Ben Nevis from the Nevis Gorge car park at the head of the road up Glen Nevis, either by the south-east ridge or via the summit of Carn Dearg (south-west). These routes do not require scrambling, but are shorter and steeper, and tend to be used by experienced hill walkers.


The summit

The summit war memorial, October 2006
The summit war memorial, October 2006

The summit of Ben Nevis comprises a large stony plateau of around 40 hectares (100 acres).[20] The highest point is marked with a large, solidly built cairn atop which sits an Ordnance Survey trig point. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1708x1213, 179 KB) The War Memorial on the summit of Ben Nevis Personal photograph taken by Mick Knapton File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ben Nevis ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1708x1213, 179 KB) The War Memorial on the summit of Ben Nevis Personal photograph taken by Mick Knapton File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ben Nevis ... For other meanings, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cairn (disambiguation). ... Part of an Ordnance Survey map at 1 inch to the mile scale from 1945 Ordnance Survey (OS) is an executive agency of the United Kingdom government. ... A trig point near Wootton Wawen. ...


The ruined walls of the observatory are a prominent feature on the summit. An emergency shelter has been built on top of the observatory tower for the benefit of those caught out by bad weather; although the base of the tower is slightly lower than the true summit of the mountain, the roof of the shelter overtops the trig point by several feet, making it the highest man-made structure in Britain. A war memorial to the dead of World War II is located next to the observatory. This memorial in England lists the names of soldiers who died in the First World War. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


On 17 May 2006, a piano that had been buried under one of the cairns on the peak was uncovered by the John Muir Trust, which owns much of the mountain.[21][22] The piano was believed to have been carried up for charity by removal men from Dundee over 20 years earlier.[23] is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... The John Muir Trust (JMT), is a Scottish charity, established in 1983 to conserve and protect wild places with their indigenous animals, plants and soils for the benefit of present and future generations. ... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ...


The view from Britain's highest point is extensive. In ideal conditions it can extend up to 190 km (120 miles), including such mountains as the Torridon Hills, Morven in Caithness, Lochnagar, Ben Lomond, Barra Head, and 123 miles (198 km) to Knocklayd in County Antrim, Ireland.[24] The Torridon hills, viewed from the Shieldaig peninsula. ... Morven (Scottish Gaelic: A Mhòr Bheinn) is a mountain in Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... Lochnagar is a mountain located about five miles south of the River Dee near Balmoral. ... Ben Lomond, 974 m (3196 feet), is a mountain in the Scottish Highlands. ... Barra Head, also known as Berneray, is the southernmost of the Outer Hebrides in Scotland. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Antrim Area: 2,844 km² Population (est. ...


Observatory

The summit plateau. The ruined observatory is in the centre, with the summit cairn to the right.
The summit plateau. The ruined observatory is in the centre, with the summit cairn to the right.

A meteorological observatory on the summit was first proposed by the Scottish Meteorological Society (SMS) in the late 1870s, at a time when similar observatories were being built around the world to study the weather at high altitude.[12] In the summer of 1881 Clement Lindley Wragge climbed the mountain daily to make observations (earning the nickname "Inclement Rag"), leading to the opening on 17 October 1883 of a permanent observatory run by the SMS. The building was permanently manned until 1904, when it was closed due to inadequacy of government funding. The twenty years' worth of readings still provide the most comprehensive set of data on mountain weather in Great Britain.[12] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 252 KB) Summit plateau of Ben Nevis, Scotland, showing the ruins of the observatory, the emergency shelter, and the summit cairn and trig point. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 252 KB) Summit plateau of Ben Nevis, Scotland, showing the ruins of the observatory, the emergency shelter, and the summit cairn and trig point. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... This article is about scientific observatories. ... Portrait of Clement Lindley Wragge. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In September 1894, C. T. R. Wilson was employed at the observatory for a couple of weeks as temporary relief for one of the permanent staff. During this period he witnessed a Brocken spectre and glory, caused by the sun casting a shadow on cloud below the observer. He subsequently tried to reproduce these phenomena in the laboratory, resulting in his invention of the cloud chamber used to detect ionising radiation.[25] Charles Thomson Rees Wilson CH (February 14, 1869 – November 15, 1959) was a Scottish physicist. ... Brocken spectre A solar glory and the Spectre of the Brocken observed in San Francisco. ... NASA photo Glory with aircraft shadow in the center. ... Discovery of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson in a cloud chamber The cloud chamber, also known as the Wilson chamber, is used for detecting particles of ionizing radiation. ... Ionizing radiation is radiation in which an individual particle (for example, a photon, electron, or helium nucleus) carries enough energy to ionize an atom or molecule (that is, to completely remove an electron from its orbit). ...


Navigation and safety

View south-west from the summit in early April. When the cliff edges are corniced, accurate navigation is critical.
View south-west from the summit in early April. When the cliff edges are corniced, accurate navigation is critical.

Ben Nevis's popularity, climate and complex topography contribute to a high number of mountain rescue incidents. In 1999, for example, there were 41 rescues and four fatalities on the mountain.[4] Some accidents arise over difficulties in navigating to or from the summit,[26] especially in poor visibility. The problem stems from the fact that the summit plateau is roughly kidney-shaped, and surrounded by cliffs on three sides; the danger is particularly accentuated when the main path is obscured by snow. Two precise compass bearings taken in succession are necessary to navigate from the summit cairn to the west flank, from where a descent can be made on the Pony Track in relative safety.[27] Image File history File linksMetadata Ben_Nevis_cornice. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ben_Nevis_cornice. ... The summit of San Jacinto Peak covered by a cornice formed by wind-blown snow. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... Mountain rescue refers to search and rescue activities that occur in a mountainous environment, although the term is sometimes also used to apply to search and rescue in other wilderness environments. ... This article is about determination of position and direction on or above the surface of the earth. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... This article is about the navigational instrument. ... In navigation, a bearing is the clockwise angle between a reference direction (or a datum line) and the direction to an object. ...


In the late 1990s Lochaber Mountain Rescue Team erected two posts on the summit plateau, in order to assist walkers attempting the descent in foggy conditions. These posts were subsequently cut down by climbers, sparking controversy in mountaineering circles on the ethics of such additions.[26][28] Supporters of navigational aids point to the high number of accidents that occur on the mountain (between 1990 and 1995 alone there were 13 fatalities, although eight of these were due to falls while rock climbing rather than navigational error),[26] the long tradition of placing such aids on the summit, and the potentially life-saving role they could play. However, critics argue that cairns and posts are an unnecessary man-made intrusion into the natural landscape, which create a false sense of security and could lessen mountaineers' sense of responsibility for their own safety.[28] Mountain rescue refers to search and rescue activities that occur in a mountainous environment, although the term is sometimes also used to apply to search and rescue in other wilderness environments. ... For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ...


Climbing on Ben Nevis

The north face, with key features marked. The Carn Dearg Buttress and Castle Ridge are to the right of the photo.
The north face, with key features marked. The Carn Dearg Buttress and Castle Ridge are to the right of the photo.

The north face of Ben Nevis is riven with buttresses, ridges, towers and pinnacles, and contains many classic scrambles and rock climbs. It is of major importance for British winter climbing, with many of its routes holding snow often until late April. It was one of the first places in Scotland to receive the attention of serious mountaineers, with a descent of Tower Ridge in 1892 the earliest documented climbing expedition on the Ben.[29][30] (It was not climbed from bottom to top for another two years.) The Scottish Mountaineering Club's Charles Inglis Clark hut was built below the north face in Coire Leis in 1929; due to its remote location, it is said to be the only genuine alpine hut in Britain.[7] It remains popular with climbers, especially in winter. Image File history File linksMetadata Ben_N_Face_annotated. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ben_N_Face_annotated. ... Scrambling on Crib Goch, Snowdonia, Wales Scrambling is a method of ascending rocky faces and ridges. ... Climbers on Valkyrie at the Roaches. ... An open crevasse. ... Tower Ridge is one of several ridges protruding north west from the summit plateau of Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in the United Kingdom. ... The Scottish Mountaineering Club (SMC) was founded in 1889, in Glasgow, Scotland. ... Payerhütte in the Ortler Alps, Italy An Alpine hut is a building located in the mountains intended to provide food and shelter to mountaineers and climbers. ...


Tower Ridge is the longest of the north face's four main ridges, with around 600 metres of ascent. It is not technically demanding (its grade is Difficult), and most pitches can be tackled unroped by competent climbers, but it is committing and very exposed.[29] Castle Ridge, the first of the main ridges, is an easier scramble, while Observatory Ridge is graded Very Difficult;[31] the latter is the closest ridge to the summit. Between the Tower and Observatory Ridges is Gardyloo Gully, which takes its name from the cry of "garde à l'eau" (French for "watch out for the water"), formerly used in Scottish cities used as a warning when householders threw their slops out of a tenement window into the street. The gully's top wall was the refuse tip for the now-disused summit observatory.[6] The North-east Buttress is the last and bulkiest of these four ridges, and is regarded as the hardest for its combination of technical difficulty and seriousness.[32] A ridge is a geological feature that features a continuous elevational crest for some distance. ... In mountaineering and related climbing sports, climbers give a climbing grade to a route that attempts to assess the difficulty and danger of climbing the route. ... Categories: Stub | House types ...

The Carn Dearg Buttress in early April.
The Carn Dearg Buttress in early April.

The north face contains dozens of graded rock climbs along its entire length, with particular concentrations on the Carn Dearg Buttress (below the Munro top of Carn Dearg NW) and around the North-east Buttress and Observatory Ridge. Classic rock routes include Rubicon Wall on Observatory Buttress (Severe) – whose second ascent in 1937, when it was considered the hardest route on the mountain, is described by W. H. Murray in Mountaineering in Scotland[33] – and, on Carn Dearg, Centurion (HVS) and Agrippa (E5).[34] Image File history File linksMetadata Ben_Nevis. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ben_Nevis. ... For other uses, see Munro (disambiguation). ... William Hutchinson Murray (18 March 1913 - 19 March 1996) was one of a group of active Scottish mountain climbers, mainly from Clydeside, before and just after World War Two. ...


Other classic routes were put up by Dr J. H. B. Bell and others between the Wars; these include Bell's 'Long Climb', at 1,400 ft (430 m) reputedly the longest on the mainland. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


The north face is also of Scotland's foremost venues for winter mountaineering and ice climbing, and holds snow until quite late in the year; in a good year routes may remain in winter condition until mid-spring. Most of the possible rock routes are also suitable as winter climbs, including the four main ridges; Tower Ridge, for example, is grade III on the Scottish winter grading system.[35] Probably the most popular ice climb on Ben Nevis[34] is The Curtain (IV,5) on the left side of the Carn Dearg Buttress. At the top end of the scale, Centurion in winter is a grade VIII,8 face climb. Ice climbing is the recreational activity of climbing ice formations such as icefalls, and frozen waterfalls. ...


Ben Nevis Race

1979 Ben Nevis Race
1979 Ben Nevis Race

The history of hill running on Ben Nevis dates back to 1895. William Swan, a hairdresser from Fort William, made the first recorded timed ascent up the mountain on or around 27 September of that year, when he ran from the old post office in Fort William to the summit and back in 2 hours 41 minutes.[17] The following years saw several improvements on Swan's record, but the first competitive race was held on 3 June 1898 under Scottish Amateur Athletic Association rules. Ten competitors ran the course, which started at the Lochiel Arms Hotel in Banavie and was thus longer than the route from Fort William; the winner was 21-year-old Hugh Kennedy, a gamekeeper at Tor Castle, who finished (coincidentally with Swan's original run) in 2 hours 41 minutes.[17] Fell running, also known as mountain running and hill running, is the sport of running and racing, off road, over upland country where the gradient climbed is a significant component of the difficulty. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Ben Nevis (Beinn Nibheis) viewed from Banavie Banavie (Scottish Gaelic: Bainbhidh) is a small settlement near Fort William in the Highland Region of Scotland. ...


Regular races were organised until 1903, when two events were held; these were the last for 24 years, perhaps due to the closure of the summit observatory the following year.[17] The first was from Achintee, at the foot of the Pony Track, and finished at the summit; It was won in just over an hour by Ewen MacKenzie, the observatory roadman.[17] The second race ran from new Fort William post office, and MacKenzie lowered the record to 2 hours 10 minutes, a record he held for 34 years.[17] Achintee is a village in the Scottish council area of the Highland. ...


The Ben Nevis Race has been run in its current form since 1937. It now takes place on the first Saturday in September every year, with a maximum of 500 competitors taking part.[36] It starts and finishes at the Claggan Park football ground on the outskirts of Fort William, and is 16 km long with 1,340 m of ascent.[37] Due to the seriousness of the mountain environment, entry is restricted to those who have completed three hill races, and runners must carry waterproofs, a hat, gloves and a whistle; anyone who has not reached the summit after two hours is turned back.[38] As of 2006 the records have stood unbroken since 1984, when Kenny Stuart and Pauline Howarth of Keswick Athletics Club won the men's and the women's races with times of 1:25:34 and 1:43:25 respectively.[37][39] Claggan Park is a football ground in the town of Fort William, Lochaber, Scotland. ... The Moot Hall in the centre of Keswick. ...


Environmental issues

Path to the CIC Hut alongside the Allt a' Mhuilinn.
Path to the CIC Hut alongside the Allt a' Mhuilinn.

Ben Nevis's popularity and high profile have led to concerns in recent decades over the impact of humans on the fragile mountain environment. These concerns contributed to the purchase of the Ben Nevis Estate in 2000 by the John Muir Trust, a Scottish charity dedicated to the conservation of wild places. The Estate covers 1,700 hectares of land on the south side of Ben Nevis and the neighbouring mountains of Carn Mòr Dearg and Aonach Beag, including the summit of Ben Nevis.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 257 KB) The Allt a Mhuilinn path on en:Ben Nevis. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 257 KB) The Allt a Mhuilinn path on en:Ben Nevis. ... The John Muir Trust (JMT), is a Scottish charity, established in 1983 to conserve and protect wild places with their indigenous animals, plants and soils for the benefit of present and future generations. ...


The John Muir Trust is one of nine bodies represented on the main board of the Nevis Partnership. Founded in 2003, the Partnership, which also includes representatives from local government, Glen Nevis residents and mountaineering interests, works to "guide future policies and actions to safeguard, manage and where appropriate enhance the environmental qualities and opportunities for visitor enjoyment and appreciation of the Nevis area".[40] Its projects include path repairs and improvement and the development of strategies for visitor management.


One of the Nevis Partnership's more controversial actions has concerned the large number of memorial plaques placed by individuals, especially around the summit war memorial. Many people believe that the proliferation of such plaques is inappropriate, and in August 2006 the Nevis Partnership declared an intention to eventually remove these plaques (after making efforts to return them to their owners) as part of a wider campaign to clean up the mountain.[41] The memorial at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific in Hawaii commemorates American dead from wars in the Pacific. ... A commemorative plaque, or simply plaque, is a plate of metal attached to a wall or other vertical surface and bearing text in memory of an important figure or event. ...


In 2005 the amount of litter on the Pony Track was highlighted by national media, including BBC Radio 5 Live. Robin Kevan, a retired social worker from mid-Wales who is known as "Rob the Rubbish" for his efforts to clean up the countryside, then drove to Ben Nevis and cleaned the mountain himself, resulting in much media coverage and a concerted clean-up effort.[42] BBC Radio Five Live is the radio service providing live BBC News, phone-ins, and sports commentaries. ... Robin Kevan (born Sedbergh, then in Yorkshire, 8 April 1945), a retired social worker, is affectionatgely known as Rob the Rubbish in his home town of Llanwrtyd Wells, Powys, for voluntarily clearing litter from the towns streets each day. ...


Ben Nevis Distillery

The Ben Nevis Distillery is a single malt whisky distillery at the foot of the mountain, located by Victoria Bridge to the north of Fort William. Founded in 1825 by John McDonald (known as "Long John"), it is one of the oldest licensed distilleries in Scotland,[43][44] and is a popular visitor attraction in Fort William. The water used to make the whisky comes from the Allt a' Mhuilinn, the stream that flows from Ben Nevis's northern corrie.[45] "Ben Nevis" 80/- organic ale is by contrast brewed in Bridge of Allan near Stirling.[46] Single malt Scotch is a type of Scotch whisky, distilled by a single distillery, using malted barley as the only grain ingredient. ... Iceberg Cirque in Glacier National Park, USA The Lower Curtis Glacier, North Cascades National Park, is a well developed cirque glacier. ... For other uses, see Ale (disambiguation). ... Bridge of Allan is a town in Stirling District in Scotland, just north of the city of Stirling. ... Broad Street at the heart of Stirlings Old Town area (called Top of the Town by locals) Stirling Castle (Southwest aspect) The main courtyard inside Stirling Castle. ...


Etymology

"Ben Nevis" is an anglicisation of the Gaelic name Beinn Nibheis. While beinn is the most common Gaelic word for "mountain", Nibheis is variously understood, though the name is commonly translated as "malicious" or "venomous mountain".[47] An alternative interpretation is that Beinn Nibheis derives from beinn-neamh-bhathais, from Neamh "heavens, clouds" and bathais "top of a man's head". A literal translation would therefore be "the mountain with its head in the clouds",[6] though "mountain of Heaven" is also frequently given.[47] This does not cite any references or sources. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ...


See also

The National Three Peaks Challenge is a mountain endurance challenge in Great Britain in which participants attempt to climb the highest peaks of each of the islands three countries. ... Panorama of the Remarkables and surroundings from their northern end. ...

References

  1. ^ "Ben Nevis, or the 'Ben' as it is fondly known locally". Visit Fort William Ltd. Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  2. ^ "Ben Nevis is almost always referred to by climbers as simply The Ben (Ben meaning Mountain)". The Ben Nevis Challenge. Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  3. ^ a b John Muir Trust. Ben Nevis owned by the John Muir Trust. Retrieved on 2006-11-05.
  4. ^ a b The Nevis Working Party (2001). Nevis Strategy. Retrieved on 2006-11-05.
  5. ^ a b Ordnance Survey Landranger 41. See also map sources.
  6. ^ a b c W. H. Murray, The Companion Guide to the West Highlands of Scotland
  7. ^ a b Scottish Mountaineering Club website. Charles Inglis Clark Memorial Hut (C.I.C.). Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  8. ^ (1997) Munro's Tables. Scottish Mountaineering Club & Trust. ISBN 0-907521-53-3. 
  9. ^ McKirdy, Alan Gordon, John & Crofts, Roger (2007) Land of Mountain and Flood: The Geology and Landforms of Scotland. Edinburgh. Birlinn. Pages 114-6.
  10. ^ Gillen, Con (2003) Geology and landscapes of Scotland. Harpenden. Terra. Page 80.
  11. ^ Averis, A. B. G. and Averis A. M. (2005). A survey of the vegetation of Ben Nevis Site of Special Scientific Interest and Special Area of Conservation, 2003-2004 (PDF). Scottish National Heritage Commissioned Report 090. Retrieved on 2006-12-11. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Marjorie Roy (2004). The Ben Nevis Meteorological Observatory 1883-1904. International Commission on History of Meteorology. Retrieved on 2006-11-27.
  13. ^ a b Murray, Companion Guide, p. 221
  14. ^ Eric Langmuir (1995). Mountaincraft and Leadership (Third edition). SportScotland, Edinburgh. ISBN 1-85060-295-6. 
  15. ^ Suzanne Miller (2004). Ben Nevis Geology. The Edinburgh Geologist 43: 3–9. Retrieved on 2006-10-19. 
  16. ^ a b Hodgkiss, The Central Highlands, p. 117
  17. ^ a b c d e f Hugh Dan MacLennan (November 1998). "The Ben Race: The supreme test of athletic fitness". The Sports Historian 18 (2). Retrieved on 2006-11-29. 
  18. ^ a b Butterfield, The High Mountains, p. 97
  19. ^ Butterfield, The High Mountains, p. 98
  20. ^ Ben Nevis. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2006-11-25. (Subscription required for full access.)
  21. ^ "Piano found on Britain's highest mountain", The Guardian. Retrieved on 2006-06-22. 
  22. ^ "New twist in Nevis music mystery", BBC News. Retrieved on 2006-06-22. 
  23. ^ "Trust names Ben Nevis 'piano men'", BBC News. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  24. ^ Viewfinder Panoramas: North, South. Retrieved on 25 November 2006.
  25. ^ Nobel Foundation (1965). C. T. R. Wilson Biography from Nobel Lectures, Physics 1922-1941, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam. Retrieved on 2006-11-27.
  26. ^ a b c The Mountaineering Council of Scotland (1997). Ben Nevis — The Future. Newsletter 33. 
  27. ^ Mountaineering Council of Scotland. Navigation on Ben Nevis. Retrieved on 2006-06-21. 
  28. ^ a b The Mountaineering Council of Scotland. Summit Safety and Ben Nevis Cairns: The MCofS seeks a resolution (also see sub-pages). Retrieved on 2006-10-26.
  29. ^ a b Terry Adby & Stuart Johnston (2003). The Hillwalker's Guide to Mountaineering. Milnthorpe: Cicerone, pp. 240–247. ISBN 1-85284-393-4. 
  30. ^ Hodgkiss, The Central Highlands, p. 119
  31. ^ Hodgkiss, The Central Highlands, p. 126
  32. ^ Hodgkiss, The Central Highlands, p. 127
  33. ^ W. H. Murray [1947] (1962). Mountaineering in Scotland. London: J. M. Dent.
  34. ^ a b Hodgkiss, The Central Highlands, p. 130
  35. ^ Climbing on Ben Nevis. Scottish Climbing Archive. Retrieved on October 26, 2006.
  36. ^ Ben Nevis Race - a brief history. Fort William Online. Retrieved on 2006-11-25.
  37. ^ a b Scottish Hill Racing – Ben Nevis Race. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  38. ^ Bob Kopac. For Sport Alone: The Ben Nevis Race. MHRRC Online. Retrieved on 2006-11-25.
  39. ^ The Ben Nevis Race. Accessed 15 January 2007.
  40. ^ The Nevis Partnership. Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
  41. ^ The Nevis Partnership. "Removal of artefacts from Ben Nevis", 2006-08-17. Retrieved on 2006-10-26. 
  42. ^ Rob the Rubbish. Retrieved on June 22.
  43. ^ Ben Nevis Distillery. Retrieved on 2006-11-25.
  44. ^ Ben Nevis. Edinburgh Malt Whisky Tour. Retrieved on 2006-11-25.
  45. ^ Ben Nevis Distillery. Scotchwhisky.net. Retrieved on 2006-11-25.
  46. ^ Ben Nevis ale. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
  47. ^ a b Butterfield, The High Mountains, p. 96

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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Butterfield, Irvine (1986). The High Mountains of Britain and Ireland. London: Diadem Books, 96–99. ISBN 0-906371-71-6. 
  • Crocket, Ken (1986). Ben Nevis: Britain's Highest Mountain. The Scottish Mountaineering Trust. ISBN 0-907521-16-9. 
  • Hodgkiss, Peter (1994). The Central Highlands, 5th edition, Scottish Mountaineering Trust, pp. 116–134. ISBN 0-907521-44-4. 
  • (2002) Landranger 41: Ben Nevis (map), Ordnance Survey. ISBN 0-319-22641-7. 
  • Murray, W. H. (1977). The Companion Guide to the West Highlands of Scotland. London: Collins, 218–221. ISBN 0-00-216813-8. 
  • Richardson, Simon; et al (2002). Ben Nevis: Rock and Ice Climbs. The Scottish Mountaineering Trust. ISBN 0-907521-73-8. 

Part of an Ordnance Survey map at 1 inch to the mile scale from 1945 Ordnance Survey (OS) is an executive agency of the United Kingdom government. ... William Hutchinson Murray (18 March 1913 - 19 March 1996) was one of a group of active Scottish mountain climbers, mainly from Clydeside, before and just after World War Two. ...

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ben Nevis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2534 words)
Ben Nevis (Gaelic: Beinn Nibheis) is the highest mountain in the United Kingdom.
Ben Nevis's popularity, climate and complex topography contribute to a high number of mountain rescue incidents; in 1999, for example, there were 41 rescues and four fatalities on the mountain.
The Ben Nevis Distillery is a single malt whisky distillery at the foot of the mountain, located by Victoria Bridge to the north of Fort William.
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