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Encyclopedia > Bell Laboratory
The current logo
The current logo

Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. Image File history File links Belllabs96. ... Image File history File links Belllabs96. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or R&D) has a special commercial significance apart from its conventional coupling of scientific research and technological development. ... The Bell System was a trademark and service mark used by the US telecommunications company American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) and its affiliated companies to co-brand their extensive circuit-switched telephone network and their affiliations with each other. ...


Bell Labs had research and development facilities throughout the USA, with the greatest concentration of facilities located in New Jersey. Among the locations in New Jersey were Crawford Hill, Freehold, Holmdel, Lincroft, Long Branch, Middletown, Murray Hill, Piscataway, Red Bank and Whippany. The largest facility in the country was in Illinois, at Naperville-Lisle, which had the single largest concentration of employees (about 11,000) prior to the telecomm bust of 2000. There were also facilities in Columbus, Ohio, Allentown and Breinigsville in Pennsylvania, and Westminster, Colorado. Since 2000, many of the former Bell Labs locations have been scaled back or shut down entirely. Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... Crawford Hill is located in Holmdel Township, New Jersey. ... Freehold, New Jersey is made up of two municipalities. ... The Horn Antenna in Holmdel Holmdel Township is a township located in Monmouth County, New Jersey. ... Map of Lincroft CDP in Monmouth County Lincroft is a part of Middletown Township, in Monmouth County, New Jersey. ... Map of Long Branch in Monmouth County Long Branch is a City located in Monmouth County, New Jersey. ... Middletown Township is a township located in Monmouth County, New Jersey. ... Murray Hill is a locality of Berkeley Heights, New Jersey located in Union County in north-central New Jersey. ... Piscataway Township is a township located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. ... Map of Red Bank in Monmouth County The Borough of Red Bank is a Borough located in Monmouth County, New Jersey incorporated in 1908. ... Whippany is a town in Morris County, New Jersey. ... Naperville is a city located in DuPage County, Illinois and Will County, Illinois. ... Lisle is a village located in DuPage County, Illinois. ... Nickname: The Arch City The Discovery City Location in the state of Ohio Coordinates: Country United States State Ohio Counties Franklin, Delaware, and Fairfield Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area    - City 550. ... Nickname: The Queen City Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Lehigh Founded 1762 Mayor Ed Pawlowski Area    - City 46. ... Breinigsville, Pennsylvania, USA is located in Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania about a mile west of Trexlertown and several miles west of Allentown. ... Westminster is a city located in both Adams County, Colorado and Jefferson County, Colorado. ...


Bell Telephone Laboratories Inc. was established 1925 by Walter Gifford (then president of AT&T) as a separate entity which would take over the work being conducted by Western Electric's engineering department's research division. Ownership of Bell Labs was evenly split between AT&T and Western Electric. Its principal work was to design and support the equipment Western Electric built for Bell System operating companies, including switches. It also carried out consulting work for them, and US government work including Project Nike. A few workers were assigned to basic research, which attracted much attention. AT&T Inc. ... Western Electric (sometimes abbreviated WE and WECo) was a US electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of AT&T from 1881 to 1995 . ... A Verizon Central Office in Lakeland, Florida at night. ... Launch of a Nike Zeus missile Project Nike was a US Army project, proposed in May 1945 by Bell Labs, to develop a line-of-sight anti-aircraft missile system. ...

Contents

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Discoveries

Bell Labs logo, used from 1969 until 1983.
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Bell Labs logo, used from 1969 until 1983.

At its peak, Bell Labs was the premier facility of its type, developing a wide range of revolutionary technologies, including the transistor, laser, information theory, the UNIX operating system, and the C programming language. There have been 6 Nobel Prizes awarded for work done at Bell Labs. [1] Assorted transistors The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device that can be used for amplification, switching, voltage stabilization, signal modulation and many other functions. ... // Experiment using a (likely argon) laser. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Unix or UNIX is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and Douglas McIlroy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of C Programming The C programming language (often, just C) is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in the early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie for use on the Unix operating system. ... Nobel Prize medal. ...

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1920s

During its first year of operation, Facsimile (fax) transmission was first demonstrated publicly by the Bell Labs. In 1926, the laboratories invented the first synchronous-sound motion picture system [2], and continued to produce inventions throughout its lifetime. This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...


In 1927, a long-distance television transmission of images of Herbert Hoover from Washington to New York was successful, and in 1928 the thermal noise in a resistor was first measured by John B. Johnson with Harry Nyquist, who provided a theoretical analysis. During the 1920s, the one-time pad cipher was invented by Gilbert Vernam and Joseph Mauborgne at the labs; Bell's Claude Shannon later proved that it was unbreakable. Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933), was a successful mining engineer, humanitarian, and administrator. ... Johnson-Nyquist noise (sometimes thermal noise, Johnson noise or Nyquist noise) is the noise generated by the equilibrium fluctuations of the electric current inside an electrical conductor, which happens without any applied voltage, due to the random thermal motion of the charge carriers (the electrons). ... John Bertrand Johnson (1887-1970) was a Swedish-born American electrical engineer and physicist. ... Harry Nyquist (February 7, 1889 - April 4, 1976) was an important contributor to information theory. ... Excerpt from a one-time pad. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ... Gilbert Sandford Vernam (1890–7 February 1960) was a AT&T Bell Labs engineer who, in 1917, invented the stream cipher and later co-invented the one-time pad cipher. ... In the history of cryptography, Joseph Oswald Mauborgne (1881–1971) co-invented the one-time pad with Gilbert Vernam of Bell Labs. ... Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 _ February 24, 2001) has been called the father of information theory, and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ...

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1930s

In 1933, a foundation for radio astronomy was laid by Karl Jansky during his work investigating the origins of static on long-distance communications. He discovered that radio waves were being emitted from the center of the galaxy. Also in 1933, stereo signals were transmitted live from Philadelphia to Washington DC. In 1937, the vocoder, the first electronic speech synthesizer was invented and demonstrated by Homer Dudley. Bell researcher Clinton Davisson shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with George Paget Thomson for the discovery of electron diffraction, which helped lay the foundation for solid-state electronics. Microwave image of 3C353 galaxy at 8. ... Karl Guthe Jansky (October 22, 1905 – February 14, 1950), was the American physicist and radio engineer who in 1932 discovered that the Milky Way galaxy emanates radio waves; he did not follow up his discovery, but it marked the birth of radio astronomy. ... NGC 4414, a typical spiral galaxy in the constellation Coma Berenices, is about 56,000 light years in diameter and approximately 60 million light years distant. ... Label for 2. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Flag Seal Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ... A vocoder (name derived from voice coder, formerly also called voder) is a speech analyser and synthesizer. ... Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. ... Clinton Joseph Davisson (22 October 1881–1 February 1958), was an American physicist. ... Joe has no friends what-so-ever Sir George Paget Thomson FRS (May 3, 1892 – September 10, 1975) was a Nobel-Prize-winning, English physicist who discovered the wave properties of the electron by electron diffraction. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In physics, the solid state is one of the three phases of matter (solid, liquid, and gas). ...

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1940s

The transistor was invented at Bell Labs in 1947.
The transistor was invented at Bell Labs in 1947.

In the early 1940s, the photovoltaic cell was developed by Russell Ohl. In 1943, Bell developed SIGSALY, the first digital scrambled speech transmission system, used by the Allies in World War II. In 1947, the transistor, probably the most important invention developed by Bell Laboratories, was invented by John Bardeen, William Bradford Shockley, and Walter Houser Brattain (all of whom subsequently won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956). In 1948, "A Mathematical Theory of Communication", one of the founding works in information theory, was published by Claude Shannon in the Bell System Technical Journal; it built in part on earlier work in the field by Bell researchers Harry Nyquist and Ralph Hartley. In 1949, Bell Labs demonstrated the first remote operation of a teleprinter, which was in New Hampshire and was controlled by a computer in New York City. It also introduced a series of increasingly complex calculators through the decade. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1289x1081, 724 KB) anal Summary Several thru-hole w:transistors. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1289x1081, 724 KB) anal Summary Several thru-hole w:transistors. ... Assorted transistors The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device that can be used for amplification, switching, voltage stabilization, signal modulation and many other functions. ... A photovoltaic cell is a device that turns light into electric energy. ... Russell Ohl is generally recognized for patenting the modern solar cell (US2402662, Light sensitive device). Ohl was a notable semiconductor researcher prior to the invention of the transistor. ... SIGSALY exhibit at the National Cryptologic Museum In cryptography, SIGSALY (also Green Hornet) was a telephone scrambler used in World War II for the highest-level Allied communications. ... Assorted transistors The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device that can be used for amplification, switching, voltage stabilization, signal modulation and many other functions. ... A commemorative plaque remembering Bardeen and the Theory of Superconductivity, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign campus John Bardeen (May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American physicist. ... William Bradford Shockley (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was a physicist and co-inventor of the transistor with John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics. ... Walter Houser Brattain (February 10, 1902 – October 13, 1987) was a physicist at Bell Labs who, along with John Bardeen, invented the transistor. ... Nobel Prize medal. ... A Mathematical Theory of Communication, published in 1948 by mathematician and computer scientist Claude Shannon, was one of the founding works of the field of information theory. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 _ February 24, 2001) has been called the father of information theory, and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ... Bell System Technical Journal was the in-house journal of Bell Laboratories. ... Harry Nyquist (February 7, 1889 - April 4, 1976) was an important contributor to information theory. ... Ralph Vinton Lyon Hartley (November 30, 1888 - May 1, 1970) was an electronics researcher. ... Teletype machines in World War II A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: Big Apple Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ...

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Calculators

  • Model I - Complex Number Calculator, completed January 1940, for doing calculations of complex numbers
  • Model II - Relay Calculator or Relay Interpolator, September 1943, for aiming anti-aircraft guns by interpolating from positions
  • Model III - Ballistic Computer, June 1944, for calculations of ballistic trajectories
  • Model IV - Bell Laboratories Relay Calculator, March 1945, a second Ballistic Computer
  • Model V - Bell Laboratories General Purpose Relay Calculator, two were built: July 1946 and February 1947. These were general-purpose programmable computers using electromechanical relays.
  • Model VI - November 1950, an enhanced Model V.
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The complex numbers are an extension of the real numbers, in which all non-constant polynomials have roots. ...

1950s

The 1950s saw fewer developments and less activity. But in 1956, TAT-1, the first transatlantic telephone cable was laid between Scotland and Newfoundland, in a joint effort by AT&T, Bell Labs, and British and Canadian telephone companies. A year later, in 1957, MUSIC, one of the first computer programs to play electronic music, was created by Max Mathews. New greedy algorithms developed by Robert C. Prim and Joseph Kruskal, revolutionized computer network design. In 1958, the laser was first described, in a technical paper by Arthur Schawlow and Charles Townes. TAT-1 (Transatlantic No. ... A transatlantic telephone cable is a submarine communications cable that carries telephone traffic under the Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe. ... AT&T Inc. ... MUSIC-N refers to a family of computer music programs and programming languages descended from or influenced by MUSIC, a program written by Max Mathews in 1957 at Bell Labs, it is widely considered to be the first computer program for making music (in actuality, sound) on a digital computer... Electronic music is a term for music created using electronic devices. ... Max Vernon Mathews was born in Columbus, Nebraska, on November 13, 1926. ... Greedy Algorithms are algorithms which follow the problem solving meta-heuristic of making the locally optimum choice at each stage with the hope of finding the global optimum. ... Robert Clay Prim (born 1921 in Sweetwater, Texas) is an American mathemetician and computer scientist. ... Joseph Bernard Kruskal (b. ... A computer network is a system for communication between computers. ... // Experiment using a (likely argon) laser. ... Arthur Leonard Schawlow (May 5, 1921–April 28, 1999) was an American physicist. ... Charles Hard Townes (born July 28, 1915) is an American Nobel Prize-winning physicist and educator. ...

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1960s

The LED was invented at Bell Labs in 1962.
The LED was invented at Bell Labs in 1962.

The 1960s saw several important developments from Bell Labs, including the light-emitting diode (LED) in 1962 [verification needed], invented by Nick Holonyak. Since their invention, LEDs have been used in millions of commercial products around the world such as personal computers. In 1964, the Carbon dioxide laser was invented by Kumar Patel. In 1965, Penzias and Wilson discovered the Cosmic Microwave Background, and won the Nobel Prize in 1978. In 1966, Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), a key technology in wireless services, was developed and patented by R. W. Chang. In 1968, Molecular beam epitaxy was developed by J.R. Arthur and A.Y. Cho; molecular beam epitaxy allows semiconductor chips and laser matrices to be manufactured one atomic layer at a time. In 1969, the UNIX operating system was created by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson. UNIX has since been developed into more modern operating systems such as Linux and Mac OS X. The Charge-coupled device (CCD) was invented in 1969 by Willard Boyle and George E. Smith. Image File history File links Makroaufnahme einer Leuchtdiode, Durchmesser 5 mm. ... Image File history File links Makroaufnahme einer Leuchtdiode, Durchmesser 5 mm. ... Blue, green and red LEDs. ... Blue, green and red LEDs. ... Nick Holonyak Jr. ... In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need. ... A test target is vaporized and bursts into flame upon irradiation by a high power continuous wave carbon dioxide laser emitting tens of kilowatts of infrared light. ... WMAP image of the CMB anisotropy,Cosmic microwave background radiation(June 2003) The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) is a form of electromagnetic radiation that fills the whole of the universe. ... Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), also sometimes called discrete multitone modulation (DMT), is based upon the principle of frequency-division multiplexing (FDM), but is utilized as a digital modulation scheme. ... Molecular beam epitaxy, abbreviated MBE, is the deposition of one or more pure materials onto a single crystal wafer, one layer of atoms at a time, under ultra-high vacuum, forming a perfect crystal. ... Unix or UNIX is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and Douglas McIlroy. ... Ken Thompson (left) with Dennis Ritchie (right) Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (born September 9, 1941) is a computer scientist notable for his influence on ALTRAN, B, BCPL, C, Multics, and Unix. ... Ken Thompson Kenneth Thompson (born February 4, 1943) is a pioneer of computer science notable for his contributions to the development of the C programming language and the UNIX operating system. ... Linux (also known as GNU/Linux) is a Unix-like computer operating system. ... Mac OS X (officially pronounced Mac Oh-Ess Ten) is a line of open source graphical operating systems, with proprietary higher level API layers, developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Computer, the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently shipping Macintosh computers. ... A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ... Willard S Boyle (August 19, 1924 - ) is a Canadian physicist and co-inventor of the Charge-coupled device. ... George E. Smith is an American scientist and co-inventor of the Charge-coupled device. ...

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1970s

The C programming language was developed at Bell Labs in 1970.

The 1970s and 1980s saw more and more computer-related inventions at the Bell Labs as part of the personal computing revolution. In 1970, Dennis Ritchie developed the C programming language for use in writing the UNIX operating system (also developed at Bell Labs). In 1971, a computerized switching system for telephone traffic was invented by Erna Schneider Hoover, who received one of the first software patents for it. In 1976, Fiber optics systems were first tested in Georgia and in 1980, the first single-chip 32-bit microprocessor, the BELLMAC-32A was demonstrated; it went into production in 1982. In 1980, the TDMA and CDMA digital cellular telephone technology was patented. In 1982, Fractional quantum Hall effect was discovered by Horst Störmer and former Bell Labs researchers Robert B. Laughlin and Daniel C. Tsui; they consequently won a Nobel Prize in 1998 for the discovery. In 1983, the C++ programming language was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension to the original C programming language also developed at Bell Labs. Download high resolution version (976x1364, 172 KB)Cover of Kernighan & Ritchie book on C Source: [1] This work is copyrighted. ... Download high resolution version (976x1364, 172 KB)Cover of Kernighan & Ritchie book on C Source: [1] This work is copyrighted. ... Ken Thompson (left) with Dennis Ritchie (right) Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (born September 9, 1941) is a computer scientist notable for his influence on ALTRAN, B, BCPL, C, Multics, and Unix. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of C Programming The C programming language (often, just C) is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in the early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie for use on the Unix operating system. ... A Verizon Central Office in Lakeland, Florida at night. ... Dr. Erna Schneider Hoover invented a method for prioritizing processes within stored program control switching systems while working at Bell Laboratories. ... Software patents are patents on computer-implemented inventions. ... Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386. ... Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a technology for shared medium (usually radio) networks. ... General Information Generically (as a multiplexing scheme), code division multiple access (CDMA) is any use of any form of spread spectrum by multiple transmitters to send to the same receiver on the same frequency channel at the same time without harmful interference. ... The quantum Hall effect is a quantum mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two-dimensional systems of electrons subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductance σ takes on the quantized values where e is the elementary charge and h is Plancks... Horst Ludwig Störmer (born April 6, 1949 in Frankfurt, Germany) is a German physicist who shared the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics with Daniel Tsui and Robert Laughlin. ... Robert Betts Laughlin (born November 1, 1950) is an American theoretical physicist who, with Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui, was awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in physics for his explanation of the fractional quantum Hall effect. ... Daniel Chee Tsui 崔琦 (pinyin: Cuī Qí)(born February 28, 1939, Henan Province, China) is a Chinese American physicist whose areas of research included electrical properties of thin films and microstructures of semiconductors and solid-state physics. ... C++ (generally pronounced /si plÊŒs plÊŒs/) is a general-purpose, high-level programming language with low-level facilities. ... Bjarne Stroustrup Bjarne Stroustrup (born December 30, 1950 in Aarhus, Denmark) is a computer scientist and the College of Engineering Chair Professor of Computer Science at Texas A&M University. ...

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1980s

Bell Labs logo, used from 1984 until 1995.
Bell Labs logo, used from 1984 until 1995.

In 1984, Karmarkar Linear Programming Algorithm was developed by mathematician Narendra Karmarkar. Also in 1984, a divestiture agreement with the American Federal government forced the break-up of AT&T: Bellcore was split off from Bell Labs to provide the same R&D functions for the newly created local exchange carriers. AT&T was also limited to using the Bell trademark only in association with Bell Labs. Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. was then renamed AT&T Bell Laboratories, Inc., and became a wholly owned company of the new AT&T Technologies unit, the former Western Electric. In 1985, laser cooling was used to slow and manipulate atoms by Steven Chu and team. Also in 1985, Bell Labs was awarded the National Medal of Technology "For contribution over decades to modern communication systems". During the 1980s, the Plan 9 operating system was developed as a replacement for Unix which was also developed at Bell Labs in 1969. Development of the Radiodrum, a three dimensional electronic instrument. In 1988, TAT-8 is the first fiber optic transatlantic cable. Image File history File links Image135. ... In mathematics, Karmarkars algorithm is an algorithm for solving linear programming problems. ... Narendra K. Karmarkar (b. ... In telecommunication, Modification of Final Judgment (MFJ) is the 1982 antitrust suit settlement agreement (consent decree) entered into by the United States Department of Justice and the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) that, after modification and upon approval of the United States District Court for the District of... Telcordia Technologies, formerly Bellcore, is an American telecommunications company created in 1984 after the breakup of AT&T. It was split from the original Bell Labs as part of the negotiated consent decree with the US government, and served Research & Development and standards setting functions for the resulting seven Baby... Local exchange carrier is a regulatory term in telecommunications for so-called local telephone company. ... AT&T Inc. ... AT&T Technologies, Inc. ... Western Electric (sometimes abbreviated WE and WECo) was a US electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of AT&T from 1881 to 1995 . ... Laser cooling is a technique that uses light to cool atoms to a very low temperature. ... Professor Steven Chu giving a seminar at The Chinese University of Hong Kong Steven Chu (born February 28, 1948 in St. ... The National Medal of Technology is an honor granted by the President of the United States to inventors and innovators that have made significant contributions to the development of new and important technology. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Unix or UNIX is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and Douglas McIlroy. ... The Radiodrum is a musical instrument played in three dimensional space using two drumsticks. ... TAT-8 was AT&Ts 8th transatlantic telephone cable, in operation from 1988, initially carrying 40,000 telephone circuits (simultaneous calls) between USA and France. ... A transatlantic telephone cable is a submarine communications cable that carries telephone traffic under the Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe. ...

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1990s

In 1990, WaveLAN, the first wireless local area network (LAN) was developed at Bell Labs. Wireless network technology would not become popular until the late 1990s and was first demonstrated in 1995. In 1991, the 56K modem technology was patented by Nuri Dagdeviren and his team. In 1994, the Quantum cascade laser was invented by the Federico Capasso, Alfred Cho, and their collaborators and was later greatly improved by the innovations of Claire Gmachl. In 1996, SCALPEL electron lithography, which prints features atoms wide on microchips, was invented by Lloyd Harriott and his team. The Inferno operating system, an update of Plan 9, was created by Dennis Ritchie with others, using the new concurrent Limbo programming language. Wireless is an old-fashioned term for a radio transceiver (a mixed receiver and transmitter device), referring to its use in wireless telegraphy early on, or for a radio receiver. ... Local area network scheme A local area network (LAN) is a covering a local area, like a home, office, or group of buildings. ... A modem (a portmanteau constructed from modulate and demodulate) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ... The quantum cascade laser or QC laser is a unipolar laser which uses electrons as its only charge carrier. ... Federico Capasso, a physicist, was one of the inventors of the quantum cascade laser during his work at Bell Laboratories. ... Alfred Y. Cho is the Director of the Semiconductor Research Laboratory at Bell Labs. ... Claire F. Gmachl Claire F. Gmachl [gu-mäk-&l] is a pioneer in development of quantum cascade lasers. ... Negative litography stone and positive print of a map of Munich Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Inferno is an operating system for creating and supporting distributed services. ... Concurrent programming languages are programming languages that use language constructs for concurrency. ... Limbo is a programming language for writing distributed systems and is the language used to write applications for the Inferno operating system. ...


AT&T spun off Bell Labs, along with most of its equipment-manufacturing business, into a new company named Lucent Technologies. AT&T retained a smaller number of researchers, who made up the staff of the newly-created AT&T Laboratories. In 1997, 50 years after inventing the original transistor, the smallest practical transistor (60 nanometers or a mere 182 atoms wide) was built. In 1998, the first optical router was invented and the first combination of voice and data traffic on an Internet Protocol (IP) network was developed at the Labs. On September 30, 1996, AT&T spun off its Systems and Technology units (AT&T Technologies, Inc. ... AT&T Labs is the research & development arm of American telecommunications giant, AT&T. AT&T Labs originated in 1996, when AT&T spun-off most of its Bell Labs research business as Lucent Technologies. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ...

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2000s

2000 was a very active year for the Labs in which DNA machine prototypes were developed; progressive geometry compression algorithm made widespread 3-D communication practical; the first electrically powered organic laser invented; a large-scale map of cosmic dark matter was compiled, and F-15, an organic material that makes plastic transistors possible, was invented. In 2002, Jan Hendrik Schön, a German physicist, was fired after his work was found to contain fraudulent data – the first case of scientific fraud in the lab's history. Over a dozen of Schön's papers were found to contain completely fictional or considerably altered data, including a paper on molecular-scale transistors that was received as a breakthrough. Also in 2002, the world's first semiconductor laser that emits light continuously and reliably over a broad spectrum of infrared wavelengths was invented. In 2003, the New Jersey Nanotechnology Laboratory was founded as the successor to Bell Laboratories at Murray Hill, New Jersey. The idea of using DNA as a material for molecular-scale construction of objects and devices was pioneered in the late 1980s by Nadrian Seeman and co-workers from New York University. ... In astrophysics, dark matter refers to matter that does not emit or reflect enough electromagnetic radiation (such as light, x-rays and so on) to be detected directly, but whose presence may be inferred from its gravitational effects on visible matter. ... Jan Hendrik Schön Jan Hendrik Schön (born 1970) is a German physicist who briefly rose to prominence after a series of apparent breakthroughs (recipient of Otto-Klung-Weberbank Prize for Physics in 2001, Braunschweig Prize in 2001 and Outstanding Young Investigator Award of the Materials Research Society in... Physicists working in a government lab A physicist is a scientist who studies or practices physics. ... Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research. ... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of radio waves. ... Murray Hill is a locality of Berkeley Heights, New Jersey located in Union County in north-central New Jersey. ...


In 2005, Dr. Jeong Kim, former President of Lucent's Optical Network Group, returned from academia to become President of Bell Labs.


In April 2006, Bell Labs' mother company, Lucent Technologies, signed a merger agreement with Alcatel. This deal has raised concerns in the US, where Bell Labs works on highly sensitive defense contracts. It was announced that a separate company with a US board would be set up to manage Bell Labs' and Lucent's sensitive US government contracts. On September 30, 1996, AT&T spun off its Systems and Technology units (AT&T Technologies, Inc. ... Alcatel SA is a global company, headquartered in France that provides hardware, software and services to telecommunications service providers and enterprises. ...

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See also

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On September 30, 1996, AT&T spun off its Systems and Technology units (AT&T Technologies, Inc. ... Worse is better is the name of a computer software design style (or software design philosophy), also called the New Jersey style. ... Arun N. Netravali (b. ... Walter Andrew Shewhart (March 18, 1891 - March 11, 1967) was a physicist, engineer and statistician, sometimes known as the father of statistical quality control. ...

References

  1. ^ List of Awards
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Article
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External links


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