FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson

Ben Jonson by Abraham Blyenberch, c. 1617.

Born c. 11 June 1572
Westminster, London, England
Died 6 August 1637
Westminster, London, England
Occupation Dramatist, poet and actor

Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 15726 August 1637) was an English Renaissance dramatist, poet and actor. A contemporary of William Shakespeare, he is best known for his satirical plays, particularly Volpone and The Alchemist which are considered his best, and his lyric poems. A man of vast reading and a seemingly insatiable appetite for controversy, Jonson had an unparalleled breadth of influence on Jacobean and Caroline playwrights and poets. Ben Johnson or Benjamin Johnson may be: Ben Johnson (sprinter) (born 1961), Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson (politician) (1858–1950), American Ben Johnson (actor) (1918–1996), American Ben Johnson (artist) (1902-1967), American Ben Johnson (baseball player) (born 1981), American Ben Johnson (footballer) (born 1981) -- Australian rules Ben Johnson (cricketer) (born... Ben Jonson: oil by Abraham von Blyenberch, cirka 1617. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about work. ... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the early 16th century to the early 17th century. ... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... An illustration for an 1898 edition of Volpone by Aubrey Beardsley. ... David Garrick as Abel Drugger in Jonsons The Alchemist by Johann Zoffany. ... // Lyric poetry refers to either poetry that has the form and musical quality of a song, or a usually short poem that expresses personal feelings, which may or may not be set to music. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is in need of attention. ...

Contents

Early life

Although he was born in Westminster, London, Jonson claimed his family was of Scottish Border country descent, and this claim may have been supported by the fact that his coat of arms bears three spindles or rhombi, a device shared by a Borders family, the Johnstones of Annandale. His father died a month before Ben's birth, and his mother remarried two years later, to a master bricklayer. Jonson attended school in St. Martin's Lane, and was later sent to Westminster School, where one of his teachers was William Camden. Jonson remained friendly with Camden, whose broad scholarship evidently influenced his own style, until the latter's death in 1623. On leaving, Jonson was once thought to have gone on to the University of Cambridge; Jonson himself said that he did not go to university, but was put to a trade immediately: a legend recorded by Fuller indicates that he worked on a garden wall in Lincoln's Inn. He soon had enough of the trade, probably bricklaying, and spent some time in the Low Countries as a volunteer with the regiments of Francis Vere. Jonson reports that while in the Netherlands, he killed an opponent in single combat and stripped him of his weapons. .[1] Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the country. ... The Border country is the hilly area of Lowland Scotland on the border between Scotland and England. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... The word spindle might (or might not) have several meanings: A spindle (shrub), a poisonous shrub or small tree of the genus Euonymus. ... Two rhombi. ... Annandale (Strath Annan in Gaelic) is a strath in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, named after the River Annan. ... A bricklayer or mason is a tradesman who lays bricks to construct brickwork. ... St. ... For other uses, see Westminster School (disambiguation). ... William Camden William Camden (May 2, 1551 - November 9, 1623) was an English antiquarian and historian. ... Year 1623 (MDCXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... Thomas Fuller Thomas Fuller (1608–August 16, 1661) was an English churchman and historian. ... Part of Lincolns Inn drawn by Thomas Shepherd c. ... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ... Francis Vere (1560-1609), English soldier, was the son of Geoffrey Vere of Crepping Hall, Essex, and nephew of John de Vere, 16th Earl of Oxford. ...


Ben Jonson married, some time before 1594, a woman he described to Drummond as "a shrew, yet honest." His wife has not been definitively identified, but she is sometimes identified as the Ann Lewis who married a Benjamin Jonson at St Magnus-the-Martyr, near London Bridge. The registers of St. Martin's Church state that his eldest daughter Mary died in November, 1593, when she was only six months old. His eldest son Benjamin died of the plague ten years later (Jonson's epitaph to him On My First Sonne was written shortly after), and a second Benjamin died in 1635. For five years somewhere in this period, Jonson lived separate from his wife, enjoying instead the hospitality of Lord Aubigny. Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ... St Magnus-the-Martyr is an Anglican church in the City of London, located on Lower Thames Street near the modern London Bridge. ... For other uses, see London Bridge (disambiguation). ... On My First Sonne, a poem by Ben Jonson, was written after the 1603 death of Jonsons first son Benjamin at age seven. ... Esmé Stewart, 3rd Duke of Lennox (1579–July 30, 1624) was the son of Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox. ...


By the summer of 1597, Jonson had a fixed engagement in the Admiral's Men, then performing under Philip Henslowe's management at The Rose. John Aubrey reports, on uncertain authority, that Jonson was not successful as an actor; whatever his skills as an actor, he was evidently more valuable to the company as a writer. This Elizabethan theatrical company was first known as the Lord Howards Men, named after their patron Charles Howard. ... Philip Henslowe (c 1550 - January 6, 1616) was an Elizabethan theatrical entrepreneur. ... , The Rose was an Elizabethan theatre. ... For other persons named John Aubrey, see John Aubrey (disambiguation). ...


By this time, Jonson had begun to write original plays for the Lord Admiral's Men; in 1598, he was mentioned by Francis Meres in his Palladis Tamia as one of "the best for tragedy." None of his early tragedies survive, however. An undated comedy, The Case is Altered, may be his earliest surviving play. Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Francis Meres (1565 - January 29, 1647), was an English churchman and author. ... The Case is Altered is an early comedy by Ben Jonson. ...


In 1597, following the suppression of The Isle of Dogs (co-written with Thomas Nashe), Jonson was briefly jailed in Marshalsea Prison, but Nashe was able to escape to the country. A year later, Jonson was again briefly imprisoned, this time in Newgate Prison, for killing another man, an actor Gabriel Spenser, in a duel on 22 September 1598 in Hogsden Fields,[1] (today part of Hoxton). While in prison, Jonson was visited by a Roman Catholic priest and converted to Catholicism. Tried on a charge of manslaughter, Jonson pleaded guilty but was subsequently released by benefit of clergy (a legal ploy through which he gained leniency by reciting a brief bible verse in Latin), forfeiting his "goods and chattels" and being branded on his left thumb.[2] The Isle of Dogs is play by Thomas Nashe and Ben Jonson which was performed in 1597. ... Thomas Nashe (November 1567–1600?) was an English Elizabethan pamphleteer, poet and satirist. ... The Marshalsea For the hamlet in Dorset see Marshalsea, Dorset The Marshalsea was one of the five prisons in Southwark, London. ... Newgate, the old city gate and prison. ... A duel is a formalized type of combat. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Hoxton Square. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... In English law, the benefit of clergy was originally a provision by which clergymen could claim that they were outside the jurisdiction of the secular courts and be tried instead under canon law. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


In 1598, Jonson produced his first great success, Every Man in his Humour, capitalising on the vogue for humour plays that had been begun by George Chapman with An Humorous Day's Mirth. William Shakespeare was among the first cast. This play was followed the next year by Every Man Out of His Humour, a pedantic attempt to imitate Aristophanes. It is not known whether this was a success on stage, but when published, it proved popular and went through several editions. Every Man in His Humour was a 1598 play by British playwright Ben Jonson. ... This article is about George Chapman the English literary figure; see George Chapman (murderer) for the Victorian poisoner of the same name. ... An Humorous Days Mirth is an Elizabethan era stage play, a comedy by George Chapman, first acted in 1597 and published in 1599. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Every Man out of His Humour is a 1599 play written by British playwright Ben Jonson. ... This article is about the 5-4th century BC dramatist. ...


Jonson's other work for the theater in the last years of Elizabeth I's reign was, unsurprisingly, marked by fighting and controversy. Cynthia's Revels was produced by the Children of the Chapel Royal at Blackfriars Theatre in 1600. It satirized both John Marston, who Jonson believed had accused him of lustfulness, probably in Histrio-Mastix, and Thomas Dekker, against whom Jonson's animus is not known. Jonson attacked the same two poets again in 1601's Poetaster. Dekker responded with Satiromastix, subtitled "the untrussing of the humorous poet." The final scene of this play, while certainly not to be taken at face value as a portrait of Jonson, offers a caricature that is recognizable from Drummond's report: boasting about himself and condemning other poets, criticizing actors' performances of his plays, and calling attention to himself in any available way. Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Cynthias Revels, or The Fountain of Self-Love is a late Elizabethan stage play, a satire written by Ben Jonson, first performed in 1600 at the Blackfriars Theatre by the Children of the Chapel, one of the troupes of boy actors active in that era. ... The Children of the Chapel (later known as the Children of the Queens Revels) was a troupe of child actors in Elizabethan England. ... Blackfriars Theatre was the name of two separate theatres in the City of London, built on grounds previously belonging to a Dominican monastery. ... John Marston (October 7, 1576 - June 25, 1634) was an English poet, playwright and satirist during the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods. ... Thomas Dekker, (c. ... The Official Website of Animus - Art Rock Group According to Carl Jung, the animus is the masculine side of a womans personal unconscious. ... Events February 8 - Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, rebels against Elizabeth I of England - revolt is quickly crushed February 25 - Robert Devereux beheaded Jesuit Matteo Ricci arrives in China Bad harvest in Russia due to rainy summer Dutch troops drive Portuguese from Málaga Battle of Kinsale, Ireland Births...


This "War of the Theatres" appears to have been concluded with reconciliation on all sides. Jonson collaborated with Dekker on a pageant welcoming James I to England in 1603, although Drummond reports that Jonson called Dekker a rogue. Marston dedicated The Malcontent to Jonson, and the two collaborated with Chapman on Eastward Ho, a 1605 play whose anti-Scottish sentiment landed both authors in jail for a brief time. The War of the Theatres is the name commonly applied to a controversy from the later Elizabethan theatre; Thomas Dekker termed it the Poetomachia. ... A beauty contest, or beauty pageant, is a competition between people, based largely, though not always entirely, on the beauty of their physical appearance. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


At the beginning of the reign of James I of England in 1603, Jonson joined other poets and playwrights in welcoming the reign of the new King. Jonson quickly adapted himself to the additional demand for masques and entertainments introduced with the new reign and fostered by both the king and his consort,Anne of Denmark. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Costume for a Knight, by Inigo Jones: the plumed helmet, the heroic torso in armour and other conventions were still employed for opera seria in the 18th century. ... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ...


Ben Jonson's ascendance

Jonson flourished as a dramatist during the first decade or so of James's reign; by 1616, he had produced all the plays on which his reputation as a dramatist depends. These include the tragedy of Catiline (acted and printed 1611), which achieved only limited success, and the comedies Volpone, (acted 1605 and printed in 1607), Epicoene, or the Silent Woman (1609), The Alchemist (1610), Bartholomew Fair (1614) and The Devil is an Ass (1616). The Alchemist and Volpone appear to have been successful at once. Of Epicoene, Jonson told Drummond of a satirical verse which reported that the play's subtitle was appropriate, since its audience had refused to applaud the play (i.e., remained silent). Yet Epicoene, along with Bartholomew Fair and (to a lesser extent) The Devil is an Ass have in modern times achieved a certain degree of recognition. While his life during this period was apparently more settled than it had been in the 1590s, his financial security was still not assured. In 1603, Overbury reported that Jonson was living on Aurelian Townsend and "scorning the world." Year 1616 (MDCXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Lucius Sergius Catilina (108 BC–62 BC), known in English as Catiline, was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Catiline (or Catilinarian) conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic. ... An illustration for an 1898 edition of Volpone by Aubrey Beardsley. ... Play by Johnson. ... David Garrick as Abel Drugger in Jonsons The Alchemist by Johann Zoffany. ... Bartholomew Fair is a play in five acts by Ben Jonson. ... The Devil is an Ass is a Jacobean comedy by Ben Jonson, first performed in 1616 and first published in 1631. ... Thomas Overbury Sir Thomas Overbury (1581 - September 15, 1613), English poet and essayist, and the victim of one of the most sensational crimes in English history, was the son of Nicholas Overbury, of Bourton-on-the-Hill, and was born at Compton Scorpion, near Ilmington, in Warwickshire. ... Aurelian Townsend (1583?-1643) was an English poet. ...


His trouble with English authorities continued. In 1603, he was questioned by the Privy Council about Sejanus, a politically-themed play about corruption in the Roman Empire. He was again in trouble for topical allusions in a play, now lost, in which he took part. After the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot, he appears to have been asked by the Privy Council to attempt to prevail on certain priests connected with the conspirators to cooperate with the government; whatever steps he took in this regard do not appear to have been successful (Teague, 249). Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... A play by Ben Johnson. ... A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically in a monarchy. ...


At the same time, Jonson pursued a more prestigious career as a writer of masques for James' court. The Satyr (1603) and The Masque of Blackness (1605) are but two of the some two dozen masques Jonson wrote for James or for Queen Anne; the latter was praised by Swinburne as the consummate example of this now-extinct genre, which mingled speech, dancing, and spectacle. On many of these projects he collaborated, not always peacefully, with designer Inigo Jones. Perhaps partly as a result of this new career, Jonson gave up writing plays for the public theaters for a decade. Jonson later told Drummond that he had made less than two hundred pounds on all his plays together. Costume for a Knight, by Inigo Jones: the plumed helmet, the heroic torso in armour and other conventions were still employed for opera seria in the 18th century. ... The Entertainment at Althorp, or The Althorp Entertainment, is an early Jacobean era literary work, written by Ben Jonson. ... The Masque of Blackness was first performed at the court at Whitehall on Twelfth Night, 1605. ... Algernon Swinburne, detail of his portrait by Rossetti Algernon Charles Swinburne (April 5, 1837 – April 10, 1909) was a Victorian era English poet. ... Inigo Jones, by Sir Anthony van Dyck Inigo Jones (July 15, 1573–June 21, 1652) is regarded as the first significant English architect. ...


1616 saw a pension of 100 marks (about £60) a year conferred upon him, leading some to identify him as England's first Poet Laureate. This sign of royal favour may have encouraged him to publish the first volume of the folio collected edition of his works that year. Other volumes followed in 1640-1 and 1692. [See: Ben Jonson folios.] A Poet Laureate is a poet officially appointed by a government and often expected to compose poems for State occasions and other government events. ... The folio collections of Ben Jonsons works published in the seventeenth century were crucial developments in the publication of English literature and English Renaissance drama. ...


In 1618, Ben Jonson set out for his ancestral Scotland on foot. He spent over a year there, and the best-remembered hospitality which he enjoyed was that of the Scottish poet, Drummond of Hawthornden. Drummond undertook to record as much of Jonson's conversation as he could in his diary, and thus recorded aspects of Jonson's personality that would otherwise have been less clearly seen. Jonson delivers his opinions, in Drummond's terse reporting, in an expansive and even magisterial mood. In the postscript added by Drummond, he is described as "a great lover and praiser of himself, a contemner and scorner of others". For a bill proposed in USA in 1998, see Bill 1618. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the Scottish poet William Drummond. ...


While in Scotland, he was made an honorary citizen of Edinburgh. On returning to England, he was awarded an honorary Master of Arts degree from Oxford University. The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... An honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum, not to be confused with an honors degree) is an academic degree awarded to an individual as a decoration, rather than as the result of matriculating and studying for several years. ... In the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin, the degree of Master of Arts (MA) is awarded to Bachelors of Arts of those universities on application after seven years seniority as members of the university. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ...


The period between 1605 and 1620 may be viewed as Jonson's heyday. In addition to his popularity on the public stage and in the royal hall, he enjoyed the patronage of aristocrats such as Elizabeth Sidney (daughter of Sir Philip Sidney) and Lady Mary Wroth. This connection with the Sidney family provided the impetus for one of Jonson's most famous lyrics, the country house poem To Penshurst. 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Right Honourable Roger Manners, 5th Earl of Rutland October 6, 1576–June 26, 1612) was the son of John Manners, 4th Earl of Rutland. ... Philip Sidney. ... Lady Mary Wroth (1586–1652) was an English poet of the Renaissance. ... A genre popular in early 17th century England, in which the poet compliments a wealthy patron or a friend through a description of his country house. ... The Great Hall at Penshurst Place, circa 1915 Penshurst Place is an historic building near Tonbridge in Kent, 32 miles (50 km) to the south east of London, England. ...


Decline and death

The 1620s begin a lengthy and slow decline for Jonson. He was still well-known; from this time dates the prominence of the Sons of Ben or the "Tribe of Ben", those younger poets such as Robert Herrick, Richard Lovelace, and Sir John Suckling who took their bearing in verse from Jonson. However, a series of setbacks drained his strength and damaged his reputation. The phrase Sons of Ben is a mildly problematic term applied to followers of Benamor the Great. ... Cavalier poets is a broad description of a school of poets, who came from the classes that supported King Charles I during the English Civil War. ... Robert Herrick (baptized August 24, 1591 – October 1674) was a 17th century English poet. ... Richard Lovelace (1618 - 1657) was an English poet and nobleman, born in Woolwich, today part of south-east London. ... Sir John Suckling (February 10, 1609 - 1642) was an English Cavalier poet whose best known poem may be Ballad Upon a Wedding. He was born at Whitton, in the parish of Twickenham, Middlesex, and baptized there on February 10, 1609. ...


Jonson returned to writing regular plays in the 1620s, but these are not considered among his best. They are of significant interest for the study of the culture of Charles I's England. The Staple of News, for example, offers a remarkable look at the earliest stage of English journalism. The lukewarm reception given that play was, however, nothing compared to the dismal failure of The New Inn; the cold reception given this play prompted Jonson to write a poem condemning his audience (the Ode to Myself), which in turn prompted Thomas Carew, one of the "Tribe of Ben," to respond in a poem that asks Jonson to recognize his own decline.[3] Events and Trends Permanent Dutch settlement of New York Bay and the Hudson River. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. ... The Staple of News is an early Caroline era play, a satire by Ben Jonson. ... Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ... The New Inn, or The Light Heart is a Caroline era stage play, a comedy by English playwright and poet Ben Jonson. ... Thomas Carew (pronounced like Carey) (1595 – March 22, 1640) was an English poet. ...



The principal factor in Jonson's partial eclipse was, however, the death of James and the accession of King Charles I in 1625. Justly or not, Jonson felt neglected by the new court. A decisive quarrel with Jones harmed his career as a writer of court masques, although he continued to entertain the court on an irregular basis. For his part, Charles displayed a certain degree of care for the great poet of his father's day: he increased Jonson's annual pension to £100 and included a tierce of wine. Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... The tierce is an old English unit of wine casks, holding about 159 litres. ...


Despite the strokes that he suffered in the 1620s, Jonson continued to write. At his death in 1637 he seems to have been working on another play, The Sad Shepherd. Though only two acts are extant, this represents a remarkable new direction for Jonson: a move into pastoral drama. During the early 1630s he also conducted a correspondence with James Howell, who warned him about disfavour at court in the wake of his dispute with Jones. For other uses, see Pastoral (disambiguation). ... James Howell James Howell (c. ...


Jonson is buried in Westminster Abbey, with the inscription, "O Rare Ben Jonson," laid in the slab over his grave. It has been suggested that this could be read "Orare Ben Jonson" (pray for Ben Jonson), which would indicate a deathbed return to Catholicism. The fact that he was buried in an upright grave is an indication of his reduced circumstances at the time of his death.[4] The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


His work

Drama

Apart from two tragedies, Sejanus and Catiline, that largely failed to impress Renaissance audiences, Jonson's work for the public theatres was in comedy. These plays vary in some respects. The minor early plays, particularly those written for the boy players, present somewhat looser plots and less-developed characters than those written later, for adult companies. Already in the plays which were his salvos in the Poet's War, he displays the keen eye for absurdity and hypocrisy that marks his best-known plays; in these early efforts, however, plot mostly takes second place to variety of incident and comic set-pieces. They are, also, notably ill-tempered. Thomas Davies called Poetaster "a contemptible mixture of the serio-comic, where the names of Augustus Caesar, Mecaenas, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and Tibullus, are all sacrificed upon the altar of private resentment." Another early comedy in a different vein, The Case is Altered, is markedly similar to Shakespeare's romantic comedies in its foreign setting, emphasis on genial wit, and love-plot. Henslowe's diary indicates that Jonson had a hand in numerous other plays, including many in genres such as English history with which he is not otherwise associated. A play by Ben Johnson. ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... Edward Kynaston, one of the last boy players (1889 engraving of a contemporary portrait) Boy player is a common term for the adolescent males employed by English Renaissance acting companies. ... Thomas Davies (c. ... Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... This article contains translated text and needs attention from someone approaching dual fluency. ... The Case is Altered is an early comedy by Ben Jonson. ...


The comedies of his middle career, from Eastward Ho to The Devil is an Ass are for the most part city comedy, with a London setting, themes of trickery and money, and a distinct moral ambiguity, despite Jonson's professed aim in the Prologue to Volpone to "mix profit with your pleasure". His late plays or "dotages," particularly The Magnetic Lady and The Sad Shepherd, exhibit some signs of an accommodation with the romantic tendencies of Elizabethan comedy. Eastward Hoe or Eastward Ho, is a play written by George Chapman, Ben Jonson, and John Marston, printed in 1605. ... The Devil is an Ass is a Jacobean comedy by Ben Jonson, first performed in 1616 and first published in 1631. ... City comedy is a common genre of Elizabethan drama. ... An illustration for an 1898 edition of Volpone by Aubrey Beardsley. ... The Magnetic Lady, or Humors Reconciled is a Caroline era stage play, the final comedy of Ben Jonson. ... English Renaissance theatre is English drama written between the Reformation and the closure of the theatres in 1642. ...


Within this general progression, however, Jonson's comic style remained constant and easily recognizable. He announces his programme in the prologue to the folio version of Every Man in His Humour; he promises to represent "deeds, and language, such as men do use." He planned to write comedies that revived the classical premises of Elizabethan dramatic theory—or rather, since all but the loosest English comedies could claim some descent from Plautus and Terence, he intended to apply those premises with rigour.[5] This commitment entailed negations: after The Case is Altered, Jonson eschewed distant locations, noble characters, romantic plots, and other staples of Elizabethan comedy. Jonson focused instead on the satiric and realistic inheritance of new comedy. He sets his plays in contemporary settings, peoples them with recognizable types, and sets them to actions that, if not strictly realistic, involve everyday motives such as greed and jealousy. In accordance with the temper of his age, he was often so broad in his characterisation that many of his most famous scenes border on the farcical (as Congreve, for example, judged Epicoene.) He was, moreover, more diligent in adhering to the classical unities than many of his peers--although as Margaret Cavendish noted, the unity of action in the major comedies was rather compromised by Jonson's abundance of incident. To this classical model Jonson applies the two features of his style which save his classical imitations from mere pedantry: the vividness with which he depicts the lives of his characters, and the intricacy of his plots. Coleridge, for instance, claimed that The Alchemist had one of the three most perfect plots in literature. Folio: In bookbinding, a sheet of paper, parchment, or other material folded in half to make two leaves in a codex. ... Every Man in His Humour was a 1598 play by British playwright Ben Jonson. ... Titus Macchius Plautus, generally referred to simply as Plautus, was a playwright of Ancient Rome. ... Publius Terentius Afer, better known as Terence, was a comic playwright of the Roman Republic. ... The Case is Altered is an early comedy by Ben Jonson. ... Greek comedy is the name given to a wide genre of theatrical plays written, and performed, in Ancient Greece. ... For other uses, see Greed (disambiguation). ... Jealous redirects here. ... Look up farce in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... William Congreve (January 24, 1670 – January 19, 1729) was an English playwright and poet. ... The three unities or classical unities are rules for drama derived from a mistaken interpretation of a particular passage in Aristotles Poetics. ... Margaret Cavendish Segment of Frontispiece from The Blazing World The Blazing World Portrait Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle (1623-15 December 1673), was an English aristocrat and a prolific writer. ... David Garrick as Abel Drugger in Jonsons The Alchemist by Johann Zoffany. ...


Poetry

Jonson's poetry, like his drama, is informed by his classical learning. Some of his better-known poems are close translations of Greek or Roman models; all display the careful attention to form and style that often came naturally to those trained in classics in the humanist manner. Jonson, however, largely avoided the debates about rhyme and meter that had consumed Elizabethan classicists such as Campion and Harvey. Accepting both rhyme and stress, Jonson uses them to mimic the classical qualities of simplicity, restraint, and precision. Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... Thomas Campion, sometimes Campian (February 12, 1567 – March 1, 1620) was an English composer, poet and physician. ... Gabriel Harvey (c. ...


“Epigrams” (published in the 1616 folio) is an entry in a genre that was popular among late-Elizabethan and Jacobean audiences. Jonson’s epigrams explore various attitudes, most of them from the satiric stock of the day: complaints against women, courtiers, and spies abound. The condemnatory poems are short and anonymous; Jonson’s epigrams of praise, including a famous poem to Camden and lines to Lucy Harington, are somewhat longer and mostly addressed to specific individuals. The poems of “The Forest” also appeared in the first folio. Most of the fifteen poems are addressed to Jonson’s aristocratic supporters, but the most famous are his country-house poem “To Penshurst” and the poem “To Celia” (“Come, my Celia, let us prove”) that appears also in ‘’Volpone.’’


‘’Underwoods,’’ published in the expanded folio of 1640, is a larger and more heterogeneous group of poems. It contains ‘’A Celebration of Charis,’’ Jonson’s most extended effort at love poetry; various religious pieces; encomiastic poems including the poem to Shakespeare and a sonnet on Mary Wroth; the ‘’Execration against Vulcan” and others. The 1640 volume also contains three elegies which have often been ascribed to Donne (one of them appeared in Donne’s posthumous collected poems). Underwoods is a collection of poems by Robert Louis Stevenson published in 1887. ... Lady Mary Wroth (1586–1652) was an English poet of the Renaissance. ...


Relationship with Shakespeare

There are many legends about Jonson's rivalry with Shakespeare, some of which may be true. Drummond reports that during their conversation, Jonson scoffed at two apparent absurdities in Shakespeare's plays: a nonsensical line in Julius Caesar, and the setting of The Winter's Tale on the non-existent seacoast of Bohemia. Drummond also reports Jonson saying that Shakespeare "wanted art." Whether Drummond is viewed as accurate or not, the comments fit well with Jonson's well-known theories about literature. Shakespeare redirects here. ... Facsimile of the first page of Julius Caesar from the First Folio, published in 1623 Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed written in 1599. ... Florizel and Perdita by Charles Robert Leslie. ...


In Timber, which was published posthumously and reflects his lifetime of practical experience, Jonson offers a fuller and more conciliatory comment. He recalls being told by certain actors that Shakespeare never blotted (i.e., crossed out) a line when he wrote. His own response, "Would he had blotted a thousand," was taken as malicious. However, Jonson explains, "He was, indeed, honest, and of an open and free nature, had an excellent phantasy, brave notions, and gentle expressions, wherein he flowed with that facility that sometimes it was necessary he should be stopped".[2] Jonson concludes that "there was ever more in him to be praised than to be pardoned." Also when Shakespeare died he said "He was not of an age, but for all time." Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...


Thomas Fuller relates stories of Jonson and Shakespeare engaging in debates in the Mermaid Tavern; Fuller imagines conversations in which Shakespeare would run rings around the more learned but more ponderous Jonson. That the two men knew each other personally is beyond doubt, not only because of the tone of Jonson's references to him but because Shakespeare's company produced a number of Jonson's plays, at least one of which (Every Man in his Humour) Shakespeare certainly acted in. However, it is now impossible to tell how much personal communication they had, and tales of their friendship cannot be substantiated in the present state of knowledge. Thomas Fuller Thomas Fuller (1608–August 16, 1661) was an English churchman and historian. ... The Mermaid Tavern was a tavern in London during the Elizabethan Era. ... Every Man in His Humour was a 1598 play by British playwright Ben Jonson. ...


Jonson's most influential and revealing commentary on Shakespeare is the second of the two poems that he contributed to the prefatory verse that opens Shakespeare's First Folio. This poem, "To the memory of my beloved, The AUTHOR, Mr. William Shakespeare: And what he hath left us," did a good deal to create the traditional view of Shakespeare as a poet who, despite "small Latine and less Greek," had a natural genius. The poem has traditionally been thought to exemplify the contrast Jonson perceived between himself, the disciplined and erudite classicist, scornful of ignorance and skeptical of the masses, and Shakespeare, represented in the poem as a kind of natural wonder whose genius was not subject to any rules except those of the audiences for which he wrote. But the poem itself qualifies this view: "Yet must I not give Nature all: Thy Art, / My gentle Shakespeare, must enjoy a part." Some view this elegy as a conventional exercise, but a rising number of critics see it as a heartfelt tribute to the "Sweet Swan Of Avon," the "Soul of the Age!" It has been compellingly argued that Jonson helped to edit the First Folio, and he may have been inspired to write this poem, surely one of his greatest, by reading his fellow playwright's works, a number of which had been previously either unpublished or available in less satisfactory versions, in a relatively complete form. The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ... The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ...


Reception and Influence

During most of the seventeenth century Jonson was a towering literary figure, and his influence was enormous. Before the civil war The Tribe of Ben touted his importance, and during the Restoration Jonson's satirical comedies and his theory and practice of "humour characters" (which are often misunderstood; see William Congreve's letters for clarification) was extremely influential, providing the blueprint for many Restoration comedies. In the eighteenth century Jonson's status began to decline. In the Romantic era, Jonson suffered the fate of being unfairly compared and contrasted to Shakespeare, as the taste for Jonson's type of satirical comedy decreased. Jonson was at times greatly appreciated by the Romantics, but overall he was denigrated for not writing in a Shakespearean vein. In the twentieth century, Jonson's status rose significantly.


Drama

As G. E. Bentley notes in Shakespeare and Jonson: Their Reputations in the Seventeenth Century Compared, Jonson's reputation was in some respects equal to Shakespeare's in the seventeenth century. After the English theatres were reopened on the Restoration of Charles II, Jonson's work, along with Shakespeare's and Fletcher's work, formed the initial core of the Restoration repertory. It was not until after 1710 that Shakespeare's plays (ordinarily in heavily revised forms) were more frequently performed than those of his Renaissance contemporaries. Many critics since the eighteenth century have ranked Jonson below only Shakespeare among English Renaissance dramatists. Critical judgment has tended to emphasize the very qualities that Jonson himself lauds in his prefaces, in Timber, and in his scattered prefaces and dedications: the realism and propriety of his language, the bite of his satire, and the care with which he plotted his comedies. For other uses, see Restoration. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... John Fletcher (1579-1625) was a Jacobean playwright. ... English Renaissance theatre is English drama written between the Reformation and the closure of the theatres in 1642. ...


For some critics, the temptation to contrast Jonson (representing art or craft) with Shakespeare (representing nature, or untutored genius) has seemed natural; Jonson himself may be said to initiate this interpretation in his poem on Shakespeare. Leonard Digges echoed this line of thought in his verses affixed to the second folio, and Samuel Butler drew the same comparison in his commonplace book later in the century. Leonard Digges (1588 – 1635) was a seventeenth-century poet and translator, a member of the prominent Digges family of Kent—son of the astronomer Thomas Digges (1545-95), grandson of the mathematician Leonard Digges (1520-59), and younger brother of statesman Sir Dudley Digges (1583-1639). ... Samuel Butler Samuel Butler (4 December 1612 – 18 June 1680) was born in Strensham, Worcestershire and baptised 14 February 1613. ... During the Renaissance (especially in England), commonplaces (or commonplace books) were for some people a popular way to compile knowledge, usually done by writing information into books. ...


At the Restoration, this sensed difference became a kind of critical dogma. Saint-Évremond, indeed, placed Jonson's comedies above all else in English drama, and Charles Gildon called Jonson the father of English comedy. John Dryden offered a more common assessment in the Essay of Dramatic Poesie, in which his avatar Neander compares Shakespeare to Homer and Jonson to Virgil: the former represented profound creativity, the latter polished artifice. But "artifice" was in the seventeenth century almost synonymous with "art"; Jonson, for instance, used "artificer" as a synonym for "artist" (Discoveries, 33). For Lewis Theobald, too, Jonson “ow[ed] all his Excellence to his Art,” in contrast to Shakespeare, the natural genius. Rowe, to whom may be traced the legend that Jonson owed the production of Every Man in his Humour to Shakespeare's intercession, likewise attributed Jonson's excellence to learning, which did not raise him quite to the level of genius. A consensus formed: Jonson was the first English poet to understand classical precepts with any accuracy, and he was the first to apply those precepts successfully to contemporary life. But there were also more negative spins on Jonson's learned art; for instance, in the 1750s, Edward Young casually remarked on the way in which Jonson’s learning worked, like Samson’s strength, to his own detriment. Earlier, Aphra Behn, writing in defence of female playwrights, had pointed to Jonson as a writer whose learning did not make him popular; unsurprisingly, she compares him unfavorably to Shakespeare. Particularly in the tragedies, with their lengthy speeches abstracted from Sallust and Cicero, Augustan critics saw a writer whose learning had swamped his aesthetic judgment. Charles de Marguetel de Saint-Denis, seigneur de Saint-Évremond (April 1, 1610 - September 29, 1703), was a French soldier, epicurean, essayist and literary critic. ... Charles Gildon ( 1665 - 1724), was an English hack writer who was, by turns, a translator, biographer, essayist, playwright, poet, author of fictional letters, fabulist, short story author, and critic. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... This article is about the concept in Hindu philosophy. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Lewis Theobald (1688 - 1744), British textual editor and author, was a landmark figure both in the history of Shakespearean editing and in literary satire. ... Nicholas Rowe Guilt is the source of sorrow, tis the fiend, Th avenging fiend, that follows us behind, With whips and stings Nicholas Rowe (1674 – 1718), English dramatist, poet and miscellaneous writer, was selected Poet Laureate in 1715. ... For Her Majesty the Queens private secretary see Edward Young (Royal Household). ... A sketch of Aphra Behn by George Scharf from a portrait believed to be lost. ... Gaius Sallustius Crispus, simply known as Sallust, (86-34 BC). ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Augustan literature is a style of English literature whose origins correspond roughly with the reigns of Queen Anne, King George I, and George II. In contemporary critical parlance, it refers to the literature of 1700 up to approximately 1760 (or, for some, 1789). ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ...


In this period, Alexander Pope is exceptional in that he noted the tendency to exaggeration in these competing critical portraits: "It is ever the nature of Parties to be in extremes; and nothing is so probable, as that because Ben Johnson had much the most learning, it was said on the one hand that Shakespear had none at all; and because Shakespear had much the most wit and fancy, it was retorted on the other, that Johnson wanted both."[6] For the most part, the eighteenth century consensus remained committed to the division that Pope doubted; as late as the 1750s, Sarah Fielding could put a brief recapitulation of this analysis in the mouth of a "man of sense" encountered by David Simple. For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ... Sarah Fielding (November 8, 1710 – 1768) was a British author and sister of Henry Fielding. ...


Though his stature declined during the eighteenth century, Jonson was still read and commented on throughout the century, generally in the kind of comparative and dismissive terms just described. Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg translated parts of Peter Whalley's edition into German in 1765. Shortly before the Romantic revolution, Edward Capell offered an almost unqualified rejection of Jonson as a dramatic poet, who (he writes) "has very poor pretensions to the high place he holds among the English Bards, as there is no original manner to distinguish him, and the tedious sameness visible in his plots indicates a defect of Genius."[7] The disastrous failures of productions of Volpone and Epicoene in the early 1770s no doubt bolstered a widespread sense that Jonson had at last grown too antiquated for the contemporary public; if Jonson still attracted enthusiasts such as Earl Camden and William Gifford, he all but disappeared from the stage in the last quarter of the century. Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg (1737-1823), German poet and critic, was born at Tondern in Schleswig on the 3rd of January 1737. ... Edward Capell (June 11, 1713 - February 24, 1781), English Shakespearian critic, was born at Troston Hall in Suffolk. ... Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden (1714 – 18 April 1794), Lord Chancellor of Great Britain, was a leading proponent of civil liberties in eighteenth century England. ... William Gifford (1756 - 1826), critic and poet, was born of humble parentage at Ashburton, Devonshire, and after being for a short time at sea, was apprenticed to a cobbler. ...


The romantic revolution in criticism brought about an overall decline in the critical estimation of Jonson. Hazlitt refers dismissively to Jonson’s “laborious caution.” Coleridge, while more respectful, describes Jonson as psychologically superficial: “He was a very accurately observing man; but he cared only to observe what was open to, and likely to impress, the senses.” Coleridge placed Jonson second only to Shakespeare; other romantic critics were less approving. The early nineteenth century was the great age for recovering Renaissance drama. Jonson, whose reputation had survived, appears to have been less interesting to some readers than writers such as Thomas Middleton or John Heywood, who were in some senses “discoveries” of the nineteenth century. Moreover, the emphasis the romantic writers placed on imagination, and their concomitant tendency to distrust studied art, lowered Jonson's status, if it also sharpened their awareness of the difference traditionally noted between Jonson and Shakespeare. This trend was by no means universal, however; William Gifford, Jonson's first editor of the nineteenth century, did a great deal to defend Jonson's reputation during this period of general decline. In the next era, Swinburne, who was more interested in Jonson than most Victorians, wrote, “The flowers of his growing have every quality but one which belongs to the rarest and finest among flowers: they have colour, form, variety, fertility, vigour: the one thing they want is fragrance” — by “fragrance,” Swinburne means spontaneity. Romantics redirects here. ... Thomas Middleton (1580 – 1627) was an English Jacobean playwright and poet. ... John Heywood (1497-1580) was an English writer known for his plays, poems, and collection of proverbs. ... William Gifford (1756 - 1826), critic and poet, was born of humble parentage at Ashburton, Devonshire, and after being for a short time at sea, was apprenticed to a cobbler. ... Swinburne may be A. C. Swinburne the poet Swinburne University of Technnology in Melbourne, Australia Swinburne, Free State in South Africa This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Accession to the Throne, June 20, 1837) gave her name to the historic era. ...


In the twentieth century, Jonson’s body of work has been subject to a more varied set of analyses, broadly consistent with the interests and programmes of modern literary criticism. In an essay printed in The Sacred Wood T.S. Eliot attempts to repudiate the charge that Jonson was an arid classicist by analysing the role of imagination in his dialogue. Eliot was appreciative of Jonson's overall conception and his "surface," a view consonant with the modernist reaction against Romantic criticism, which tended to denigrate playwrights who did not concentrate on representations of psychological depth. Around mid-century, a number of critics and scholars followed Eliot’s lead, producing detailed studies of Jonson’s verbal style. At the same time, study of Elizabethan themes and conventions, such as those by E.E. Stoll and M. C. Bradbrook, provided a more vivid sense of how Jonson’s work was shaped by the expectations of his time. Muriel Clara Bradbrook (1909-1993) was a British literary scholar and authority on Shakespeare. ...


The proliferation of new critical perspectives after mid-century touched on Jonson inconsistently. Jonas Barish was the leading figure in a group of critics that was appreciative of Jonson's artistry. On the other hand, Jonson received less attention from the new critics than did some other playwrights and his work was not of programmatic interest to psychoanalytic critics. But Jonson’s career eventually made him a focal point for the revived sociopolitical criticism. Jonson’s work, particularly his masques and pageants, offers significant information regarding the relations of literary production and political power, as do his contacts with and poems for aristocratic patrons; moreover, his career at the centre of London’s emerging literary world has been seen as exemplifying the development of a fully commodified literary culture. In this respect, Jonson has been seen as a transitional figure, an author whose skills and ambition led him to a leading role both in the declining culture of patronage and in the rising culture of mass consumption. New Historicism is an approach to literary criticism and literary theory based on the premise that a literary work should be considered a product of the time, place and circumstances of its composition rather than as an isolated creation of genius. ... ...


Poetry

If Jonson's reputation as a playwright has traditionally been linked to Shakespeare, his reputation as a poet has, since the early twentieth century, been linked to that of John Donne. In this comparison, Jonson represents the cavalier strain of poetry, which emphasized grace and clarity of expression; Donne, by contrast, epitomized the metaphysical school of poetry, with its reliance on strained, baroque metaphors and often vague phrasing. Since the critics who made this comparison (Herbert Grierson for example), were to varying extents rediscovering Donne, this comparison often worked to the detriment of Jonson's reputation. For the Welsh courtier and diplomat, see Sir John Donne. ... Cavalier poets is a broad description of a school of poets, who came from the classes that supported King Charles I during the English Civil War. ... The metaphysical poets were a loose group of British lyric poets of the 17th century, who shared an interest in metaphysical concerns and a common way of investigating them. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Sir Herbert John Clifford Grierson (1866-1960) was a Scottish literary scholar and critic. ...


In his time, though, Jonson was at least as influential as Donne. In 1623, historian Edmund Bolton named him the best and most polished English poet. That this judgment was widely shared is indicated by the admitted influence he had on younger poets. The grounds for describing Jonson as the "father" of cavalier poets are clear: many of the cavalier poets described themselves as his "sons" or his "tribe." For some of this tribe, the connection was as much social as poetic; Herrick describes meetings at "the Sun, the Dog, the Triple Tunne." All of them, including those like Herrick whose accomplishments in verse are generally regarded as superior to Jonson's, took inspiration from Jonson's revival of classical forms and themes, his subtle melodies, and his disciplined use of wit. In all of these respects, Jonson may be regarded as among the most important figures in the prehistory of English neoclassicism. Edmund Bolton (1575?-1633?), English historian and poet, was born by his own account in 1575. ... Herrick can be any of the following: Persons: Christopher Herrick, organist Robert Herrick, poet Robert Herrick, novelist James Bryan Herrick, doctor Myron Timothy Herrick, politician, 42nd Governor of US-state Ohio Margaret Herrick, ancient director of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences A character in Fusion (comics) Locations... Look up Wit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Augustan literature is a style of English literature whose origins correspond roughly with the reigns of Queen Anne, King George I, and George II. In contemporary critical parlance, it refers to the literature of 1700 up to approximately 1760 (or, for some, 1789). ...


The best of Jonson's lyrics have remained current since his time; periodically, they experience a brief vogue, as after the publication of Peter Whalley's edition of 1756. Jonson's poetry continues to interest scholars for the light it sheds on English literary history, particularly as regards politics, systems of patronage, and intellectual attitudes. For the general reader, Jonson's reputation rests on a few lyrics that, though brief, are surpassed for grace and precision by very few Renaissance poems: "On My First Sonne"; "To Celia"; "Drink to Me Only With Thine Eyes"; the poem on Penshurst; and the epitaph on boy player Solomon Pavy. On My First Sonne, a poem by Ben Jonson, was written after the 1603 death of Jonsons first son Benjamin at age seven. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: To Celia To Celia is a poem first published after March 1616 by Ben Jonson. ... Drink to Me Only With Thine Eyes was a popular English song with lyrics from Ben Jonsons 1616 poem To Celia. ... Edward Kynaston, one of the last boy players (1889 engraving of a contemporary portrait) Boy player is a common term for the adolescent males employed by English Renaissance acting companies. ...


Jonson's works

Plays

A Tale of a Tub is a Caroline era stage play, a comedy written by Ben Jonson. ... The Case is Altered is an early comedy by Ben Jonson. ... Henry Porter (d. ... Anthony Munday (or Monday) (1560?–August 10, 1633), was an English dramatist and miscellaneous writer. ... Every Man in His Humour was a 1598 play by British playwright Ben Jonson. ... Every Man out of His Humour is a 1599 play written by British playwright Ben Jonson. ... Cynthias Revels, or The Fountain of Self-Love is a late Elizabethan stage play, a satire written by Ben Jonson, first performed in 1600 at the Blackfriars Theatre by the Children of the Chapel, one of the troupes of boy actors active in that era. ... The Poetaster is a late Elizabethan stage play, a satire written by Ben Jonson, and first performed in 1601. ... A play by Ben Johnson. ... Eastward Hoe or Eastward Ho, is a play written by George Chapman, Ben Jonson, and John Marston, printed in 1605. ... John Marston (October 7, 1576 - June 25, 1634) was an English poet, playwright and satirist during the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods. ... This article is about George Chapman the English literary figure; see George Chapman (murderer) for the Victorian poisoner of the same name. ... An illustration for an 1898 edition of Volpone by Aubrey Beardsley. ... Play by Johnson. ... David Garrick as Abel Drugger in Jonsons The Alchemist by Johann Zoffany. ... Catiline His Conspiracy is a Jacobean tragedy written by Ben Jonson. ... Bartholomew Fair is a play in five acts by Ben Jonson. ... The Devil is an Ass is a Jacobean comedy by Ben Jonson, first performed in 1616 and first published in 1631. ... The Staple of News is an early Caroline era play, a satire by Ben Jonson. ... The New Inn, or The Light Heart is a Caroline era stage play, a comedy by English playwright and poet Ben Jonson. ... The Magnetic Lady, or Humors Reconciled is a Caroline era stage play, the final comedy of Ben Jonson. ...

Masques

The Coronation Triumph is a Jacobean era literary work, usually classed as an entertainment, written by Ben Jonson for the coronation of King James I and performed on March 15, 1604. ... Thomas Dekker, (c. ... The Entertainment at Althorp, or The Althorp Entertainment, is an early Jacobean era literary work, written by Ben Jonson. ... The Masque of Blackness was first performed at the court at Whitehall on Twelfth Night, 1605. ... Hymenaei, or The Masgue of Hymen, was a masque written by Ben Jonson for the marriage of Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, and Lady Frances Howard, daughter of the Earl of Suffolk, and performed on their wedding day, Jan. ... The Masque of Beauty was a courtly masque composed by Ben Jonson, and performed to inaugurate the refurbished banqueting hall of Whitehall Palace on Jan. ... The Masque of Queens, Celebrated From the House of Fame is one of the earlier works in the series of masques that Ben Jonson composed for the House of Stuart in the early seventeenth century. ... The Hue and Cry After Cupid, or A Hue and Cry After Cupid, also Lord Haddingtons Masque or The Masque at Lord Haddingtons Marriage, or even The Masque With the Nuptial Songs at the Lord Viscount Haddingtons Marriage at Court, was a masque performed on Shrove Tuesday... The Speeches at Prince Henrys Barriers, sometimes called The Lady of the Lake, is a masque or entertainment written by Ben Jonson in honor of Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, the son and heir of King James I of England. ... Oberon, the Faery Prince was a masque written by Ben Jonson, with costumes, sets and stage effects designed by Inigo Jones, and music by Alfonso Ferrabosco and Robert Johnson. ... Love Freed from Ignorance and Folly was a Jacobean era masque, witten by Ben Jonson and designed by Inigo Jones, with music by Alfonso Ferrabosco. ... Love Restored was a Jacobean era masque, written by Ben Jonson; it was performed on Twelfth Night, Jan. ... Mercury Vindicated from the Alchemists at Court is a Jacobean era masque, written by Ben Jonson and designed by Inigo Jones. ... The Golden Age Restored was a Jacobean era masque, written by Ben Jonson and designed by Inigo Jones; it was performed on Jan. ... Christmas, His Masque, also called Christmas His Show, was a Jacobean era masque, written by Ben Jonson and performed at the English royal court at Christmas of 1616. ... The Vision of Delight was a Jacobean era masque written by Ben Jonson. ... Lovers Made Men, alternatively titled The Masque of Lethe or The Masque at Lord Hays, was a Jacobean era masque, written by Ben Jonson, designed by Inigo Jones, and with music composed by Nicholas Lanier. ... Pleasure Reconciled to Virtue is a Jacobean era masque, written by Ben Jonson and designed by Inigo Jones. ... News from the New World Discovered in the Moon was a Jacobean era masque, written by Ben Jonson; it was first performed before King James I on Jan. ... Pans Anniversary, or The Shepherds Holiday was a Jacobean era masque, written by Ben Jonson and designed by Inigo Jones. ... The Gypsies Metamorphosed, alternatively titled The Metamorphosed Gypsies, The Gypsies Metamorphosis, or The Masque of Gypsies, was a Jacobean era masque written by Ben Jonson, with music composed by Nicholas Lanier. ... The Masque of Augurs was a Jacobean era masque, written by Ben Jonson and designed by Inigo Jones. ... Time Vindicated to Himself and to his Honours was a late Jacobean era masque, written by Ben Jonson and with costumes, sets, and stage effects designed by Inigo Jones. ... Neptunes Triumph for the Return of Albion was a Jacobean era masque, written by Ben Jonson, and designed by Inigo Jones. ... The Fortunate Isles and Their Union is a Jacobean era masque, written by Ben Jonson and designed by Inigo Jones, and performed on Jan. ... Loves Triumph Through Callipolis was the first masque performed at the Stuart Court during the reign of King Charles I, and the first in which a reigning monarch appeared. ... Chloridia: Rites to Chloris and Her Nymphs was the final masque that Ben Jonson wrote for the Stuart Court. ... The Kings Entertainment at Welbeck in Nottinghamshire, alternatively titled Loves Welcome at Welbeck, was a masque or entertainment written by Ben Jonson, and performed on May 21, 1633 at the Welbeck estate of William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle. ... Loves Welcome at Bolsover (alternative archaic spelling, Balsover) is the final masque composed by Ben Jonson. ...

Other works

  • Epigrams (1612)
  • The Forest (1616), including To Penshurst
  • A Discourse of Love (1618)
  • Barclay's Argenis, translated by Jonson (1623)
  • The Execration against Vulcan (1640)
  • Horace's Art of Poetry, translated by Jonson (1640), with a commendatory verse by Edward Herbert
  • Underwoods (1640)
  • Timber, or Discoveries, a commonplace book.
  • On My First Sonne (1616), elegy
  • To Celia, poem
  • Drink to Me Only With Thine Eyes, poem

As with other English Renaissance dramatists, a portion of Ben Jonson's literary output has not survived. In addition to The Isle of Dogs (1597), the records suggest these lost plays as wholly or partially Jonson's work: Richard Crookback (1602); Hot Anger Soon Cold (1598), with Porter and Henry Chettle; Page of Plymouth (1599), with Dekker; and Robert II, King of Scots (1599), with Chettle and Dekker. Several of Jonson's masques and entertainments also are not extant: The Entertainment at Merchant Taylors (1607); The Entertainment at Salisbury House for James I (1608); The Entertainment at Britain's Burse for James I (1609); and The May Lord (1613-19). John Barclay (January 28, 1582 — August 15, 1621) was a Scottish satirist and Latin poet. ... Argenis is a book by John Barclay; it is a work of historical allegory which tells the story of the religious conflict in France under Henry III and Henry IV. Categories: Stub ... Ars Poetica is a term meaning The Art of Poetry or On the Nature of Poetry. Early examples of Ars Poetica by Aristotle and Horace have survived and have since spawned many other poems that bear the same name. ... Edward Herbert, portrait by Isaac Oliver(1560–1617) Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury (March 3, 1583 – August 20, 1648) was a British soldier, diplomat, historian, poet and religious philosopher. ... For other uses, see Elegy (disambiguation). ... The Isle of Dogs is play by Thomas Nashe and Ben Jonson which was performed in 1597. ... Henry Chettle (1564?-1607?) was an English dramatist and miscellaneous writer of the Elizabethan era. ...


Finally, there are questionable or borderline attributions. Jonson may have had a hand in Rollo, Duke of Normandy, or The Bloody Brother, a play in the canon of John Fletcher and his collaborators. The comedy The Widow was printed in 1652 as the work of Thomas Middleton, Fletcher and Jonson, though scholars have been intensely skeptical about Jonson's presence in the play. A few attributions of anonymous plays, like The London Prodigal, have been ventured by individual researchers, but have met with cool responses.[8] Rollo Duke of Normandy is a play written in collaboration by John Fletcher, Philip Massinger, Ben Jonson, and George Chapman. ... The Widow is a Jacobean stage play first published in 1652, but written decades earlier. ... Thomas Middleton (1580 – 1627) was an English Jacobean playwright and poet. ... The London Prodigal is a city comedy set in London in which a prodigal son learns the error of his ways. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Notes of Ben Jonson's Conversations at Hawthornden, p.255
  2. ^ 1911 Encyclopedia biography
  3. ^ Maclean, 88.
  4. ^ Adams, J. Q. The Jonson Allusion Book. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1922: 195-6.
  5. ^ Doran, 120ff.
  6. ^ Alexander Pope, ed. Works of Shakespeare (London, 1725), 1.
  7. ^ Quoted in Craig, D. H., ed. Jonson: The Critical Heritage (London: Routledge, 1995): 499.
  8. ^ Logan and Smith, pp. 82-92.

Joeph Quincy Adams (March 23, 1881 – November 10, 1946) was a prominent Shakespeare scholar and the first director of the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, D.C. Adams, a scion of the famous Adams family that produced two American Presidents, John Adams and John Quincy Adams, was born in Greenville...

Biographies of Ben Jonson

  • Ben Jonson: His Life and Work by Rosalind Miles
  • Ben Jonson: His Craft and Art by Rosalind Miles
  • Ben Jonson: A Literary Life by W. David Kay
  • Ben Jonson: A Life by David Riggs

Rosalind Miles was born and raised in England and now lives in both Los Angeles & Kent, England. ... Rosalind Miles was born and raised in England and now lives in both Los Angeles & Kent, England. ...

References

  • Bentley, G. E. Shakespeare and Jonson: Their Reputations in the Seventeenth Century Compared. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1945.
  • Bush, Douglas. English Literature in the Earlier Seventeenth Century, 1600-1660. Oxford History of English Literature. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1945.
  • Butler, Martin. "Jonson's Folio and the Politics of Patronage." Criticism 35 (1993).
  • Doran, Madeline. Endeavors of Art. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1954.
  • Eccles, Mark. "Jonson's Marriage." Review of English Studies 12 (1936).
  • Eliot, T.S. "Ben Jonson." The Sacred Wood. London: Methuen, 1920.
  • Jonson, Ben. Discoveries 1641, ed. G. B. Harrison. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1966.
  • Knights, L. C. Drama and Society in the Age of Jonson. London: Chatto and Windus, 1968.
  • Logan, Terence P., and Denzell S. Smith. The New Intellectuals: A Survey and Bibliography of Recent Studies in English Renaissance Drama. Lincoln, Nebraska, University of Nebraska Press, 1975.
  • MacLean, Hugh, editor. Ben Jonson and the Cavalier Poets. New York: Norton Press, 1974.
  • Teague, Francis. "Ben Jonson and the Gunpowder Plot." Ben Jonson Journal 5 (1998), 249-52.
  • Thorndike, Ashley. "Ben Jonson." The Cambridge History of English and American Literature. New York: Putnam, 1907-1921.

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Ben Jonson
Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Ben Jonson
Preceded by
Samuel Daniel
British Poet Laureate
1619–1637
Succeeded by
William Davenant
Persondata
NAME Jonson, Ben
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION English dramatist, poet and actor
DATE OF BIRTH c. June 11, 1572
PLACE OF BIRTH Westminster, London, England
DATE OF DEATH August 6, 1637
PLACE OF DEATH Westminster, London, England

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Samuel Daniel (1562 – October 14, 1619) was an English poet and historian. ... A Poet Laureate is a poet officially appointed by a government and often expected to compose poems for State occasions and other government events. ... William Davenant Sir William Davenant (February 28, 1606 - April 7, 1668), also spelled DAvenant, was an English poet and playwright. ... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ben Jonson (625 words)
Ben Jonson - A biography of the Elizabethan dramatist.
Ben Jonson: Monologues - An index of monologues by Jonson.
Ben Jonson: Poems - An index of poems.
Ben Jonson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4108 words)
Ben Jonson married some time before 1594, to a woman he described to Drummond as "a shrew, yet honest." His wife has not been decisively identified, but she is sometimes identified as the Ann Lewis who married a Benjamin Jonson at St Magnus-the-Martyr, near London Bridge.
Jonson quickly adapted himself to the additional demand for masques and entertainments introduced with the new reign and fostered by both the king and his consort, Anne of Denmark.
The principal factor in Jonson's partial eclipse was, however, the death of James and the accession of King Charles I in 1625.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m