FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
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Encyclopedia > Belgium
Koninkrijk België   (Dutch)
Royaume de Belgique   (French)
Königreich Belgien   (German)
Kingdom of Belgium
Flag of Belgium
Flag Coat of arms
MottoEendracht maakt macht  (Dutch)
L'union fait la force  (French)
Einigkeit macht stark  (German)
"Strength through Unity" (lit. "Unity creates Strength", "Unity makes one strong")
AnthemThe "Brabançonne"
Location of  Belgium  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  —  [ Legend] Belgium is: A country in Europe, see Belgium the name of some places in the United States: Belgium, Illinois Belgium, Wisconsin Belgium (town), Wisconsin Belgium Township, Minnesota Belgium, West Virginia Belgium is a song by Bowling for Soup. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The state and war flag. ... Greater coat of arms Belgiums great coat of arms The Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Belgium contains a pair of lions (called the Belgian Lion, or Leo Belgicus), that are the national symbols of the Belgian nation. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Lithographie of Jenneval Lithographie of Campenhout The Brabançonne (Song of Brabant) is the national anthem of Belgium. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 721 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2056 × 1710 pixel, file size: 176 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 721 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2056 × 1710 pixel, file size: 176 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Capital Brussels
50°54′N 4°32′E / 50.9, 4.533
Largest metropolitan area Brussels Capital Region
Official languages Dutch, French, German
Demonym Belgian
Government Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy
 -  King Albert II
 -  Prime Minister Yves Leterme
Independence
 -  Declared 4 October 1830 
 -  Recognized 19 April 1839 
EU accession 25 March 1957
Area
 -  Total 30,528 km² (139th)
11,787 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 6.4
Population
 -  2007 estimate 10,584,534[1]
 (76th [2005])
 -  2001 census 10,296,350 
 -  Density 344.32/km² (2006) (29th [2005])
892/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2004 estimate
 -  Total $316.2 billion (30th)
 -  Per capita $31,400 (13th)
Gini (2000) 33 (medium) (33rd)
HDI (2005) 0.946 (high) (17th)
Currency Euro ()1 (EU)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .be²
Calling code +32
1 Before 1999: Belgian franc.
2 The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

The Kingdom of Belgium is a country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters, as well as those of other major international organizations, including NATO.[2] Belgium covers an area of 30,528 square kilometers (11,787 square miles) and has a population of about 10.5 million. Not to be confused with capitol. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... Demographics of Belgium, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... Successive Belgian kings are 1831-1865: Léopold I (34) 1865-1909: Léopold II (44) 1909-1934: Albert I (25) 1934-1951: Léopold III (16) 1944-1950: Charles, reigned as Prince Regent 1951-1993: Baudouin I (42) Since 1993: Albert II (13) None of these were King of... Albert II, King of the Belgians (Albert Félix Humbert Théodore Chrétien Eugène Marie), (born June 6, 1934), is the current King of the Belgians and a constitutional monarch. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Belgium, known regionally as: Premier Ministre in French, Eerste Minister in Dutch, and Premierminister in German. ... Yves Camille Désiré Leterme (born October 6, 1960 in Wervik, Belgium) is a Belgian Senator, a former Minister-President of Flanders and Flemish Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of London of 1839, also called the Convention of 1839, was signed on April 19, 1839. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... To help compare orders of magnitude this page lists dimensionless numbers between 109 and 1012. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map of the Gini coefficient This is a list of countries or dependencies by Income inequality metrics, sorted in ascending order according to their Gini coefficient. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .be is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Belgium. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... ISO 4217 Code BEF User(s) Belgium, Luxembourg ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 40. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... For the political science journal, see International Organization. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ...


Straddling the cultural boundary between Germanic and Latin Europe, Belgium's two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north, with 58% of the population, and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia, inhabited by 32%. The Brussels-Capital Region, although officially bilingual, is a mostly French-speaking enclave within the Flemish Region and near the Walloon Region, and has 10% of the population.[3] A small German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia.[4] Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political and cultural conflicts are reflected in the political history and a complex system of government.[5][6] Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and... The Flemish Region (Vlaams Gewest or Vlaanderen in Dutch), a contemporary meaning of Flanders, is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium – alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region. ... National motto: Walon todi ! (Walloon forever!) Official languages French, German Capital Namur Minister-President Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe Area  - Total 16,844 km² Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 3,358,560 inhabitants 199. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... In political geography, an enclave is a piece of land which is totally surrounded by a foreign territory, and an exclave is one which is politically attached to a larger piece but not actually contiguous with it. ... The Flemish Region (Vlaams Gewest or Vlaanderen in Dutch), a contemporary meaning of Flanders, is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium – alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region. ... National motto: Walon todi ! (Walloon forever!) Official languages French, German Capital Namur Minister-President Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe Area  - Total 16,844 km² Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 3,358,560 inhabitants 199. ... The Executive (government) of the German-speaking Community meets in Eupen Flag of the German-speaking community in Belgium The German-speaking Community of Belgium (German: , short DGB) is one of the three federal communities in Belgium. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Administrative division. ...


The name 'Belgium' is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples.[7][8] Historically, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, which used to cover a somewhat larger area than the current Benelux group of states. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, it was a prosperous centre of commerce and culture. From the 16th century until the Belgian revolution in 1830, many battles between European powers were fought in the area of Belgium, causing it to be dubbed "the battlefield of Europe"[9] and "the cockpit of Europe"[10] — a reputation strengthened by both World Wars. Upon its independence, Belgium eagerly participated in the Industrial Revolution,[11][12] generating wealth and also a demand for raw materials; the latter was a factor during the era of its African colonies.[13] The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica in 58 BCE The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica around 120 CE Gallia Belgica was a Roman province located in what is now the southern part of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northeastern France, and western Germany. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Belgae were a group of nations or tribes living in north-eastern Gaul, on the west bank of the Rhine, in the 1st century BC, and later also attested in Britain. ... Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:  core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC  maximal Celtic expansion, by the 3rd century BC  the six Celtic nations which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period  areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today Celts (pronounced or , see pronunciation... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Map of the Belgian colonial empire The Belgian colonial empire was the set of colonies of Belgium, lasting from 1901 to 1962. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Belgium
The Seventeen Provinces (orange, brown and yellow areas) and the Bishopric of Liège (green)
The Seventeen Provinces (orange, brown and yellow areas) and the Bishopric of Liège (green)

The area of present-day Belgium has seen significant demographic, political and cultural upheavals over the course of two millennia. In the first century, the Romans, after defeating the local tribes, created the province of Gallia Belgica. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century, brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kingdom. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century evolved into the Carolingian Empire and culminated with the coronation of Charlemagne as ruler of The Holy Roman Empire. During the Middle Ages small feudal states emerged, many of which rejoined as the Burgundian Netherlands in the 14th and 15th centuries. Emperor Charles V completed the union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, and unofficially also controlled the Prince-Bishopric of Liège.[14] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 539 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (591 × 657 pixel, file size: 142 KB, MIME type: image/png) [[Media:--24. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 539 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (591 × 657 pixel, file size: 142 KB, MIME type: image/png) [[Media:--24. ... Flag of the Seventeen Provinces The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 15th century and 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of the West of... The Bishopric of Liège in 1477. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For other uses, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... The Holy Roman Empire should not be mistaken for the Roman Empire (31 B.C.–A.D. 476). ... Fief depiction in a book of hours Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord, generally to a vassal, in return for a form of allegiance, originally to give him the means... In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands refers to the period when the dukes of Burgundy ruled the area, as well as Luxembourg and northern France from 1384 to 1477. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Flag of the Seventeen Provinces The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 15th century and 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of the West of... Coat of arms The Bishopric of Liège in 1477 Capital Liège Language(s) French, Dutch, German, Walloon Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Prince-Bishop  - 340s–384 Saint Servatius (first bishop)  - 972–1008 Notger (first prince-bishop)  - 1792–94 François-Antoine-Marie de Méan (last) Historical era...


The Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) divided the area into the northern United Provinces ('federate' Belgica Foederata in Latin) and the Southern Netherlands ('royal' Belgica Regia). The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. Until independence the area was sought after by numerous French conquerors and was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries.[15] Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries — including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège — were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Spanish-Austrian rule in the region. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815. However, over the previous 350 years of shared connections as varied Low Country manifestations the two peoples had drifted apart, and after only 15 years, the forced "marriage" was over. The 1830 Belgian Revolution led to the establishment of an independent, Catholic, and neutral Belgium under a provisional government and a national congress. Since the installation of Leopold I as king in 1831, Belgium has been a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. Initially an oligarchy ruled mainly by the Catholic Party and the Liberals, the country had evolved towards universal suffrage by World War II with the rise of the Belgian Labour Party and trade unions playing a strong role. French, once the single official language and adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie, had by then lost its overall importance as Dutch, the language of the majority of the population, had become recognized as well, be it only in 1898. However, it was not until 1967 that an official Dutch version of the Constitution was accepted.[16] Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden/Provinciën; also Dutch Republic or United Provinces in short) was a European republic between 1581 and 1795, which is now known as the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The Southern Netherlands (Dutch: , Spanish: , French: ) were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and captured by France (1794-1815). ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... When the first two episodes of the civil war in France known as the Fronde were now over, the whole country, wearied of anarchy and disgusted with the princes, came to look to the kings party as the party of order and settled government, and thus the Fronde prepared... Combatants Prussia France Spain Bavaria Naples and Sicily Sweden (1741 — 1743) Austria Great Britain Hanover Dutch Republic Saxony Kingdom of Sardinia Russia Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Charles Emil Lewenhaupt Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles... The French Revolutionary Wars continued from 1793 with few immediate changes in the diplomatic situation as France fought the First coalition. ... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Limburg in 1839 1, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830) 1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830) 2 Duchy of Limburg (In the German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg) 3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Constitutional Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era... This article is about the historical Belgian Revolution of the 1830s. ... From left to right, Alexandre Gendebien, André Jolly, Charles Rogier, Louis de Potter, Sylvain Van de Weyer, Feuillien de Coppin, Félix de Mérode, Joseph Vanderlinden, Emmanuel van der Linden dHooghvorst The Provisional Government (Dutch: ; French: ) was formed as a revolutionary committee of notables during the Belgian Revolution... The Belgian National Congress was a temporary legislative assembly in 1830, established shortly after the Provisional Government of Belgium had proclaimed Belgian independence on October 4 of that year. ... Leopold I of the Belgians (Leopold George Christian Frederick of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, later of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha) (b. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Look up Oligarchy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The first Catholic Party in Belgium was established in 1869 as the Federation of Catholic Circles and Conservative Associations (French: ; Dutch: ). The Catholic Party, under leader Charles Woeste, gained an absolute majority in the Belgian Chamber of Representatives in 1884, and retained it until 1918. ... The Liberal Party was a Belgian political party that existed from 1846 until 1961, when it became the Party for Freedom and Progress, Partij voor Vrijheid en Vooruitgang/Parti de la Liberté et du Progrès or PVV-PLP, under the leadership of Omer Vanaudenhove. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Workers Party of Belgium (WPB), Partij van de Arbeid van België (PVDA) (in Dutch) or Parti du Travail de Belgique (PTB) (in French) is a Belgian communist party. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Bourgeois redirects here. ... This is the translation in English of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Belgium as provided by the Parliament. ...

Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830 (1834)by Egide Charles Gustave Wappers,in the Ancient Art Museum, Brussels.
Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830 (1834)
by Egide Charles Gustave Wappers,
in the Ancient Art Museum, Brussels.

The Berlin Conference of 1885 gave the Congo Free State to King Leopold II as his private possession. In 1908, it was ceded to Belgium as a colony, henceforth called the Belgian Congo. Belgian control of the Congolese population, particularly under Leopold II, was savage, and the country was plundered of resources such as ivory and rubber.[17] Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Egide Charles Gustave Wappers (1834), in the Musée dArt Ancien, Brussels File links The following pages link to this file: Belgian Revolution Egide Charles Gustave Wappers Categories: Public domain art ... Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Egide Charles Gustave Wappers (1834), in the Musée dArt Ancien, Brussels File links The following pages link to this file: Belgian Revolution Egide Charles Gustave Wappers Categories: Public domain art ... Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830 (1834), Wappers most famous painting, now in the Musée dArt Ancien, Brussels Egide Charles Gustave, Baron Wappers (August 23, 1803 - December 6, 1874), Belgian painter, was born at Antwerp. ... The conference of Berlin The Berlin Conference (German: or Congo Conference) of 1884–85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germanys sudden emergence as an imperial power. ... Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization, the Association Internationale Africaine. ... Leopold II (Léopold Louis Philippe Marie Victor (French) or Leopold Lodewijk Filips Marie Victor (Dutch) (April 9, 1835 – December 17, 1909) was King of the Belgians. ... Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian...


Germany invaded Belgium in 1914 as part of the Schlieffen Plan, and much of the Western Front fighting of World War I occurred in western parts of the country. Belgium took over the German colonies of Ruanda-Urundi (modern day Rwanda and Burundi) during the war, and they were mandated to Belgium in 1924 by the League of Nations, of which it was a founding member. The Treaty of Versailles had subjected several German border towns, most notably Eupen and Malmedy, to a controversial plebiscite, which led to their annexation by Belgium in 1925, thereby causing the presence of a small German community. Belgium was again invaded by Germany in 1940 during the Blitzkrieg offensive, and occupied until its liberation by Allied troops in the winter of 1944–1945. The Belgian Congo gained independence in 1960 during the Congo Crisis; Ruanda-Urundi followed two years later. Alfred Graf von Schlieffen For the French counter-plan, see Plan XVII The Schlieffen Plan was the German General Staffs early 20th century overall strategic plan for victory both on the Western Front against France and against Russia in the east, taking advantage of expected differences in the three... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties ~4,800... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This is a list of former German colonies, or Schutzgebiete (protectorates) as they were called in official German. ... Ruanda-Urundi was a Belgian League of Nations Mandate and then UN trust territory from 1924 to 1962 when it became the independent states of Rwanda and Burundi. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . Left to right, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France... St Nikolaus church in Eupen Eupen is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège, 15 km from the German border (Aachen), from the Dutch border (Maastricht) and from the nature reservation Hohes Venn (Ardennes). ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Verviers Coordinates , , Area 99. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... This article is about the military term. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... Ruanda-Urundi was a Belgian League of Nations Mandate and then UN trust territory from 1924 to 1962 when it became the independent states of Rwanda and Burundi. ...


After World War II, Belgium joined NATO as a founder member, headquartered at Brussels, and formed the Benelux group of nations with the Netherlands and Luxembourg. Belgium became one of the six founding members of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951, and of the European Atomic Energy Community and European Economic Community, established in 1957. The latter is now the European Union, for which Belgium hosts major administrations and institutions, including the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, and the extraordinary and committee sessions of the European Parliament. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the military alliance. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organization composed of the members of the European Union. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


Government and politics

Main article: Politics of Belgium
See also: Belgian federal parliament, Belgian federal government, and Political parties in Belgium
Further information: List of Belgian monarchs, List of Belgian Prime Ministers, Foreign relations of Belgium

Belgium is a constitutional, popular monarchy and a parliamentary democracy. Politics of Belgium takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy, whereby the King of the Belgians is the Head of State and the Prime Minister of Belgium is the head of government in a pluriform multi-party system. ... The Belgian Federal Parliament is a bicameral parliament. ... The executive branch of the Belgian federal government consists of ministers and secretaries of state (junior ministers or smaller departments) drawn from the political parties which form the government coalition. ... Belgium has a multi-party political system, with numerous parties in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments. ... The royal palace in Brussels Successive Belgian kings are 1831-1865: Leopold I 1865-1909: Leopold II 1909-1934: Albert I 1934-1951: Leopold III 1944-1950: Charles, reigned as Prince Regent 1951-1993: Baudouin I Since 1993: Albert II None of these were King of Belgium: their title is... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Belgium, known regionally as: Premier Ministre in French, Eerste Minister in Dutch, and Premierminister in German. ... The Concert of Europe sanctioned the creation of Belgium in 1830 on the condition that the country remain strictly neutral. ... Popular Monarchy is a system of monarchical governance in which the monarchs title is linked with the people rather than a unitary state. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ...


In the 19th century, the Francophile political and economic elite treated the Dutch-speaking population as second class citizens. Late that century, and continuing into the 20th century, the Flemish movement evolved to counter this situation. Following World War II, Belgian politics became increasingly dominated by the autonomy of its two main language communities. Intercommunal tensions rose and even the unity of the Belgian state became scrutinized.[5] Through constitutional reforms in the 1970s and 1980s, regionalization of the unitary state led to a three-tiered federation: federal, regional, and community governments were created, a compromise designed to minimize linguistic, cultural, social and economic tensions.[18] A Francophile is term given to people with a severe mental illness: its symptoms are a craven attitude towards fighting to preserve what is claimed to be loved, a belief that the French Emprie was and is vastly superior to the British (a falsehood) and an habitual insertion of... Flemish flag, as used by the separatist Flemish Movement, tongued and clawed in black The Flemish Movement (Dutch: Vlaamse Beweging) is a popular term used to describe the political movement for emancipation and greater autonomy of the Belgian region of Flanders, for protection of the Dutch language in Flanders, and... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The partition of Belgium, or the dissolution of the Belgian State through the separation of the Dutch-speaking peoples of the Flanders region from the French-speaking peoples of the Walloon region, granting them either independence or respective accession to the Netherlands and France, is recurrently discussed in Belgian and... Regionalism is a term in international relations that refers to the expression of a common sense of identity and purpose combined with the creation and implementation of institutions that express a particular identity and shape collective action within a geographical region. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... This article is about federal states. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ...

Prime Minister Yves Leterme
Prime Minister Yves Leterme

The federal bicameral parliament is composed of a Senate and a Chamber of Representatives. The former is made up of 40 directly elected politicians and 21 representatives appointed by the 3 community parliaments, 10 coopted senators and as senators by Right who in practice do not cast their vote, currently Prince Philippe, Princess Astrid and Prince Laurent, children of the King. The Chamber's 150 representatives are elected under a proportional voting system from 11 electoral districts. Belgium is one of the few countries that has compulsory voting, and thus holds one of the highest rates of voter turnout in the world.[19] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 576 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (750 × 780 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 576 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (750 × 780 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Yves Camille Désiré Leterme (born October 6, 1960 in Wervik, Belgium) is a Belgian Senator, a former Minister-President of Flanders and Flemish Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries. ... This article is about bicameralism in government. ... The Belgian Senate (Dutch: de Senaat, French: le Sénat) is one of the two chambers of the Belgian Federal Parliament. ... The Belgian Chamber of Representatives (Dutch: de Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers, French: la Chambre des Représentants) is one of the two chambers of the Belgian Federal Parliament. ... Map of Belgium, its four language areasthree regions ; two of the latter have provinces . Belgium is a federal state comprising three communities, three regions, and four language areas. ... The Belgian Senate (Dutch: de Senaat, French: le Sénat) is one of the two chambers of the Belgian Federal Parliament. ... The Belgian Senate (Dutch: de Senaat, French: le Sénat) is one of the two chambers of the Belgian Federal Parliament. ... His Royal Highness Prince Philippe, Duke of Brabant (Philippe Léopold Louis Marie Wettin), styled HRH The Duke of Brabant (born 15 April 1960), is the eldest son and heir apparent of Albert II, King of the Belgians. ... Princess Astrid of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este, Duchess of Modena, Princess Imperial of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia (Astrid Joséphine-Charlotte Fabrizia Elisabeth Paola Maria), styled Her Imperial and Royal Highness Princess Astrid, (born June 5, 1962) is the only daughter and second child of King... Prince Laurent of Belgium (Laurent Benoît Baudouin Marie Wettin) was born on October 19, 1963, in Brussels, Belgium, to King Albert II and Queen Paola of the Belgians (the then Prince and Princess of Liège). ... Look up king in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up chamber in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is an electoral system delivering a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... This is a list of Belgian administrative arrondissements or districts. ... Compulsory voting is a practice that requires citizens to vote in elections or to attend a polling place to get their name crossed off the electoral roll. ... Voters lining up outside a Baghdad polling station during the 2005 Iraqi election. ...


The King (currently Albert II) is the head of state, though with limited prerogatives. He appoints ministers, including a Prime Minister, that have the confidence of the Chamber of Representatives to form the federal government. The numbers of Dutch- and French-speaking ministers are equal as prescribed by the Constitution.[20] The judicial system is based on civil law and originates from the Napoleonic code. The Court of Cassation is the court of last resort, with the Court of Appeal one level below. Successive Belgian kings are Regents 1830-1831: Erasme Louis Surlet de Chokier 1944-1950: Charles, Count of Flanders None of these were King of Belgium: their title is King of the Belgians. ... Albert II, King of the Belgians (Albert Félix Humbert Théodore Chrétien Eugène Marie), (born June 6, 1934), is the current King of the Belgians and a constitutional monarch. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... There are at least four political assemblies known as the Chamber of Representatives. ... A federal government is the common government of a federation. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... First page of the 1804 original edition. ... The Cour de cassation is the main court of last resort in France. ... Court of Appeals is the title of certain appellate courts in various jurisdictions. ...


Belgium's political institutions are complex; most political power is organized around the need to represent the main cultural communities. Since around 1970, the significant national Belgian political parties have split into distinct components that mainly represent the political and linguistic interests of these communities. The major parties in each community, though close to the political centre, belong to three main groups: the right-wing Liberals, the socially conservative Christian Democrats, and the Socialists forming the left-wing. Further notable parties came into being well after the middle of last century, mainly around linguistic, nationalist, or environmental themes, and recently smaller ones of some specific liberal nature. A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... In politics, centrism usually refers to the political ideal of promoting moderate policies which land in the middle ground between different political extremes. ... Right wing redirects here. ... In politics, the term liberal refers to: an adherent of the ideology of liberalism or a state or quality of this ideology. ... Social conservatism generally refers to a political ideology or personal belief system that advocates the conservation or resurrection of what one, or ones community, considers to be traditional morality and social structure. ... Christian democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Left wing redirects here. ... Belgium is a federation with a multi-party political system, with numerous parties who factually have no chance of gaining power alone, and therefore must work with each other to form coalition governments. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Green parties around the world are formally organized political parties based on the principles of Green politics. ... This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Liberalism by country | Belgian political parties ...


A string of Christian Democrat coalition governments from 1958 was broken in 1999 after the first dioxin crisis, a major food contamination scandal that led to the establishment of the Belgian Food Agency.[21][22] A 'rainbow coalition' emerged from six parties: the Flemish and the French-speaking Liberals, Social Democrats, Greens.[23] Later, a 'purple coalition' of Liberals and Social Democrats formed after the Greens lost most of their seats in the 2003 election.[24] The government led by Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt from 1999 to 2007 achieved a balanced budget, some tax-reforms, a labour-market reform, scheduled nuclear phase-out, and instigated legislation allowing more stringent war crime and more lenient soft drug usage prosecution. Restrictions on withholding euthanasia were reduced and same-sex marriage legalized. The government promoted active diplomacy in Africa[25] and opposed the invasion of Iraq.[26] Verhofstadt's coalition fared badly in the June 2007 elections. Since then the country has been experiencing a long-lasting political crisis.[27] This crisis is such that many observers have speculated on a possible partition of Belgium. Since December 21, 2007 the Verhofstadt III Government has been in office. This coalition of the Flemish and Francophone Christian Democrats, the Flemish and Francophone Liberals together with the Francophone Social Democrats was an interim government until 20 March 2008. On that day a new government, led by Flemish Christian Democrat Yves Leterme, the actual winner of the federal elections of June 2007, was sworn in by the King. The May 13, 1999 Belgian general elections was a Belgian election for the Belgian Chamber of Representatives and Belgian Senate. ... Dioxin is the common name for the group of compounds classified as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... The May 18, 2003 Belgian general elections were the first Belgian elections to be held under a new electoral code. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Guy Verhofstadt (help· info) (born April 11, 1953) is a Belgian politician, municipal councillor in Ghent and current Prime Minister of Belgium. ... Nuclear energy policy is national and international policy concerning some or all aspects of nuclear energy, such as mining for nuclear fuel, generating electricity by nuclear power, enriching and storing spent nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel reprocessing. ... Belgiums War Crimes Law, extended the concept of universal jurisdiction to allow anyone to bring war crime charges in Belgian courts, regardless of where the alleged crimes have taken place. ... The term soft drug is given sometimes to a range of drugs that are supposed to be less harmful than other drugs, called hard drugs. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... On January 30, 2003, Belgium became the second country in the world to legally recognize same-sex marriage. ... The next Belgian general election is scheduled to take place on Sunday June 24, 2007. ... The 2007 Belgian government formation followed the general election of 10 June 2007, and consisted of a period of negotiation in which the Flemish parties Open VLD, CD&V and N-VA and the French-speaking parties MR, FDF and Humanist Democratic Centre tried to form a government coalition. ... The partition of Belgium, or the dissolution of the Belgian State through the separation of the Dutch-speaking peoples of the Flanders region from the French-speaking peoples of the Walloon region, granting them either independence or respective accession to the Netherlands and France, is recurrently discussed in Belgian and... Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams (CD&V) (Christian Democratic and Flemish) is a political party in Belgium, formerly called Christelijke Volkspartij (CVP) (Christian Peoples Party). ... The Humanist Democratic Centre (French: Centre Démocrate Humaniste or CDH) is a centrist, christian-democrat, Belgian French-speaking political party. ... VLD may refer to: Ventilated Linear Dynamic Flemish Liberals and Democrats Category: ... The Mouvement Réformateur (MR) is a Belgian French-speaking liberal party, favoring a united Belgium. ... siège du Parti Socialiste, boulevard de lEmpereur à Bruxelles The Socialist Party (French: , PS) is a Francophone social democratic political party in Belgium. ... Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams (CD&V) (Christian Democratic and Flemish) is a political party in Belgium, formerly called Christelijke Volkspartij (CVP) (Christian Peoples Party). ... Yves Camille Désiré Leterme (born October 6, 1960 in Wervik, Belgium) is a Belgian Senator, a former Minister-President of Flanders and Flemish Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries. ...


In its 2007 Worldwide Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders ranked Belgium (along with Finland and Sweden) 5th out of 169 countries.[28] Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ...


Communities and regions

See also: Language legislation in Belgium and Municipalities with language facilities

Flemish Community
(Dutch-speaking)

French Community
(French-speaking)

German-speaking
Community

Flemish Region

Walloon Region


Brussels-Capital
Region

Based on the four language areas defined in 1962–63, consecutive revisions of the country's constitution in 1970, 1980, 1988 and 1993 established a unique federal state with segregated political power into three levels:[29][30] Map of Belgium, its four language areasthree regions ; two of the latter have provinces . Belgium is a federal state comprising three communities, three regions, and four language areas. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Flanders Flemish Community Categories: Images with unknown source ... the Flemish community has jurisdiction over Flanders and over the Dutch language institutions in Brussels. ... Image File history File links Franse_GemeenschapLocatie. ... The French Community area of Belgium The French Community of Belgium (French: , Dutch: , German: ) is one of the three official communities in Belgium along with the Flemish Community and the German speaking Community. ... Image File history File links Duitstalige_GemeenschapLocatie. ... The Executive (government) of the German-speaking Community meets in Eupen Flag of the German-speaking community in Belgium The German-speaking Community of Belgium (German: , short DGB) is one of the three federal communities in Belgium. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Flanders Categories: Images with unknown source ... The Flemish Region (Vlaams Gewest or Vlaanderen in Dutch), a contemporary meaning of Flanders, is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium – alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region. ... Wallonia highlighted against map of Belgium. ... National motto: Walon todi ! (Walloon forever!) Official languages French, German Capital Namur Minister-President Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe Area  - Total 16,844 km² Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 3,358,560 inhabitants 199. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... The term State reform in the Belgian context indicates a process towards finding a solution for the problems and tensions between the different communities, regions and language areas of Belgium. ... The Constitution of Belgium dates back to 1831. ...

  1. The federal government, based in Brussels.
  2. The three language communities:
  3. The three regions:

The constitutional language areas determine the official languages in their municipalities, as well as the geographical limits of the empowered institutions for specific matters: The executive branch of the Belgian federal government consists of ministers and secretaries of state (junior ministers or smaller departments) drawn from the political parties which form the government coalition. ... the Flemish community has jurisdiction over Flanders and over the Dutch language institutions in Brussels. ... The French Community area of Belgium The French Community of Belgium (French: , Dutch: , German: ) is one of the three official communities in Belgium along with the Flemish Community and the German speaking Community. ... The Executive (government) of the German-speaking Community meets in Eupen Flag of the German-speaking community in Belgium The German-speaking Community of Belgium (German: , short DGB) is one of the three federal communities in Belgium. ... The Flemish Region (Vlaams Gewest or Vlaanderen in Dutch), a contemporary meaning of Flanders, is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium – alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region. ... Belgium is a federal state and is composed of three communities, three regions, and four linguistic regions. ... National motto: Walon todi ! (Walloon forever!) Official languages French, German Capital Namur Minister-President Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe Area  - Total 16,844 km² Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 3,358,560 inhabitants 199. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ...


Public services rendered in the language of
individuals expressing themselves…
the Communities the Regions (and their provinces) the
Federal
State

Flemish
[31]
 French  German-
speaking
Flemish
[31]
Walloon Brussels-
Capital
…in Dutch …in French …in German
Dutch language area YesY in 12 municipalities
(limited to 'facilities')
- YesY - - YesY - - YesY
French language area in 4 municipalities
(limited to 'facilities')
YesY in 2 municipalities
(limited to 'facilities')
- YesY - - YesY - YesY
Bilingual area Brussels-Capital YesY YesY - YesY YesY - - - YesY YesY
German language area - in all 9 municipalities
(limited to 'facilities')
YesY - - YesY - YesY - YesY
  By Law, inhabitants of 27[32] municipalities can ask limited services to be rendered in a neighbour language, forming 'facilities' for them.
'Facilities' exist only in specific municipalities along the borders of the Flemish Region and the Walloon Regions.
Languages and provinces of Belgium (yellow: Dutch language, red: French language, orange: bilingual French - Dutch, blue: German language)
Languages and provinces of Belgium (yellow: Dutch language, red: French language, orange: bilingual French - Dutch, blue: German language)

Although this would allow for seven parliaments and governments, when the Communities and Regions were created in 1980, Flemish politicians decided to merge both; thus in the Flemish Region a single institutional body of parliament and government is empowered for all except federal and specific municipal matters.[31] Public services is a term usually used to mean services provided by government to its citizens, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing private provision of services. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The overlapping boundaries of the Regions and Communities have created two notable peculiarities: the territory of the Brussels-Capital Region (which came into existence nearly a decade after the other regions) is included in both the Flemish and French Communities, and the territory of the German-speaking Community lies wholly within the Walloon Region. The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... National motto: Walon todi ! (Walloon forever!) Official languages French, German Capital Namur Minister-President Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe Area  - Total 16,844 km² Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 3,358,560 inhabitants 199. ...


Conflicts between the bodies are resolved by the Constitutional Court of Belgium. The structure is intended as a compromise to allow different cultures to live together peacefully.[11] The Constitutional Court of Belgium (Dutch: Grondwettelijk Hof, French: Cour constitutionelle, German: Verfassungsgerichtshof) plays a central role within the federal Belgian state. ...


Political authority

The Federal State retains a considerable "common heritage". This includes justice, defence, federal police, social security, nuclear energy, monetary policy and public debt, and other aspects of public finances. State-owned companies include the Post Office and Belgian Railways. The Federal Government is responsible for the obligations of Belgium and its federalized institutions towards the European Union and NATO. It controls substantial parts of public health, home affairs and foreign affairs.[33] A federal state is one that brings together a number of different political communities with a common government for common purposes, and separate state or provincial or cantonal governments for the particular purposes of each community. ... . Poster announcing railway electrification, around 1935. ... A federal government is the common government of a federation. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


Communities exercise their authority only within linguistically determined geographical boundaries, originally oriented towards the individuals of a Community's language: culture (including audiovisual media), education, and the use of the relevant language. Extensions to personal matters less directly connected with language comprise health policy (curative and preventive medicine) and assistance to individuals (protection of youth, social welfare, aid to families, immigrant assistance services, etc.).[34]


Regions have authority in fields that can be broadly associated with their territory. These include economy, employment, agriculture, water policy, housing, public works, energy, transport, the environment, town and country planning, nature conservation, credit, and foreign trade. They supervise the provinces, municipalities, and intercommunal utility companies.[35]


In several fields, the different levels each have their own say on specifics. With education, for instance, the autonomy of the Communities neither includes decisions about the compulsory aspect nor allows for setting minimum requirements for awarding qualifications, which remain federal matters.[33] Each level of government can be involved in scientific research and international relations associated with its powers.[34][35]


Geography, climate, and environment

Main article: Geography of Belgium

Belgium shares borders with France (620 km), Germany (167 km), Luxembourg (148 km) and the Netherlands (450 km). Its total area, including surface water area, is 33,990 square kilometres; land area alone is 30,528 km². Belgium has three main geographical regions: the coastal plain in the north-west and the central plateau both belong to the Anglo-Belgian Basin; the Ardennes uplands in the south-east are part of the Hercynian orogenic belt. The Paris Basin reaches a small fourth area at Belgium's southernmost tip, Belgian Lorraine.[36] Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent, Charleroi, Liège, Bruges and Namur are the seven largest cities of Belgium, with populations above 100,000 This article is about the geography of Belgium. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... The Ardennes (IPA pronunciation: ) (Dutch: Ardennen) is a volcanic region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ... The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event recorded in the European mountains and hills called the Variscan Belt. ... The Paris Basin is one of the major geological regions of France having developed since the Triassic on a basement formed by the Variscan orogeny. ... Gaume is a region in the extreme south of Belgium and its altitude is lower than the Ardennes. ...

High Fens (Hautes Fagnes)
High Fens (Hautes Fagnes)

The coastal plain consists mainly of sand dunes and polders. Further inland lies a smooth, slowly rising landscape irrigated by numerous waterways, with fertile valleys and the northeastern sandy plain of the Campine (Kempen). The thickly forested hills and plateaus of the Ardennes are more rugged and rocky with caves and small gorges, and offer much of Belgium's wildlife but little agricultural capability. Extending westward into France, this area is eastwardly connected to the Eifel in Germany by the High Fens plateau, on which the Signal de Botrange forms the country's highest point at 694 metres (2,277 ft).[37][38] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1979 KB) Self-made picture, end of December 2004. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1979 KB) Self-made picture, end of December 2004. ... This article is about the geographical feature. ... Campine (Dutch and Flemish Kempen) is a moor of swamp and sandy peat to the east of Antwerp, a coal-producing region with Turnhout as its main town. ... The Ardennes (IPA pronunciation: ) (Dutch: Ardennen) is a volcanic region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ... A gorge is a narrow passage between steep mountains or hills. ... Not to be confused with Eiffel Tower. ... Landscape in the Hautes-Fagnes Winter landscape in the Hautes-Fagnes The Hautes Fagnes (from the French; German: Hohes Venn; Dutch: Hoge Venen, English translation: high fens) are an upland area in the province of Liège (Belgium) and nearby parts of Germany, between the Ardennes and the Eifel highlands. ... The 6m high tower at the Signal de Botrange Communication tower on the Signal de Botrange The Signal de Botrange is the highest point in Belgium, located in the Hautes Fagnes, at 694 m above sea level. ... A foot (plural: feet) is a non-SI unit of distance or length, measuring around a third of a metre. ...


The climate is maritime temperate, with significant precipitation in all seasons (Köppen climate classification: Cfb). The average temperature is lowest in January at 3 °C (37 °F), and highest in July at 18  °C (64  °F). The average precipitation per month varies between 54 millimetres (2.1 in) in February or April, to 78 millimetres (3.1 in) in July.[39] Averages for the years 2000 to 2006 show daily temperature minimums of 7 °C (45 °F) and maximums of 14 °C (57 °F), and monthly rainfall of 74 millimetres (2.9 in); these are about 1 degree Celsius and nearly 10 millimetres above last century's normal values, respectively.[40] World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... Updated Köppen-Geiger climate map[1] The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ...


Phytogeographically, Belgium is shared between the Atlantic European and Central European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom.[41] According to the WWF, the territory of Belgium belongs to the ecoregion of Atlantic mixed forests.[42] Phytogeography is the branch of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution of plant species. ... The Boreal Kingdom is a Floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good, which includes the temperate-to-arctic portions of North America and Eurasia. ... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ...


Because of its high population density, location in the centre of Western Europe, and inadequate political effort, Belgium faces serious environmental problems. A 2003 report suggested Belgian rivers to have the lowest water quality of the 122 countries studied.[43] In the 2006 pilot Environmental Performance Index, Belgium scored 75.9% for overall environmental performance and was ranked lowest of the EU member countries , though it was only 39th of 133 countries.[44] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically scaling the environmental performance of a set of companies or countries. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Belgium
Steelmaking along the Meuse River at Ougrée, near Liège
Steelmaking along the Meuse River at Ougrée, near Liège

Belgium's economy and its transportation infrastructure are integrated with the rest of Europe. Its location at the heart of a highly industrialized region helps make it one of the world's ten largest trading nations. The economy is characterized by a highly productive work force, high GNP, and high exports per capita.[9] Belgium's main imports are food products, machinery, rough diamonds, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, clothing and accessories, and textiles. Its main exports are automobiles, food products, iron and steel, finished diamonds, textiles, plastics, petroleum products, and nonferrous metals. The Belgian economy is heavily service-oriented and shows a dual nature: a dynamic Flemish economy, with Brussels as its main multilingual and multi-ethnic centre, and a Walloon economy that lags behind.[11][45] One of the founding members of the European Union, Belgium strongly supports an open economy and the extension of the powers of EU institutions to integrate member economies. In 1999, Belgium adopted the Euro, the single European currency, which fully replaced the Belgian franc in 2002. Since 1922, Belgium and Luxembourg have been a single trade market within a customs and currency union: the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union. Belgium, a highly developed market economy, belongs to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), a group of leading industrialized democracies. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 731 KB)The author, François Schreuer, made this picture available from [1] within the creative commons [2] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 731 KB)The author, François Schreuer, made this picture available from [1] within the creative commons [2] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Meuse (Maas) at Maastricht Meuse near Grave The Meuse (Dutch & German Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea. ... Seraing is a Belgian municipality located in the Walloon province of Liège. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Liège Coordinates , , Area 69. ... This article is about transportation in Belgium. ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... An open economy is an economy in which people, including businesses, can trade in goods and services with other people and businesses in the international community at large. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 Code BEF User(s) Belgium, Luxembourg ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 40. ... A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... In economics, a monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency among them, for example, the East Caribbean Dollar. ... The Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) was created by a treaty signed on 25 July 1921 between Belgium and Luxembourg. ...


Belgium was the first continental European country to undergo the Industrial Revolution, in the early 1800s.[46] Liège and Charleroi rapidly developed mining and steelmaking, which flourished until the mid-20th century in the Sambre-Meuse valley, the sillon industriel. However, by the 1840s the textile industry of Flanders was in severe crisis and the region experienced famine from 1846–50. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Liège Coordinates , , Area 69. ... Charleroi (Walloon: TchÃ¥lerwè) is the first city and municipality of Wallonia in population. ... The Sambre is a river rising in northern France and flowing into southern Belgium. ... The Meuse (Maas) at Maastricht Meuse near Grave The Meuse (Dutch & German Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea. ... A 1968 CIA map of resources in Belgium. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ...


After World War II, Ghent and Antwerp experienced a rapid expansion of the chemical and petroleum industries. The 1973 and 1979 oil crises sent the economy into a recession; it was particularly prolonged in Wallonia, where the steel industry had become less competitive and experienced serious decline.[47] In the 1980s and 90s, the economic centre of the country continued to shift northwards and is now concentrated in the populous Flemish Diamond area.[48] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the Belgian city. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Petro redirects here. ... The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship oil to nations... (Redirected from 1979 oil crisis) The 1979 (or second) energy crisis occurred in the wake of the Iranian Revolution. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... Steel framework Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon being the primary alloying material. ... The Flemish Diamond (in Dutch: Vlaamse Ruit) is a name of an area consisting of the central provinces of Flanders, Belgium. ...


By the end of the 1980s, Belgian macroeconomic policies had resulted in a cumulative government debt of about 120% of GDP. As of 2006, the budget was balanced and public debt was equal to 90.30% of GDP.[49] In 2005 and 2006, real GDP growth rates of 1.5% and 3.0%, respectively, were slightly above the average for the Euro area. Unemployment rates of 8.4% in 2005 and 8.2% in 2006 were close to the area average.[50] GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ...


Numismatics

The European Expansion commemorative coin minted in 2004.
The European Expansion commemorative coin minted in 2004.
Main article: Belgian euro coins
Main article: Euro gold and silver commemorative coins (Belgium)

In Belgium, the euro was introduced in 2002. However, the first sets of coins were minted, as preparation, in 1999. Hence the first euro coins of Belgium have minted the year 1999 instead of 2002 like other countries in the eurozone. In order to conform to the common guidelines on the design of national faces of coins, Belgium has updated the design of the Belgian national face of euro coins to be produced from 2008; also adopted the new common map like the rest of the eurozone countries. Belgian euro coins feature only a single design for all eight coins: the portrait or effigy of King Albert II of Belgium and his royal monogram. ...


Belgium has a rich collection of collectors' coins, with face value ranging from 10 to 100 euro. These coins are a legacy of an old national practice of minting of silver and gold commemorative coins. Unlike normal issues, these coins are not legal tender in all the eurozone. For instance, a €10 Belgian commemorative coin cannot be used in any other country.


While all Belgian coins designated for circulation show the portrait of King Albert II, this does not happen for commemorative coins, where designs are freely chosen.


Demographics

At the start of 2007 nearly 92% of the Belgian population were national citizens, and around 6% were citizens from other European Union member countries. The prevalent foreign nationals were Italian (171,918), French (125,061), Dutch (116,970), Moroccan (80,579), Spanish (42,765), Turkish (39,419), and German (37,621).[51] [52] Demographics of Belgium, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular...

Main areas and places in Belgium
Main areas and places in Belgium

A map of Belgium, converted directly from a map in GIF format from the CIA World Factbook. ... A map of Belgium, converted directly from a map in GIF format from the CIA World Factbook. ...

Urbanisation

Almost all of the Belgian population is urban — 97% in 2004.[53] The population density of Belgium is 342 per square kilometre (886 per square mile) — one of the highest in Europe, after that of the Netherlands and some microstates such as Monaco. The most densely inhabited area is the Flemish Diamond, outlined by the Antwerp-Leuven-Brussels-Ghent agglomerations. The Ardennes have the lowest density. As of 2006, the Flemish Region had a population of about 6,078,600, with Antwerp (457,749), Ghent (230,951) and Bruges (117,251) its most populous cities; Wallonia had 3,413,978, with Charleroi (201,373), Liège (185,574) and Namur (107.178) its most populous. Brussels houses 1,018,804 in the Capital Region's 19 municipalities, two of which have over 100,000 residents.[1] The Flemish Diamond (in Dutch: Vlaamse Ruit) is a name of an area consisting of the central provinces of Flanders, Belgium. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Flemish Brabant Arrondissement Leuven Coordinates , , Area 56. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... This article is about the Belgian city. ... The Flemish Region (Vlaams Gewest or Vlaanderen in Dutch), a contemporary meaning of Flanders, is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium – alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates , , Area 138. ... Charleroi (Walloon: TchÃ¥lerwè) is the first city and municipality of Wallonia in population. ... Liege or Liège has several meanings: A liege is the person or entity to which one has pledged allegiance. ... Namur (Nameûr in Walloon, Namen in Dutch) is a city and municipality, capital of the province of Namur and of the region of Wallonia in southern Belgium. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... Capital Region is a common term for the region or district surrounding a state, provincial or national capital city. ...


Languages

Main article: Languages of Belgium

Both the Dutch spoken in Belgium and the Belgian French have minor differences in vocabulary and semantic nuances from the varieties spoken respectively in the Netherlands and France. Many Flemish people still speak dialects of Dutch in their local environment. Walloon, once the main regional language of Wallonia, is now only understood and spoken occasionally, mostly by elderly people. Its dialects, along with those of Picard,[54] are not used in public life. A linguistic map of Belgium: mainly Dutch-speaking areas are marked in yellow; the areas of Belgium which are primarily Francophone are marked in red, with hatching in the Brussels region, which is bilingual with a French majority, and the almost uniformly German-speaking East Cantons in blue. ... Flemish (Vlaams in Dutch), as the general adjective relating to Flanders, can refer to the speech of the Flemings, inhabitants of Flanders, though for the Flemish Community[1], Algemeen Nederlands (Common Dutch) is the official name of the standard language hence in English referred to as standard Dutch. ... Belgian French is primarily spoken in the French Community of Belgium, highlighted in red. ... The vocabulary of a person is defined either as the set of all words that are understood by that person or the set of all words likely to be used by that person when constructing new sentences. ... In general, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος) is a variant, or variety, of a language spoken in a certain geographical area. ... Walloon (Walon) is a regional Romance language spoken as a second language by some in Wallonia (Belgium). ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... Picard is a language closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. ...


As no census exists, there are no official statistics on Belgium's three official languages or their dialects. Various criteria, including the language(s) of parents, of education, or the second-language status of foreign born, may affect suggested figures. An estimated 59%[55] of the Belgian population speaks Dutch (often referred to as Flemish), and French is spoken by 40%. Total Dutch speakers are 6.23 million, concentrated in the northern Flanders region, while French speakers comprise 3.32 million in Wallonia and an estimated 0.87 million or 85% of the officially bilingual Brussels-Capital Region.[56][57] The German-speaking Community is made up of 73,000 people in the east of the Walloon Region; around 10,000 German and 60,000 Belgian nationals are speakers of German. Roughly 23,000 more of German speakers live in municipalities near the official Community.[4][58] Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... Flemish (Vlaams in Dutch), as the general adjective relating to Flanders, can refer to the speech of the Flemings, inhabitants of Flanders, though for the Flemish Community[1], Algemeen Nederlands (Common Dutch) is the official name of the standard language hence in English referred to as standard Dutch. ... The Flemish Region (Vlaams Gewest or Vlaanderen in Dutch), a contemporary meaning of Flanders, is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium – alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region. ... National motto: Walon todi ! (Walloon forever!) Official languages French, German Capital Namur Minister-President Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe Area  - Total 16,844 km² Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 3,358,560 inhabitants 199. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... The Executive (government) of the German-speaking Community meets in Eupen Flag of the German-speaking community in Belgium The German-speaking Community of Belgium (German: , short DGB) is one of the three federal communities in Belgium. ... National motto: Walon todi ! (Walloon forever!) Official languages French, German Capital Namur Minister-President Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe Area  - Total 16,844 km² Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 3,358,560 inhabitants 199. ...

Bilingual signs in Brussels.
Bilingual signs in Brussels.

The Capital Region having bilingual status obliges its authorities to attend to people and organisations in French or Dutch language as these prefer, and to show street names in both languages on the plates, but does not allow a bilingual school as education belongs to either the French Community or the Flemish one. Geographically, it is an enclave in the Flemish Region though near Wallonia. Constitutionally, it is a politically distinct Region, while within its boundaries both the Flemish and French Communities exercise their authority. Until the end of the 19th century the majority of the Capital Regions inhabitants spoke local Brabantian dialects of the Dutch language. However a large-scale Frenchification of Brussels started in 1880 as more and more Dutch-speaking people became bilingual, resulting in a rise of monolingual French-speakers after 1910. Halfway through the 20th century the number of monolingual French-speakers carried the day over bilingual people.[59] Today Dutch is spoken by approximately 150,000 residents of the Brussels-Capital Region, or a 15% minority.[3][6][56][57] Recent immigration has brought its population of foreign origin to 56%.[citation needed] The two largest foreign groups come from two francophone countries: France and Morocco.[60] The first language of roughly half of the inhabitants is not an official one of the Capital Region.[citation needed] Nevertheless, about three out of four residents have the Belgian nationality.[61][62][63][64] In general the population of Brussels is younger and the gap between rich and poor is wider. Brussels also has a large concentration of people of Turkish and Moroccan ancestry, and mainly French-speaking black Africans. Since Belgium does not collect statistics by ethnic background, exact figures are unknown. Image File history File linksMetadata Brussels_signs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Brussels_signs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Brabantian or Brabantic (Dutch: Brabants) is a dialect of the Dutch language spoken in Noord-Brabant and in the Belgian provinces of Antwerpen and Vlaams-Brabant and small parts in the west of Limburg. ... Dutch ( ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... Motto Égalité, Complémentarité, Solidarité Members and participants of La Francophonie. ...


In 2006, the Université Catholique de Louvain, the country's largest French-speaking university, published a report with the introduction (here translated): "This issue of Regards économiques is devoted to the demand for knowledge of languages in Belgium and in its three regions (Brussels, Flanders, Wallonia). The surveys show that Flanders is clearly more multilingual, which is without doubt a well known fact, but the difference is considerable : whereas 59% and 53% of the Flemings know French or English respectively, only 19% and 17% of the Walloons know Dutch or English. The measures advocated by the Marshall Plan go towards the proper direction, but are without doubt very insufficient to fully overcome the lag." (This particular 2006–2009 'Marshall Plan' was devised in 2004 and published in 2005 to uplift the Walloon economy.[65]) Within the report, professors in economics Ginsburgh and Weber further show that of the Brussels' residents, 95% declared they can speak French, 59% Dutch, and 41% know the non-local English. Economically significant for a further globalizing future, among people under the age of forty, in Flanders 59%, in Wallonia 10%, and in Brussels 28% can speak all three forementioned languages. In each region, Belgium's third official language, German, is notably less known than those.[66][67][61] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catholic University of Leuven (french-speaking). ... Bilingual redirects here. ... Victor Alexandre Ginsburgh is a Belgian economist of Austrian origin, born in Rwanda in 1939. ... Shlomo Weber was born on 1949-02-09 in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in Moscow, where he held a degree of Master of Science in mathematics at the Moscow State University in 1971. ...


Education

See also: Education in Belgium

Education is compulsory from six to eighteen for Belgians, but many continue to study until about 23 years of age. Among OECD countries in 2002, Belgium had the third-highest proportion of 18–21-year-olds enrolled in postsecondary education, at 42%.[68] Though an estimated 98% of the adult population is literate, concern is rising over functional illiteracy.[54][69] The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks Belgium's education as the 19th best in the world, being significantly higher than the OECD average.[70] The different levels of education in Flanders Education in Belgium is regulated and for the larger part financed by one of the three communities. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... Post-secondary education is a form of secondary education that is taken after first attending a secondary school, such as a high school. ... Literacy is the ability to use text to communicate across space and time. ... Functional illiteracy refers to the inability of an individual to use reading, writing, and computational skills efficiently in everyday life situations. ... The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a triennial world-wide test of 15-year-old schoolchildrens scholastic performance, the implementation of which is coordinated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


Highly politicized conflicts between freethought and Catholic segments of the population during the 1950s caused a split in educational organization. A secular branch of schooling is controlled by the Community, the province, or the municipality, while religious, mainly Catholic branch education, is organized by religious authorities, although subsidized and supervised by the Community.[71] Catholic schools are education ministries of the Roman Catholic Church. ... In economics, a subsidy (also known as a subvention) is a form of financial assistance paid to a business or economic sector. ...


Religion

See also: Religion in Belgium

Since the country's independence, Roman Catholicism, counterbalanced by strong freethought movements, has had an important role in Belgium's politics.[72] However Belgium is largely a secular country as the laicist constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the government generally respects this right in practice. Nevertheless, the monarchy has a reputation of deeply-rooted Catholicism. In 1990, for instance, as a King constitutionally obliged to sign a law legalizing abortion after it had been passed by both chambers, Baudouin asked the then Christian-Democrat Prime Minister Wilfried Martens to find a way out, causing the Parliament to declare him 'temporarily unfit to reign', with his consent.[73] On the yearly national holiday, the King and Queen and other members of the royal family officially attend Te Deum celebrations.[74] In Belgium, Roman Catholicism is the majority religion, accounting for between 75% and 80% of the population, although as of 2004 only about 10% to 20% of the population regularly goes to church. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logical principles and not be compromised by authority, tradition, or any other dogma. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... In France and some other French-speaking countries, laïcité (pronounced /laisite/ IPA/X-SAMPA) is a prevailing conception of the separation of church and state and the absence of religious interference into government affairs (and conversely). ... Baudouin I (French: or Dutch: ) (7 September 1930 – 31 July 1993) reigned as Prince Royal from 1950 to 1951 and as King of the Belgians from 1951 to 1993. ... Wilfried Martens   listen? (born 19 April 1936) is a Flemish (Belgian) politician. ... Te Deum is an early Christian hymn of praise. ...


Symbolically and materially, the Roman Catholic Church remains in a favourable position. Belgium's concept of 'recognized religions'[75] set a path for Islam to follow to acquire the treatment of Jewish and Protestant religions. While other minority religions, such as Hinduism, do not yet have such status, Buddhism took the first steps toward legal recognition in 2007.[71][76][77] According to the 2001 Survey and Study of Religion,[78] about 47% of the population identify themselves as belonging to the Catholic Church, while Islam is the second-largest religion at 3.5%. A 2006 inquiry in Flanders, considered to be a more religious region than Wallonia, showed that 55% considered themselves religious, and that 36% believed that God created the world.[79] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ...


According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005,[80] 43% of Belgian citizens responded that "they believe there is a god", whereas 29% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 27% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force". Eurobarometer is a series of surveys regularly performed on behalf of the European Commission since 1973. ...


There is also a tiny Hindu and Sikh population. While there are around 8,000 Hindus mostly near Antwerp, most Sikhs (around 10,000) are either in Vilvoorde or Sint-Truiden (see Sikhism in Belgium). This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... Vilvoorde (French: Vilvorde) is a municipality in the province of Flemish Brabant, in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Limburg Arrondissement Hasselt Coordinates Area 106. ...


Science and technology

Gerardus Mercator
Gerardus Mercator

Contributions to the development of science and technology have appeared throughout the country's history. The sixteenth century Early Modern flourishing of Western Europe included cartographer Gerardus Mercator, anatomist Andreas Vesalius, herbalist Rembert Dodoens, and mathematician Simon Stevin among the most influential scientists. In the first half of the seventeenth century, the Walloon method of making bar iron found its way to Sweden where it remained in use for more than two hundred and sixty years. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies, between the Middle Ages and modern society. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... Gerardus Mercator (March 5, 1512 – December 2, 1594) was a Flemish cartographer. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Andreas Vesalius or Andreas Vesal (1514 - Belgian anatomist and the author of the first complete textbook on human anatomy: De Humanis Corporis Fabrica (On the workings of the Human Body) (Basel, 1543). ... See also Herbalism A Herbalist is: 1. ... Rembert Dodoens (Mechelen June 29, 1517 - Leyden March 10, 1585) was a Flemish physician and botanist, also known under his Latinized name Rembertus Dodonaeus. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Simon Stevin Simon Stevin (1548/49 – 1620) was a Flemish mathematician and engineer. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ...


The quickly developed and dense Belgian railroad system caused major companies like La Brugeoise et Nivelles (now the BN division of Bombardier Transportation) to develop specific technologies, and the economically important very deep coal mining in the course of the First Industrial Revolution has required highly reputed specialized studies for mine engineers. Bombardier Transportation is the rail equipment division of the Bombardier group. ... Chinese coal miners in an illustration of the Tiangong Kaiwu Ming Dynasty encyclopedia, published in 1637 by Song Yingxing. ... A Watt steam engine in Madrid. ... Mining Engineering is a field that involves many of the other engineering disciplines as applied to extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. ...


The end of the nineteenth century and the twentieth saw important Belgian advances in applied and pure science. The chemist Ernest Solvay and the engineer Zenobe Gramme (École Industrielle de Liege) gave their names to the Solvay process and the Gramme dynamo, respectively, in the 1860s. Georges Lemaître (Université Catholique de Louvain) is credited with proposing the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe in 1927. Three Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine were awarded to Belgians: Jules Bordet (Université Libre de Bruxelles) in 1919, Corneille Heymans (Universiteit Gent) in 1938, and Albert Claude (Université Libre de Bruxelles) and Christian De Duve (Université Catholique de Louvain) in 1974. Ilya Prigogine (Université Libre de Bruxelles) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1977.[81] For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hard science. ... Ernest Solvay (c1900) Ernest Solvay (April 16, 1838 - May 26, 1922) was an Belgian chemist, industrialist and philanthropist. ... Zénobe Théophile Gramme (April 4, 1826 - January 20, 1901) was a Belgian electrical engineer. ... Chemistry The Solvay process calcium carbonate: CaCO3 → CO2 + CaO The solid sodium bicarbonate is then filtered out and converted to sodium carbonate by heating it, recovering some carbon dioxide in the process: 2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2 Meanwhile, ammonia is recovered from the ammonium chloride byproduct by treating the ammonium... The Gramme dynamo was an electrical generator patented in 1870 by Belgian engineer Zénobe Gramme (April 4, 1826 - January 20, 1901). ... Monsignor Georges Lemaître, priest and scientist. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ... Jules Jean Baptiste Vincent Bordet (Soignies (Belgium) 13 June 1870 – 6 April 1961) was a Belgian immunologist and microbiologist. ... The Université Libre de Bruxelles (or ULB) is a French-speaking university in Brussels, Belgium. ... Dr. Corneille Jean François Heymans (March 28, 1892 - July 18, 1968) was a Belgian physiologist who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1938 for for showing how blood pressure and oxygen content of the blood are measured by the body and transmitted to the brain. ... Albert Claude (August 24, 1899 – May 22, 1983) was a Belgian biologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974. ... Christian de Duve (born October 2, 1917) is a biochemist. ... Ilya Prigogine (January 25, 1917 – May 28, 2003) was a Belgian physicist and chemist noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Belgium

Belgian cultural life is concentrated within each language community,[11][82][83] and a variety of barriers have made a shared cultural sphere less pronounced. There has been since the 1970s no bilingual universities except the Royal Military Academy, no common media,[84] and no single large cultural or scientific organization in which both main communities are represented. The forces that once held them (the Belgians) together--Roman Catholicism and economic and political opposition to the Dutch-- are no longer strong.[85] Despite its political and linguistic divisions that have been strongly changing during the centuries, the region corresponding to today's Belgium has seen the flourishing of major artistic movements that have had tremendous influence on European art and culture. A discussion of Belgian culture requires discussing both those aspects of cultural life shared by all or most of the Belgians, regardless of what language they speak, and also, the differences between the main cultural communities, the Flemish people from Flanders and Brussels and the French-speakers from Brussels and... The Royal Military Academy is the military university of Belgium. ...


Fine arts

See also: list of Flemish painters and list of Belgian painters

Contributions to painting and architecture have been especially rich. The Mosan art, the Early Netherlandish,[86] the Flemish Renaissance and Baroque painting,[87] and major examples of Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque architecture[88] are milestones in the history of art. Famous names in this classic tradition include the Flemish artists Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden and, Pieter Brueghel the Elder as well as Lambert Lombard and Theodore de Bry from Liège. The historical artistic production of the Flemish before the early seventeenth century Baroque style of Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck is often not distinguished from that of the Dutch nor of the Walloons. In the southern Netherlands it gradually declined thereafter, although high quality tapestry continued to be created until well into the eighteenth century.[89][90] This is an incomplete list of Flemish painters, with place and date of birth and death and painting style. ... This is an incomplete list of Belgian painters, with place and date of birth (,death) and painting style. ... Download high resolution version (1061x800, 196 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1061x800, 196 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Tower of Babel is an oil painting by Pieter Brueghel the Elder. ... Bruegels The Painter and The Connoisseur drawn c. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Madonna in Green by Raffaello Tower of Babel by Pieter Brueghel. ... Mosan art or Rheno-Mosan art is medieval art from the valleys of the Meuse and Rhine, in present-day Belgium and Rhineland, from the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. ... The Arnolfini Portrait by Jan van Eyck, National Gallery, London. ... For 15th century Dutch and Flemish painting, see Early Netherlandish painting. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... For the Baroque style in a more general sense, see Baroque. ... Portrait of a Man in a Turban (actually a chaperon), probably a self-portrait, painted 1433 Jan van Eyck or Johannes de Eyck (pronounced: vān ike)(c. ... Deposition by Roger van der Weyden (c. ... Bruegels The Painter and The Connoisseur drawn c. ... Les Femmes Vertueuses Lambert Lombard (Liège, 1505 – 1566) was a Renaissance painter and architect from the Bishopric of Liège. ... Johann Theodor de Bry (1528 – 1598) was a Flemish-born engraver, draftsman and book editor and publisher who became famous for his depictions of early European expeditions to the Americas. ... The Arnolfini portrait by Jan van Eyck. ... Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, c. ... Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ... Self Portrait With a Sunflower Sir Anthony (Anton) van Dyck (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England. ... This article is about tapestry the textile. ...


During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries many original romantic, expressionist and surrealist Belgian painters emerged, including Egide Wappers, James Ensor, Constant Permeke and René Magritte. The avant-garde CoBrA movement appeared in the 1950s, while the sculptor Panamarenko remains a remarkable figure in contemporary art.[91][92] The multidisciplinary artist Jan Fabre and the painter Luc Tuymans are other internationally renowned figures on the contemporary art scene. Belgian contributions to architecture also continued into the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, including the work of Victor Horta and Henry van de Velde, who were major initiators of the Art Nouveau style.[93][94] Romantics redirects here. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Max Ernst. ... Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830 (1834), Wappers most famous painting, now in the Musée dArt Ancien, Brussels Egide Charles Gustave, Baron Wappers (August 23, 1803 - December 6, 1874), Belgian painter, was born at Antwerp. ... James Frederic Ensor, bust, Artist: Edmond de Valériola, Location: Ostende, Belgien James Ensor (April 13, 1860 - November 19, 1949) was a Belgian painter and printmaker, an important precursor to expressionism and surrealism who lived in Ostend for almost his entire life. ... Constant Permeke (1886 — 1952) is a Belgian painter who is considered the leading figure of Flemish expressionism. ... The Treachery of Images (La trahison des images) (1928–1929) René François Ghislain Magritte (November 21, 1898 – August 15, 1967) was a Belgian surrealist artist. ... COBRA (or CoBrA) was a European avant-garde movement active from 1949 to 1952. ... Rugzaktoerist (backpack tourist) Panamarenko (pseudonym of Henri Van Herwegen, born in Antwerp, February 5, 1940) is a prominent assemblagist in Flemish sculpture. ... Jan Fabre - born Antwerp, Belgium 1958 draws, sculpts, writes plays, directs on stage, choreographs and designs. ... Luc Tuymans (born 1958) is a Belgian contemporary artist, considered one of todays most influential painters. ... Maison and Atelier Horta, designed in 1898, now houses the Horta Museum, dedicated to his work. ... Henry Van de Velde (3 April 1863 – 15 October 1957) was a Belgian painter, architect and interior designer. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ...


The vocal music of the Franco-Flemish School developed in the southern part of the Low Countries and was an important contribution to Renaissance culture.[95] The nineteenth and twentieth centuries witnessed the appearance of major violinists, such as Henri Vieuxtemps, Eugène Ysaÿe and Arthur Grumiaux, while Adolphe Sax invented the saxophone in 1846. The composer César Franck was born in Liège in 1822. Belgium has also produced music of contemporary note. The first Belgian singer to successfully pursue an international career is Bobbejaan Schoepen, pioneer of varieté and pop music.[96] Jazz musician Toots Thielemans has achieved global fame, as have the singers Jacques Brel and Italy-born Adamo.[97] In rock/pop music, Telex, Front 242, K's Choice, Hooverphonic, Zap Mama, Soulwax and dEUS are well known.[98] Vocal music is music performed by one or more singers, with or without non-vocal instrumental accompaniment, in which singing provides the main focus of the piece. ... In music, the Dutch School refers, somewhat imprecisely, to the style of polyphonic vocal music composition in Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. ... Henri François Joseph Vieuxtemps (February 17, 1820 – June 6, 1881) was a Belgian composer and violinist active in France. ... Eugène Ysaÿe (July 16, 1858 – May 12, 1931) was a Belgian violinist, composer and conductor. ... Arthur Grumiaux (March 21, 1921–October 16, 1986) was a Belgian violinist who was also proficient in piano. ... Life-size statue of Adolphe Sax outside his birthplace in Dinant, Belgium. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored musical instrument usually considered a member of the woodwind family. ... C sar-Auguste-Jean-Guillaume-Hubert Franck (December 10, 1822–November 8, 1890) was a composer and organist. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Liège Coordinates , , Area 69. ... Belgium is a cultural crossroads where Dutch-speaking and French-speaking inhabitants mix with German minorities and immigrant communities from Republic of the Congo and other distant countries. ... Bobbejaan Schoepen Bobbejaan Schoepen (born Modest Schoepen, May 16, 1925, Boom, Antwerp) is a Flemish entertainer, singer, guitarist, composer, actor, and founder of the Bobbejaanland amusement park in Belgium. ... Jean Toots Thielemans (born Brussels, April 29, 1922) is a Belgian jazz artist well known for his guitar, harmonica play and also for his highly accomplished professional whistling. ... Jacques Brel Jacques Romain Georges Brel (French IPA: ) (April 8, 1929 – October 9, 1978) was a Belgian French-speaking singer-songwriter. ... Salvatore, Knight Adamo, simply known as Adamo (born 1 November 1943) is an Belgian composer and singer of ballads, mainly in French but also in other languages. ... The Belgian pop group Telex was formed in 1978 by Marc Moulin, Dan Lacksman and Michel Moers, as a kind of elaborate joke. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sarah and Gert Bettens on the cover of their album Almost Happy Ks Choice is a Belgian rock band from Antwerp. ... Hooverphonic is a Belgian rock/pop group formed in 1995. ... Zap Mama at an appearance at the 8x10 club in Baltimore, Maryland on November 1, 2007. ... Soulwax, headed by David and Stephen Dewaele, is an alternative rock band from Ghent, Belgium. ... dEUS(the correct formatting of the bands name) are a Belgian alternative rock band whose songs are primarily English. ...


Belgium has produced several well-known authors, including the poet Emile Verhaeren and novelists Hendrik Conscience, Georges Simenon, Suzanne Lilar and Amélie Nothomb. The poet and playwright Maurice Maeterlinck won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1911. The Adventures of Tintin by Hergé is the best known of Franco-Belgian comics, but many other major authors, including Peyo (The Smurfs), André Franquin, Edgar P. Jacobs, and Willy Vandersteen brought the Belgian cartoon strip industry on a par with the U.S.A. and Japan. Because Belgium is a bilingual country, Belgian literature is divided into the two main languages spoken in the country - French and Dutch or Flemish - and discussed under the languages of these countries : France and Dutch. ... Emile Verhaeren (May 21, 1855- November 27, 1916) was a Belgian poet writing in the French language, and one of the chief founders of the school of Symbolism. ... Hendrik Conscience (born December 3, 1812 in Antwerp – died September 10, 1883 in Antwerp) was a Flemish writer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Suzanne Lilar in the 1980 Suzanne Lilar (born Suzanne Verbist) (b. ... Amélie Nothomb (born August 13, 1967) is a Belgian writer. ... Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck, Belgian author Count Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck (August 29, 1862 - May 6, 1949) was a Belgian poet, playwright, and essayist. ... René-François-Armand Prudhomme (1839–1907), a French poet and essayist, was the first person to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1901, in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart... The Adventures of Tintin (French: ) is a series of Belgian comic books created by Belgian artist Hergé, the pen name of Georges Remi (1907–1983). ... Georges Prosper Remi (May 22, 1907 – March 3, 1983), better known by the pen name Hergé, was a Belgian comics writer and artist. ... Tintin, one of the most famous Belgian comics Franco-Belgian comics are comics written in Belgium and France. ... Pierre Culliford (June 25, 1928 – December 24, 1992), known as Peyo, was a Belgian comics artist, perhaps best known for the creation of The Smurfs comic strip. ... Smurf redirects here. ... André Franquin inspects his equipment André Franquin (January 3, 1924 – January 5, 1997) was an influential Belgian cartoonist, whose best known comic strip creations are Gaston and the Marsupilami. ... Blake and Mortimer, The Yellow M Edgard Félix Pierre Jacobs, (b. ... Willy Vandersteen (February 15, 1913 - August 28, 1990) was a Flemish creator of comic books. ... Belgian comics are a distinct subgroup in the comics history, and played a major role in the development of European comics. ...


Belgian cinema, often influenced by the Dutch or French, has brought a number of mainly Flemish novels to life on-screen.[99] The absence of a major Belgian cinema company, however, has forced several talented directors to emigrate, such as Carl Colpaert or participate in low-budget productions such as Marc Didden's Brussels by Night (1983).[100] Other Belgian directors include André Delvaux, Stijn Coninx, Luc and Jean-Pierre Dardenne; well-known actors include Jan Decleir and Marie Gillain; and successful films include Man Bites Dog and The Alzheimer Affair.[101] In the 1980s, Antwerp's Royal Academy of Fine Arts produced important fashion trendsetters, known as the Antwerp Six.[102] The Cinema of Belgium can often be considered a blending of Dutch Cinema and French Cinema though with its own unique national qualities. ... France has been influential in the development of film as a mass medium and as an art form. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... André Delvaux is a Belgian film director. ... Baron Stijn Coninx Stijn Coninx (born in Neerpelt, Belgium on February 21, 1957) is a Belgian film director best known for the movie Daens. ... Luc Dardenne is a belgian filmmaker. ... Jean-Pierre Dardenne (born April 21, 1951 in Engis, Liège, Belgium) is a filmmaker. ... Jan Decleir (born February 14, 1946), is a prolific Belgian movie and stage actor born in Niel, Antwerp (Flanders, Belgium). ... Marie Gillain, actress (born 18 June 1975 Liège, Belgium) . Trivia Is the heroine of the John Malkovitchs play on scene Hysteria. Is a model for cosmetics company Lancôme Brief filmography Black Box (2006) La voix de Laura (TV) (2005) - Laura Lenfer (2005) - Anne aka Hell Tout... Cest arrivé près de chez vous (Man Bites Dog) is a satirical 1992 Belgian French language black comedy mockumentary starring Benoît Poelvoorde. ... The Alzheimer Case film poster The Alzheimer Case (a. ... The Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten van Antwerpen (the Antwerp Royal Academy of Fine Arts) is one of the oldest of its kind in Europe. ... The Antwerp Six refers to a group of influential fashion designers from Antwerps Royal Academy of Fine Arts that emerged in the 1980s and presented a distinct vision for fashion that established Antwerp as a notable location for fashion design. ...


Folklore

The Gilles of Binche, in costume, wearing wax masks
The Gilles of Binche, in costume, wearing wax masks

Folklore plays a major role in Belgium's cultural life: the country has a comparatively high number of processions, cavalcades, parades, 'ommegangs' and 'ducasses',[103] 'kermesse', and other local festivals, nearly always with an originally religious background. The Carnival of Binche with its famous Gilles, and the 'Processional Giants and Dragons' of Ath, Brussels, Dendermonde, Mechelen and Mons are recognized by UNESCO as Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.[104] Other examples are the Carnival of Aalst; the still very religious processions of the Holy Blood in Bruges, Virga Jesse in Hasselt, and Hanswijk in Mechelen; the August 15 festival in Liège; and the Walloon festival in Namur. Originated in 1832 and revived in the 1960s, the Gentse Feesten have become a modern tradition. A major non-official holiday is the Saint Nicholas Day, a festivity for children and, in Liège, for students.[105] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 552 pixel Image in higher resolution (900 × 621 pixel, file size: 114 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Binche, les Gilles portant leur masque. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 552 pixel Image in higher resolution (900 × 621 pixel, file size: 114 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Binche, les Gilles portant leur masque. ... The Gilles are the oldest and principal actors of the Carnival of Binche There are around 1000 men Gilles from 3 years old to . ... Binche is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ... A procession (via Middle English processioun, French procession, derived from Latin, processio, itself from procedere, to go forth, advance, proceed) is, in general, an organized body of people advancing in a formal or ceremonial manner. ... Look up cavalcade in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... United States Marines on parade. ... Flemish Kermess by David Teniers the Younger (1652) Oil on canvas, 157 x 221 cm, Royal Museums of Fine Arts, Brussels Kermesse or kermis, is a Dutch language term derived from kerk (church) and mis (mass) that became borrowed in English and French, originally denoting the mass said on the... The Gilles, clad in their costumes and wax masks The Carnival of Binche is an event that takes place each year in the Belgian city of Binche. ... The Gilles are the oldest and principal actors of the Carnival of Binche There are around 1000 men Gilles from 3 years old to . ... For other uses, see Ath (disambiguation). ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... Dendermonde (French: Termonde) is a city and municipality located in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium, and in the Flemish province of East Flanders. ... Mechelen: Grote Markt square, with St. ... Mons Mons ---- (more info) Stage 1 : Request (How-to) Article EN is too short for the city where the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe is located Sylfred1977 20:04, 13 October 2007 (UTC) Very good article (featured article in the french WIKIPEDIA) Join this translation   ---   Update this information (instructions)   This... Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... Map showing the distribution of Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible Heritage by State Parties as of 2005. ... Aalst is a municipality on the Dender River, 19 miles northwest from Brussels. ... Each Ascension Day, Bruges becomes the decor of a large procession, dating back to the Middle Ages. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates , , Area 138. ... Hasselt municipality and district in the province Limburg Hasselt is a Belgian city and municipality, and capital of the Flemish province of Limburg. ... This is a list of Roman Catholic basilicas. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Liège Coordinates , , Area 69. ... Namur (Nameûr in Walloon, Namen in Dutch) is a city and municipality, capital of the province of Namur and of the region of Wallonia in southern Belgium. ... The Gentse Feesten is a music and theatre festival in the city of Ghent (Belgium). ... For the literary magazine, see St. ...


Sports

The 1920 Summer Olympics were held in Antwerp, Belgium. The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were held in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. ...


Football (soccer) and cycling are especially popular. Jean-Marie Pfaff, the Belgian goalie, is considered one of the greatest goalkeepers (soccer) in the history of the game.[106]. With five victories in the Tour de France and numerous other cycling records, Belgian Eddy Merckx ranks #1 as the greatest cyclist of all time.[107] His hour speed record (set in 1972) stood for twelve years. Either Kim Clijsters or Justine Henin, two Belgian tennis champions, are consistently listed as the Top Professional Female. Football is the national sport of Belgium. ... Cycling is the use of bicycles, or - less commonly - unicycles, tricycles, quadricycles and other similar wheeled human powered vehicles (HPVs) as a means of transport, a form of recreation or a sport. ... Jean-Marie Pfaff (born in Lebbeke, December 4, 1953) is a Belgian former football goalkeeper. ... For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ... Baron Edouard Louis Joseph Merckx (IPA: ) (born June 17, 1945, Meensel-Kiezegem, Vlaams Brabant, Belgium) is a former Belgian professional cyclist. ... Clijsters redirects here. ... Justine Henin; ( ) (born June 1, 1982 in Liège) is a Belgian professional tennis player from the Walloon (French-speaking) region of Belgium. ...


The Spa-Francorchamps motor-racing circuit hosts the Formula One World Championship Belgian Grand Prix. The Belgian driver, Jacky Ickx, has won eight Grands Prix and six 24 Hours of Le Mans, and twice finished as runner-up in the Formula One World Championship. Thierry Boutsen also won three races in 1989 and 1990. Belgium also has a strong reputation in motocross; world champions include Roger De Coster, Joël Robert, Georges Jobé, Eric Geboers, Joël Smets and Stefan Everts. The route of the Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps as laid out for the Belgian Grand Prix The Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps is the famous venue of the Formula One Belgian Grand Prix and the SPA 24 Hours endurance race. ... Formula One - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article is about Formula One race. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The 24 Hours of Le Mans (24 Heures du Mans) is the worlds most famous sports car endurance race, held annually at Circuit de la Sarthe near Le Mans, France, in the French Sarthe département. ... Thierry Boutsen (born July 13, 1957 in Brussels, Belgium) was a Formula One driver who raced for the Arrows, Benetton, Williams, Ligier and Jordan teams. ... Motocross often takes place in wet weather, leading to muddy scenes such as this and hence the term Scrambling. Photo from New Zealand. ... Roger De Coster (b. ... Joël Robert (Born November 26, 1943 in Chatelet, Belgium ) is a legendary Belgian motocross racer who won the 250cc Motocross World Championship 6 times including 5 times in a row. ... Georges Jobé (born January 6, 1961) was a professional motocross rider from Belgium who was crowned the FIM World Motocross Champion on five occasions. ... Eric Geboers (born August 5, 1962 in Neerpelt, Limburg) was is a motocross racer from Belgium. ... Joël Smets (born April 6, 1969 in Mol, Antwerp) is a former motocross rider from Belgium, who was named Belgian Sportsman of the Year in 2000. ... Stefan Everts (born November 25, 1972, Bree, Belgium) is a motocrosser from Belgium. ...


Belgium has played a major part in the promotion and development of Duathlon. More specifically Benny Vansteelant has made a lasting legacy conquering a stunning 8 World Champion titles and 5 European Champion titles. Duathlon is an athletic event (not to be confused with biathlon) that consists of a running leg, followed by a cycling leg and then another running leg in a format bearing some resemblance to triathlons. ... Benny Vansteelant (November 19, 1976 – September 14, 2007) was a Belgian duathlete. ...


Belgium is currently bidding with the Netherlands to host the 2018 World Cup. [108] Both countries previously hosted the UEFA European Football Championship in 2000. Belgium also hosted the European Football Championships in 1972. The English FA have announced that they would be interested in bidding for the 2018 Football World Cup Finals following the sucessful Olympic bid by London for the 2012 games. ... The UEFA European Football Championship is the main football competition of the mens national football teams governed by UEFA (the Union of European Football Associations). ... The 2000 UEFA European Championship, or Euro 2000, was the 11th edition of the UEFA European Championship, a competition between the national football teams of Europe held every four years and organised by UEFA, footballs governing body in Europe. ...


Cuisine

Belgium is well known the world over for its cuisine.[109][110] Many highly ranked restaurants can be found in the most influential gastronomic guides, such as the Michelin Guide.[111] Belgian food is, like the country itself, a mix of Germanic and Latin influences. Belgians have a reputation for loving waffles and french fries; contrary to the name of the latter, both dishes originated in Belgium. The national dishes are "steak and fries with salad", and "mussels with fries".[112][113][114] A challenge issued by a television program elicited no less than 307 different local or regional dishes, presented on a 118-metre long table in Tivoli Park in Mechelen on 1 September 2007.[115] Belgium is a nation of Gourmands rather than Gourmets which translates into big cuisine rather than fine cuisine. ... New York City 2006 First Michelin Red Guide for North America The Michelin Guide (Le Guide Michelin) is a series of annual guide books published by Michelin for over a dozen countries. ... Belgian waffles are a type of waffle identified by their larger size, lighter batter and higher grid pattern which forms deep pockets. ... -1... Beef rump steak on grill pan, cooked to medium rare A steak (from Old Norse steik, roast) is a slice of meat, typically beef, or fish. ... This article deals with food. ... Subclasses Pteriomorpha (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta (zebra mussels) The common name mussel is used for members of several different families of clams or bivalve molluscs, from both saltwater and freshwater habitats. ... Mechelen: Grote Markt square, with St. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Brands of Belgian chocolate and pralines, like Callebaut, Côte d'Or, Neuhaus, Leonidas, Guylian and Godiva, are world renowned and widely sold. For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... Praline is a sweet food made from a mixture of nuts and boiled sugar, eaten as a confection or more commonly, as an ingredient in other confections. ... Callebaut is a Belgian company and a major producer of chocolate for consumers and for professional chocolatiers. ... Côte dOr is a producer of Belgian chocolate currently owned by Kraft Foods. ... Neuhaus is a producer and retailer of Belgian chocolates. ... Leonidas is a chocolate manufacturer based in Belgium, with an international presence. ... Guylian logo Guylian is a Belgian chocolate manufacturer formed by Guy Foubert in 1960. ... Godiva is a chocolatier, founded in 1926 in Brussels, Belgium and introduced in the United States in 1966. ...


Belgium produces over 500 varieties of beer. The biggest brewer in the world by volume is InBev based in Belgium.[116] Belgian beer varies from the popular pale lager to the esoteric appeal of lambic beer and Flemish red. ... A 16th century brewery Brewing can also refer to steeping, as in the preparation of tea. ... InBev (Euronext: INB, NYSE: ABV) is the largest beer company in the industry. ...


See also

Belgium Portal

Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium. ... This is a list of notable people who either: are or were Belgian citizens during at least one period of their life, were born in Belgium or in the provinces of present-day Belgium, but who were not or are not Belgian citizens (either because Belgium did not exist at... This is a list of Belgian municipalities by population: Brussels (999,899) (counting the capital region as one municipality) Antwerp (455,000) Ghent (229,000) Charleroi (201,000) Liège (185,000) Bruges (117,000) Namur (106,000) Mons (91,000) Leuven (90,000) Mechelen (77,000) Aalst (77,000... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to Belgium. ... Military branches: Army Component, Naval Component and Air Component Military manpower - military age: 16 years of age (2001) Military manpower - availability: males age 16-49: 2,436,736 (2005 est. ... // According to the United States Department of State, Belgium is a relatively safe country compared to its neighbouring countries, but other sources show otherwise. ... This article is about transportation in Belgium. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 4. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... La Grand-Place Tourism in Belgium is one of Belgiums smaller industries; however the countrys easy accessibility from elsewhere in Europe still makes it a popular tourist destination. ... In Belgium there are twelve official public holidays. ... Belgian citizenship is based on a mixture the principles of Jus sanguinis and Jus soli. ... 1952 Belgian passport Belgian passports are issued to citizens of Belgium to facilitate international travel. ...

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Structuur van de bevolking — België / Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest / Vlaams Gewest / Waals Gewest / De 25 bevolkingsrijkste gemeenten (2000–2006) (asp) (Dutch). Belgian Federal Government Service (ministry) of Economy — Directorate-general Statistics Belgium (© 1998/2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  2. ^ Footnote: Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many international organizations, including ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G-10, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC (observers), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNECE, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WADB (non-regional), WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC.
  3. ^ a b Leclerc, Jacques , membre associé du TLFQ (2007-01-18). Belgique • België • Belgien — Région de Bruxelles-Capitale • Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest (French). L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde. Host: Trésor de la langue française au Québec (TLFQ), Université Laval, Quebec. Retrieved on 2007-06-18. “C'est une région officiellement bilingue formant au centre du pays une enclave dans la province du Brabant flamand (Vlaams Brabant)”
    * About Belgium. Belgian Federal Public Service (ministry) / Embassy of Belgium in the Republic of Korea. Retrieved on 2007-06-21. “the Brussels-Capital Region is an enclave of 162 km2 within the Flemish region.”
    * Flanders (administrative region). Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft (2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-21. “The capital of Belgium, Brussels, is an enclave within Flanders.”
    * McMillan, Eric (October 1999). The FIT Invasions of Mons (pdf). Capital translator, Newsletter of the NCATA, Vol. 21, No. 7, p. 1. National Capital Area Chapter of the American Translators Association (NCATA). Retrieved on 2007-06-21. “The country is divided into three increasingly autonomous regions: Dutch-speaking Flanders in the north; mostly French-speaking Brussels in the center as an enclave within Flanders, and French-speaking Wallonia in the south (plus the German-speaking Cantons de l'Est).”
    * Van de Walle, Steven, lecturer at University of Birmingham Institute of Local Government Studies, School of Public Policy. Language Facilities in the Brussels Periphery (pdf). KULeuven — Leuvens Universitair Dienstencentrum voor Informatica en Telematica. Retrieved on 2007-06-21. “Brussels is a kind of enclave within Flanders — it has no direct link with Wallonia.”
  4. ^ a b The German-speaking Community. The German-speaking Community. Retrieved on 2007-05-05. The (original) version in German language (already) mentions 73,000 instead of 71,500 inhabitants.
  5. ^ a b Morris, Chris (2005-05-13). Language dispute divides Belgium. BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  6. ^ a b Petermann, Simon, Professor at the University of Liège, Wallonia, Belgium — at colloquium IXe Sommet de la francophonie — Intitiatives 2001 — Ethique et nouvelles technologies, session 6 Cultures et langues, la place des minorités, Bayreuth (2001-09-25). Langues majoritaires, langues minoritaires, dialectes et NTIC (French). Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  7. ^ Bunson, Matthew (1994). Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire, Hardcover 352pp, Facts on File, New York, p. 169. ISBN 0 8160 2135 X [Paperback 512pp, ISBN 0-8160-3182-7; Revised edition (2002), Hardcover 636pp, ISBN 0-8160-4562-3]. 
  8. ^ Footnote: The Celtic and/or Germanic influences on and origin(s) of the Belgae remains disputed. Further reading e.g. Witt, Constanze Maria (May 1997). Ethnic and Cultural Identity. Barbarians on the Greek Periphery? — Origins of Celtic Art. Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, University of Virginia. Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
  9. ^ a b Belgian economy. Belgium. Belgian Federal Public Service (ministry) of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation. Retrieved on 2007-05-21.
  10. ^ Haß, Torsten, Head of the Fachhochschule (University of Applied Sciences) of Kehl Library, Kehl, Germany (2003-02-17). Rezention zu (Review of) Cook, Bernard: Belgium. A History ISBN 0-8204-5824-4 (German). FH-Zeitung (journal of the Fachhochschule). Retrieved on 2007-05-24. “die Bezeichnung Belgiens als „the cockpit of Europe” (James Howell, 1640), die damals noch auf eine kriegerische Hahnenkampf-Arena hindeutete” — The book reviewer, Haß, attributes the expression in English to James Howell in 1640. Howell's original phrase "the cockpit of Christendom" became modified afterwards, as shown by:
       Carmont, John. The Hydra No.1 New Series (November 1917) — Arras And Captain Satan. War Poets Collection. Napier University’s Business School. Retrieved on 2007-05-24. — and as such coined for Belgium:
       Wood, James (1907). Nuttall Encyclopaedia of General Knowledge — Cockpit of Europe. Retrieved on 2007-05-24. “Cockpit of Europe, Belgium, as the scene of so many battles between the Powers of Europe.” (See also The Nuttall Encyclopaedia)
  11. ^ a b c d Fitzmaurice, John, at the Secretariat-General of the European Commission, taught at the Université Libre de Bruxelles (1996). New Order? International models of peace and reconciliation — Diversity and civil society. Democratic Dialogue Northern Ireland's first think tank, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK. Retrieved on 2007-08-12.
  12. ^ Belgium country profile. EUbusiness, Richmond, UK (2006-08-27). Retrieved on 2007-08-12.
  13. ^ Karl, Farah (text); Stoneking, James (course) (1999). Chapter 27. The Age of Imperialism (Section 2. The Partition of Africa) (pdf). World History II. Appomatox Regional Governor's School (History Department), Petersburg, VA, USA. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
  14. ^ Edmundson, George (1922). Chapter II: Habsburg Rule in the Netherlands. History of Holland. The University Press, Cambridge. Republished: Authorama. Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
  15. ^ Footnote: Further reading: France in the 17th and 18th centuries
  16. ^ Kris Deschouwer (January 2004). Ethnic structure, inequality and governance of the public sector in Belgium (pdf). United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD). Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  17. ^ Meredith, Mark (2005-06-06). The State of Africa, Hardcover 608pp, Free Press, pp. 95–96(?). ISBN 0-7432-3221-6. 
  18. ^ [1][dead link]
  19. ^ Franklin, Mark N., Trinity College, Connecticut (2001). The Dynamics of Electoral Participation — Table 10.1 Average turnout in free elections to the lower house in 40 countries, 1961–1999 (pdf) p. 32. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  20. ^ Belgium — Constitution — Title III Powers, Chapter II The Senate, Article 72 [King's Descendants] ; and Title III, Chapter III King and Federal Government, Section I The King ; and Section II The Federal Government, Article 99 [Composition of Government]. International Constitutional Law. Institut für öffentliches Recht, University of Berne, Switzerland (1994-02-17). Retrieved on 2007-05-20. Or both:
    * Title III On Power, Chapter II On the Senate, Art. 72. The Constitution of Belgium. The Federal Parliament of Belgium (1997-01-21). Retrieved on 2007-05-20. And
    * Title III On Power, Chapter III On the King and the Federal Government, Section I On the King ; and Section II On the Federal Government, Art. 99. The Constitution of Belgium. The Federal Parliament of Belgium (1997-01-21). Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  21. ^ Tyler, Richard (1999-06-08). Dioxin contamination scandal hits Belgium: Effects spread through European Union and beyond. World Socialist Web Site (WSWS). International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI). Retrieved on 2007-05-25. — Follow-up on occasion of 2nd dioxin crisis: α
  22. ^ School of Food Biosciences, University of Reading, UK (1999-06-16). "Food Law News — EU : CONTAMINANTS — Commission Press Release (IP/99/399) Preliminary results of EU-inspection to Belgium". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  23. ^ "Belgium's "rainbow" coalition sworn in", BBC News, 1999-07-12. Retrieved on 2007-05-20. 
  24. ^ La Chambre des représentants — Composition (Composition of the Chamber of Representatives) (pdf) (French). The Chamber of Representatives of Belgium (2006-03-09). Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  25. ^ Rwanda. tiscali.reference. Tiscali UK. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. The article shows an example of Belgium's recent African policies.
  26. ^ "Belgian demand halts NATO progress", CNN News, 2003-02-16. Retrieved on 2007-06-16. 
  27. ^ "The Belgian crisis in detail", Majorityrights, 2007-11-20. Retrieved on 2007-11-22. 
  28. ^ Reporters Without Frontiers, 2007
  29. ^ Willemyns, Roland, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Germanic Languages (2002). "The Dutch-French Language Border in Belgium". Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development Vol. 23 (Nos. 1&2): pp. 36–49. Retrieved on 2007-06-22. 
  30. ^ Footnote: Each municipality of the Kingdom is part of one of the four language areas (taalgebieden in Dutch, Sprachgebiete in German), occasionally called linguistic regions (régions linguistiques in French). See the three legal versions of the Constitution:
    * Titel I: Het federale België, zijn samenstelling en zijn grondgebied (Dutch). De Belgische Grondwet. Belgian Senate (2007-05-15 last update of web page). Retrieved on 2007-05-31. “Art. 4 België omvat vier taalgebieden”
    * Titel I: Das föderale Belgien, seine Zusammensetzung und sein Staatsgebiet (German). Die Verfassung Belgiens. Belgian Senate (2007-05-15 last update of web page). Retrieved on 2007-05-31. “Art. 4 Belgien umfaßt vier Sprachgebiete”
    * Titre Ier: De la Belgique fédérale, de ses composantes et de son territoire (French). La Constitution Belge. Belgian Senate (2007-05-15 last update of web page). Retrieved on 2007-05-31. “Art. 4 La Belgique comprend quatre régions linguistiques”
      English translation, not recently updated and without legal value:
    * Title I: On Federal Belgium, its components and its territory. the Constitution. Belgian Senate (1997-01-21 last update of main 'the Constitution' page on web site). Retrieved on 2007-05-31. “Art. 4 Belgium has four linguistic regions”
  31. ^ a b c Footnote: The Constitution set out seven institutions each of which can have a parliament, government and administration. In fact there are only six such bodies because the Flemish Region merged into the Flemish Community. This single Flemish body thus exercises powers about Community matters in the bilingual area of Brussels-Capital and in the Dutch language area, and about Regional matters only in the latter.
  32. ^ Footnote: Apart from the municipalities with language facilities for individuals, the French language area has three more municipalities in which the second language in education legally has to be either Dutch or German, whereas in its municipalities without special status this would also allow for English. Lebrun, Sophie (2003-01-07). Langues à l'école: imposées ou au choix, un peu ou beaucoup (French). La Libre Belgique's web site. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
  33. ^ a b The Federal Government's Powers. .be Portal. Belgian Federal Government. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  34. ^ a b The Communities. .be Portal. Belgian Federal Government. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  35. ^ a b The Regions. .be Portal. Belgian Federal Government. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  36. ^ Belgium — The land — Relief. Encyclopædia Britannica online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Chicago, IL, USA (© 2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-03.
  37. ^ Geography of Belgium. 123independenceday.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  38. ^ Life — Nature (pdf 3.8 MB). Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (2005). Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  39. ^ Climate averages — Brussels. EuroWEATHER/EuroMETEO, Nautica Editrice Srl, Rome, Italy. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  40. ^ Kerncijfers 2006 — Statistisch overzicht van België (pdf 1.8 MB) (Dutch) pp. 9–10. Belgian Federal Government Service (ministry) of Economy — Directorate-general Statistics Belgium. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  41. ^ Takhtajan, Armen, 1986. Floristic Regions of the World. (translated by T.J. Crovello & A. Cronquist). University of California Press, Berkeley.
  42. ^ Atlantic mixed forests (PA0402), World Wildlife Fund, 2001.
  43. ^ Pearce, Fred (2003-03-05). Sewage-laden Belgian water worst in world. New Scientist. Retrieved on 2006-05-09.
  44. ^ Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index - Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy and Columbia University Center for International Earth Science Information Network
  45. ^ Wallonia in 'decline' thanks to politicians. Expatica Communications BV (2005-03-9). Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  46. ^ Industrial History Belgium. European Route of Industrial Heritage. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  47. ^ Background Note: Belgium. US Department of State, Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs (April 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  48. ^ Vanhaverbeke, Wim. Het belang van de Vlaamse Ruit vanuit economisch perspectief The importance of the Flemish Diamond from an economical perspective (Dutch). Netherlands Institute of Business Organization and Strategy Research, University of Maastricht (Faculty of Economics and Business Administration), The Netherlands. Retrieved on 2007-05-19.
  49. ^ The World Factbook — (Rank Order — Public debt). CIA (2007-04-17). Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  50. ^ Key figures. National Bank of Belgium. Retrieved on 2007-05-19.
  51. ^ Perrin, Nicolas, UCLouvain, Study Group of Applied Demographics (Gédap) (April 2006). European Migration Network — Annual Statistical Report on migration and asylum in Belgium (Reference year 2003) — section A. 1) b) Population by citizenship & c) Third country nationals, 1 January 2004 (pdf) pages 5–9. Belgian Federal Government Service (ministry) of Interior — Immigration Office. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  52. ^ http://ecodata.mineco.fgov.be/mdn/Vreemde_bevolking.jsp
  53. ^ Quelques résultats des précédents recensements — Indicateurs de logement (1991) (French switchable to Dutch). Belgian Federal Government Service (ministry) of Economy — Directorate-general Statistics Belgium (© 1998/2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  54. ^ a b Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). Languages of Belgium. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th edition. SIL International Dallas, Texas, USA. Retrieved on 2007-05-07.
  55. ^ Footnote: Native speakers of Dutch living in Wallonia and of French in Flanders are relatively small minorities that furthermore largely balance one another, hence counting all inhabitants of each unilingual area to the area's language can cause only insignificant inaccuracies (99% can speak the language). Dutch: Flanders' 6.079 million inhabitants and about 15% of Brussels' 1.019 million are 6.23 million or 59.3% of the 10.511 million inhabitants of Belgium (2006); German: 70,400 in the German-speaking Community (which has language facilities for its less than 5% French-speakers), and an estimated 20,000–25,000 speakers of German in the Walloon Region outside the geographical boundaries of their official Community, or 0.9%; French: in the latter area as well as mainly in the rest of Wallonia (3.414 - 0.093 = 3.321 million) and 85% of the Brussels inhabitants (0.866 million) thus 4.187 million or 39.8%; together indeed 100%;
  56. ^ a b Flemish Academic Eric Corijn (initiator of Charta 91), at a colloquium regarding Brussels, on 2001-12-05, states that in Brussels there is 91% of the population speaking French at home, either alone or with another language, and there is about 20% speaking Dutch at home, either alone (9%) or with French (11%) — After ponderation, the repartition can be estimated at between 85 and 90% French-speaking, and the remaining are Dutch-speaking, corresponding to the estimations based on languages chosen in Brussels by citizens for their official documents (ID, driving licenses, weddings, birth, sex, and so on); all these statistics on language are also available at Belgian Department of Justice (for weddings, birth, sex), Department of Transport (for Driving licenses), Department of Interior (for IDs), because there are no means to know precisely the proportions since Belgium has abolished 'official' linguistic censuses, thus official documents on language choices can only be estimations. For a web source on this topic, see e.g. General online sources: Janssens, Rudi
  57. ^ a b Belgium Market background. British Council. Retrieved on 2007-05-05. “The capital Brussels, 80–85 percent French-speaking, ...” — Strictly, the capital is the municipality (City of) Brussels, though the Brussels-Capital Region might be intended because of its name and also its other municipalities housing institutions typical for a capital.
  58. ^ Citizens from other countries in the German-speaking Community. The German-speaking Community. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
    * German (Belgium) — Overview of the language. Mercator, Minority Language Media in the European Union, supported by the European Commission and the University of Wales. Retrieved on 2007-05-07.
    * Leclerc, Jacques , membre associé du TLFQ (2006-04-19). Belgique • België • Belgien — La Communauté germanophone de Belgique (French). L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde. Host: Trésor de la langue française au Québec (TLFQ), Université Laval, Quebec. Retrieved on 2007-05-07.
  59. ^ (Dutch)"Thuis in gescheiden werelden" — De migratoire en sociale aspecten van verfransing te Brussel in het midden van de 19e eeuw", BTNG-RBHC, XXI, 1990, 3-4, pp. 383-412, Machteld de Metsenaere, Eerst aanwezend assistent en docent Vrije Universiteit Brussel
  60. ^ France: 41,716; Morocco: 40 646 IS 2007 - Population (Tableaux) (French). Brussels-Capital Region. Retrieved on 2008-03-17.
  61. ^ a b Van Parijs, Philippe, Professor of economic and social ethics at the UCLouvain, Visiting Professor at Harvard University and the KULeuven. "Belgium's new linguistic challenges" (pdf 0.7 MB). KVS Express (supplement to newspaper De Morgen) March–April 2007: Article from original source (pdf 4.9 MB) pages 34–36 republished by the Belgian Federal Government Service (ministry) of Economy — Directorate-general Statistics Belgium. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.  — The linguistic situation in Belgium (and in particular various estimations of the population speaking French and Dutch in Brussels) is discussed in detail.
  62. ^ "Van autochtoon naar allochtoon" (in Dutch) . De Standaard (newspaper) online. Retrieved on 2007-05-05. “Meer dan de helft van de Brusselse bevolking is van vreemde afkomst. In 1961 was dat slechts 7 procent. (More than half of the Brussels' population is of foreign origin. In 1961 this was only 7 percent.)” 
  63. ^ Footnote: The Brussels region's 56% residents of foreign origin include several percents of either Dutch people or native speakers of French, thus roughly half of the inhabitants do not speak either French or Dutch as primary language.
  64. ^ Population et ménages (pdf 1.4 MB) (French). IBSA Cellule statistique — Min. Région Bruxelles-Capitale (Statistical cell — Ministry of the Brussels-Capital Region). Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  65. ^ Bayenet, Benoît, Professor at the Université Libre de Bruxelles, in 2004 Economical Advisor to the federal Vice Prime Minister & Justice Minister, and to the Walloon Region's Minister of Economy and Employment; Vandendorpe, Luc, Direction Politique économique, Ministry of the Walloon Region (2004). "Le plan Marshall: cinq actions prioritaires pour l’avenir wallon (The Marshall plan: five prioritary actions for the Walloon future)" (in French). OVER.WERK journal of Steunpunt WAV (4/2005). Acco. 
  66. ^ Ginsburgh, Victor, Université Catholique de Louvain; Weber, Shlomo, Professor of Economics and Director of the Center for Economic Studies of the Southern Methodist University, Dallas, USA, and having a seat in the expert panel of the IMF. (June 2006). "La dynamique des langues en Belgique" (in French) (pdf 0.7 MB). Regards économiques, Publication préparée par les économistes de l'Université Catholique de Louvain 19 (Numéro 42): 282. doi:10.1159/000013462. Retrieved on 2007-05-07. “Ce numéro de Regards économiques est consacré à la question des connaissances linguistiques en Belgique et dans ses trois régions (Bruxelles, Flandre, Wallonie). Les enquêtes montrent que la Flandre est bien plus multilingue, ce qui est sans doute un fait bien connu, mais la différence est considérable : alors que 59 % et 53 % des Flamands connaissent le français ou l'anglais respectivement, seulement 19 % et 17 % des Wallons connaissent le néerlandais ou l'anglais. Les mesures préconisées par le Plan Marshall vont dans la bonne direction, mais sont sans doute très insuffisantes pour combler le retard. ... 95 pour cent des Bruxellois déclarent parler le français, alors que ce pourcentage tombe à 59 pour cent pour le néerlandais. Quant à l’anglais, il est connu par une proportion importante de la population à Bruxelles (41 pour cent). ... Le syndrome d’H (...) frappe la Wallonie, où à peine 19 et 17 pour cent de la population parlent respectivement le néerlandais et l’anglais.”  (Summary: Slechts 19 procent van de Walen spreekt Nederlands (Dutch). Nederlandse Taalunie (2006-06-12). Retrieved on 2007-05-26. — The article shows the interest in the Ginsburg-Weber report, by the French-language Belgian newspaper Le Soir and the Algemeen Dagblad in the Netherlands)
  67. ^ Schoors, Koen, Professor of Economics at Ghent University, the KULeuven and the Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School.. Réformer sans tabous - Question 1: les langues — La connaissance des langues en Belgique: Reactie (pdf) (Dutch). Itinera Institute. Retrieved on 2007-06-14. “Hoewel in beide landsdelen de jongeren inderdaad meer talen kennen dan de ouderen, is de talenkloof tussen Vlaanderen en Wallonië toch gegroeid. Dit komt omdat de talenkennis in Vlaanderen sneller is toegenomen dan die in Wallonië. ... Het probleem aan Franstalige kant is dus groot en er is, verassend genoeg, niet echt een verbetering of oplossing in zicht. ... het is met de kennis van het Engels ongeveer even pover gesteld als met de kennis van het Nederlands. Tot daar dus de verschoning van de povere talenkennis aan Waalse zijde als een rationele individuele keuze in een markt met externe effecten. Het is merkwaardig dat de auteurs dit huizenhoge probleem met hun verklaring expliciet toegeven, maar er bij het formuleren van beleidsadviezen dan toch maar van uit gaan dat hun model juist is. (Although in both parts of the country the young indeed know more languages than the elder, the languages chasm between Flanders and Wallonia has nevertheless grown. This is because the knowledge of languages in Flanders has increased faster than that in Wallonia. ... Thus the problem at the French-speaking side is large and there is, quite surprisingly, not really an improvement or solution in sight. ... the knowledge of English is in about as poor a state as the knowledge of Dutch. So far, about the excuse for the poor knowledge of languages on the Walloon side as a rational individual choice in a market with external effects. It is remarkable that the authors by their statement explicitly acknowledge this towering problem, but in formulating governance advices still assume their model to be correct.)” — Reaction on the Ginsburgh-Weber report; Ib. Reactions (pdf) (French translation).
  68. ^ Table 388. Percentage of population enrolled in secondary and postsecondary institutions, by age group and country. Digest of Education Statistics — Tables and Figures. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences (IES), US Department of Education (2005, data: 2002). Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
  69. ^ I. Monitoring Human Development: Enlarging peoples's choices... — 5. Human poverty in OECD, Eastern Europe and the CIS (pdf). Human Development Indicators pp. 172–173. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2000). Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
  70. ^ http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/42/8/39700724.pdf
  71. ^ a b De Ley, Herman (2000). Humanists and Muslims in Belgian Secular Society (Draft version). Centrum voor Islam in Europe (Centre for Islam in Europe), Ghent University. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  72. ^ See for example Belgium entry of the Catholic Encyclopedia
  73. ^ "HEADLINERS; Out of Power", New York Times, 1990-04-08. Retrieved on 2007-06-07. 
  74. ^ Members of the royal family may attend Te Deums at several locations, the King and Queen always in the Brussels-Capital Region.
    * July 21 — national holiday. .be Portal. Belgian Federal Government (2004-07-20). Retrieved on 2007-07-07.
    * Festivities for the National Holiday. .be Portal. Belgian Federal Government (2006-07-14). Retrieved on 2007-07-07.
  75. ^ 2001 Annual Report on Human Rights in Belgium.
  76. ^ Bousetta, Hassan; Gsir, Sonia; Jacobs, Dirk (2005). Active Civic Participation of Immigrants in Belgium — Country Report prepared for the European research project POLITIS, Oldenburg (pdf). Carl von Ossietzky University, Oldenburg IBKM. Retrieved on 2007-05-08. “In many respects, the Catholic Roman Church remains in a very advantageous situation both symbolically and materially. The long and troublesome process that eventually lead to the recognition of Islam is also illustrative of the ambiguity of the relations between the Belgian State and religions. For 25 years, Islam has been maintained in an unfair position in comparison to other religions.”
  77. ^ "België gaat plat op zijn buik voor China (Belgium bends over backwards for China)", Metro (Belgian newspaper), 2007-05-10, pp. page 2. Retrieved on 2007-05-10. (Dutch) "[Upon the Dalai Lama for the second time in two years canceling a visit to Belgium after being informed by the Belgian government of Peking's diplomatic pressure, quote newspaper:] Uittredend Senaatsvoorzitster Anne-Marie Lizin reageert teleurgesteld: 'Gezien het belang van de vergadering waaraan u wilde deelnemen en gezien de redenen van uw beslissing, betreur ik dat ik u niet kan ontvangen in ons land, een land dat openstaat voor iedereen, ongeacht de religieuze overtuiging, en dat net een eerste stap heeft gezet in de erkenning van het'[sic] 'boeddhistische filosofie'. (Lawfully resigning at the end of the government's legislation, President of the Senat Anne-Marie Lizin reacts disappointed: 'In view of the importance of the meeting you wanted to attend and in view of the reasons of your decision, I regret not being able to receive you in our country, a country open for everyone regardless the religious conviction, and which has just set a first step towards the recognition of the Buddhist philosophy.')"  Alternative urls:α, β, pdf 1.1 MB
  78. ^ Belgium. International Religious Freedom Report 2004. US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (2004). Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  79. ^ Inquiry by 'Vepec', 'Vereniging voor Promotie en Communicatie' (Organisation for Promotion and Communication), published in Knack magazine 22 November 2006 p. 14 [The Dutch language term 'gelovig' is in the text translated as 'religious', more precisely it is a very common word for believing in particular in any kind of God in a monotheistic sense, and/or in some afterlife].
  80. ^ Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 - page 11. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  81. ^ Rembert Dodoens: iets over zijn leven en werk — Dodoens' werken (Dutch). Plantaardigheden — Project Rembert Dodoens (Rembertus Dodonaeus). Stichting Kruidenhoeve/Plantaardigheden, Balkbrug, the Netherlands (Revised 20 Dec, 2005). Retrieved on 2007-05-17. “... het Cruijdeboeck, dat in 1554 verscheen. Dit meesterwerk was na de bijbel in die tijd het meest vertaalde boek. Het werd gedurende meer dan een eeuw steeds weer heruitgegeven en gedurende meer dan twee eeuwen was het het meest gebruikte handboek over kruiden in West-Europa. Het is een werk van wereldfaam en grote wetenschappelijke waarde. De nieuwe gedachten die Dodoens erin neerlegde, werden de bouwstenen voor de botanici en medici van latere generaties. (... the Cruijdeboeck, published in 1554. This masterpiece was, after the bible, the most translated book in that time. It continued to be republished for more than a century and for more than two centuries it was the mostly used referential about herbs. It is a work with world fame and great scientific value. The new thoughts written down by Dodoens, became the building bricks for botanists and physicians of later generations.)
    * O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (2004). Simon Stevin. School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland. Retrieved on 2007-05-11. “Although he did not invent decimals (they had been used by the Arabs and the Chinese long before Stevin's time) he did introduce their use in mathematics in Europe.”
    * Abstract (*). S. Karger AG, Basel. Retrieved on 2007-05-11. “The importance of A. Vesalius' publication 'de humani corporis fabrica libri septem' cannot be overestimated.” (*) Free abstract for pay-per-view article by De Broe, Marc E.; De Weerdt, Dirk L.; Ysebaert, Dirk K.; Vercauteren, Sven R.; De Greef, Kathleen E.; De Broe Luc C. (1999). "The Low Countries - 16th/17th Century" (pdf). American Journal of Nephrology 19 (2): pp. 282–9. doi:10.1159/000013462. PMID 10213829. 
    * Poh Miller, Carol (Winter 2003). "Study Tour Takes A Close-up Look at Sweden’s Industrial Heritage" (pdf). Society for Industrial Archeology Newsletter 32 (1): p. 7. Department of Social Sciences, Michigan Technological University, U.S.A.. Retrieved on 2007-07-13. 
    * Midbon, Mark, University of Wisconsin-Madison (2000-03-24). 'A Day Without Yesterday': Georges Lemaitre & the Big Bang pp. 18–19. Commonweal, republished: Catholic Education Resource Center (CERC). Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  82. ^ Belgium — Arts and cultural education. Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, 8th edition. Council of Europe / ERICarts (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  83. ^ Belgique (though it should have been 'Belgium'). European Culture Portal. European Commission (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-10.
  84. ^ Adrien Gonthier (2003). Frontière linguistique, frontière politique, une presse en crise (French). Le Monde Diplomatique. Retrieved on 2008-06-17.
  85. ^ Mumford, David (2008). The World Today Series, Western Europe/2007. NY Times. ISBN 1-887985-89-1. 
  86. ^ Low Countries, 1000–1400 AD. Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-10.
  87. ^ Low Countries, 1400–1600 AD. Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-10.
  88. ^ Several examples of major architectural realisations in Belgium belong to UNESCO's World Heritage List: Belgium. Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  89. ^ Low Countries, 1600–1800 AD. Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-10.
  90. ^ Art History: Flemish School: (1600–1800) — Artists: (biography & artworks). World Wide Arts Resources (2006-02-05). Retrieved on 2007-05-10. — A general presentation of the Flemish artistic movement with a list of its artists, linking to their biographies and artworks
  91. ^ Belgian Artists: (biographies & artworks). World Wide Arts Resources (2006-02-05). Retrieved on 2007-05-10. — List of Belgian painters, linking to their biographies and artworks
  92. ^ Baudson, Michel (1996). Panamarenko. Flammarion (Paris), quoted at presentation of the XXIII Bienal Internacional de São Paulo. Retrieved on 2007-05-10.
  93. ^ Brussels, capital of Art Nouveau (page 1), ib. (page2). Senses Art Nouveau Shop, Brussels (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-11. (for example)
  94. ^ Major Town Houses of the Architect Victor Horta (Brussels). UNESCO's World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved on 2007-05-16. “The appearance of Art Nouveau in the closing years of the 19th century marked a decisive stage in the evolution of architecture, making possible subsequent developments, and the Town Houses of Victor Horta in Brussels bear exceptional witness to its radical new approach.”
  95. ^ Western music, the Franco-Flemish school. Encyclopædia Britannica (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-15. “Most significant musically was the pervasive influence of musicians from the Low Countries, whose domination of the musical scene during the last half of the 15th century is reflected in the period designations the Netherlands school and the Franco-Flemish school.”
  96. ^ Notte, Peter (1992). De Vlaamse kleinkunstbeweging na de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Een historisch overzicht. — 4. De schlager na de tweede wereldoorlog (Dutch). Verhandeling voorgelegd aan de Faculteit der Letteren en Wijsbegeerte, groep Germaanse Filologie, van de Universiteit Gent, voor het verkrijgen van de graad van licentiaat (Thesis presented at the Faculty of Literature and Philosophy, Germanic Philology, Ghent University, for obtaining a licentiate [equivalent to master's] degree) Promotor: Prof. Dr Anne-Marie Musschoot. Sint-Lodewijkscholen (educational project ethesis). Retrieved on 2007-05-12. (For these credentials see this thesis' presentation, retrieved on 2007-05-12)
  97. ^ The Italian singer Adamo mainly made his career in Belgium, as confirmed by the biography on his site, retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  98. ^ Two comprehensive discussions of rock and pop music in Belgium since the fifties:
    * The Timeline — A brief history of Belgian Pop Music. The Belgian Pop & Rock Archives. Flanders Music Centre, Brussels (March 2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
    * Belgian Culture — Rock. Vanberg & DeWulf Importing (© 2006). Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  99. ^ Notable Belgian films based on works by Flemish authors include: De Witte (author Ernest Claes) movie by Jan Vanderheyden & Edith Kiel in 1934, remake as De Witte van Sichem directed by Robbe De Hert in 1980; De man die zijn haar kort liet knippen (Johan Daisne) André Delvaux 1965; Mira ('De teleurgang van de Waterhoek' by Stijn Streuvels) Fons Rademakers 1971; Malpertuis (aka The Legend of Doom House) (Jean Ray [pen name of Flemish author who mainly wrote in French, or as John Flanders in Dutch]) Harry Kümel 1971; De loteling (Hendrik Conscience) Roland Verhavert 1974; Dood van een non (Maria Rosseels) Paul Collet & Pierre Drouot 1975; Pallieter (Felix Timmermans) Roland Verhavert 1976; De komst van Joachim Stiller (Hubert Lampo) Harry Kümel 1976; De Leeuw van Vlaanderen (Hendrik Conscience) Hugo Claus (a famous author himself) 1985; Daens ('Pieter Daens' by Louis Paul Boon) Stijn Coninx 1992; see also Filmarchief les DVD!s de la cinémathèque (in Dutch). Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  100. ^ Kroniek van de Vlaamse film 1955–1990 — Perstekst naar aanleiding van de uitgave van ‘Brussels By Night’ (doc) (Dutch). Flemish Community, Media Desk, Ghent. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  101. ^ A review of the Belgian cinema can be found at Cinema. .be Federal Portal. Federal government of Belgium (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  102. ^ Fashion and the ‘Antwerp Six’. Fashion Worlds, Dorset, UK (© 2004). Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  103. ^ Footnote: The Dutch word 'ommegang' is here used in the sense of an entirely or mainly non-religious procession, or the non-religious part thereof — see also its article on the Dutch-language Wikipedia; the Processional Giants of Brussels, Dendermonde and Mechelen mentioned in this paragraph are part of each city's 'ommegang'. The French word 'ducasse' refers also to a procession; the mentioned Processional Giants of Ath and Mons are part of each city's 'ducasse'.
  104. ^ Processional Giants and Dragons in Belgium and France. UNESCO. Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  105. ^ Folklore estudiantin liégeois (French). University of Liège. Retrieved on 2008-06-17.
  106. ^ "Goalkeeping Greats" Goalkeepersaredifferent.com. Retrieved on June 29, 2008
  107. ^ Majendie, Matt (2005-04-18). Great, but there are greater (stm). BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2007-09-20. “[the Author's] top five [cyclists] of all time: 1 Eddy Merckx, 2 Bernard Hinault, 3 Lance Armstrong, 4 Miguel Indurain, 5 Jacques Anquetil
  108. ^ Benelux trio to apply to host the 2018 World Cup, ESPN Soccernet Global, retrieved on May 22, 2008 from 2018 FIFA World Cup
  109. ^ Eating Out in Belgium. subsite www.hostelbelgium.com. Hostelworld.com, Dublin, Ireland (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  110. ^ Belgium cuisine. About.com: French Cuisine. About, Inc., a part of The New York Times Company (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  111. ^ The Michelin stars 2007 in Belgium. Resto.be TM Dreaminvest (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  112. ^ Steak-frites. Epicurious. Retrieved on 2007-08-12. Republished from Van Waerebeek, Ruth; Robbins, Maria (October 1996). Everybody Eats Well in Belgium Cookbook. Workman Publishing. ISBN 1-56305-411-6 (Paperback), ISBN 0-7611-0106-3 (Cloth). 
  113. ^ Belgium. Global Gourmet. Retrieved on 2007-08-12. Republished from Van Waerebeek, Ruth; Robbins, Maria (October 1996). Everybody Eats Well in Belgium Cookbook. Workman Publishing. ISBN 1-56305-411-6 (Paperback), ISBN 0-7611-0106-3 (Cloth). 
  114. ^ Mussels. Visit Belgium. Official Site of the Belgian Tourist Office in the Americas (2005). Retrieved on 2007-08-12. — Note: Contrarily to what the text suggests, the season starts as early as July and lasts through April.
  115. ^ Mechelen viert feest! - het verslag (Fata Morgana) (Dutch). één, primary TV channel of the official Flemish radio & television broadcast institution VRT (2007-09-02). Retrieved on 2007-09-02. “[translated] From starter to dessert (...) from all over Flanders. Also the entire public could enjoy the food, and did! Only the verdict by the sworn bailiff might spoil the fun. She counted 307 local or regional dishes”. — [300 different ones were required to meet the challenge] see also challenge details, retrieved on 2007-09-02
  116. ^ InBev (2007-04-24). "InBev dividend 2006: 0.72 euro per share — infobox: About InBev". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-05-31. “InBev is a publicly traded company (Euronext: INB) based in Leuven, Belgium. The company's origins date back to 1366, and today it is the leading global brewer by volume.”

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Not to be confused with the European Union, the Western European Union (WEU) is said by some to be a partially dormant European defence and security organization composed of those states members of both NATO and the EU. Interestingly, however, New York Universitys published work (Holyworth and Jolyon) Defending... Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations, and has as its core objectives the promotion of creative intellectual activity and the facilitation of the transfer of technology related to intellectual property to the developing countries in order to accelerate economic, social... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ... The Zangger Committee, also known as the Nuclear Exporters Committee, sprang from Article III.2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) which entered into force on March 5, 1970. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Université Laval (Laval University) is the oldest centre of education in Canada, and was the first institution in North America to offer higher education in French. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Catholic University of Leuven in English) or in short K.U.Leuven, is the oldest, largest and most prominent university in Belgium. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bayreuth [pronounced by-royt] is a town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Frankish Alb and the Fichtelgebirge. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kehl is a town in southwestern Germany in the Ortenaukreis, Baden-Württemberg. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A Fachhochschule (plural: Fachhochschulen) or University of Applied Sciences in Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein and Switzerland is a university specialized in certain topical areas (e. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Howell James Howell (c. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nuttall Encyclopaedia is an early 20th century encyclopedia, edited by Rev. ... The Secretariat-General of the European Commissionis a Directorate-General of the European Commission. ... The Université Libre de Bruxelles (or ULB) is a French-speaking university in Brussels, Belgium. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the administrative and social structures of early modern France, see Ancien Régime in France. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Trinity College is a private liberal arts college in Hartford, Connecticut. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... University of Berne The University of Berne is a university in the Swiss capital of Berne. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) is a Flemish university situated in Brussels, Belgium. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Belgium, its four language areasthree regions ; two of the latter have provinces . Belgium is a federal state comprising three communities, three regions, and four language areas. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... La Libre Belgique (English: Free Belgium) is a Belgian newspaper in French. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Universiteit Maastricht (abbreviation: UM) (or in the English language: Maastricht University[1]), founded in 1976, is the second youngest university in the Netherlands. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Bank of Belgium (Nationale Bank van België in Dutch, Banque nationale de Belgique in French, and Belgischen Nationalbank in German) has been the central bank of Belgium since 1850. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catholic University of Leuven (french-speaking). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... SIL International is a worldwide non-profit evangelical Christian organization whose main purpose is to study, develop and document lesser-known languages in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy and aid minority language development. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Logo of the British Council British Council building in London British Council, Hong Kong The British Council is one of the United Kingdoms cultural relations organisations and which specialises in educational opportunities. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... The University of Wales (Prifysgol Cymru in Welsh) is a federal university founded in 1893. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Université Laval (Laval University) is the oldest centre of education in Canada, and was the first institution in North America to offer higher education in French. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Philippe Van Parijs (born 1951) is a Belgian philosopher and political economist, mainly known as secretary of the Basic Income European Network. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catholic University of Leuven (french-speaking). ... Harvard redirects here. ... The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Catholic University of Leuven in English) or in short K.U.Leuven, is the oldest, largest and most prominent university in Belgium. ... De Morgen (English: The morning) is a Belgian newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... De Standaard (The Standard) is a Flemish daily newspaper with a circulation of 80,696 [1]. The first edition appeared on 4 December 1918. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Netherlands (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Université Libre de Bruxelles (or ULB) is a French-speaking university in Brussels, Belgium. ... Victor Alexandre Ginsburgh is a Belgian economist of Austrian origin, born in Rwanda in 1939. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catholic University of Leuven (french-speaking). ... Shlomo Weber was born on 1949-02-09 in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in Moscow, where he held a degree of Master of Science in mathematics at the Moscow State University in 1971. ... Dallas Hall at Dedman College at SMU The Laura Lee Blanton Hall during a rare snow storm Southern Methodist University (commonly SMU) is a nationally recognized, private, coeducational university in University Park, Texas (an enclave of Dallas). ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catholic University of Leuven (french-speaking). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nederlandse Taalunie or Dutch Language Union is an institution for discussing issues on the Dutch language between three partners: The Netherlands, Flanders (Dutch-speaking part of Belgium) and Suriname. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Le Soir (meaning The Evening) is a Belgian newspaper in French. ... Algemeen Dagblad is a Dutch newspaper. ... Ghent University (in Dutch, Universiteit Gent, abbreviated UGent) is one of the three large Flemish universities. ... The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Catholic University of Leuven in English) or in short K.U.Leuven, is the oldest, largest and most prominent university in Belgium. ... Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School is the autonomous management school of the Ghent University and K.U.Leuven. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), as part of the U.S. Department of Education, collects, analyzes, and publishes statistics on education and public school district finance information in the United States; conducts studies on international comparisons of education statistics; and provides leadership in developing and promoting the use... The Institute of Education Sciences is the primary research arm of the United States Department of Education. ... The United States Department of Education was created in 1979 (by PL 96-88) as a Cabinet-level department of the United States government, and began operating in 1980. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ghent University (in Dutch, Universiteit Gent, abbreviated UGent) is one of the three large Flemish universities. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Carl von Ossietzky Memorial, Berlin Carl von Ossietzky (Hamburg, October 3, 1889 – May 4, 1938 in Berlin) was a radical German pacifist and the recipient of the 1935 Nobel Peace Prize. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Metro is a free newspaper in Belgium, distributed on working days and aiming in particular at 18-44 year old urban, actif, mobile students and commuters, with a sense of curiosity[1]. Separate Dutch and French-language versions, each with its own content, are according to the areas language... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... State power within the government of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is divided among three bodies: the Communist Party of China, the state, and the Peoples Liberation Army, (PLA). ... The Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Affairs (DRL) at the United States Department of State is one of four bureaus that comprise the Office of the Under Secretary for Global Affairs. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... -1... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... University of Wisconsin redirects here. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Commonweal is a New York based American journal of opinion edited and managed by lay Catholics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This monthly magazine is not to be mistaken for the daily Le Monde. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... David Bryant Mumford (born 11 June 1937) is an American mathematician known for distinguished work in algebraic geometry, and then for research into vision and pattern theory. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The Metropolitan Museum of Art is an art museum located on the eastern edge of Central Park, along what is known as Museum Mile in New York City. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Metropolitan Museum of Art is an art museum located on the eastern edge of Central Park, along what is known as Museum Mile in New York City. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Metropolitan Museum of Art is an art museum located on the eastern edge of Central Park, along what is known as Museum Mile in New York City. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Andreas Ernestus Josephus Claes (October, 24th 1885 in Zichem - September, 2nd 1968 in Elsene) was a Flemsih author. ... Robbe De Hert (Farnborough, Hampshire, UK, 20 September 1942) is a Belgian film director. ... Johan Daisne was the pseudonym of Flemish language author Herman Thiery (2 September 1912–9 August 1978). ... André Delvaux is a Belgian film director. ... Stijn Streuvels, born Franciscus (Frank) Petrus Maria Lateur, is a Belgian writer. ... Fons Rademakers (5 September 1920 - 22 February 2007) was a Dutch filmmaker. ... Malpertuis (1943), a macabre novel by Jean Ray. ... Jean Ray, pseudomym of Jean Raymond Marie de Kremer, is a Belgian French language writer of the fantastique. ... Harry Kümel (January 27, 1940 in Antwerpen, Belgium) is a Belgian film director. ... Hendrik Conscience (born December 3, 1812 in Antwerp – died September 10, 1883 in Antwerp) was a Flemish writer. ... Maria Rosseels (Borgerhout, 23 October 1916-18 March 2005), was a Belgian Catholic writer. ... Leopold Maximiliaan Felix Timmermans (July 5, 1886 – January 24, 1947) is the most translated author of Flanders. ... Hubert Lampo (born in 1920 in Antwerp) is a Belgian writer, one of the founders of magic realism in Flanders. ... Harry Kümel (January 27, 1940 in Antwerpen, Belgium) is a Belgian film director. ... Hendrik Conscience (born December 3, 1812 in Antwerp – died September 10, 1883 in Antwerp) was a Flemish writer. ... Hendrik Conscience (born December 3, 1812 in Antwerp – died September 10, 1883 in Antwerp) was a Flemish writer. ... Hugo Maurice Julien Claus (born April 5, 1929 in Bruges, Belgium) is a prolific Flemish novelist, poet, playwright, painter and film director. ... Daens is a 1992 Belgian film directed by Stijn Coninx. ... Louis Paul Boon (15 March 1912 - 10 May 1979) was a Flemish journalist and novelist who is considered one of the major 20th century writers in the Dutch language. ... Baron Stijn Coninx Stijn Coninx (born in Neerpelt, Belgium on February 21, 1957) is a Belgian film director best known for the movie Daens. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... the Flemish community has jurisdiction over Flanders and over the Dutch language institutions in Brussels. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Liège (ULg), in Liège in Belgium, is a major public university in the French Community of Belgium. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC Sport is the sports division of the BBC. It became a fully dedicated division of the BBC in 2000. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bernard Hinault (born 14 November 1954) is a French cyclist best known for his five victories in the Tour de France. ... Lance Armstrong (born Lance Edward Gunderson on September 18, 1971) is a retired American professional road racing cyclist. ... Miguel Ángel Indurain Larraya (born July 16, 1964, Villava, Navarre) is a retired Spanish road bicycle racer. ... Jacques Anquetil (January 8, 1934 - November 18, 1987), was a French cyclist and the first cyclist to win the Tour de France five times, in 1957 and from 1961 to 1964. ... This article or section contains speculation and may try to argue its points. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... één is a public TV station in Belgium, owned by the VRT who also owns Ketnet/Canvas/Sporza. ... VRT official logo The communications tower at the headquarters of VRT in Brussels. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bailiff (from Late Latin bajulivus, adjectival form of bajulus) is a governor or custodian (cf. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Euronext N.V. is a pan-European stock exchange based in Paris[1] and with subsidiaries in Belgium, France, Netherlands, Portugal and the United Kingdom. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Flemish Brabant Arrondissement Leuven Coordinates , , Area 56. ...

General online sources

  • Belgium. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Chicago, IL, USA. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  • Boordtabel (Dutch). Centre for Information, Documentation and Research on Brussels (BRIO) (2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-02. (mentioning other original sources)
  • Belgium entry at The World Factbook Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  • The Constitution. Federal Parliament Belgium (1997-01-21). Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  • Country Portal - Europe — Belgium. Belgian Federal Government Service (ministry) of Economy — Directorate-general Statistics Belgium. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  • Fischer, Kathrin (1999-07-21). Die Stellung und Rolle der deutschsprachigen Minderheit in Ostbelgien innerhalb des belgischen Nationalstaats (German). Kleiner Geländekurs in die EUREGIO Maas-Rhein. Geographical Institute of the Georg-August University (Department Culture and Social Geography), Göttingen, Germany. Retrieved on 2007-06-13.
  • History of Belgium. World History at KMLA. Korean Minjok Leadership Academy (KMLA) (Last revised 2007-05-30). Retrieved on 2007-06-02.
  • Janssens, Rudi, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (2001-06-01). Brusselse Thema's 8 — Taalgebruik in Brussel — Taalverhoudingen, taalverschuivingen en taalindentiteit in een meertalige stad (pdf) (Dutch, summary The Use of Languages in Brussels pp. 227–250 in English). VUBPress, Brussels ISBN 90 5487 293 4 — republished. Retrieved on 2007-06-02.
  • Leclerc, Jacques, membre associé du TLFQ (© 2006). Belgique • België • Belgien (French). L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde. Host: Trésor de la langue française au Québec (TLFQ), Université Laval, Quebec. Retrieved on 2007-06-02.
  • Mnookin, Robert, Professor at HLS; Verbeke, Alain (2006-12-20). Bye bye Belgium?. International Herald Tribune, republished by Harvard Law School. Retrieved on 2007-06-01. — Reflections on nations and nation-state developments regarding Belgium

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) is a German university, founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) is a Flemish university situated in Brussels, Belgium. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Université Laval (Laval University) is the oldest centre of education in Canada, and was the first institution in North America to offer higher education in French. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Harvard Law School (colloquially, Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Harvard Law School (colloquially, Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Arblaster, Paul (2005-12-23). A History of the Low Countries, Hardcover 312pp, Palgrave Essential Histories, Palgrave Macmillan, New York. ISBN 1-4039-4827-5 [Also edition (2005-12-23), Paperback 312pp, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, ISBN 1-4039-4828-3]. 
  • Blom, J. C. H., Dutch State Institute for War Documentation, ed.; Lamberts, Emiel, Professor in Modern History KULeuven, ed.; Kennedy, James C., translator (May 1999). History of the Low Countries, Hardcover 503pp, Berghahn Books, Oxford/New York. ISBN 1-5718-1084-6 [Also newer edition (2006-06-29), Paperback 516pp, Berghahn Books, New York, ISBN 1-8454-5272-0]. 
  • Cammaerts, Émile L. [1913] (1921). A History of Belgium from the Roman Invasion to the Present Day, 357pp, D. Appleton and Co, New York. OCLC 1525559 ASIN B00085PM0A [Also editions [1913], London, OCLC 29072911; (1921) D. Unwin and Co., New York OCLC 9625246; also published (1921) as Belgium from the Roman invasion to the present day, The Story of the nations, 67, T. Fisher Unwin, London, OCLC 2986704 ASIN B00086AX3A]. 
  • Cook, Bernard A., Professor of History at Loyola University New Orleans, LA, USA (c2002 or May 2004). Belgium: A History, Paperback 205pp, Studies in Modern European History, Vol. 50, Peter Lang Pub, New York. ISBN 0-8204-5824-4 Ib. e-book (2004) NetLibrary, Boulder, CO, USA, ISBN 0-8204-7283-2 [Also print edition (2004-06-30 or 2005), ISBN 0-8204-7647-1]. 
  • de Kavanagh Boulger, Demetrius C. [1902] (2001-06-28 or 2006-03-30). The History of Belgium: Part 1. Cæsar to Waterloo, Paperback 493pp, Elibron Classics, Adamant Media (Delaware corporation), Boston, MA, USA.. ISBN 1-4021-6714-8 [Facsimile reprint of a 1902 edition by the author, London]. Ib. [1909] (2001-06-28 or 2006-03-30). Ib. Part 2. 1815-1865. Waterloo to the Death of Leopold I, Paperback 462pp, Ib., Ib. ISBN 1-4021-6713-X [Facsimile reprint of a 1909 edition by the author, London]. 
  • Fitzmaurice, John (March 1996). The Politics of Belgium: A Unique Federalism, Paperback 284pp, Nations of the modern world, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, USA. OCLC 30112536. ISBN 0-8133-2386-X. 
  • Kossmann-Putto, Johanna A.; Kossmann Ernst H.; Deleu Jozef H. M., ed.; Fenoulhet Jane, translator [of: (1987). De Lage Landen : geschiedenis van de Noordelijke en Zuidelijke Nederlanden. Vlaams-Nederlandse Stichting Ons Erfdeel, Rekkem] [1987] (January 1993). The Low Countries: History of the Northern and Southern Netherlands, 3rd Rev. edition Paperback 64pp, Flemish-Netherlands Foundation "Stichting Ons Erfdeel", Rekkem, Belgium. ISBN 9-0708-3120-1 [several editions in English, incl. (1997) 7th ed.]. 

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Catholic University of Leuven in English) or in short K.U.Leuven, is the oldest, largest and most prominent university in Belgium. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a unique identification number assigned by Amazon. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a unique identification number assigned by Amazon. ... Logo of Loyola University New Orleans Loyola University New Orleans is a private, co-educational Jesuit university in the United States with 5,000 students (3,000 undergraduates). ... A Delaware corporation is a corporation chartered in the U.S. state of Delaware. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links

Find more about Belgium on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
See also: section References, subsection General online sources
  • Wikimedia Atlas of Belgium
  • Belgium travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Belgium, entry on the Catholic Encyclopedia 1913, republished on Wikisource
  • Official site of Belgian monarchy
  • Official site of the Belgian federal government
  • Official Site of the Belgian Tourist Office in the Americas and GlobeScope,
    - its links to sites of Belgian Tourist Offices in Belgium
    - its links to sites of Belgian Tourist Offices worldwide
  • History of Belgium: Primary Documents EuroDocs: Online Sources for European History
  • Belgium, entry on the Public Diplomacy wiki monitored by the USC Center on Public Diplomacy
  • Local news and features on Belgium, Expatica
  • http://www.helium.com/items/834554-belgium-small-country-northwest

For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... [--168. ... An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by a someone who is elected by a group. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Alo, also known unofficially as Tu`a, is one of the three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna, which encompasses the eastern two thirds (53 km² out of 83 km²) of Futuna Island, and mostly uninhabited Alofi Island (32 km², pop. ... Ankole, originally known as Nkore, is one of the four traditional kingdoms of Uganda. ... For other uses, see Ashanti (disambiguation). ... The flag of Buganda Buganda is the kingdom of the 52 clans of the Baganda people, the largest of the traditional kingdoms in present-day Uganda. ... Bunyoro flag The current Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara and its districts Bunyoro is a region of Uganda, and from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century one of the most powerful kingdoms of East Africa. ... The flag of Busoga Kingdom of Busoga and its districts Busoga is the kingdom of the 11 principalities of the Basoga people, one of the five traditional kingdoms in present-day Uganda. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Sigave is one of the three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna, which is located on the western part of Futuna Island. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... Original Kingdom of Toro and its districts Kingdom of Toro since 1993 Toro is one of the four traditional kingdoms located within the borders of Uganda. ... For the Pacific island, see Wallis Island. ... Yogyakarta Sultanate or Kesultanan Yogyakarta is a monarchy in the province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. ... Zululand was the Zulu-dominated area of what is now northern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Belgium (12/07) (5621 words)
Belgium is divided ethnically into the Dutch-speaking Flemings and French-speaking Walloons, the 70,000 residents of the eastern German cantons, and the bilingual capital of Brussels.
Belgium supported the expansion of NATO and EU membership to the new democracies of central and eastern Europe and is actively engaged in the Organization for Security and Cooperation (OSCE) in Europe.
Belgium served as the Chair-in-Office of the OSCE in 2006.
Belgium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4483 words)
Belgium hosts the headquarters of NATO and a major part of the European Union's institutions and administrations, including the European Commission, the Council of the European Union and the extraordinary and committee sessions of the European Parliament, as well as parts of its administration.
Belgium is one of the few countries that has compulsory voting, thus having one of the highest rates of voter turnout in the world.
Currently, the Belgium economy is heavily service-oriented and shows a dual nature with a dynamic Flemish part with Brussels as its main multilingual and multi-ethnic centre and a GNP/person which is one of the highest from the European union, and a Walloon economy that lags roughly one quarter behind (in GNP/person).
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