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Encyclopedia > Beltway sniper attacks
Locations of the 15 sniper attacks numbered chronologically. Note: No one was injured at location "2".

The Beltway sniper attacks took place during three weeks of October 2002 in the Mid-Atlantic United States. As ten people were killed and three others critically injured in and around Washington, D.C., in various locations throughout the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area and along Interstate 95 in Virginia, it was widely speculated that a single sniper was using the Capital Beltway for travel, possibly in a white van-type truck. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Arkansas Army National Guard soldiers practice sniper marksmanship at their firing range near Baghdad, Iraq on February 15, 2005. ... The Mid-Atlantic region of the United States of America, located in the northeastern section of the country, includes the following states and district: Delaware Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Washington, D.C. West Virginia Virginia These areas provided the young United States with heavy industry and served as... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... It has been suggested that Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV MSA be merged into this article or section. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 95 Interstate 95 (abbreviated I-95) is a well-known, important, and heavily traveled highway in the United States Interstate Highway System. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... The Capital Beltway (in green) The Capital Beltway (Interstate 495) is an expressway-class interstate highway which circles the Washington, DC area. ...


The shootings finally ended on October 24, after police developed information that resulted in both a law enforcement and public alert for a dark-colored Chevrolet Caprice. After receiving two separate telephone tips from a trucker and another alert motorist, police responded to a suspicious vehicle meeting the description at a highway rest area off of Interstate 70 near Myersville, Maryland and arrested the two occupants: John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo, who were sleeping in the car, which had been modified to allow a sniper to operate from the trunk area. It was later learned that the rampage involving two men apparently began the month before with murders and robbery in Louisiana, Alabama, and Georgia which had resulted in 3 deaths. An earlier spree by the responsible pair had killed victims in California, Arizona, and Texas, for a total of 16 deaths identified as of March 2007. October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... The Chevrolet Caprice (later called Caprice Classic) was a series name of automobile produced by Chevrolet, a division of General Motors, in the United States from the 1965 through 1996 model years. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Rest stop redirects here. ... Interstate 70 (abbreviated I-70) is a long interstate highway in the United States that runs from Interstate 15 about a mile from Cove Fort, Utah to a Park and Ride in Baltimore, Maryland. ... Myersville is a town in Frederick County, Maryland, United States. ... The Chicago Police Department arrests a man An arrest is the action of the police, or person acting under the law, to take a person into custody so that they may be forthcoming to answer for the commission of a crime. ... John Allen Muhammad in court John Allen Muhammad (born John Allen Williams on December 31, 1960) is an American spree killer. ... Lee Boyd Malvo (left) Lee Boyd Malvo (alias John Lee Malvo or Malik Malvo) (born February 18, 1985), along with John Allen Muhammad, was arrested on October 24, 2002 in connection with the Beltway sniper attacks. ...


Although initially arrested in Maryland, they were extradited to Virginia where charges against the pair were tried first. In 2004, Muhammad was sentenced to death and Malvo to several sentences of life imprisonment without parole in Virginia for several of the attacks. Many more criminal charges are pending against each man, although a U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Roper v. Simmons in March 2005 effectively precludes a death penalty for Malvo. Muhammad's death penalty was affirmed by the Virginia Supreme Court on April 22, 2005. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the... Holding The Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments forbid imposition of the death penalty on offenders who were under the age of 18 when their crimes were committed. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Civil legal action also resulted. Neither shooter was legally allowed to acquire firearms in the U.S. The dealer responsible for the rifle used in the attacks had an extensive record of firearms violations, and had not reported the gun missing (after it had apparently been shoplifted by Malvo) as required by law. A civil lawsuit alleging negligence against both the gun dealer and the manufacturer who made and distributed the weapon resulted in a US$2.5 million out-of-court settlement for survivors and families of victims. Negligence is a legal concept usually used to achieve compensation for accidents and injuries. ...


While Muhammad was awaiting execution in Virginia, in the fall of 2005, he and Malvo were extradited to Montgomery County, Maryland where the most incidents took place to face trial. In May 2006, after over 3 1/2 years of discovery of partial facts and widespread speculation, at Muhammad's Maryland trial, Malvo revealed many details of their three-phased plan, which was far more elaborate than had early been thought by many observers. The three-week-long rampage was motivated, at least in part, by a plot to extort $10 million from the U.S. government. The pair then would have recruited a small army of alienated youths, used Muhammad's U.S. military training to instruct and indoctrinate them in Canada, and then mount coordinated terrorist attacks on the entire United States. After their Maryland trials and convictions, they were returned to Virginia under an agreement between the two states. The relevance of particular information in (or previously in) this article or section is disputed. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


As of May 2007, the date for Muhammad's execution in Virginia had not been set, and he was being held on the state's "Death Row". Malvo was serving his sentence of life imprisonment without parole at a maximum security prison in western Virginia.

Contents

Snipers

Lee Boyd Malvo

Authorities initially attributed the attacks to a lone sniper, dubbed by journalists the "Beltway Sniper," the "D.C. Sniper," the "Washington Sniper," the "Serial Sniper" or the "Tarot Card Killer." Image File history File links 18-inside-malvo. ... Arkansas Army National Guard soldiers practice sniper marksmanship at their firing range near Baghdad, Iraq on February 15, 2005. ... The Capital Beltway (in green) The Capital Beltway (Interstate 495) is an expressway-class interstate highway which circles the Washington, DC area. ...


After their capture, there was much confusion about the names of the two men. The older of the pair, born John Allen Williams, age 41 at the time of capture, had joined the Nation of Islam some years earlier and changed his name to John Allen Muhammad in October 2001. The younger man was born Lee Boyd Malvo, but also calls himself John Lee Malvo and had posed as Muhammad's son (17 years old at the time of his arrest). Malvo's actual relationship with Muhammad was initially unclear, although it was later learned that Malvo's mother had been involved in some illegal activity with Muhammad in Antigua. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... John Allen Muhammad in court John Allen Muhammad (born John Allen Williams on December 31, 1960) is an American spree killer. ... Lee Boyd Malvo (left) Lee Boyd Malvo (alias John Lee Malvo or Malik Malvo) (born February 18, 1985), along with John Allen Muhammad, was arrested on October 24, 2002 in connection with the Beltway sniper attacks. ...


The two men practiced shooting in the backyard of the 3300 block of South Proctor Street in Tacoma, WA, according to investigators, and studied the film produced by Oliver Stone Savior. Savior is a 1998 film starring Dennis Quaid, Stellan Skarsgård, Nastassja Kinski, and Natasa Ninkovic. ...


Attacks

John Allen Muhammad

The shootings began October 2, 2002, with a series of five fatal shootings in 15 hours in Montgomery County, Maryland, a suburban county north of Washington. They continued for the next three weeks in the Washington metropolitan area and along Interstate 95 south to within 15 miles of Richmond, Virginia. Police received messages left at the murder locations and believed, correctly, that the killer worked in concert with another person. Submitter claims fair use from [1] This work is copyrighted. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... The relevance of particular information in (or previously in) this article or section is disputed. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 95 Interstate 95 (abbreviated I-95) is a well-known, important, and heavily traveled highway in the United States Interstate Highway System. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ...


The shootings occurred at gas stations and in parking lots outside supermarkets, restaurants, and schools in a rough circular pattern around Washington. The victims were apparently selected at random, crossing racial, gender, and socioeconomic categories. The locations of the attacks always had close freeway access. It is believed the shooter used the circular Capital Beltway to get from place to place, although several of the attacks occurred along Interstate 95 south of the Beltway in Virginia. The Capital Beltway (in green) The Capital Beltway (Interstate 495) is an expressway-class interstate highway which circles the Washington, DC area. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 95 Interstate 95 (abbreviated I-95) is a well-known, important, and heavily traveled highway in the United States Interstate Highway System. ...


The attacks were carried out with a stolen Bushmaster XM-15 semiautomatic .223 caliber rifle equipped with a red-dot sight at ranges of between 50 and over 100 yards. It should be noted that this rifle is not generally considered a sniper rifle even though it is used in long distance shooting competitions for ranges up to 600 yards. The ability and distance of the shots do not meet the skill sets of a military sniper. None of the shots involved in the killings were particularly difficult and many professionals in the law enforcement and military communities resented the use of the term "sniper" to describe the shooters. The XM-15 rifle came from Bull's Eye Shooter Supply in Tacoma, Washington. Bull's Eye had been noted for violating firearms regulations in the past. It had not reported the rifle as missing, as required by federal law. The Bushmaster XM-15 is a semi-automatic rifle available in cartridges such as . ... A semi-automatic rifle is a type of rifle that fires a single bullet each time the trigger is pulled, without the need to manually operate a bolt, lever or other firing or loading mechanism. ... (Redirected from . ... A rifle is a firearm with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves (rifling) cut into the barrel walls. ... The M40, United States Marine Corps standard-issue sniper rifle. ... Arkansas Army National Guard soldiers practice sniper marksmanship at their firing range near Baghdad, Iraq on February 15, 2005. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nickname: The City of Destiny Location of Tacoma in Pierce County and Washington State Coordinates: Country United States of America State Washington County Pierce Government  - Mayor Bill Baarsma (NP) Area  - City 62. ...


Investigation

The investigation was publicly headed by Montgomery County, Maryland Police Chief Charles A. Moose, with assistance from the FBI and police departments in other jurisdictions where killings and woundings had taken place. Image from [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image from [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Charles Moose Charles Alexander Moose served as the 15th Montgomery County, Maryland, Police Chief from August 2, 1999, to June 18, 2003, when he resigned to write a book. ... Charles A. Moose served as the 15th Police Chief from August 2, 1999 to June 18, 2003, when he resigned to write a book. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


Police responded within minutes to reports of attacks during the three weeks of the sniper attacks, cordoning off nearby roads and highways and inspecting all drivers, thereby grinding traffic to a halt for hours at a time throughout parts of one of America's largest metropolitan areas.


Eyewitness accounts of the attacks were mostly confused and spotty. Hotlines set up for the investigation were flooded with tips, as was the post office box set up for tips by mail. The most common tip was that the shooters were driving a boxy white van, which ultimately proved erroneous.


The shooter attempted to engage the police in a dialog, compelling Moose to tell the media cryptic messages intended for the sniper. At several scenes Tarot cards were left as calling cards, including one Death card upon which was written "Dear Policeman, I am God. Do not tell the media about this." This information was leaked to the press. Later scenes had long handwritten notes carefully sealed inside plastic bags, including a rambling one that demanded $10,000,000 and threatened the lives of children in the area. Visconti-Sforza tarot deck - The Devil card is a XX Century remake of the card missing from the original XV Century Deck The tarot is a set of cards featuring 21 trump cards and a special card called The Fool, in addition to the usual suit (face and pip) cards... Calling card of the Zodiac Killer, a sun cross A calling card is a particular object frequently left behind by a criminal at a scene of a crime, often as a way of taunting police or obliquely claiming responsibility. ... Death (XIII) Death (XIII) is a trump card in the tarot deck. ...


At one point, a telephone call from the shooter(s) was traced to a pay telephone at a gasoline station in Henrico County, Virginia. Police missed the suspects by a matter of a few minutes, and initially detained occupants of a van at another pay telephone at the same intersection. Henrico County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, a state of the United States. ...


During the period of the attacks, the North American media devoted enormous amounts of air time and newspaper space to news of each new attack. By the middle of October 2002, all-news television networks were providing live coverage of the aftermath of each new attack, with the coverage often lasting for hours at a time. The Fox show "America's Most Wanted" even devoted an entire episode to the shooters in hopes of aiding in their capture. AMW redirects here; for other uses of that term, see AMW (disambiguation). ...


Despite an apparent lack of progress publicly, federal authorities were making significant headway in their investigation and developed leads in Washington state, Alabama, and New Jersey. They learned that Muhammad's ex-wife, who had obtained a protective order against him, lived near the capital beltway in Clinton, a community in suburban Prince George's County, Maryland. Information was also developed about an automobile purchased in New Jersey by Muhammad. Much to their shock, police discovered that the New Jersey license plates issued to Muhammad on the 1990 Chevrolet Caprice had been checked by radio patrol cars several times near shooting locations in various jurisdictions in several states, but the car had not been stopped because law enforcement computer networks did not indicate that it was connected to any criminal activity. Clinton is a census-designated place (CDP) in Prince Georges County, Maryland, United States. ... Prince Georges County is located in the U.S. state of Maryland immediately north, east, and south of Washington, D.C. It is the wealthiest majority African-American county in the nation. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... The Chevrolet Caprice (later called Caprice Classic) was a series name of automobile produced by Chevrolet, a division of General Motors, in the United States from the 1965 through 1996 model years. ...


Authorities were quick to issue a media alert to the public to be on the lookout for a dark blue Chevrolet Caprice sedan. For the public, as well as for law enforcement agencies throughout the region, this was a major change from the mysterious "white box truck" earlier sought based upon reported sightings. The Chevrolet Caprice (later called Caprice Classic) was a series name of automobile produced by Chevrolet, a division of General Motors, in the United States from the 1965 through 1996 model years. ...


On October 24, police arrested Muhammad and Malvo at a rest area on Interstate 70 near Myersville, Maryland, after receiving two separate tips from citizens who reported seeing a parked, occupied car that matched the description distributed by the media. The former police car, referred to as a "killing machine" by senior law enforcement officials, Col. Robert J. Smaegelov and Maj. Richard M. Spencer. [1], had been specially configured with a firing port so that the killer could shoot inconspicuously while lying on his stomach with his lower body in the cabin and his upper body in the trunk. Interstate 70 (abbreviated I-70) is a long interstate highway in the United States that runs from Interstate 15 about a mile from Cove Fort, Utah to a Park and Ride in Baltimore, Maryland. ... Myersville is a town in Frederick County, Maryland, United States. ...


Timeline

  • September 21: Claudine Parker, a liquor store clerk in Montgomery, Alabama, is shot and killed during a robbery. Her coworker Kellie Adams is also injured. Evidence found at the crime scene eventually ties this killing to the Beltway attacks and allows authorities to identify Muhammad and Malvo as suspects, although this connection is not made until October 17.
  • October 2:
    • 5:20 pm: A shot is fired through a window of a Michaels Craft Store in Aspen Hill in Montgomery County, Maryland. No one is injured.
    • 6:05 pm: The first Beltway-area sniper shooting occurs on October 2 in Wheaton in Montgomery County. The first victim is James Martin, a 55-year-old program analyst who dies in the parking lot of a Shoppers Food Warehouse grocery store.
  • October 3: The next wave of shootings occurs in a 15-hour period.
    • 7:41 am: James L. Buchanan, a 39-year-old landscaper known as "Sonny," is shot dead in Montgomery County near Rockville, Maryland. Buchanan is shot while mowing the grass at the Fitzgerald Auto Mall.
    • 8:12 am: 54-year-old part-time taxi driver Premkumar Walekar is killed in Aspen Hill in Montgomery County while pumping gasoline into his taxi at a Mobil station at Aspen Hill Road and Connecticut Avenue.
    • 8:37 am: Sarah Ramos, a 34-year-old babysitter and housekeeper, is killed while reading a book on a bench shortly after she exits a bus. Ramos was shot at the Leisure World Shopping Center in Aspen Hill.
    • 9:58 am: 25-year-old Lori Ann Lewis-Rivera is killed while vacuuming her Dodge Caravan at a Shell station in Kensington, Maryland.
    • 9:15 pm: Pascal Charlot, a 72-year-old retired carpenter, is shot while walking on Georgia Avenue at Kalmia Road, in Washington, D.C. He dies less than an hour later.
  • October 7, 8:09 am: Iran Brown, a 13-year-old boy, is wounded as he arrives at Benjamin Tasker Middle School in Bowie, Maryland, in Prince George's County. (Brown's name was at first concealed from the public, but has since been revealed.)
  • October 14 9:15 pm: 47-year-old Linda Franklin, an FBI intelligence analyst who was a resident of Arlington County, Virginia, is shot dead at about 9:15 p.m. after she finishes shopping at a Home Depot in Fairfax County, Virginia, just outside Falls Church. The police receive a supposedly very good lead after the October 14 shooting, but it is later determined that the witness was inside at the time and was lying. The witness was arrested for interfering with the investigation.
  • October 19 8:00 pm: 37-year-old Jeffrey Hopper is shot in a parking lot near the Ponderosa steakhouse in Ashland, Virginia, about 90 miles south of Washington near Interstate 95. Authorities discover a 4-page letter from the shooter in the woods.
  • October 21: Richmond-area police arrest two men, one with a white van, outside a gas station. The men turn out to be illegal immigrants with no connection to the shooter and they are remanded to the custody of the Immigration and Naturalization Service.
  • October 22, 5:56 am: Bus driver Conrad Johnson is shot dead while standing on the steps of his bus in Aspen Hill. Chief Moose releases part of the content of one of the shooter's communications, in which he declares, "Your children are not safe, anywhere, at any time."
  • October 23: Ballistics experts confirm Johnson as the 10th fatality in the sniper attacks.
    • In a yard in Tacoma, Washington, near to a sniper school operated by the United States Army, police search with metal detectors for bullets, shell casings, or other evidence which may link to the shooters. A tree stump believed to have been used for target practice is seized.
  • October 24: John Allen Muhammad (born John Allen Williams) and Lee Boyd Malvo (also known as John Lee Malvo) are found sleeping in their car, a blue 1990 Chevrolet Caprice, at a Maryland rest stop, and arrested on federal weapons charges. Police were tipped off by a trucker who noticed the parked car and also received another call from an alert motorist. A .223-caliber weapon and bipod are found in a bag in Muhammad's car. Ballistics tests later conclusively link the seized rifle to 11 of the 14 bullets recovered from earlier attacks. Muhammad was previously a member of the United States National Guard and later the United States Army, where he earned medals for expert marksmanship under his given name of John Allen Williams.

September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Pepperoni is one of the most popular toppings on American pizzas. ... Clinton is a census-designated place (CDP) in Prince Georges County, Maryland, United States. ... Prince Georges County is located in the U.S. state of Maryland immediately north, east, and south of Washington, D.C. It is the wealthiest majority African-American county in the nation. ... Laptop with touchpad. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Mayor Bobby Bright Area    - City 404. ... October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... A location in Eden Prairie, MN Michaels is the largest arts and crafts retail chain in the United States. ... Aspen Hill is a census-designated place and an unincorporated area in Montgomery County, Maryland. ... The relevance of particular information in (or previously in) this article or section is disputed. ... Wheaton is an unincorporated but urbanized area in Montgomery County, Maryland, USA, north of Washington, D.C., northwest of Silver Spring. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location in the State of Maryland Coordinates: Country United States State Maryland County Montgomery County Founded 1717 Incorporated 1860  - Mayor Larry Giammo Area    - City  13. ... Taxicab, short forms taxi or cab, is a type of public transport for a single passenger, or small group of passengers, typically for a non-shared ride. ... Aspen Hill is a census-designated place and an unincorporated area in Montgomery County, Maryland. ... Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Mobil gas station in the Loisaida section of the East Village of New York City Mobil was a major American oil company which merged with Exxon in 1999 to form ExxonMobil. ... Rossmoor is a census-designated place and an uncorporated area located in Montgomery County, Maryland. ... The Dodge Caravan and Dodge Grand Caravan are minivans manufactured by DaimlerChrysler (they were sold by the Chrysler Corporation until 1998). ... The Shell emblem known as the Pecten Shell Oil Company (SOC) is the Houston, Texas based wholly-owned subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell. ... Kensington is a town in Montgomery County, Maryland, United States. ... Georgia Avenue is a major through north-south artery in Washington, DC. It begins as 7th Street, S.W., at Maine Avenue SW, at the Waterfront. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Spotsylvania County is a county located in the U.S. state — officially, Commonwealth — of Virginia. ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Spotsylvania County* Founded 1728 Incorporated 1781  - Mayor Thomas Tomzak Area    - City  10. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (281st in leap years). ... Motto: Growth, Unity and Progress Location of Bowie in the State of Maryland Coordinates: Country United States State Maryland County Prince Georges County Established 1916  - Mayor G. Frederick Robinson Area    - City 41. ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince William County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, a state of the United States. ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County None (see independent city) Government  - City Manager Lawrence Hughes Area  - City  10. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, Texas, is an oil producer and distributor formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 95 Interstate 95 (abbreviated I-95) is a well-known, important, and heavily traveled highway in the United States Interstate Highway System. ... Spotsylvania County is a county located in the U.S. state — officially, Commonwealth — of Virginia. ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Spotsylvania County* Founded 1728 Incorporated 1781  - Mayor Thomas Tomzak Area    - City  10. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Arlington County is an urban county of about 203,000 residents in the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the U.S., directly across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. [1] Originally part of the District of Columbia, the land now comprising the county was retroceded to Virginia in a July... The Home Depot (NYSE: HD) is an American retailer of home improvement and construction products. ... Fairfax County is a county in Northern Virginia, in the United States. ... Falls Church is an independent city located in Virginia. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pnderosa is a steakhouse chain operated in forty-three states with its sister brand Bonanza steakhouse. ... Ashland is a town located in Hanover County, Virginia. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... The United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) was a part of the United States Department of Justice and handled legal and illegal immigration and naturalization. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... The United States National Guard is a component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... The United States Army is one of the armed forces of the United States and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ...

Aftermath

Criminal prosecutions

Virginia trials

Virginia authorities were selected for initial prosecutions. In accordance with United States law, each man was provided free legal counsel at public expense since they were both indigent. Change of venue requests by defense attorneys were granted, and the first trials were held in the independent cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach in southeastern Virginia, more than 100 miles from the closest alleged attack (in Ashland, Virginia). A change of venue is the legal term for moving a trial to a new location. ... Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent city Founded 1963 Government  - Mayor Dalton S. Edge Area  - City  350. ... Location in the Commonwealth o Virginia. ...


During their trials in the fall of 2003, involving two of the victims in Virginia, Muhammad and Malvo were each found guilty of murder and weapons charges. The jury in Muhammad's case recommended that he be sentenced to death, while Malvo's jury recommended a sentence of life in prison without parole over the death penalty. The judges concurred in both cases. Alabama law enforcement authorities allege that the snipers engaged in a series of previously unconnected attacks prior to October 2 in Montgomery, Alabama. Other charges are also pending in Maryland and other communities in Virginia. October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Mayor Bobby Bright Area    - City 404. ...


After the initial convictions and sentencing, Will Jarvis, a Virginia prosecutor in Prince William County, stated he would wait to decide whether to try Malvo on capital charges in his jurisdiction until the U.S. Supreme Court ruled on whether juveniles may be subject to the penalty of execution. While that decision in an unrelated case was still pending before the high court, in October 2004, under a plea-agreement, Malvo plead guilty in another case in Spotsylvania County, Virginia for another murder to avoid a possible death penalty sentence, and agreed to additional sentencing of life imprisonment without parole. Malvo had yet to face trial in Prince William County, Virginia. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Spotsylvania County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... Prince William County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ...


In March 2005, the Supreme Court ruled in Roper v. Simmons that the Eighth Amendment prohibits execution for crimes committed when under the age of 18. In light of this Supreme Court decision, the prosecutors in Prince William County have decided not pursue the charges against Malvo, after all. Prosecutors in Maryland, Louisiana and Alabama were still interested in putting both Malvo and Muhammad on trial. As Malvo was 17 when he committed the crimes, he will no longer face the death penalty, but still may be extradited to Alabama, Louisiana, and other states for prosecution. At the time of the Roper v. Simmons ruling, Malvo was 20 years old, and was held at Virginia's maximum security Red Onion State Prison in Pound in Wise County, Virginia. Holding The Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments forbid imposition of the death penalty on offenders who were under the age of 18 when their crimes were committed. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment VIII (the Eighth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the U.S. Bill of Rights, prohibits excessive bail or fines, as well as cruel and unusual punishment. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... Pound is a town located in Wise County, Virginia. ... Wise County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ...


Muhammad's death penalty was affirmed by the Virginia Supreme Court on April 22, 2005, when it ruled that he could be sentenced to death because the murder was part of an act of terrorism. This line of reasoning was based on the handwritten note demanding $10,000,000 dollars. The court rejected an argument by defense lawyers that Muhammad could not be sentenced to death because he was not the triggerman in the killings linked to him and Malvo. April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

"Muhammad, with his sniper team partner, Malvo, randomly selected innocent victims" Virginia Supreme Court Justice Donald Lemons wrote in the decision. "With calculation, extensive planning, premeditation and ruthless disregard for life, Muhammad carried out his cruel scheme of terror."

There has also been speculation that authorities in Virginia may proceed with what is termed a "backup case" against Muhammad. The death sentence is under appeal. It is not clear how many other jurisdictions will be allowed to try him on the capital charges they have pending before he is executed. Prior to extradition to Maryland, he was held at the maximum security Sussex I State Prison near Waverly in Sussex County, Virginia, which houses Virginia's death row inmates. Waverly is a town located in Sussex County, Virginia. ... Sussex County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ... For information about the Record company see Death Row Records For information about the computer game see Deathrow (game) Death Row is a term which refers to the section of a prison that houses individuals awaiting execution. ...


Maryland trials

In May 2005, Virginia and Maryland announced that they had reached agreements to allow Maryland to proceed with prosecuting charges there, where the most shootings occurred. There were media reports that Malvo and his legal team have been willing earlier to negotiate his cooperation, and he waived extradition to Maryland.


Muhammad and his legal team responded by fighting extradition to Maryland. Muhammad's legal team was ultimately unsuccessful, and extradition was ordered by a Virginia judge in August 2005.


Maryland has agreed to transfer Muhammad and Malvo back to the Commonwealth of Virginia after their trials. A date for Muhammad's pending execution in Virginia has not been set.


Malvo pled guilty to six murders and confessed to others in other states while being interviewed in Maryland and while testifying there against Muhammad. Malvo was sentenced to six consecutive life terms without the possibility of parole.


On May 30, 2006, a Maryland jury found John Allen Muhammad guilty of six counts of murder in Maryland. In return, he was sentenced to six consecutive life terms without possibility of parole on June 1, 2006. May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


The Real Plan (Updated from the May 2006 Maryland Trial of Muhammad)

In John Allen Muhammad's May 2006 trial in Montgomery County, MD, Lee Boyd Malvo took the stand and confessed to a more detailed version of the pair's plans. Malvo, after extensive psychological counseling, admitted that he was lying at the earlier Virginia trial where he had admitted to being the triggerman for every shooting. Malvo claimed that he had said this in order to protect John Allen Muhammad from the potential death penalty, because it was more difficult to achieve the death penalty for a minor. Malvo said that he wanted to do what little he could for the families of the victims by letting the full story be told. In his two days of testimony, Malvo outlined many very detailed aspects of all the shootings. Montgomery County is a suburban county located in the state of Maryland north and west of Washington, D.C.. Its county seat is Rockville. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ...


Part of his testimony concerned John Allen Muhammad's complete multiphase plan. His plan consisted of three phases in the Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD metro areas. Phase one consisted of meticulously planning, mapping, and practicing their locations around the DC area. This way after each shooting they would be able to quickly leave the area on a predetermined path, and move on to the next location. John Allen Muhammad's goal in Phase One was to kill 6 people a day for 30 days. Malvo went on to describe how Phase One did not go as planned due to heavy traffic and the lack of a clear shot and/or getaway at different locations. Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... This article is about the city in the US state of Maryland. ...


Phase Two was meant to be moved up to Baltimore, MD. Malvo described how this phase was close to being implemented, but never was carried out. Phase Two was intended to begin by killing a pregnant woman by shooting her in the stomach. The next step would have been to shoot and kill a Baltimore police officer. Then, at the officer's funeral, they were to create several improvised explosive devices complete with shrapnel. These explosives were intended to kill a large number of police, since many police would attend another officer's funeral. This article is about the city in the US state of Maryland. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United...


The last phase was to take place very shortly after, if not during, Phase Two. The third phase was to extort several million dollars from the United States government. This money would be used to finance a larger plan. The plan was to travel north into Canada. Along the way they would stop in YMCAs and orphanages recruiting other impressionable young boys with no parents or guidance. John Allen Muhammad thought he could act as their father figure as he did with Lee Boyd Malvo. Once he recruited a large number of young boys and made his way up to Canada, he would begin their training. Malvo described how John Allen Muhammad intended to train all these boys with weapons and stealth, as he had been taught. Finally, after their training was complete, John Allen Muhammad would send them out across the United States to carry out mass shootings in many different cities, just as he had done in Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD. These attacks would be coordinated, and were intended to send the country into chaos. This article is about the association. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... This article is about the city in the US state of Maryland. ...


Regulatory, civil actions

According to the Seattle Times in a story of April 20, 2003, Muhammad had honed his marksmanship at Bull's Eye's firing range. The newspaper also reported that Malvo told investigators that he shoplifted the 35-inch-long carbine from the "supposedly secure store." [2] April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


According to U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) officials, the store and its owners had a long history of firearms sales and records violations and a file 283 pages thick. In July 2003, the ATF revoked the federal firearms license of Brian Borgelt, a former Staff Sgt. with the U.S. Army Rangers and owner of Bull's Eye Shooter Supply. Later that month he transferred ownership of the store to a friend and continued to own the building and operate the adjacent shooting gallery. [3] The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF) is a law enforcement agency within the United States Department of Justice. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


On January 16, 2003, the Legal Action Project of the Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence, on behalf of the families of many of the victims of the Beltway sniper attacks who were killed (including Hong Im Ballenger, "Sonny" Buchanan, Jr., Linda Franklin, Conrad Johnson, Sarah Ramos and James L. Premkumar Walekar) as well as two victims who survived the shooting (Rupinder "Benny" Oberoi and 13-year old Iran Brown) filed a civil lawsuit against Bull's Eye Shooter Supply and Bushmaster Firearms, Inc. of Windham, Maine, the gun distributor and manufacturer that made the rifle used in the crime spree, as well as Borgelt, Muhammad and Malvo. Muhammad, who had a criminal record of domestic battery, and Malvo, a minor, were each legally prohibited from purchasing firearms. January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence was founded in 1974 as The National Council to Control Handguns (NCCH) by Dr. Mark Borinsky, a victim of gun violence. ... Bushmaster Firearms Inc. ... Windham is a town located in Cumberland County, Maine. ... In law, a person who is not yet a legal adult is known as a minor (known in some places as an infant or juvenile). ...


The suit claimed that Bull's Eye Shooter Supply ran its gun store in Tacoma, Washington, "in such a grossly negligent manner that scores of its guns routinely 'disappeared' from its store and it kept such shoddy records that it could not even account for the Bushmaster rifle used in the sniper shootings when asked by federal agents for records of sale for the weapon." It was alleged that the dealer could not account for hundreds of guns received from manufacturers in the years immediately prior to the Beltway sniper attacks. It was also claimed that Bull's Eye continued to sell guns in the same irresponsible manner even after Muhammad and Malvo were caught and found to have acquired the weapon there. Bushmaster was included in the suit because it allegedly continued to sell guns to Bull's Eye as a dealer despite an awareness of its record-keeping violations.


The case had been set for trial in April 2005. After losing several decisions as the case made its way through the courts, Bull's Eye contributed $2 million and Bushmaster contributed $500,000 to an out-of-court settlement. Bushmaster also agreed to educate its dealers on safer business practices.[1]


After the settlement was announced, WTOP radio in Washington, D.C., reported that Sonia Wills, mother of victim Conrad Johnson, said her family took part in the lawsuit more to send a message than to collect money. "I think a message was delivered that you should be responsible and accountable for the actions of irresponsible people when you make these guns and put them in their hands," she said. [4]


TV movie, book

On October 17, 2003, on USA Network's USA cable station, a TV movie was shown that was based on the events that occurred in 2002's sniper incident. The movie's name was D.C. Sniper: 23 Days of Fear. Also in 2003 a book written by former Montgomery County police chief Charles Moose was published. October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... USA Network is a popular American cable TV network with about 89 million household subscribers as of 2005. ... D.C. Sniper: 23 Days of Fear is a 2003 made-for-TV movie created by USA Network based on Beltway sniper attacks The movie chronicles the period when John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo went on a serial shooting spree in October 2002 in Virginia, Washington, DC, and...


Effects on Society

Fear, targets outdoors

During the weeks that the attacks occurred, fear of the apparently random shootings generated a great deal of public apprehension, especially at filling stations and the parking lots of large stores. People pumping gas at gas stations would walk around their cars quickly, hoping that they would be a harder target to hit. Some gas stations put up tarps around the awnings over the gas pumps so people would feel safer.


After the specific threat against children was delivered, many school groups curtailed field trips and outdoors athletic activities based upon safety concerns. Extra police officers were placed in schools because of this fear. In addition to this, Joel Schumacher's film Phone Booth was deemed potentially upsetting enough that its release was delayed for months, although it bore little resemblance to the shootings beyond the villains being a sniper. Reportedly, when news of a sniper attack made the nightly news, people that had been "hiding" in their homes would make a large exodus to their local gas station, which they had been avoiding as long as possible in order to not be a target. It is not known if this is an urban legend, or an actual change in behavior for a significant portion of the local population during the affected time. Joel Schumacher (born August 29, 1939) is an American film director, writer, and producer. ... Phone Booth is a 2002 movie about a man who is trapped in a telephone booth by a sniper. ... An urban legend or urban myth is a kind of modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ...


Profiling

Of longer impact, the Beltway Sniper Attacks may have permanently damaged the perception of mass murderers as primarily disgruntled and/or mentally unbalanced middle-aged white men. Eyewitness reports gave descriptions as "a crazy white guy armed with an AK-47, driving about in a boxy white van," when in fact the shooters were two black men armed with an XM-15 (which is a civilianized derivative of the M16 that bears only a very superficial resemblance to an AK-47) driving about in an old blue Chevy sedan. There were even reports that police were searching for a white supremacist[5][6]. M16 (more formally United States Rifle, Caliber 5. ... Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ... White supremacy is the variety of white nationalism that believes the white race should rule over other races. ...


Similar incidents

Joseph Paul Franklin (April 13, 1950-) is an American serial killer who may have killed 20 people between 1977 and 1980. ... The 2003 West Virginia sniper attacks were a series of sniper-style shootings that took place over the course of several days in August 2003, leaving three people dead in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... The Ohio highway sniper attacks were a series of 24 sniper attacks along Interstate 270 and other nearby highways in the central part of the U.S. state of Ohio (mostly around Columbus) against traffic and homes. ... The Serial Shooter (Or Serial Sniper, in some newscasts. ... Composite sketch of the Baseline Rapist. ... The Zebra murders were a number of connected murders committed by a black supremacist serial killer ring which took place in San Francisco, California from 1973 until 1974, and which left at least 16 people dead [2], and from eight (Howard) to ten (additions by Scheeres, Crime Library, and Cohen...

References

  • Interactive map of the shootings, Washington Post
  1. ^ Manning, Stephen. "Families of sniper victims reach settlement", Associated Press, 10 September 2004. Retrieved on 18 April 2007. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Beltway sniper attacks - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3621 words)
Police responded within minutes to reports of attacks during the three weeks of the sniper attacks, cordoning off nearby roads and highways and inspecting all drivers, thereby grinding traffic to a halt for hours at a time throughout parts of one of America's largest metropolitan areas.
Reportedly, when news of a sniper attack made the nightly news, people that had been "hiding" in their homes would make a large exodus to their local gas station, which they had been avoiding as long as possible in order to not be a target.
Evidence found at the crime scene eventually ties this killing to the Beltway attacks and allows authorities to identify Muhammad and Malvo as suspects, although this connection is not made until October 8.
Beltway sniper attacks - definition of Beltway sniper attacks in Encyclopedia (1389 words)
The sniper attacks began October 2, 2002, with a series of five fatal shootings in 15 hours in Montgomery County, Maryland, a suburban county north of Washington, and continued for the next three weeks in the Washington metropolitan area, filling residents of the region with fear.
The attacks were carried out with a Bushmaster XM-15 semiautomatic.223 caliber rifle, the civilian equivalent of the U.S. military's M-16 assault rifle, at a range of 50 to over 100 yards.
The first Beltway-area sniper shooting occurs on October 2 in Montgomery County, Maryland, a northern suburban county near Washington, DC in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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