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Encyclopedia > Belarusian language
Belarusian
беларуская мова
BGN/PCGN: byelaruskaya mova
Spoken in: Belarus, Poland, in 14 other countries
Total speakers: ca. 4 to 7 million native (7 to 9 million total) 
Ranking: 68
Language family: Indo-European
 Balto-Slavic
  Slavic
   East Slavic
    Belarusian 
Writing system: Cyrillic 
Official status
Official language of: Flag of Belarus Belarus, several communes of the Podlachian Voivodeship of Flag of Poland Poland
Regulated by: National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
Language codes
ISO 639-1: be
ISO 639-2: bel
ISO 639-3: bel 

Belarusian-speaking world

The Belarusian or Belorussian language (беларуская мова, BGN/PCGN: byelaruskaya mova, Scientific: bjelaruskaja mova) is the language of the Belarusian people and is spoken in Belarus and abroad, chiefly in Russia, Ukraine, Poland.[1] It belongs to the group of the East Slavonic languages, and shares many grammatical and lexical features with other members of the group. Its predecessor was the Old Belarusian language (up to the 19th cent., conventionally). Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The BGN/PCGN romanization system for Belarusian is a method for romanization of Cyrillic Belarusian texts, that is, their transliteration into the Latin alphabet. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Balto-Slavic language group is a reconstructed hypothethical language group consisting of the Baltic and Slavic language subgroups of the Indo-European family. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Belarusian alphabet is based on the Cyrillic script and is derived from the alphabet of the Old Church Slavonic language. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ... Capital city BiaÅ‚ystok Area 20 180 km² Population  - Density 1,221,000 60. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (Belarusian: Нацыянальная акадэмія навук Беларусі) is the national academy of Belarus. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 625 pixel, file size: 45 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... The BGN/PCGN romanization system for Belarusian is a method for romanization of Cyrillic Belarusian texts, that is, their transliteration into the Latin alphabet. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Belarusians or Belarusans (Belarusian: , previously also spelled Belarussians, Byelorussians and Belorussians) are an East Slavic ethnic group who populate the majority of the Republic of Belarus and form minorities in neighboring Poland (especially former Bialystok province), Russia, Lithuania and Ukraine. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and after 1569 in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


In Belarus, the Belarusian language is declared as a "language spoken at home" by ~3.686 mln. (36.7%) of inhabitants[2] (1999).[3] By the less strict criteria, ~6.984 mln. (85.6%) of Belarusians declare it their "mother tongue". Other sources put down the "population of the language" as 6.715 mln in Belarus and 9,081,102 in all countries.[4][5]

Contents

Phonology

The phoneme inventory of the modern Belarusian language consists of 45 (54) phonemes: 6 vowels and 39 (48)[6] consonants. In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ...


Alphabet

Main article: Belarusian alphabet

The Belarusian alphabet is based on the Cyrillic script, from the alphabet of the Old Church Slavonic language. Its modern form was determined in 1918, and consists of thirty-two letters. Historically, the Glagolitic script had been used, sporadically, until 11th – 12th centuries. Historically, there also existed practices of rendering of the Belarusian text in Belarusian version of Latin script and in Belarusian version of Arabic script. The Belarusian alphabet is based on the Cyrillic script and is derived from the alphabet of the Old Church Slavonic language. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Tablet inscribed with the Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavonic alphabet. ... The Belarusian Latin alphabet (also known as Latsinka (in BGN/PCGN) or Łacinka (in itself), from Belarusian: , informal for the Latin alphabet in general) — the common name of the several historically existing systems of rendering the Belarusian (Cyrillic) text in Latin script. ... The Belarusian Arabic alphabet was based on the Arabic script and was developed in the 16th, possibly 15th, century from the need to write down the Belarusian language in the Arabic script. ...


There exist several notable systems of romanizing (transliterating) of the Belarusian text: In linguistics, romanization or Latinization (also spelled as romanisation or Latinisation ) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language uses a different writing system. ...

Romanisation or Latinisation of Belarusian is any system for transliterating written Belarusian from the Cyrillic alphabet to the Latin. ...

Grammar

Main article: Belarusian grammar

Belarusian grammar in its modern form was adopted in 1959, with minor amendments in 1985. It was developed from its initial form set down by Branislaw Tarashkyevich (first printed in Vilnius, 1918). Historically, there had existed several other alternative Belarusian grammars. The current norms of Belarusian grammar were adopted in 1959. ... The current norms of Belarusian grammar were adopted in 1959. ... Branislaw Tarashkyevich (Belarusian: ; January 20, 1892 — November 29, 1938) — Belarusian public figure and politician, linguist. ... Location Ethnographic region Aukštaitija County Vilnius County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius city...


Vocabulary

See also: Swadesh list for Belarusian language.

Historically, besides the adoptions from neighbouring Russian, Polish and Ukrainian, the Belarusian language includes words adopted from: Celtic languages — "бот" (bot), "тын" (tyn); Greek language — "кадка" (kadka), "крыніца" (krynica), "кмен" (kmjen), "мак" (mak), "аладка" (aladka), "хаўтуры" (haŭtury), "чабор" (čabor); Latin language — "байструк" (bajstruk), "бульба" (bul'ba), "каляды" (kaljady), "кот" (kot), "ягня" (jahnja); Gothic language — "бондар" (bondar), "бочка" (bočka), "гурок" (hurok), "кацёл" (kacjol), "крупа" (krupa), "кульгаць" (kul'hac'), "лапік" (lapik), "меч" (meč), "пасма" (pasma), "піла" (pila), "рэмень" (remjen'), "сталь" (stal'); Daco-Thracian language — "каноплі (kanopli)"; Romanian language, and others. The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in the Indo-European language family. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Daco-Thracian is a hypothesis that the Dacian language and the Thracian language were very close languages on the same Indo-European branch or possibly even dialects of each other. ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ...


Dialects

Besides the literary norm, there exist two main dialects of the Belarusian language, the North-Eastern and the South-Western. Besides, there exist the inter-dialect, transitional Middle Belarusian dialect group and the separate West Palyesian dialect group. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ...


The North-Eastern and the South-Western dialects are separated by the highly conventional imaginary line AshmyanyMinskBabruyskHomyel, with the areal of the Middle Belarusian dialect group to be placed on and along this line. Ashmyany (Belarusian: , Lithuanian: , Polish: , Russian: ) is a town in Hrodna voblast, Belarus (previously in Wilno guberniya, Imperial Russia), capital of the AÅ¡miany raion. ... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... The city of Babruysk (Belarusian: Бабру́йск; Russian: Бобру́йск, Bobruisk) is located in Mahilyow voblast of Belarus on the Berezina river. ... Gomel or Homel, (Belarusian Гомель; Russian: Гомель, transliteration: Gómel) is the second-largest city of Belarus and the main city of Homiel Province. ...


The North-Eastern dialect is chiefly characterised by the «soft sounding R» (Belarusian: «мягка-э́равы») and «strong sounding AH» (Belarusian: «моцнае а́канне»), and the South-Western dialect is chiefly characterised by the «hard sounding R» (Belarusian: «цвёрда-э́равы») and «moderate sounding AH» (Belarusian: «умеранае а́канне»).


The West Palyesian dialect group is more distinct linguistically, close to Ukrainian language in many aspects, and is separated by the conventional line PruzhanyIvatsevichy – Tsyelyakhany – LuninyetsStolin. Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayinska mova, ) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. ... Coat of arms Pruzhany (Polish: ) is a town in Brest Voblast, Belarus. ... Ivacevičy (Belarusian: ) is a city in the Brest Province of Belarus, an administrative center of the Ivacevičy district. ... Luninets (Belarusian: , Polish: ) is a town and administrative centre for the Luninets district in Brest Province, Belarus, before which it was in Poland (1540-1793, 1920-1939) and Russia and the Soviet Union (1793-1920, 1939-1941, 1944-1991). ... Stolin (Belarusian: Сто́лін; Russian: Сто́лин) is an old city, that grew up at the heart of Palesse on the river Horyn (Goryn), at the intersection of three roads, one leading northwards to Pinsk, two others eastwards to Davyd...


Names

Due to the course of history, there existed quite a number of various names and definitions under which the Belarusian language was known, both contemporary and historically, some of them quite dissimilar, esp. when referring to the Old Belarusian phase.


Official, romanised

  • Belarusian (also used as Belarusan, Belarussian, Byelarussian) — derivative from the form of the name of the country «Belarus», officially approved for the use abroad by the Belarusian authorities (c.1992) and promoted since then.
  • Byelorussian (also used as Belorussian, Bielorussian ) — derivative from the form of the name of the country «Byelorussia» (Russian: Белоруссия), used officially (in the Russian language) in the times of the USSR, and, later, in Russia.
  • White Russian, White Ruthenian (and its equivalents in other languages) — literal, word-by-word translation of the parts of the composite word Belarusian.

Russian ( , transliteration: , ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ...

Alternative

  • Great Lithuanian (вялікалітоўская (мова)) — proposed and used by Yan Stankyevich since c.1960s, intended to part with the «diminishing tradition of having the name related to the Muscovite tradition of calling the Belarusian lands» and to pertain to the «great tradition of Belarusian statehood».
  • Kryvian or Krivian (крывіцкая/крывічанская/крыўская (мова), Polish: język krewicki) — derivative from the name of the Slavonic tribe Krivichi, one of the main tribes in the foundations of the forming of the Belarusian nation. Created and used by 19th cent. Polish writers Jaroszewicz, Narbut, Rogalski, Jan Czeczot. Strongly promoted by Lastowski.

The Krivichi (Belarusian: ; Russian: ) was one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries. ... Jan Czeczot Jan Czeczot (1796-1847) was a Polish romantic poet and ethnographer. ...

Vernacular

  • Simple (простая (мова)) or local (тутэйшая (мова)) — used mainly in times, preceding the scientific, political and, following that, the common recognition of the existence of the Belarusian language, and nation in general. Supposedly, the definition still possible to meet up to the end of 1930s, e.g., in Western Belarus.
  • Simple Black Ruthenian (Russian: простой чернорусский) — used in the beg. 19th cent. by Russian researcher Baranovskiy and attributed to contemporary vernacular Belarusian.[7]

West Belarus is the name used by Russian and Belarusian government to denote the territory of modern Belarus that belonged to Second Polish Republic between World War I and World War II. The term is used mostly in historic context. ...

History

The modern Belarusian language was redeveloped on the base of the vernacular spoken remnants of the Old Belarusian language, surviving on the ethnic Belarusian lands in the 19th cent. The end 18th cent. (times of the Divisions of Commonwealth) is the usual conventional borderline between the Old Belarusian language and Modern Belarusian language stages of development. Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and after 1569 in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and after 1569 in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


By the end 18th cent., the (Old) Belarusian language still enjoyed some popularity among the smaller nobility in the GDL. Jan Czeczot in 1840s had mentioned that even his generation’s grandfathers preferred speaking (Old) Belarusian.[8] (According to A. N. Pypin, the Belarusian language was still being spoken here and there among the smaller nobility during the 19th cent.[9]) The Belarusian, in its vernacular form, was the language of the smaller town dwellers and of the peasantry. It had been the language of the oral forms of the folk lore. The teaching in Belarusian was conducted mainly in the schools run by the Basilian order. Jan Czeczot Jan Czeczot (1796-1847) was a Polish romantic poet and ethnographer. ... The Order of St. ...


The development of the Belarusian language in the 19th cent. was strongly influenced by the major political conflict taking place on the territories of the former GDL, between the Russian Empire authorities, trying to consolidate their rule over the "joined provinces" and the Polish and Polonised nobility, trying to bring back its pre-Divisions rule[10] (see also: Polonization in times of Partitions). Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ...


One of the important manifestations of this conflict was the struggle for the ideological control over the educational system. The Polish and Russian language were being introduced and re-introduced in it, while the general state of the people's education remained appalling until the very end of the Russian Empire.[11]


Summarily, the 1800s–1820s had seen the unprecedented prosperity of the Polish culture and language in the former GDL lands, had prepared the era of such famous «Belarusians by birth – Poles by choice», as Mickiewicz and Syrokomla. The era had seen the effective completion of the Polonisation of the smallest nobility, the further reduction of the areal of use of the contemporary Belarusian language, and the effective folklorisation of the Belarusian culture.[12] Adam Mickiewicz. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Syrokomla was a pseudonym of Ludwik WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Kondratowicz (1823-1862), a Polish poet, writer and translator. ...


Due both to the state of the people's education and to the strong positions of Polish and Polonised nobility, it was only since the 1880s–1890s, that the educated Belarusian element, still shunned because of "peasant origin", began to appear in the state offices.[13]


In 1846, ethnographer Shpilevskiy prepared the Belarusian grammar (using Cyrillic alphabet) on the basis of the folk dialects of the Minsk region. However, the Russian Academy of Sciences refused to print his submission, on the basis that it had not been prepared in a sufficiently scientific manner. Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ...


Since mid-1830s, the ethnographical works began to appear, the tentative attempts of study of language were uptaken (e.g., Belarusian grammar by Shpilevskiy). The Belarusian literature tradition began to re-form, basing on the folk language, initiated by the works of Vintsent Dunin-Martsinkyevich. See also: Jan Czeczot, Jan Borszczewski.[14] Vintsent Dunin-Martsinkyevich (Belarusian: ; Polish: ; c. ... Jan Czeczot Jan Czeczot (1796-1847) was a Polish romantic poet and ethnographer. ...


In beg. 1860s, both Russian and Polish parties in Belarusian lands had begun to realise the that the decisive role in the upcoming conflicts was shifting to the peasantry, overwhelmingly Belarusian. So, quite an amount of propaganda appeared, targeted at peasantry and prepared in Belarusian language.[15] Notably, the anti-Russian, anti-Tsarist, anti-Orthodox "Manifest" and newspaper "Peasants' Truth" (1862–1863) by Kalinowski, the anti-Polish, anti-Revolutionary, pro-Orthodox booklets and poems (1862).[16] Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... Konstanty Kalinowski (also known under his Belarusian and Lithuanian names of Касту́сь Каліно́ўскі or Kastuś Kalinoŭski and Kostas Kalinauskas; 1838-1864) was a writer, journalist, lawyer and revolutionist. ...


The advent of the all-Russian "narodniki" and Belarusian national movements (end 1870s – beg. 1880s) renewed the interest in Belarusian language (see also: Homan (1884), Bahushevich, Yefim Karskiy, Dovnar-Zapol'skiy, Bessonov, Pypin, Sheyn, Nosovich). The Belarusian literary tradition was renewed, too ((see also: F. Bahushevich). It was in these times that F. Bahushevich made his famous appeal to Belarusians: «Do not forsake our language, lest you pass away» (Belarusian: «Не пакідайце ж мовы нашай, каб не ўмёрлі»). Homan — the first illegal newspaper in Belarusian language (1884), of the radical orientation. ... Karskiy, supposedly in c. ... Dovnar-Zapolskiy, supposedly in c. ...


In course of the 1897 Russian Empire Census, about 5.89 mln. people declared themselves speakers of Belarusian language. Russian Empire Census of 1897 was the first and the only census carried out in the Imperial Russia. ...

Excerpt from the Russian Empire Census results
Guberniya* Total Population Belarusian (Beloruskij) Russian (Velikoruskij) Polish (Polskij)
Vilna 1,591,207 891,903 78,623 130,054
Vitebsk 1,489,246 987,020 198,001 50,377
Grodno 1,603,409 1,141,714 74,143 161,662
Minsk 2,147,621 1,633,091 83,999 64,617
Mogilev 1,686,764 1,389,782 58,155 17,526
Smolensk 1,525,279 100,757 1,397,875 7,314
Chernigov 2,297,854 151,465 495,963 3,302
Forevisla guberniyas 9,402,253 29,347 335,337 6,755,503
All Empire 125,640,021 5,885,547 55,667,469 7,931,307
* See also: Administrative-territorial division of Belarus and bordering lands in 2nd half 19 cent. (right half-page) and Ethnical composition of Belarus and bordering lands (prep. by Mikola Bich on the basis of 1897 data)

The end of the 19th century however still showed that the urban language of Belarusian towns remained either Polish or Russian and in the same census towns exceeding 50000 had Belarusian speakers of less than a tenth. This state of affairs greatly contributed to a perception that Belarusian is a "rural" and "uneducated" language. Russian Empire Census of 1897 was the first and the only census carried out in the Imperial Russia. ... Vilnius Old Town Vilnius (sometimes Vilna; Polish Wilno, Belarusian Вільня, Russian Вильнюс, see also Cities alternative names) is the capital city of Lithuania. ... Coat of arms of Vitebsk. ... Hrodna (or Grodno; Belarusian: Го́радня, Гро́дна; Grodno in Polish, Гродно in Russian, Gardinas in Lithuanian) is a city in Belarus on the Nemunas river, close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... Mogilev, or Mahilyow (Belarusian: ; Russian: , translit. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Chernihiv (Чернігів in Ukrainian) is an ancient city in northern Ukraine, the central city of Chernihivska oblast. Some common historical spellings of the name are Polish: Czernichów, and Russian: Чернигов, Chernigov. ...


However the census was a major breakthrough for the first steps of the Belarusian national self-conscience and identity, as it clearly showed to the Imperial authorities, and the still strong Polish minority that the population and the language was neither Polish nor Russian.


1900s-1910s

The rising influence of the Socialist ideas advanced the process of emancipating of the Belarusian language still further (see also: Belarusian Socialist Circle, Circle of Belarusian People's Education and Belarusian Culture, Belarusian Socialist Lot, Socialist Party "White Russia", Tsyotka, Nasha Dolya). The fundamental works of Yefim Karskiy marked a turning point in the scientifical perception of Belarusian language. The ban on the publishing in Belarusian was officially raised (1904-12-25). The unprecedented surge of the national feeling, especially among the workers and peasants, coming in the 1900s, esp. after the events of 1905,[17] gave momentum to the intensive development of the Belarusian literature and press (see also: Nasha niva (1906), Yanka Kupala, Yakub Kolas). Karskiy, supposedly in c. ... Yanka Kupała (Янка Купала) (July 7, 1882 - June 28, 1942)penname Ivan Dominikovich Lucevich was a famous Belarussian poet. ... Yakub Kolas (Якуб Колас, 1882–1956), real name Kanstantsin Mikhailavich Mitskevich (Міцке́віч Канстанці́н Міха́йлаві&#1095...


Grammar

During the 19th - beg. 20th cent., there was no normative Belarusian grammar. Authors wrote as they saw fit, usually representing the particularities of different Belarusian dialects. The scientific groundwork for the introduction of a truly scientific and modern grammar of the Belarusian language was laid down by linguist Yefim Karskiy. Karskiy, supposedly in c. ...


By the beg. 1910s, the continuing lack of a codified Belarusian grammar was becoming intolerably obstructive. Then Russian academician Shakhmatov, chair of the Russian language and literature department of St. Petersburg University, approached the board of the Belarusian newspaper "Nasha niva" with such a proposal, that the Belarusian linguist would be trained under his supervision in order to be able to prepare the grammar. Initially, famous Belarusian poet Maksim Bahdanovich was to be entrusted with this work. However, Bahdanovich's poor health (tuberculosis) precluded his living in the climate of St. Petersburg. So, Branislaw Tarashkyevich, a fresh graduate of the Vilnya Liceum No.2, was selected for the task. Aleksey Aleksandrovich Shakhmatov (5 June 1864 - 16 August 1920) was an outstanding Russian philologist credited with laying foundations for the science of textology. ... Maksim Bahdanovič Maksim Bahdanovič (Belarusian language: Максім Багдановіч December 9, 1891 – May 25, 1917) was a famous Belarusian poet, journalist and literature critiscist. ... Branislaw Tarashkyevich (Belarusian: ; January 20, 1892 — November 29, 1938) — Belarusian public figure and politician, linguist. ...


In the Belarusian community, great interest was vested in this enterprise. The already famous then Belarusian poet Yanka Kupala, in his letter to Tarashkyevich, urged him to "hurry with his much-needed work". Tarashkyevich had been working on the preparation of the grammar during 1912–1917, with help and supervision of academicians Shakhmatov and Karskiy. Tarashkyevich had completed the work by the Fall 1917, even having to go from the tumultuous Petrograd of 1917 to relatively calm Finland in order to be able to complete it uninterrupted. Yanka Kupała (Янка Купала) (July 7, 1882 - June 28, 1942)penname Ivan Dominikovich Lucevich was a famous Belarussian poet. ... Aleksey Aleksandrovich Shakhmatov (5 June 1864 - 16 August 1920) was an outstanding Russian philologist credited with laying foundations for the science of textology. ... Karskiy, supposedly in c. ...


By Summer 1918, it became obvious, that there were insurmountable problems with the printing of Tarashkyevich's grammar in Petrograd—a lack of paper, type and qualified personnel. Meanwhile, Tarashkyevich's grammar had apparently been slated for adoption in the workers' and peasants' schools of Belarus that were to be set up. So, Tarashkyevich was permitted to print his book abroad. In June 1918, Tarashkyevich arrived in Vil'nya, via Finland. The Belarusian Committee petitioned for the administration to allow the book to be printed. Finally, the 1st edition of the «Belarusian grammar for schools» was printed (Vil'nya, 1918). Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius city... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius city...


There existed at least two other contemporary attempts at codification of the Belarusian grammar. In 1915, rev. Balyaslaw Pachopka had prepared a Belarusian grammar using the Latin script. Belarusian linguist S. M. Nyekrashevich considered B. Pachopka's grammar unscientific and ignorant of the principles of the Belarusian language. In 1918, for an unspecified period, the B. Pachopka's grammar was reportedly taught in an unidentified number of schools. Another grammar was, supposedly, jointly prepared by A. Lutskyevich and Ya. Stankyevich, and differed from Tarashkyevich's grammar somewhat in resolution of some key aspects.


1914-1917

On 1915-12-22, Hindenburg issued an order on schooling in German Army occupied territories (of contemp. Russian Empire), banning the schooling in Russian and including the Belarusian language in the exclusive list of the four languages being mandatory in the respective native schooling systems (Belarusian, Lithuanian, Polish, Yiddish). The attending to school wasn't made mandatory, though. The passports in these lands were being issued bi-lingual, in German and in one of the "native languages". [Turonek 1989] The certain numbers of the Belarusian preparatory schools, printing houses, press organs were opened (see also: Homan (1916)). Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ...


1917-1920

After the 1917 February Revolution in Russia, the Belarusian language became an unprecedentingly important factor in the political activities in the Belarusian lands (see also: Central Council of Belarusian Organisations, Great Belarusian Council, I All-Belarusian Congress, Belnatskom). In the Belarusian People's Republic, the Belarusian was used as its only official language (decreed by Belarusian People's Secretariat, 1918-04-28). In the Belarusian SSR, the Belarusian was decreed to be one of the four (Belarusian, Polish, Russian, Yiddish) official languages (decreed by Central Executive Committee of BSSR, February 1921). National motto: None Official language Belarusian Capital Minsk, Currently in Exile in Canada National anthem Vajacki marÅ¡ Chairperson of the Rada Ivonka Survilla Independence  - Declared  - Forced into Exile Treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 25, 1918 January 5, 1919 The Belarusian Peoples Republic (Belarusian: Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка, eng. ... language None. ...


1920-1930

Soviet Belarus

In BSSR, the Tarashkyevich’s grammar had been officially accepted for use in state schooling after its re-publishing in the unchanged form by Yazep Lyosik under the name «Ya. Lyosik. Practical grammar. P[art]. I» (1922). This grammar had been re-published once again, unchanged, by the Belarusian State Publishing House under the name «Ya. Lyosik. Belarusian language. Grammar. Ed. I. 1923» (1923).


In 1925, Yazep Lyosik introduced two new chapters to the grammar, addressing the orthography of combined words and partly modifying the orthography of assimilated words. Hence, the Belarusian grammar had been popularised and taught in the educational system in that form.


The ambiguousness and insufficient development of several components of Tarashkyevich’s grammar had been the cause of some problems in practical mass usage and stirred a certain discontent with the grammar.


In 1924–1925, Yazep Lyosik and Anton Lyosik prepared and published their project of orthographical reform, proposing a number of radical changes. A fully phonetic orthography was introduced. One of the most distinctive changes brought in was the principle of Akanye (Belarusian: ́аканне), wherein unstressed 'o,' pronounced in both Russian and Belarusian as [a], is written as 'а.' Consequently, words like [malaˈko] are pronounced the same in both languages but written as Russian: Молоко in Russian and Belarusian: Малако in Belarusian. Akanye (Russian Аканье) is the term in the Russian language for the merger of as in unstressed syllables. ...


The Belarusian Academic Conference on Reform of the Orthography and Alphabet (1926) had been called, and after discussions on the project the Conference had made resolutions on some of the problems. However, as the project of Lyosik brothers hadn’t been addressing all of the problematic issues, so the Conference hadn’t been able to address all of those, either.


As the outcome of the conference, the Orthographical Commission created to prepare the project of the actual reform was formed on 1927-10-01, headed by S. Nyekrashevich, with the following principal guidelines of its work adopted:

  • To consider the resolutions of the Belarusian Academical Conference (1926) non-mandatory, although highly competent material.
  • To simplify Tarashkyevich’s grammar where it was ambiguous or difficult in use, to amend it where it was insufficiently developed (e.g., orthography of the assimilated words), and to create new rules if absent (orthography of the proper names and geographical names).

During its work in 1927-12-7 – 1929-4-7, the Commission had actually prepared the project of the reform of the orthography. The resulting project had included both completely new rules and existing rules in unchanged and changed forms, with those changed being, variously, the outcome of the work of the Commission itself, or the resolutions of Belarusian Academical Conference (1926), re-approved by the Commission.


Notably, the use of the Ь (soft sign) before the combinations «consonant+iotified vowel» («softened consonants»), which had been denounced as highly redundant before (e.g., in the proceedings of the Belarusian Academic Conference (1926)), had been cancelled. However, the complete resolition of the highly important issue of the orthography of the un-stressed Е (IE) had not been achieved.


It is worth noticing, that both the resolutions of the Belarusian Academic Conference (1926) and the project of the Orthographical Commission (1930) caused much disagreement in the Belarusian academic environment. Several elements of the project were to be put under appeal in the «higher (political?) bodies of power».


Western Belarus

In Western Belarus, under Polish rule, the Belarusian language was at a disadvantage. Schooling in the Belarusian language was obstructed, and printing in Belarusian experienced political oppression.


The prestige of the Belarusian language in the Western Belarus of the period hinged significantly on the image of the BSSR being the "true Belarusian home".[18] This image, however, was strongly disrupted by the "purges" of "national-democrats" in BSSR (1929 – 1930) and by the following grammar reform (1933).


Tarashkyevich's grammar was re-published five times in Western Belarus. However, the 5th edition (1929)[19] was the version diverting from the previously published, which Tarashkyevich had prepared disregarding the Belarusian Academic Conference (1926) resolutions.[20]


1930s

Soviet Belarus

See also: Political events in USSR in 1929-1930.


In 1929 – 1930, the Communist authorities of the Soviet Belarus had brought out the drastic crackdowns against the supposed «national-democratic counter-revolution» (inf. «nats-dems» (Belarusian: нац-дэмы)). Effectively, the entire generations of the Socialist Belarusian national activists of the 1st quarter of the 20th cent. had been wiped out from the political, scientifical, in fact, from any real social existence. Only the most famous, cult figures, like, e.g., Yanka Kupala, had been spared. Yanka Kupała (Янка Купала) (July 7, 1882 - June 28, 1942)penname Ivan Dominikovich Lucevich was a famous Belarussian poet. ...


However, the new power group in the Belarusian science had quickly formed, or, possibly, had emerged after the power shifts, under the virtual leadership of the Head of the Philosophy Institute of the Belarusian Academy of Sciences, academician S. Ya. Vol’fson (Belarusian: С. Я. Вольфсон). The book published under his editorship «Science in service of nats-dems’ counter-revolution» (1931), represented the new spirit of the political life in Soviet Belarus.


The Reform of Belarusian Grammar (1933) had been brought out quite unexpectedly, supposedly, [Stank 1936] with the project published in the central newspaper of the Belarusian Communist Party «Zvyazda» on 1933-06-28 and the decree of the Council of People’s Commissaries (Council of Ministers) of BSSR issued on 1933-08-28, to gain the status of law on 1933-09-16.


There had been some post-factum speculations, too, that the 1930 project of the reform (as prepared by the people no longer politically «clean»), had been given for the «purification» to the «nats-dems» competition in the Academy of Sciences, which would explain the «block» nature of the differences between the 1930 and 1933 versions. Peculiarly, Yan Stankyevich in his notable critique of the reform [Stank 1936] didn’t mention the project prepared by 1930, dating the project of the reform to 1932.


The officially announced causes for the reform were:

  • The pre-1933 grammar was maintaining artificial barriers between the Russian and Belarusian languages.
  • The reform was to cancel the influences of the Polonisation corrupting the Belarusian language.
  • The reform was to remove the archaisms, neologisms and vulgarisms, supposedly introduced by the «national-democrats».
  • The reform was to simplify the grammar of the Belarusian language.

The reform had been accompanied by the fervent press campaign directed against the «nats-dems not yet giving up».


The decree had been named «On changing and simplifying of the Belarusian orthography» (Belarusian: «Аб зменах і спрашчэнні беларускага правапісу»), but the bulk of the changes had been introduced into the grammar. Yan Stankyevich in his critique of the reform talked about 25 changes, with 1 of them being strictly orthographical, and 24 relating to both orthography and grammar. [Stank 1936]


It is worth noticing, that many of the changes in the orthography proper («stronger principle of AH-ing», «no redundant soft sign», «uniform ’’nye’’ and ’’byez’’») had been, in fact, just implementations of the earlier propositions of the by then repressed persons (e.g., Yazep Lyosik, Lastowski, Nyekrashevich, 1930 project). [BAC 1926][Nyekr 1930][Padluzhny 2004]


The morphological principle in the orthography had been strengthened, which also had been proposed in 1920s. [BAC 1926]


The «removal of the influences of the Polonisation» had been represented, effectively, by the:

  • Reducing the use of the «consonant+non-iotified vowel» in assimilated Latinisms in favour of «consonant+iotified vowel», leaving only «Д», «Т», «Р» unexceptionally «hard».
  • Changing the method of representation of the sound «L» in the Latinisms to another variant of the Belarusian sound «Л» (of 4 variants existing), rendered with succeeding non-iotified vowels instead of iotified.
  • Introducing the new preferences of use of the letters «Ф» over «Т» for «fita», and «В» over «Б» for «beta», in Hellenisms. [Stank 1936]

The «removing of the artificial barriers between the Russian and Belarusian languages» (virtually the often-quoted «Russification of the Belarusian language», which may well occur to be the term coined by Yan Stankyevich) had, indeed, moved the normative Belarusian morphology and syntax closer to their Russian counterparts, often removing from the use the indigenous features of the Belarusian language. [Stank 1936]


Peculiarly, some components of the reform had moved the Belarusian grammar to the grammars of other Slavonic languages, which would hardly be its goal. [Stank 1936]


Western Belarus

In Western Belarus, there had been some voices raised against the reform, chiefly by the non-Communist/non-Socialist wing of the Belarusian national scena. Yan Stankyevich named Belarusian Scientific Society, Belarusian National Committee, Society of the friends of Belarusian linguistics in the Wilno University. [Stank 1936] Certain political and scientifical groups and figures went on with using the pre-reform orthography and grammar, however, in succeedingly multiplying and differing versions.


However, the reformed grammar and orthography had been used, too, e.g., during the process of S. Prytytski (1936).


Second World War

In times of Occupation of Belarus by Nazi Germany‎ (1941—1944), the Belarusian collaborants used the Belarusian language, in the press and schools which were influenced by them, in the Belarusian language variant, which was deliberately rejecting all post-1933 changes in vocabulary, orthography and grammar. Much publishing in Belarusian Latin script was done. Belarusian partisan fighters behind German front lines in Belarus in 1943 Occupation of Belarus by Nazi Germany. ... The Belarusian Latin alphabet (also known as Latsinka (in BGN/PCGN) or Łacinka (in itself), from Belarusian: , informal for the Latin alphabet in general) — the common name of the several historically existing systems of rendering the Belarusian (Cyrillic) text in Latin script. ...


Otherwise, including but not limited to the publications of Soviet partisan movement in Belarus, the normative 1934 grammar was used. The Soviet partisans were members anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of the Soviet Union by Axis forces during World War II. At the end of June 1941, immediately after the Germans crossed the Soviet border, the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) (see...


Post Second World War

After the World War, several major factors influenced the development of the Belarusian language. The most important was the implementation of "rapprochment and unification of Soviet people" policy which resulted in Russian language by 1980s effectively and officially assuming the role of principal mean of communication, with Belarusian relegated to secondary role. The post-war growth of circulation of publishing in Belarusian in BSSR drastically lagged behind those in Russian. The use of Belarusian as main language of education was gradually limited to rural schools and humanitarian faculties[21]. While officially much lauded, the language was popularly imaged as "uncultured, rural language of rural people". Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ...


That was the source of concern for the nationally minded and caused, e.g., the series of publications by Barys Sachanka in 1957–1961 and the text named "Letter to Russian friend" by Alyaksyey Kawka (1979). Interestingly, the contemporary BSSR Communist party leader Kirill Mazurov made some tentative moves to strengthen the role of Belarusian language in the 2nd half 1950s[22]. However, the support of the Belarusian could also be easily considered "too strong" and even identified with the support of "Belarusian nationalists and fascists". Kirill Timofievich Mazurov (Russian: Кирилл Тимофеевич Мазуров) (born March 25, 1914, Homyel, Belarus - died December 19, 1989) was a Belarusian Soviet politician. ...


After the beginning of Perestroika and relaxing of the political control in end 1980s, the new campaign in support of the Belarusian language was mounted in BSSR, expressed in "Letter of 58" and other publications, producing certain level of popular support and resulting in the BSSR Supreme Soviet ratifying the "Law on languages" ("Закон аб мовах"; January 26, 1990) mandating the strengthening of the role of Belarusian in the state and civic structures. is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


Reform of grammar in 1959

In 1949–1957, the discussion on problems of the Belarusian orthography and on the further development of language, started in 1935–1941, was continued, and the need to amend some unwarranted changes, introduced in the 1933 reform, was expressed. The Orthography Commission, headed by Yakub Kolas, had the project prepared about 1951, but the project was approved only in 1957, and the normative rules were published in 1959[23]. This grammar is the normative for Belarusian language since then, receiving minor practical changes in 1985 edition. Yakub Kolas (Якуб Колас, 1882–1956), real name Kanstantsin Mikhailavich Mitskevich (Міцке́віч Канстанці́н Міха́йлаві&#1095...


In 2006–2007, the project of corrections and of parts of the 1959 grammar was being discussed.


Post 1991

After the Belarusian independence, the Belarusian language gained much prestige and popular interest. However, the implementation of the "Law on languages" in 1992—1994 was done in such way, that it provoked public protests and was dubbed "Landslide Belarusization" and "undemocratical" by forces opposing. In the referendum held on May 14, 1995 the Belarusian language lost its exclusive status of the only state language. The state support of the Belarusian language and culture in general dwindled since then. May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


Tarashkevitsa

The legitimacy of the 1933 reform of grammar was never recognised by certain political groups in West Belarus, unlike, e.g., KPZB, and also by post-1944 emigrants, where this rejection was made an issue of ideology, and presented as anti-Russification. One of the most vocal critics was Yan Stankyevich, beginning with his 1936 publication. West Belarus is the name used by Russian and Belarusian government to denote the territory of modern Belarus that belonged to Second Polish Republic between World War I and World War II. The term is used mostly in historic context. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ...


However, rejecting all post-1933 official developments, the community was left with all the problems of the pre-1933 grammar virtually unaddressed (cf. the materials of Society for the Cleanliness of Belarusian language, Prague, 1930s-1940s) and effectively with no unified grammar to use (cf. the discussion between Yan Stankyevich and Masyey Syadnyow in beg.1950s, the policy of "Bats'kawshchyna" printing house etc.). Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ...


It is worth noting that with the Belarusian schools in Poland closed in 1937, the only wide-scale use of the pre-1933 grammar after the 1930s took place during the German occupation of Belarus in 1941–1944.


The important issue is the certain ambiguity of the Belarusian word "pravapis" which in non-academic use may refer either to just orthography or to the other branches of grammar (e.g., morphology) in general. The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of writing in that language. ...


In the Perestroika period of the end 1980s, the movement for the returning of "true" language was initiated, meaning the further unprecised "cancellment" of the effects of the 1933 reform. Several periodicals, chiefly of Belarusian People's Front side of political spectrum, "Svaboda", "Pahonya", "Nasha niva", began to be issued in beg.1990s in the grammar with several issues of the Belarusian orthography and grammar used in the pre-1933 form, notably "issue of soft sign", "westernized Latinisms", "westernized hellenisms". Belarusian Peoples Front Revival or BPF (Belarusian: Беларускі Народны Фронт Адраджэньне, БНФ, Biełaruski Narodny Front Adradžeńnie) is a political party created in Belarus during the perestroika times. ...


Generally, the ban on the publishing in non-normative grammar was lifted, too.


There was no unified approach between the editors as to what set of grammar and lexics features to use, although calls to unification were made, principally by Vincuk Viačorka (cf. publications in journal "Spadchyna" in 1991 and 1994, project of "revised classic orthography" in 1995, ibid). Vincuk Viačorka (Belarusian: Вінцук Вячорка, * July 7, 1961) is a Belarusian politician and the current leader of the Partyja BNF, a large Belarusian opposition party. ...


The orhography (or, actually, grammar, as pointed out in the issue of word "pravapis") with such features was dubbed "tarashkevitsa" in such editions, emphasising its closer relation to the 1918 work of Tarashkyevich. These editions started to refer to it as "classic" since c.1994 (notably, in 1994 article by Vincuk Viačorka). Vincuk Viačorka (Belarusian: Вінцук Вячорка, * July 7, 1961) is a Belarusian politician and the current leader of the Partyja BNF, a large Belarusian opposition party. ...


On the other hand, any post-1933 official grammar was derogatory dubbed "narkamauka" in the press of that persuasion, emphasising grammar's origin in People Commisariat ("narkamat" — Ministry).


Generally, the issue created a schism in the Belarusian-speaking community, opinions varying from wholesale approval to likewise rejection, with notable expression in the 1992–1993 discussion in the newspaper "Nasha slova", published then by Society of Belarusian language, or in the 2003 questionnaire in the journal "ARCHE".


Major editions of Belarusian minority in eastern Poland, like newspaper "Niva", did not take sides in the issue, and continued to use normative variant of language. Niva (Belarusian: ) is a weekly newspaper in Belarusian language published by the Belarusian ethnic minority in Poland. ...


There was certain amount of lobbying in 1992–1993 to enact the retro-changes in orthography through the state authorities decision. The Civic Commission on the Orthography was called as result, with mission of providing the recommendation on that matter. The recommendation of the Commission (September 13, 1994) said that while partial return of some of the pre-1933 rules could indeed be plausible, the time for such changes is not yet appropriate. is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ...


After the 1994, the promoters of the alternative ("classic") grammar continued the publishing and work on the internal codification based on the Viačorka project.


Some of the editions targeting the popular audience, like newspapers "Svaboda" (Minsk) and "Pahonya" (Hrodna), switched to the normative variant of Belarusian later. Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... Hrodna City emblem Hrodna (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; Lithuanian: ; Yiddish: Grodne; German: ) is a city in Belarus. ...


2005 proposal

In the 2005 the working group of four persons produced the "Classic orthography. Modern normalisation" being the attempt on the internal standard. One of the prominent features is changed alphabet (the extra letter added). Ghe (Ґ, ґ, also called ge with upturn) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet pronounced like the G in go. Originally part of the Ukrainian and Belarusian alphabets, its function was replaced by the letter Ge (Г) in the Soviet Union after 1933. ...


This proposal was adopted by such major Tarashkevitsa-using media, as the newspaper Naša Niva[citation needed], the Belarusian editions of Radio Free Europe and Radio Polonia (see also Belarusian Wikipedias). The adoption status in the other supporting groups, like other publishing houses or Belarusian USA diaspora, is uncertain. NaÅ¡a Niva (Наша Ніва, Nasha Niva) is one of the oldest Belarusian weekly newspaper founded in 1906 and re-established in 1991. ... Cover of Radio Liberty booklet The Most Important Job in the World Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a radio and communications organization which is funded by the United States Congress. ... Polish Radio and Television (Polish: Polskie Radio i Telewizja) was a public-service broadcaster in Poland. ...


notes

  1. ^ Also spoken in Azerbaijan, Canada, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, USA, Uzbekistan, per Ethnologue.
  2. ^ Among them, ~3.370 mln. (41.3%) of Belarusians, ~0.257 mln. of other major nationalities (Russians, Poles, Ukrainians, Jews).
  3. ^ Data of 1999 Belarusian general census In English.
  4. ^ (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001) as cited on Ethnologue.
  5. ^ In Russia, the Belarusian language is declared as a "familiar language" by ~0.316 mln. of inhabitants, among them, ~0.248 mln. Belarusians, which comprise ~30.7% of Belarusians living in Russia (Data of 2002 Russian general census In Russian). In Ukraine, the Belarusian language is declared as a "native language" by ~0.055 mln. of Belarusians, which comprise ~19.7% of Belarusians living in Ukraine (Data of 2001 Ukrainian census In Ukrainian). In Poland, the Belarusian language is declared as a "language spoken at home" by ~0.040 mln. of inhabitants (Data of 2002 Polish general census Table 34 (in Polish)).
  6. ^ Usually, 39 number is quoted, excluding the 9 prolongated versions of consonants as "mere variations". Sometimes, rare consonants are also excluded, thus bringing the quoted number of consonants further down. Number of 48 comprises all consonant sounds, variations and rare included, which may have a "phonetic" meaning in the modern Belarusian language.
  7. ^ Acc. to: Улащик Н. Введение в белорусско-литовское летописание. — М., 1980.
  8. ^ [Dovnar 1926] Ch. XVII Sec.1
  9. ^ [Turuk 1921], p.10
  10. ^ [Dovnar 1926] Ch. XXII Sec.1 p.507
  11. ^ [Dovnar 1926] Ch. XV Sect. 10.
  12. ^ Per (Dovnar 1926), (Smalyanchuk 2001)
  13. ^ [Dovnar 1926] Ch. XV Sect. 7
  14. ^ [Dovnar 1926]. Ch. XV. Sect.3.
  15. ^ [Dovnar 1926] Ch. XV Sect. 4.
  16. ^ [Turuk 1921], p.11
  17. ^ [Dovnar 1926] Ch. XXI Sec.4 p.480-481
  18. ^ (words of V. Lastowski)
  19. ^ Re-printed verbatim in Belarus (1991) and often referenced to.
  20. ^ [Tarashk 1929] Foreword.
  21. ^ The BSSR counterpart of the USSR law «On strengthening of ties of school with real life and on further development of the popular education in USSR» (1958), adopted in 1959, along with introduction of the mandatory 8-year school education, made it possible for the parents of pupils to opt for non-mandatory studying of the «second language of teaching», which would be Belarusian in Russian language school and vice versa. However, e.g., in 1955/1956 schooling year there had been 95% of schools with Russian as the primary language of teaching, and 5% with Belarusian as the primary language of teaching. [Sstank 1962]
  22. ^ See Modern history of Belarus by Mironowicz.
  23. ^ The BSSR Council of Ministers approved the project of the Commission on Orthography «On making more precise and on partially changing the acting rules of Belarusian orthography» (Belarusian: «Аб удакладненні і частковых зменах існуючага беларускага правапісу») on 1957-05-11. The project had served as a basis for the normative «Rules of the Belarusian orthography and punctuation» (Belarusian: «Правілы беларускай арфаграфіі і пунктуацыі»), published in 1959.

References

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  • [Karsk 1903] Карский, Е. Ф. Белорусы: 3 т. Т. 1 / Уступны артыкул М. Г. Булахава, прадмова да першага тома і каментарыі В. М. Курцовай, А. У. Унучака, І. У. Чаквіна. ; [Карскій. Бѣлоруссы. Т. I – Вильна, 1903] – Мн. : БелЭн, 2006. ISBN 985-11-0360-8 (Т.1), ISBN 985-11-0359-4.
  • [Lyosik 1917] [Язэп Лёсік] Граматыка і родная мова : [Вольная Беларусь №17, 30.08.1917] // Язэп Лёсік. Творы: Апавяданні. Казкі. Артыкулы / (Уклад., прадм. і камент. А. Жынкіна. – Мн. : Маст. літ., 1994. – (Спадчына). ISBN 5-340-01250-6.
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  • [StStank 1962] Станкевіч С. Русіфікацыя беларускае мовы ў БССР і супраціў русіфікацыйнаму працэсу [1962] / Прадмова В. Вячоркі. – Мн. : Навука і тэхніка, 1994. ISBN 5-343-01645-6.
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  • [Stank 1927] Ян Станкевіч. Беларуская Акадэмічная Конфэрэнцыя 14.—21.XI.1926 і яе працы дзеля рэформы беларускае абэцэды й правапісу (агульны агляд) [1927] // Ян Станкевіч. Збор твораў у двух тамах. Т. 1. - Мн.: Энцыклапедыкс, 2002. ISBN 985-6599-46-6
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See also

The name Old Ruthenian language has been applied to different things. ... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... Narkamawka (Belarusian: ) is derisive name for the reformed (see Belarusian grammar reform (1933)), currently normative Belarusian grammar (and sometimes for the «official» Belarusian language, too). ... Trasianka or trasyanka (be: трасянка) is a Belarusian–Russian patois or a kind of interlanguage (from the linguistic point of view). ... All Slavic languages arose from Proto-Slavic, which developed during the early first millennium and split off into differing dialects around the fifth or sixth century. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Belarusian
Wikipedia
Belarusian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Belarusian language - definition of Belarusian language in Encyclopedia (1604 words)
Belarusian was actually the language of the first Bible to be printed in one of the Slavic languages — the achievement of Francysk Skaryna.
After the series of wars known in Polish history as the Deluge, the Belarusian population was halved, partly due to deaths, and partly due to the policy of deportations of skilled craftsman and workers to Russia by the occupying Russian army.
Tarashkevitsa, Belarusian grammar of 1918 by Branislau Tarashkevich
Belarusian language - Free Encyclopedia (564 words)
The modern Belarusian language has evolved considerably from its early roots, as the dialects of Ruthenian (East Slavic Orthodox) spoken in the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
By the 16th century, the term "Ruthenian" referred to the language spoken in modern-day Ukraine and Belarus; a process of divergence that accelerated in the 17th century created a new division between the languages spoken in the south (Ukraine) and north (Belarus) of Ruthenian-speaking territory.
Perhaps the largest centre of Belarusian cultural activity in the world, in the Belarusian language, is in the Polish province of Bialystok, home to a long-established Belarusian minority.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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