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Encyclopedia > Bell Labs

Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. At its peak, Bell Labs was the premier facility of its type, developing a wide range of revolutionary technologies, including the transistor, laser, information theory, and the UNIX operating system. There have been 6 Nobel Prizes awarded for work done at Bell Labs. [1] Image File history File links Belllabs96. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or R&D) has a special commercial significance apart from its conventional coupling of research and technological development. ... The Bell System was a trademark and service mark used by the US telecommunications company American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) and its affiliated companies to co-brand their extensive circuit-switched telephone network and their affiliations with each other. ... Assorted transistors The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device that can be used for amplification, switching, voltage stabilization, signal modulation and many other functions. ... Lasers range in size from microscopic diode lasers (top) with numerous applications, to football field sized neodymium glass lasers (bottom) used for inertial confinement fusion, nuclear weapons research and other physics experiments. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Guide to Unix Unix or UNIX is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T Bell Labs employees including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and Douglas McIlroy. ... An operating system is a special computer program that manages the relationship between application software, the wide variety of hardware that makes up a computer system, and the user of the system. ... Sir Edward Appletons medal Photographs of Nobel Prize Medals. ...


Bell Labs had research and development facilities throughout the USA, with the greatest concentration of facilities located in New Jersey. Among the locations in New Jersey were Crawford Hill, Freehold, Holmdel, Lincroft, Long Branch, Middletown, Murray Hill, Piscataway, Red Bank and Whippany. The largest facility in the country was at Naperville-Lisle, which had the single largest concentration of employees (about 11,000) prior to the telecomm bust of 2000. There were also facilities in Columbus, Ohio, Allentown and Breinigsville in Pennsylvania, and Westminster, Colorado. Since 2000, many of the former Bell Labs locations have been scaled back or shut down entirely. Official language(s) None defined, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 47th 22,608 km² 110 km 240 km 14. ... Freehold, New Jersey is made up of two municipalities. ... The Horn Antenna in Holmdel Holmdel Township is a township located in Monmouth County, New Jersey. ... Lincroft is a census-designated place and unincorporated located within Middletown Township, in Monmouth County, New Jersey. ... Long Branch is a city located in Monmouth County, New Jersey. ... Middletown Township is a township located in Monmouth County, New Jersey. ... Murray Hill is a locality of Berkeley Heights, New Jersey located in Union County in north-central New Jersey. ... Piscataway Township is a township located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. ... Map of Red Bank in Monmouth County The Borough of Red Bank is a Borough located in Monmouth County, New Jersey incorporated in 1908. ... Whippany is a town in Morris County, New Jersey. ... Naperville is a city located in DuPage County, Illinois and Will County, Illinois. ... Lisle is a village located in DuPage County, Illinois. ... Nickname: The Arch City The Discovery City Official website: http://www. ... Nickname: The Queen City Political Statistics Founded 1762 County Lehigh County Mayor Ed Pawlowski Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 46. ... Breinigsville, Pennsylvania, USA is located in Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania about a mile west of Trexlertown and several miles west of Allentown. ... Westminster is a city located in both Adams County, Colorado and Jefferson County, Colorado. ...

Contents


Nearly a century of innovation

Bell Labs logo, used from 1969 until 1983.
Bell Labs logo, used from 1969 until 1983.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x388, 42 KB) Summary From a Bell Labs: The Wisdom Business poster Licensing This is a logo of a corporation, sports team, or other organization, and is protected by copyright and/or trademark. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x388, 42 KB) Summary From a Bell Labs: The Wisdom Business poster Licensing This is a logo of a corporation, sports team, or other organization, and is protected by copyright and/or trademark. ...

1920s

Bell Telephone Laboratories Inc. was established 1925 by Walter Gifford (then president of AT&T) as a separate entity which would take over the work being conducted by Western Electric's engineering department's research division. Ownership of Bell Labs was evenly split between AT&T and Western Electric. AT&T Inc. ... Western Electric (sometimes abbreviated WE and WECo) was a US electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of AT&T from 1881 to 1995 . ...


During its first year of operation, Facsimile (fax) transmission was first demonstrated publicly by the Bell Labs. In 1926, the laboratories invented the first synchronous-sound motion picture system [2], and continued to produce inventions throughout its lifetime. This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...


In 1927, a long-distance television transmission of images of Herbert Hoover from Washington to New York was successful, and in 1928 the thermal noise in a resistor was first measured by J.B. Johnson with Harry Nyquist, who provided a theoretical analysis. During the 1920s, the one-time pad cipher was invented by Gilbert Vernam and Joseph Mauborgne at the labs; Bell's Claude Shannon later proved that it was unbreakable. Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933), was a successful mining engineer, humanitarian, and administrator. ... Johnson-Nyquist noise (sometimes thermal noise, Johnson noise or Nyquist noise) is the noise generated by the equilibrium fluctuations of the electric current inside an electrical conductor, which happens without any applied voltage, due to the random thermal motion of the charge carriers (the electrons). ... While at Bell Telephone Laboratories, J. B. Johnson published the journal paper Thermal Agitation of Electricity in Conductors. In telecommunication or other systems, thermal noise (or Johnson noise) is the noise generated by thermal agitation of electrons in a conductor. ... Harry Nyquist (February 7, 1889 - April 4, 1976) was an important contributor to information theory. ... Excerpt from a one time pad. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ... Gilbert Sandford Vernam (1890–7 February 1960) was a AT&T Bell Labs engineer who, in 1917, invented the stream cipher and later co-invented the one-time pad cipher. ... In the history of cryptography, Joseph Oswald Mauborgne (1881–1971) co-invented the one-time pad with Gilbert Vernam of Bell Labs. ... Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 _ February 24, 2001) has been called the father of information theory, and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ...


1930s

In 1933, a foundation of radio astronomy was laid by Karl Jansky during his work investigating the origins of static on long distance communications. He discovered that radio waves were being emitted from the center of the galaxy. Also in 1933, stereo signals were transmitted live from Philadelphia to Washington DC. In 1937, the vocoder, the first electronic speech synthesizer were invented and demonstrated by Homer Dudley. Bell researcher Clinton Davisson shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with George Paget Thomson for the discovery of electron diffraction, which helped lay the foundation for solid-state electronics. Microwave image of 3C353 galaxy at 8. ... Karl Guthe Jansky (October 22, 1905 – February 14, 1950), was the American physicist and radio engineer who in 1932 discovered that the Milky Way galaxy emanates radio waves; he did not follow up his discovery, but it marked the birth of radio astronomy. ... NGC 4414, a typical spiral galaxy in the constellation Coma Berenices, is about 56,000 light years in diameter and approximately 60 million light years distant. ... Symbol for stereo Stereophonic sound, commonly called stereo, is the reproduction of sound, using two independent audio channels, through a pair of widely separated speaker systems, in such a way as to create a pleasant and natural impression of sound heard from various directions as in natural hearing. ... Philadelphia is a village located in Jefferson County, New York. ... ... A vocoder (name derived from voice coder, formerly also called voder) is a speech analyser and synthesizer. ... Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. ... Clinton Joseph Davisson (22 October 1881–1 February 1958), was an American physicist. ... George Paget Thomson (May 3, 1892 – September 10, 1975), British physicist and son of Nobel Prize winning physicist J. J. Thomson. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In physics, the solid state is one of the three phases of matter (solid, liquid, and gas). ...


1940s

The transistor was invented at Bell Labs in 1947.
The transistor was invented at Bell Labs in 1947.

In the early 1940s, the photovoltaic cell developed by Russell Ohl. In 1947, the transistor, probably the most important invention developed by Bell Laboratories, was invented by John Bardeen, William Bradford Shockley, and Walter Houser Brattain (all of whom subsequently won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956). In 1948, "A Mathematical Theory of Communication", one of the founding works in information theory, was published by Claude Shannon in the Bell System Technical Journal; it built in part on earlier work in the field by Bell researchers Harry Nyquist and Ralph Hartley. In 1949, Bell Labs demonstrated the first remote operation of a teleprinter, which was in New Hampshire, and was controlled by a computer in New York City. It also introduced a series of increasingly complex calculators through the decade. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1289x1081, 724 KB) anal Summary Several thru-hole w:transistors. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1289x1081, 724 KB) anal Summary Several thru-hole w:transistors. ... Assorted transistors The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device that can be used for amplification, switching, voltage stabilization, signal modulation and many other functions. ... A photovoltaic cell is a device that turns light into electric energy. ... Russell Ohl is generally recognized for patenting the modern solar cell (US2402662, Light sensitive device). Ohl was a notable semiconductor researcher prior to the invention of the transistor. ... Assorted transistors The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device that can be used for amplification, switching, voltage stabilization, signal modulation and many other functions. ... A commemorative plaque remembering Bardeen and the Theory of Superconductivity, at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign campus John Bardeen (May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American physicist. ... William Bradford Shockley (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was a physicist and co-inventor of the transistor with John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics. ... Walter Houser Brattain (February 10, 1902 – October 13, 1987) was a physicist who, along with John Bardeen, invented the transistor. ... Sir Edward Appletons medal Photographs of Nobel Prize Medals. ... A Mathematical Theory of Communication, published in 1948 by mathematician and computer scientist Claude Shannon, was one of the founding works of the field of information theory. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 _ February 24, 2001) has been called the father of information theory, and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ... Bell System Technical Journal was the in-house journal of Bell Laboratories. ... Harry Nyquist (February 7, 1889 - April 4, 1976) was an important contributor to information theory. ... Ralph Vinton Lyon Hartley (November 30, 1888 - May 1, 1970) was an electronics researcher. ... Teletype machines in World War II A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Concord Manchester Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 46th 24,239 km² 110 km 305 km 3. ... Nickname: The Big Apple, The Capital of the World Official website: City of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area Total 468. ...


Calculators

  • Model I - Complex Number Calculator, completed January 1940, for doing calculations of complex numbers
  • Model II - Relay Calculator or Relay Interpolator, September 1943, for aiming anti-aircraft guns by interpolating from positions
  • Model III - Ballistic Computer, June 1944, for calculations of ballistic trajectories
  • Model IV - Bell Laboratories Relay Calculator, March 1945, a second Ballistic Computer
  • Model V - Bell Laboratories General Purpose Relay Calculator, two were built: July 1946 and February 1947. These were general-purpose programmable computers using electromechanical relays.
  • Model VI - November 1950, an enhanced Model V.

The complex numbers are an extension of the real numbers, in which all non-constant polynomials have roots. ...

1950s

The 1950s saw fewer developments and less activity. But in 1956, TAT-1, the first transatlantic telephone cable was laid between Scotland and Newfoundland. A year later in 1957, MUSIC, one of the first computer programs to play electronic music, was created by Max Mathews; new greedy algorithms developed by Robert C. Prim and Joseph Kruskal, revolutionized computer network design. In 1958, the laser was first described in a technical paper by Arthur Schawlow and Charles Townes. TAT-1 (Transatlantic No. ... A transatlantic telephone cable is a submarine communications cable that carries telephone traffic under the Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe. ... MUSIC-N refers to a family of computer music programs and programming languages descended from or influenced by MUSIC, a program written by Max Mathews in 1957 at Bell Labs, it is no longer considered to be the first computer program for making music (in actuality, sound) on a digital... Electronic music is a term for music created using electronic devices. ... Max Vernon Mathews was born in Columbus, Nebraska, on November 13, 1926. ... Greedy algorithms are algorithms which follow the problem solving meta-heuristic of making the locally optimum choice at each stage with the hope of finding the global optimum. ... Robert Clay Prim (born 1921 in Sweetwater, Texas) is an American mathemetician and computer scientist. ... Joseph Bernard Kruskal (b. ... A computer network is a system for communication between computers. ... Lasers range in size from microscopic diode lasers (top) with numerous applications, to football field sized neodymium glass lasers (bottom) used for inertial confinement fusion, nuclear weapons research and other physics experiments. ... Arthur Leonard Schawlow (May 5, 1921–April 28, 1999) was an American physicist. ... Charles Hard Townes (born July 28, 1915) is an American Nobel Prize-winning physicist and educator. ...


1960s

The LED was invented at Bell Labs in 1962.
The LED was invented at Bell Labs in 1962.

The 1960s saw several important developments from Bell Labs, including the Light emitting diode (LED) in 1962, invented by Nick Holonyak. Since their invention, LEDs have been used in millions of commercial products around the world such as personal computers. In 1964, the Carbon dioxide laser was invented by Kumar Patel. In 1965, Penzias and Wilson discovered the Cosmic Microwave Background, and won the Nobel Prize in 1978. In 1966, Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), a key technology in wireless services, was developed and patented by R. W. Chang. In 1968, Molecular beam epitaxy was developed by J.R. Arthur and A.Y. Cho; molecular beam epitaxy allows semiconductor chips and laser matrices to be manufactured one atomic layer at a time. In 1969, the UNIX operating system was created by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson. UNIX has since been developed into more modern operating systems such as Linux and Mac OS X. The Charge-coupled device (CCD) was invented in 1969 by Willard Boyle and George E. Smith. Image File history File links Makroaufnahme einer Leuchtdiode, Durchmesser 5 mm. ... Image File history File links Makroaufnahme einer Leuchtdiode, Durchmesser 5 mm. ... Various light-emitting diodes (5 mm reds, 3 mm greens and yellows) A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits incoherent monochromatic light when electrically biased in the forward direction. ... Various light-emitting diodes (5 mm reds, 3 mm greens and yellows) A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits incoherent monochromatic light when electrically biased in the forward direction. ... Nick Holonyak Jr. ... In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need. ... The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest lasers to be developed (invented by Kumar Patel of Bell Labs in 1964), and is still one of the most useful. ... WMAP image of the CMB anisotropy,Cosmic microwave background radiation(June 2003) The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) is a form of electromagnetic radiation that fills the whole of the universe. ... Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), also sometimes called discrete multitone modulation (DMT), is a complex modulation technique for transmission based upon the idea of frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) where each frequency channel is modulated with a simpler modulation. ... Molecular beam epitaxy, abbreviated MBE, is the deposition of one or more pure materials onto a single crystal wafer, one layer of atoms at a time, under ultra-high vacuum, forming a perfect crystal. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Guide to Unix Unix or UNIX is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T Bell Labs employees including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and Douglas McIlroy. ... Ken Thompson (left) with Dennis Ritchie (right) Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (born September 9, 1941) is a computer scientist notable for his influence on ALTRAN, B, BCPL, C, Multics, and Unix. ... Ken Thompson Kenneth Thompson (born February 4, 1943) is a computer scientist notable for his contributions to the development of the C programming language and the UNIX operating system. ... Linux (also known as GNU/Linux) is a computer operating system. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ... Willard S Boyle (August 19, 1924 - ) is a Canadian physicist and co-inventor of the Charge-coupled device. ... George E. Smith is an American scientist and co-inventor of the Charge-coupled device. ...


1970s

The C programming language was developed at Bell Labs in 1970.

The 1970s and 1980s saw more and more computer-related inventions at the Bell Labs as part of the personal computing revolution. In 1970, the C programming language was developed by Dennis Ritchie for use writing the UNIX operating system (also developed at Bell Labs). In 1971, a computerized switching system for telephone traffic was invented by Erna Schneider Hoover, who received one of the first software patents for it. In 1976, Fiber optics systems were first tested in Georgia and in 1980, the first single-chip 32-bit microprocessor, the BELLMAC-32A was demonstrated, it went into production in 1982. In 1980, the TDMA and CDMA digital cellular telephone technology was patented. In 1982, Fractional quantum Hall effect was discovered by Horst Störmer and former Bell Labs researchers Robert B. Laughlin and Daniel C. Tsui; they consequently won a Nobel Prize in 1998 for the discovery. In 1983, the C++ programming language was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension to the original C programming language also developed at Bell Labs. Download high resolution version (976x1364, 172 KB)Cover of Kernighan & Ritchie book on C Source: [1] This work is copyrighted. ... Download high resolution version (976x1364, 172 KB)Cover of Kernighan & Ritchie book on C Source: [1] This work is copyrighted. ... The C Programming Language, Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, the original edition that served for many years as an informal specification of the language The C programming language is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in the early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie for use on the UNIX... Ken Thompson (left) with Dennis Ritchie (right) Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (born September 9, 1941) is a computer scientist notable for his influence on ALTRAN, B, BCPL, C, Multics, and Unix. ... In the field of telecommunications, a telephone exchange (US: telephone switch) is a piece of equipment that connects phone calls. ... Dr. Erna Schneider Hoover invented a method for prioritizing processes within stored program control switching systems while working at Bell Laboratories. ... Software patents and patents on computer-implemented inventions (CII) are a class of patents and one of many legal aspects of computing. ... Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386. ... Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is a technology for shared medium (usually radio) networks. ... General Information Generically (as a multiplexing scheme), code division multiple access (CDMA) is any use of any form of spread spectrum by multiple transmitters to send to the same receiver on the same frequency channel at the same time without harmful interference. ... The quantum Hall effect is a quantum mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two-dimensional systems of electrons subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductance σ takes on the quantized values where e is the elementary charge and h is Plancks... Horst Ludwig Störmer (born April 6, 1949) is a Bell Labs physicist who shared the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics with Daniel Tsui and Robert Laughlin. ... Robert Betts Laughlin (born November 1, 1950) is an American theoretical physicist who, with Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui, was awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in physics for his explanation of the fractional quantum Hall effect. ... Daniel Chee Tsui 崔琦 (pinyin: Cuī Qí)(born February 28, 1939, Henan Province, China) is a Chinese American physicist whose areas of research included electrical properties of thin films and microstructures of semiconductors and solid-state physics. ... C++ (generally pronounced see plus plus) is a general-purpose programming language. ... Bjarne Stroustrup Bjarne Stroustrup (born December 30, 1950 in Aarhus, Denmark) is a computer scientist and the College of Engineering Chair Professor of Computer Science at Texas A&M University. ...


1980s

Bell Labs logo, used from 1984 until 1995.
Bell Labs logo, used from 1984 until 1995.

In 1984, Karmarkar Linear Programming Algorithm was developed by mathematician Narendra Karmarkar. Also in 1984, a divestiture agreement with the American Federal government forced the break-up of AT&T: Bellcore was split off from Bell Labs to provide the same R&D functions for the newly created local exchange carriers. AT&T was also limited to using the Bell trademark only in association with Bell Labs. Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. is then renamed AT&T Bell Laboratories, Inc., and becomes a wholly owned company of the new AT&T Technologies unit, the former Western Electric. In 1985, laser cooling was used to slow and manipulate atoms by Steven Chu and team. Also in 1985, Bell Labs was awarded the National Medal of Technology for "For contribution over decades to modern communication systems". During the 1980s, the Plan 9 operating system was developed as a replacement for Unix which was also developed at Bell Labs in 1969; Development of the Radiodrum, a three dimensional electronic instrument. In 1988, TAT-8 is the first fiber optic transatlantic cable. Image File history File links Image135. ... Karmarkars algorithm is an algorithm that solves linear programming problems in polynomial time. ... Narendra K. Karmarkar (b. ... In telecommunication, Modification of Final Judgment (MFJ) is the 1982 antitrust suit settlement agreement (consent decree) entered into by the United States Department of Justice and the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) that, after modification and upon approval of the United States District Court for the District of... Telcordia Technologies, formerly Bellcore, is an American telecommunications company created in 1984 after the breakup of AT&T. It was split from the original Bell Labs as part of the negotiated consent decree with the US government, and served Research & Development and standards setting functions for the resulting seven Baby... Local exchange carrier is a regulatory term in telecommunications for so-called local telephone company. ... AT&T Inc. ... AT&T Technologies, Inc. ... Western Electric (sometimes abbreviated WE and WECo) was a US electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of AT&T from 1881 to 1995 . ... Laser cooling is a technique that uses light to cool atoms to a very low temperature. ... Steven Chu (Traditional Chinese: 朱棣文; Pinyin: ) (born February 28, 1948 in St. ... The National Medal of Technology is an honor granted by the President of the United States to inventors and innovators that have made significant contributions to the development of new and important technology. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Guide to Unix Unix or UNIX is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T Bell Labs employees including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and Douglas McIlroy. ... The Radiodrum is a musical instrument played in three dimensional space using two drumsticks. ... TAT-8 was AT&Ts 8th transatlantic telephone cable, in operation from 1988, initially carrying 40,000 telephone circuits (simultaneous calls) between USA and France. ...


1990s

In 1990, WaveLAN, the first wireless local area network (LAN) is developed at Bell Labs, wireless network technology would not become popular until the late 1990s and was first demonstrated in 1995. In 1991, the 56K modem technology was patented by Nuri Dagdeviren and his team. In 1994: Quantum cascade laser invented by Federico Capasso, Claire Gmachl and team. In 1996, SCALPEL electron lithography, which prints features atoms wide on microchips, was invented by Lloyd Harriott and team. The Inferno operating system, an update of Plan 9, was created by Dennis Ritchie with others using the new concurrent Limbo programming language. Wireless is an old-fashioned term for a radio receiver, referring to its use as a wireless telegraph; now the term is used to describe modern wireless connections such as in cellular networks and wireless broadband Internet. ... A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small local area, like a home, office, or small group of buildings such as a home, office, or college. ... A modem (a portmanteau word constructed from modulator and demodulator) is a device that modulates a carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ... The quantum cascade laser or QC laser is a unipolar laser which uses electrons as its only charge carrier. ... Federico Capasso, a physicist, was one of the inventors of the quantum cascade laser during his work at Bell Laboratories. ... Negative litography stone and positive print of a map of Munich Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Inferno is an operating system for creating and supporting distributed services. ... Concurrent programming languages are programming languages that use language constructs for concurrency. ... Limbo is a programming language for writing distributed systems and is the language used to write applications for the Inferno operating system. ...


AT&T spun off Bell Labs, along with most of its equipment-manufacturing business, into a new company named Lucent Technologies. AT&T retained a smaller number of researchers, who made up the staff of the newly-created AT&T Laboratories. In 1997, 50 years after inventing the original transistor, the smallest practical transistor created, 60 nanometers (or a mere 182 atoms wide) is created. In 1998, the first optical router was invented and the first combination of voice and data traffic on an Internet Protocol (IP) network was developed at the Labs. On September 30, 1996, AT&T spun off its Systems and Technology units (AT&T Technologies, Inc. ... AT&T Labs is the research & development arm of American telecommunications giant, AT&T. AT&T Labs originated in 1996, when AT&T spun-off most of its Bell Labs research business as Lucent Technologies. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ...


Recent achievements

2000 was a very active year for the Labs in which DNA machine prototypes were developed; progressive geometry compression algorithm made widespread 3-D communication practical; the first electrically powered organic laser invented; a large-scale map of cosmic dark matter was compiled, and F-15, an organic material that makes plastic transistors possible, was invented. In 2002, Jan Hendrik Schön, a German physicist, was fired after his work is found to contain fraudulent data; it is the first case of scientific fraud in the lab's history. Over a dozen of Schön's papers were found to contain completely fictional or considerably altered data, including a paper on molecular-scale transistors that was received as a breakthrough. Also in 2002, the world's first semiconductor laser that emits light continuously and reliably over a broad spectrum of infrared wavelengths was invented. In 2003, the New Jersey Nanotechnology Laboratory was founded as the successor to Bell Laboratories at Murray Hill, New Jersey. The idea of using DNA as a material for molecular-scale construction of objects and devices was pioneered in the late 1980s by Nadrian Seeman and co-workers from New York University. ... In cosmology, dark matter refers to hypothetical matter particles, of unknown composition, that do not emit or reflect enough electromagnetic radiation to be detected directly, but whose presence can be inferred from gravitational effects on visible matter such as stars and galaxies. ... Jan Hendrik Schön (born 1970) is a German physicist who briefly rose to prominence after a series of apparent breakthroughs (recipient of Otto-Klung-Weberbank Prize for Physics in 2001, Braunschweig Prize in 2001 and Outstanding Young Investigator Award of the Materials Research Society in 2002), these were later... A physicist is a scientist trained in physics. ... Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research. ... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of microwave radiation. ... Murray Hill is a locality of Berkeley Heights, New Jersey located in Union County in north-central New Jersey. ...


In April 2006, Bell Labs' mother company Lucent Technologies signed a merger agreement with Alcatel. This deal has raised concerns in the US, where Bell Labs works on highly sensitive defence contracts. It was announced that a separate company with a US board would be set up to manage Bell Labs' and Lucent's sensitive US government contracts. On September 30, 1996, AT&T spun off its Systems and Technology units (AT&T Technologies, Inc. ... {{Infobox_Company | company_name = Alcatel| company_logo = | company_type = Public (Euronext: CGE, NYSE: ALA) | foundation = Alsace, France (1898) | location = Paris, France | key_people = Serge Tchuruk, Chairman and CEO | industry = telecommunications | products = provides hardware, software and services to telecommunications service providers and enterprises | revenue = 14. ...


See also

On September 30, 1996, AT&T spun off its Systems and Technology units (AT&T Technologies, Inc. ... Worse is better is the name of a computer software design style (or software design philosophy), also called the New Jersey style. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]

External links


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