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Encyclopedia > Belfast Agreement
Northern Ireland

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Northern Ireland is an administrative region and one of four parts of the United Kingdom. ...


In Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland Assembly Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ...


List of Acts
Members: 1998 - 2003 - 2007
Elections: 1998 - 2003 - 2007
Speaker This is a list of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly passed by that body from its establishment in 2000 until its suspension in 2002 and from its re-establishment in 2007. ... This is a list of Members of the Northern Ireland Assembly elected in 1998. ... The Northern Ireland Assembly elected in November 2003, never met as such, since Northern Irelands devolved government and representative institutions were suspended following the re-introduction of direct rule by the United Kingdom government on 14 October 2002. ... The Northern Ireland Assembly election, 2007 will be held on 7 March 2007. ... The first elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly were held on June 25, 1998. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The third elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly were held on 7 March 2007. ... The Speaker of the Northern Ireland Assembly is the presiding officer of the Northern Ireland Assembly, elected on a cross-community vote by the Members of the Northern Ireland Assembly. ...


Northern Ireland Executive The Northern Ireland Executive as established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 is the (currently suspended) executive body for Northern Ireland, answerable to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ...


First Minister: Ian Paisley
Deputy First Minister: Martin McGuinness
Departments and agencies The Office of the First Minister and the Deputy First Minister (OFMDFM) (Irish: Oifig an Chéad-Aire agus an LeasChéad-Aire, Ulster Scots: Offis o tha Heid Männystèr an tha Heid Männystèr Depute) is the Northern Ireland government department with overall responsibility for the... Ian Richard Kyle Paisley (born 6 April 1926), styled The Revd and Rt Hon. ... The Office of the First Minister and the Deputy First Minister (OFMDFM) (Irish: Oifig an Chéad-Aire agus an LeasChéad-Aire, Ulster Scots: Offis o tha Heid Männystèr an tha Heid Männystèr Depute) is the Northern Ireland government department with overall responsibility for the... James Martin Pacelli McGuinness MP MLA (Irish: ;[1] born in Derry on 23 May 1950) is the Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland. ... List of Government departments and agencies in Northern Ireland This article is a list of Northern Ireland government Departments and their Agencies and other related organisations (listed underneath each Department) (at September 2006): // Government departments and agencies These Departments are subject to the Northern Ireland Assembly, when it is in...


Local Government
Courts of Northern Ireland Northern Ireland is divided into 26 districts for local government purposes. ... The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system — England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland a third. ...

In the United Kingdom

United Kingdom Parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ...


Committees: Affairs - Grand
Members: Commons - Lords - Privy Council
Elections: 2005 The Northern Ireland Affairs Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure, administration and policy of the Northern Ireland Office. ... The Northern Ireland Grand Committee is one of three such committees in the United Kingdom Parliament. ... This is a list of members of Parliament elected at the 2001 UK general election or in subsequent by-elections for Northern Ireland seats, by party. ... This is a list of Members of the United Kingdom House of Lords who were born, live or lived in Northern Ireland. ... The United Kingdom general election of 2005 was held on Thursday, 5 May 2005. ...


United Kingdom Government The agencies responsible for the government of the United Kingdom consist of a number of ministerial departments (usually headed by a Secretary of State) and non-ministerial departments headed by senior civil servants. ...


Northern Ireland Office
Secretary of StateDirect Rule The Northern Ireland Office (NIO) is an arm of the United Kingdom government, responsible for Northern Ireland affairs. ... The Secretary of State for Northern Ireland is the British cabinet minister who has responsibility for the government of Northern Ireland. ... Direct Rule is the term given to the running of the day-to-day administration of Northern Ireland directly from Westminster. ...

Organisations

British-Irish Council
Electoral Commission
North/South Ministerial Council The British–Irish Council (sometimes known as the Council of the Isles) is a body created by the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement). ... The Electoral Commission is a non-ministerial government department with powers in the United Kingdom, which was created by an Act of Parliament, the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 (2000 c. ... The North/South Ministerial Council (NSMC, Irish: An Chomhairle Aireachta Thuaidh/Theas, Ulster-Scots: The Noarth-Sooth Cooncil o Männystèrs) is a body established under the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement) to co-ordinate activity and exercise certain limited governmental powers across the whole...

See also

Belfast Agreement (1998)
St Andrews Agreement (2006) The St Andrews Agreement is an agreement proposed by the British and Irish Governments in relation to devolution of power to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ...


Segregation in Northern Ireland
Elections in Northern Ireland A peace line in Belfast Segregation in Northern Ireland is a long-running issue in the political and social history of the province. ... Elections in Northern Ireland gives information on election and election results in Northern Ireland. ...


Constituencies
Political parties Northern Ireland is divided into 18 Parliamentary constituencies - 4 Borough constituencies in Belfast and 14 County constituencies elsewhere. ... Political parties in Northern Ireland lists political parties in Northern Ireland. ...


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The Belfast Agreement (Irish: Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste), although more commonly known as the Good Friday Agreement (Irish: Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta), and occasionally as the Stormont Agreement was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. It was signed in Belfast on 10 April 1998 (Good Friday) by the British and Irish governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. The accord was endorsed by the voters of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland in separate referenda on 23 May 1998. The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) was the only large party that opposed the Agreement. Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... When discussing the history of Northern Ireland, the peace process is generally considered to cover the events leading up to the 1994 Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) ceasefire, the end of most of the violence of the Troubles, the Belfast (or Good Friday) Agreement, and subsequent political developments. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... A pact is a formal agreement, usually between two or more nations. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the political party in Northern Ireland. ...

Contents

Provisions

  • The principle that the constitutional future of Northern Ireland should be determined by the majority vote of its citizens.
  • One commitment by all parties to use "exclusively peaceful and democratic means".
  • The establishment of a Northern Ireland Assembly with devolved legislative powers.
  • Introduction of the cross-community principle for any major decision taken by the Assembly.
  • Creation of a 'power-sharing' Northern Ireland Executive, using the D'Hondt method to allocate Ministries proportionally to the main parties.
  • Creation of a North-South Ministerial Council and North-South Implementation Bodies to bring about cross-border cooperation in policy and programmes on a number of issues.
  • Creation of a British-Irish Inter-governmental Conference (replacing the former English-Irish Conference, established by the Anglo-Irish Agreement), which give a consulting role to Republic of Ireland concerning matters not devolved.
  • Establishment of a British-Irish Council, composed of representatives from the governments of Ireland, Northern Ireland, the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands, and the Isle of Man, to discuss areas of common concern.
  • Conditional early release within two years of paramilitary members belonging to organisations observing a ceasefire.
  • Establishment of the Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission.
  • A two year target for decommissioning of paramilitary weapons.
  • The repealing of the Government of Ireland Act 1920 by the British Parliament. [1]
  • The abolition of Ireland's territorial claim to Northern Ireland via the modification of Articles 2 and 3 of its constitution. As a result, the territorial claim which had subsisted since 29 December 1937 was dropped on 2 December 1999.[1]
  • New legislation for Northern Ireland on policing, human rights and equality.
  • Normalisation of security measures, e.g. closure of redundant army bases.
  • Police reform, undertaken by the Patten Commission (1998–1999).
  • Equality of social, economic and cultural rights of all ethnic communities e.g. official recognition of the Irish and Ulster-Scots languages as equal to English.
  • Recognition of the birthright of all the people of Northern Ireland to identify themselves and be accepted as Irish or British, or both, as they may so choose.
  • Confirmation that the right to hold both British and Irish citizenship is accepted by both Governments and would not be affected by any future change in the status of Northern Ireland

The Agreement also marked the end of a dispute between the two states over the names of their respective states: the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Ireland. Vague wording of some of the provisions (described as "constructive ambiguity"), which helped ensure acceptance of the agreement at the time, served to postpone debate on some of the more contentious issues — most notably paramilitary decommissioning, police reform and normalisation. A date of May 2000 was set for total disarming of all paramilitary groups. This was not achieved and delayed the establishment of the Assembly and Executive, because one of the four main parties in the Assembly — Sinn Féin — was "inextricably linked" to the largest paramilitary group, the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA), and unionists refused to share power with this party, while the PIRA remained armed. The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... The Northern Ireland Executive as established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 is the (currently suspended) executive body for Northern Ireland, answerable to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... The DHondt method (mathematically but not operationally equivalent to Jeffersons method, and Budder-Ofer method) is a highest averages method for allocating seats in party-list proportional representation. ... The North-South Ministerial Council is a body established under the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement) to co-ordinate activity and exercise certain limited governmental powers across the whole island of Ireland. ... The Anglo-Irish Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland which aimed to bring an end to the Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... The British–Irish Council (sometimes known as the Council of the Isles) is a body created by the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement). ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission this is where everyone makes friends and treats each other nicely :) ... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... Article 2 and Article 3 of Bunreacht na hÉireann, the constitution of the Republic of Ireland, were adopted with the constitution as a whole in 1937, but completely revised by means of the Nineteenth Amendment which took full effect in 1999. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland was established in 1998, as part of the Belfast Agreement. ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... Éire, the official Irish name of the state since 1937, appears on all Irish euro coins. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... Unionism, in the context of Ireland, is a belief in the continuation of the Act of Union 1800 (as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920) so that Northern Ireland (created by the 1920 Act) remains part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ...


The Assembly and Executive were eventually established in December 1999 on the understanding that decommissioning would begin immediately, but were suspended within two months due to lack of progress, before being re-established in May 2000 as Provisional IRA decommissioning eventually began. Aside from the decommissioning issue, however, ongoing paramilitary activity (albeit relatively low level compared to the past) by the Provisional Irish Republican Army — e.g., arms importations, smuggling, organised crime, "punishment beatings", intelligence-gathering and rioting — was also a stumbling block. The loyalist paramilitaries also continued similar activity although as they were not represented by a significant political party, their position was less central to political change.


The overall result of these problems was to damage confidence among unionists in the Agreement, which was exploited by the anti-Agreement DUP which eventually defeated the pro-Agreement Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) in the 2003 Assembly election. The UUP had already resigned from the power-sharing Executive in 2002 following arrests of Sinn Féin personnel on charges of gathering intelligence for use by terrorists. (These charges were eventually dropped in 2005 on the controversial grounds that pursual would not be "in the public interest". Immediately afterwards, one of the accused Provisional Sinn Féin members, Denis Donaldson was exposed as a British agent.) The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... Denis Donaldson (left) pictured with Bobby Sands Denis Martin Donaldson (Belfast, Northern Ireland, 1950 – April 4, 2006 in Donegal, Republic of Ireland) was a member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and Sinn Féin who was exposed in December 2005 as an informer in the employ of MI5...


In 2004, negotiations were held between the two governments, the DUP, and Sinn Féin on an agreement to re-establish the institutions. These talks failed, but a document published by the governments detailing changes to the Belfast Agreement became known as the 'Comprehensive Agreement'. On 26 September 2005, however, it was announced that the Provisional Irish Republican Army had completely decommissioned its arsenal of weapons and "put them beyond use". Nonetheless, many unionists, most notably the DUP, remained sceptical and agreement on how to restore the power-sharing assembly still had not been reached as of July 2006. Of the loyalist paramilitaries, only the Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) had decommissioned any weapons [2]. The Comprehensive Agreement is the name given to a proposed agreement between the DUP and Sinn Féin, which collapsed in failure in 2004 [1]. While those talks did fail, its expected that the same principles, modifying and building on the Belfast Agreement will form the basis for a... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great... The Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) is a loyalist terrorist group in Northern Ireland which broke away from the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and was led by the late Billy Wright. ...


As of Summer 2007, a Power Sharing Executive has been established to govern Northern Ireland. The current government of Northern Ireland consists of the DUP and Sinn Féin, with the Rev. Dr. Ian Paisley of the DUP as First Minister and Martin McGuiness of Sinn Féin as Deputy First Minister. Although Dr. Paisley is the head of the government, he and Martin McGuiness hold equal powers within the Northern Ireland Assembly government. Ian Richard Kyle Paisley (born 6 April 1926), styled The Revd and Rt Hon. ... James Martin Pacelli McGuinness (born May 23, 1950) is an Irish nationalist politician, and terrorist leader (as member of the IRA army council). ...


Referenda

In May 1998, there were separate referenda in Northern Ireland and Ireland to endorse the Belfast Agreement. The "No" vote in Northern Ireland came predominantly from unionists opposed to perceived concessions being made to nationalists and republicans. However, opinion polls suggest a slim majority of unionists may have voted "Yes". In the Republic of Ireland the electorate voted upon the nineteenth amendment to the Constitution of Ireland. This amendment both permitted the state to comply with the Belfast Agreement and provided for the removal of the 'territorial claim' contained in Articles 2 and 3. Ireland voted upon the Amsterdam Treaty on the same day. The results of the two simultaneous referenda on the Belfast Agreement were as follows: The Northern Irish referendum of 1998 was a referendum held in Northern Ireland over whether there was support for the Belfast Agreement. ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... Irish republicanism is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a single independent republic, whether as a unitary state, a federal state or as a confederal arrangement. ... An opinion poll is a survey of opinion from a particular sample. ... The Nineteenth Amendment of Bunreacht na hÉireann, the constitution of the Republic of Ireland, introduced changes to Articles 2 and 3 of the constitution required by the 1998 Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement). ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on...

Yes No Turnout
Northern Ireland 676,966 (71%) 274,879 (29%) 81%
Republic of Ireland 1,442,583 (94%) 85,748 (6%) 56%

Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...

See also

When discussing the history of Northern Ireland, the peace process is generally considered to cover the events leading up to the 1994 Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) ceasefire, the end of most of the violence of the Troubles, the Belfast (or Good Friday) Agreement, and subsequent political developments. ... The Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland was established in 1998, as part of the Belfast Agreement. ... The Independent International Commission on Decommissioning (IICD) was established to oversee the decommissioning of paramilitary weapons in Ireland, as part of the peace process. ... The Independent Commission for the Location of Victims Remains (ICLVR) was established by treaty between between the United Kingdom Government and the Government of Ireland, made on 27 April 1999 in connection with the affairs of Northern Ireland. ... The Commissioner for Victims and Survivors of the Troubles is a Northern Ireland political appointee responsible for coordinating the delivery and coordination of services for victims and survivors of the political violence of the Troubles. ... The Sunningdale Agreement on December 9, 1973, was an attempt to end the Northern Ireland troubles by forcing unionists to share power with nationalists. ... The Anglo-Irish Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland which aimed to bring an end to the Troubles in Northern Ireland. ...

References

  1. ^ Address by Mr David Andrews, Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs at the Exchange of Notifications ceremony at Iveagh House, Dublin, 2 December 1999

External links

  • The St Andrews' Agreement The latest attempt to restore devolution to Northern Ireland
  • North-South Ministerial Council/An Chomhairle Aireachta Thuaidh/Theas
  • Belfast Agreement (full text)
  • British-Irish Council
  • Inside Out: An Integrative Critique of the Northern Ireland Peace Process U.S. Institute of Peace July 2006
  • Address given at the Exchange of Notifications ceremony, whereby Ireland dropped its territorial claim to Northern Ireland, Iveagh House, Dublin, 2 December 1999
The United States Institute of Peace is an independent, nonpartisan federal institution created by Congress to promote the prevention, management, and peaceful resolution of international conflicts. ... When discussing the history of Northern Ireland, the peace process is generally considered to cover the events leading up to the 1994 Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) ceasefire, the end of most of the violence of the Troubles, the Belfast (or Good Friday) Agreement, and subsequent political developments. ... The Sunningdale Agreement on December 9, 1973, was an attempt to end the Northern Ireland troubles by forcing unionists to share power with nationalists. ... The Anglo-Irish Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland which aimed to bring an end to the Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... The Downing Street Declaration was a joint declaration issued on December 15, 1993 by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, John Major and Albert Reynolds, the Taoiseach (prime minister) of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Independent International Commission on Decommissioning (IICD) was established to oversee the decommissioning of paramilitary weapons in Ireland, as part of the peace process. ... The Nineteenth Amendment of Bunreacht na hÉireann, the constitution of the Republic of Ireland, introduced changes to Articles 2 and 3 of the constitution required by the 1998 Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement). ... The Independent Monitoring Commission is an organisation, founded on 7 January 2004, to promote peace and stability in Northern Ireland. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... The St Andrews Agreement is an agreement proposed by the British and Irish Governments in relation to devolution of power to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Belfast Agreement - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (832 words)
The Belfast Agreement (the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a political development in the Northern Ireland peace process.
It was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 (Good Friday) by the British and Irish governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties.
The overall result of these problems was to damage confidence among unionists in the Agreement, which was exploited by the anti-Agreement DUP which eventually defeated the pro-Agreement UUP in the 2003 Assembly election.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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