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Encyclopedia > Belgian Revolution
Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Egide Charles Gustave Wappers (1834), in the Museum of Ancient Art, Brussels
Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Egide Charles Gustave Wappers (1834), in the Museum of Ancient Art, Brussels

The Belgian Revolution was a conflict in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands that began with a riot in Brussels in August 1830 and eventually led to the establishment of an independent, Roman Catholic and neutral Belgium (William I, king of the Netherlands, would refuse to recognize a Belgian state until 1839, when he had to yield under pressure by the Treaty of London). Wikinews has news related to: Fictional documentary about Flemish independence causes consternation in Belgium Tout ça (ne nous rendra pas la Belgique) was a hoax perpetrated by the French speaking Belgian public TV station RTBF on Wednesday, December 13th 2006. ... Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Egide Charles Gustave Wappers (1834), in the Musée dArt Ancien, Brussels File links The following pages link to this file: Belgian Revolution Egide Charles Gustave Wappers Categories: Public domain art ... Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Egide Charles Gustave Wappers (1834), in the Musée dArt Ancien, Brussels File links The following pages link to this file: Belgian Revolution Egide Charles Gustave Wappers Categories: Public domain art ... Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830 (1834), Wappers most famous painting, now in the Musée dArt Ancien, Brussels Egide Charles Gustave, Baron Wappers (August 23, 1803 - December 6, 1874), Belgian painter, was born at Antwerp. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Limburg in 1839 1, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830) 1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830) 2 Duchy of Limburg (In the German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg) 3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after... This article is about the settlement itself. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other men at some time in history called William I of Orange-Nassau, see William of Orange. ... The Treaty of London of 1839, also called the Convention of 1839, was signed on April 19, 1839. ...


The Netherlands overthrew Napoleonic rule in 1813. In the British-Dutch Treaty of 1814 the names "United Provinces of the Netherlands" and "United Netherlands" were used. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, the Congress of Vienna created a kingdom for the House of Orange-Nassau, combining the United Provinces of the Netherlands with the former Austrian Netherlands, in order to create a strong buffer state north of France. Symptomatic of the tenor of diplomatic bargaining at Vienna was the early proposal to reward Prussia for its staunch fight against Napoleon with the former Habsburg territory. Then, when the British insisted on retaining formerly Dutch Ceylon and the Cape Colony, which they had seized while the Netherlands was ruled by Napoleon, the new kingdom of the Netherlands was compensated with these southern provinces. The union, called the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, reverted back to 16th century dynastic possessions but proved to be unworkable in the 19th century. Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands - and at times in Europe - since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Originally the term Netherlands referred to a much larger entity than the current Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Limburg in 1839 1, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830) 1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830) 2 Duchy of Limburg (In the German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg) 3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after...

Contents

Causes of the Revolution

The revolution had many causes; surely of importance was the treatment of the French-speaking Catholic Walloons in the Dutch-dominated United Kingdom of the Netherlands, and the difference of religion between the Belgians and their Dutch king. However, the main cause of the Belgian Revolution was the domination of the Dutch over the economic, political, and social institutions of the United Provinces. Although Belgium had nearly double the population of the Netherlands, it was assigned the same number of representatives in the States General. The Belgians had little influence over the economy and resented Dutch control. At the most basic level, the Dutch were for free trade, while less developed local industries in Belgium called for the protection of tariffs. Free trade lowered the price of bread, made from wheat imported through the reviving port of Antwerp; at the same time, these imports from the Baltic depressed agriculture in Belgian grain-growing regions. The term Walloons (French: Wallons, Walloon: Walons) refers, in daily speech, to Belgians from Wallonia, roughly the southern half of the country. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ...


The more numerous Dutch provinces represented a majority in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands' elected Lower Assembly, and therefore the more populous Belgians felt significantly under-represented. However, the Belgians saw the main political domination in the fact that King William I was Dutch, lived in the present day Netherlands, and largely ignored the Belgian demands for greater self-determination. His more progressive and amiable representative living in Brussels, which was meant to be a twin capital, was Prince William, later King William II, who had some popularity among the upper class but none among Walloon peasants and workers. For other men at some time in history called William I of Orange-Nassau, see William of Orange. ... William II (William Frederick George Louis) (December 6, 1792 – March 17, 1849) was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg from October 7, 1840 until his death. ...


Another cause of the Belgian Revolution was the Belgian people's faith, Roman Catholicism, which conflicted with that of their DUTCH KING, and his belief in Calvinism. Although there were and still are many Roman Catholics in the present-day Netherlands, the Belgians saw themselves as purely Catholic and demanded a higher role for the Church, and for Catholics, in their government. In a sense, the Belgian Revolution was a revolution of a French-speaking upper and middle class that exchanged Dutch hegemony for French-speaking hegemony. The Belgian Revolution of 1830 crystallised this antagonism, with the final arrangements favoring the French-speakers. French became the official language; Dutch, as well as Walloon, were banned in schools. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... Look up hegemony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Walloon (Walon) is a regional Romance language spoken as a second language by some in Wallonia (Belgium). ...


To be sure freedom of the press, the burden of Holland's national debt, taxes on staples such as flour and meat, a Dutch-favored civil service system, limited prospects for young Belgian professionals and intelligentsia, and a refusal to accept a truly democratic parliamentary regime also fanned the fires of revolt. [1]


A Night at the Opera

Catholic partisans watched with excitement the unfolding of the July Revolution in France, details of which were swiftly reported in the newspapers. On 25th August, 1830, at the Theatre de la Monmiac in Brussels , an uprising followed a performance of Daniel Auber's La Muette de Portici, a sentimental and patriotic opera suited to fire National Romanticism, for it was set against Masaniello's uprising against the Spanish masters of Naples in the 17th century. The duet, "Amour sacré de la patrie," (Sacred love of Fatherland) with Adolphe Nourrit in the tenor role, engendered a riot that became the spark for the Belgian Revolution. The crowd poured into the streets after the performance, shouting patriotic slogans, and swiftly took possession of government buildings. The coming days saw an explosion of the desperate and exasperated proletariat of Brussels. // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn... (Redirected from 25th August) August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... Daniel François Esprit Auber (January 29, 1782 - May 13, 1871), French composer, the son of a Paris print-seller, was born in Caen in Normandy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Liberty leading the people, embodying the Romantic view of the French Revolution of 1830; its painter Eugène Delacroix also served as an elected deputy Romantic nationalism (also organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of a... Masaniello, an abbreviation of Tommaso Aniello (1622 - July 16, 1647), was an Amalfi fisherman, who became leader of the revolt against Spanish rule in Naples in 1647. ... Adolphe Nourrit Adolphe Nourrit (born March 3, 1802 at Montpellier, France; died March 7, 1839 at Naples, Italy) was a tenor. ...


The affable and moderate Crown Prince William, who represented the monarchy in Brussels, was convinced by the Estates-General on September 1 that the administrative separation of north and south was the only viable solution to the crisis. His father rejected the terms of accommodation that he proposed. William II (William Frederick George Louis) (December 6, 1792 – March 17, 1849) was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg from October 7, 1840 until his death. ...


King William I attempted to restore the established order by force, but the 6000 Dutch troops under Prince Frederick were unable to retake Brussels in bloody street fighting (23rd to 26th September). Any opportunity to quell the breech was lost on 26th Sept when a National Congress was summoned to draw-up a Constitution and a provisional government was established under Charles Rogier. A Declaration of Independence followed on 4th October 1830. On 20th December 1830 The London Conference declared the Kingdom of the Netherlands dissolved and a month later recognized Belgium's independence. On 7th February, 1831, the Belgian Constitution was proclaimed and the separation from the Dutch was a fact. Over the 350 years of shared connections as varied Low Country manifestations the two peoples had drifted apart and after 15 years of tension, the marriage was over. For other men at some time in history called William I of Orange-Nassau, see William of Orange. ... Prince Frederik of the Netherlands (full names: Willem Frederik Karel), Prince of Orange-Nassau, (Berlin, February 28, 1797 – Wassenaar, September 8, 1881), was the second son of king William I of the Netherlands and his wife Queen Wilhelmine. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... Charles Rogier was Cabinet Chief of Belgium on three separate occasions first from 1832 to 1834, secondly from 1847 to 1852, and thirdly from 1857 to 1868. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in Leap years). ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


A Constitutional Monarchy

The Belgian Congress chose the second son of Louis-Phillipe, the duke of Nemours, to be king of Belgium. However, the French king, heeding the advice of Lord Palmerston of the British foreign office, repudiated the offer. Lord Palmerston and The Great Powers desired a strong leader to prevent Belgium from falling under the control of France, and to prevent the outbreak of war. . Erasme Louis Surlet de Chokier was appointed Regent of Belgium on February 25, 1831. On June 4 the Congress chose Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg as king. A strong and political choice as Leopold was not only talented and capable but well connected to both Britain and France. Leopold I took the oath as King of the Belgians on July 21, 1831. Erasme Louis Surlet de Chokier (November 27, 1769 - August 7, 1839), born in Gingelom, was a Belgian politician and before the accession of Leopold I to the Belgian throne, was the first regent of Belgium. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Leopold I of the Belgians (Leopold George Christian Frederick of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, later of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha) (b. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Ten Days Campaign

Main article: Ten Days Campaign

King William was not satisfied with the settlement drawn up in London and did not accept Belgium's claim of independence: it divided his kingdom and drastically affected his Treasury. In August 1831 (from the 2nd to the 12th), the Dutch army, headed by the Dutch princes, invaded Belgium, in the so-called "Ten Days Campaign", and defeated a make-shift Belgian force near Hasselt and Leuven. Only the appearance of a French army under Marshal Gérard (and with British approval) caused the Dutch to stop their advance. While the victorious initial campaign gave the Dutch an advantageous position in subsequent negotiations, the Dutch were compelled to agree to an indefinite armistice. It was not until April of 1839 that William stubbornly recognized a frontier which, with the exception of Limburg and Luxembourg, was basically the frontier of 1790. The Ten days campaign (Dutch: Tiendaagse Veldtocht) (August 2nd till 12th 1831) was a failed attempt to suppress the Belgian revolution by the Dutch king William I. When the Belgian revolution began on August 25th 1830, the Dutch armies stationed in what is now Belgium suffered from extensive desertion by... The Ten days campaign (Dutch: Tiendaagse Veldtocht) (August 2nd till 12th 1831) was a failed attempt to suppress the Belgian revolution by the Dutch king William I. When the Belgian revolution began on August 25th 1830, the Dutch armies stationed in what is now Belgium suffered from extensive desertion by... Hasselt municipality and district in the province Limburg Hasselt is a Belgian city and municipality, and capital of the Flemish province of Limburg. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Flemish Brabant Arrondissement Leuven Coordinates , , Area 56. ... Painting of Étienne Maurice, comte Gérard, marshal of France by Jacques-Louis David Étienne Maurice Gérard (April 4, 1773 - April 17, 1852), French general, was born at Damvilliers (Meuse). ...


European Powers

The European Powers were divided over the Belgian cry for independence. The Napoleonic Wars were still fresh in the memories of Europeans, so when the French, under the recently installed July Monarchy, supported Belgian independence, the other powers unsurprisingly supported the continued union of the Provinces of the Netherlands. Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain all supported the somewhat authoritarian Dutch king, many fearing the French would annex an independent Belgium (particularly the British: see Talleyrand partition plan for Belgium). However, in the end, none of the European powers sent troops to aid the Dutch government, partly because of rebellions within some of their own borders (the Russians were occupied with the November Uprising in Poland and Prussia was saddled with war debt.) Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Kingdom of France Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of the French  - 1830-1848 Louis-Phillipe Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Chamber of Peers  - Lower house Chamber of Deputies History  - July Revolution 1830  - Revolution of 1848 1848 Currency French Franc The July Monarchy (1830-1848) was a period of... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Belgium, French partition plan, 1830 After the Belgian revolution of 1830, the Great Powers were divided over the Belgian cry for independence. ... Coat-of-arms of the November Uprising. ...


Independent Belgium

On 19th April, 1839 the Treaty of London signed by the European powers (including the Netherlands) recognized Belgium as an independent and neutral country comprising West Flanders, East Flanders, Brabant, Antwerp, Hainaut, Namur, and Liège, as well as half of Luxembourg and Limburg. (Redirected from 19th April) ī April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of London of 1839, also called the Convention of 1839, was signed on April 19, 1839. ... West Flanders (Dutch: West-Vlaanderen) is the westernmost province of Flanders and of Belgium. ... East Flanders is a province of Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815 (Battle of Waterloo), the United Kingdom of the Netherlands (consisting of modern day Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg) was created at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ... Antwerp is the northernmost province of Flanders and of Belgium. ... Hainaut (French; English traditionally Hainault, Dutch: Henegouwen, German: Hennegau, Walloon: Hinnot) is the westernmost province of Wallonia, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Namur (Dutch: Namen) is a province of Wallonia and of Belgium. ... Liège is the easternmost province of Wallonia and of Belgium. ... Luxembourg is the southernmost province of Wallonia and of Belgium. ... Limburg is the easternmost province of Flanders (which is one of the three regions of Belgium), and is located west of the Meuse river. ...


The Dutch army, however, held onto Maastricht, and as a result the Netherlands kept the eastern half of Limburg and its large coalfields. Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 60. ... Wyoming coal mine Coal mining is the mining of coal. ...


Accession of King Leopold

See Leopold I of Belgium. Leopold I of the Belgians (Leopold George Christian Frederick of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, later of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha) (b. ...


After the Break-up

Economic changes

The independence of Belgium was a disaster for the important industrial city of Ghent. In 1829 the city's cotton industry processed 7.5 million kg cotton, while in 1832 this was only 2 million kg. A direct consequence of the break-up was unemployment for most of the labourers. Wages fell to 30% of their 1829 level. This article is about the Belgian city. ...


For the harbour city of Antwerp the disaster was even bigger. Trade with the colonies reduced to zero and the number of ships that entered the port fell to 398. In contrast, in 1829 1030 ships entered Antwerp, carrying 129,000 tons, double the amount of Rotterdam and Amsterdam together.

175 Years of Belgium Coin
175 Years of Belgium Coin

See also

  • The Belgian revolution of 1830 was recently depicted in one of the highest value Belgian coins ever minted, the 100 euro 175 Years of Belgium Coin. The obverse shows a depict of the famous painting "Scene of the September days in 1830"

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Van Speyk shoots at a barrel of gunpowder, detonating his own ship. ...

References

  1. ^ Great Events from History, The 19th Century, Vol I, pgs 474-476, Dissatisfaction with Dutch rule prompted a Belgian revolt.

External links

  • "The Ten Days' Campaign"


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Belgium - Encyclopedia - Fansub TV (5871 words)
The 1830 Belgian Revolution led to the establishment of an independent, Catholic, and neutral Belgium under a provisional government and a national congress.
Belgian control of the Congolese population, particularly under Leopold II, was savage, and the country was plundered of resources such as ivory and rubber.
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Belgians are not a flag-waving people, but for the National Day, some of my neighbours hang out their fl-gold-red flags and enjoy a short-lived burst of national fervour.
Many of the Belgian institutions open their doors to the public, and so, for instance, one can take school groups to the Parliament, and ask questions about how it works, or be part of a mock debate.
The Belgian revolution was initiated by the French-speaking minority who controlled the factories and other economical resources and who did not want to live under a Dutch-speaking administration.
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