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Encyclopedia > Belarus
Рэспубліка Беларусь
Республика Беларусь
Republic of Belarus
Flag National emblem
AnthemМы, беларусы  (Belarusian)
My, Belarusy  (transliteration)
We Belarusians

Location of  Belarus  (green)

on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend] Belarus may refer to: The Republic of Belarus - a nation in eastern Europe roughly corresponding to the historic region of White Russia Belarus (Беларус) - a brand name of tractors and farm machinery manufactured at the Minsk Tractor Works Belarus (Беларус) - a Belarusian newspaper published in United States Belarus - a science fiction book... The current national flag of Belarus was formally changed on June 7, 1995, following the result of a referendum voted on by the Belarusian people in the previous month. ... Image of the national emblem The National Emblem of Belarus (Belarusian: , Russian: ), which replaced the historic Pahonia arms in a 1995 referendum, features a ribbon in the colors of the national flag, a map of Belarus, wheat ears and a red star. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The Belarusian flag My Belarusy (Belarusian: Мы, беларусы, We Belarusians) is the unofficial title of the national anthem of Belarus and the first line of its lyrics. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Minsk
53°55′N 27°33′E / 53.917°N 27.55°E / 53.917; 27.55
Official language(s) Belarusian
Russian
Demonym Belarusian
Government Presidential republic
 -  President Alexander Lukashenko
 -  Prime Minister Sergei Sidorsky
Independence from the Soviet Union 
 -  Declared 27 July 1990 
 -  Established 25 August 1991 
 -  Completed 25 December 1991 
Area
 -  Total 207,600 km2 (85th)
80,155 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible (2.830 km²)1
Population
 -  2009 estimate 9,648,533[1] (86th)
 -  1999 census 10,045,200 
 -  Density 46.7/km2 (142nd)
120.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $119.096 billion[2] (59th)
 -  Per capita $12,313[2] (67th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $60.302 billion[2] (65th)
 -  Per capita $6,234[2] (74th)
Gini (2002) 29.7 (low
HDI (2007) 0.826 (high) (68th)
Currency Belarusian ruble (BYR)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .by
Calling code 375
1 "FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture". FAO. http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries/belarus/index.stm. Retrieved 2008-04-04. 

Belarus, pronounced /ˈbɛləruːs/ ( listen) bel-ə-ROOS (Belarusian: Беларусь, Russian: Беларусь or Белоруссия), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe,[3] bordered by Russia to the north and east, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the north. Its capital is Minsk; other major cities include Brest, Grodno (Hrodna), Gomel (Homiel), Mogilev (Mahilyow) and Vitebsk (Viciebsk). Forty percent of its 207600 km2 is forested,[4] and its strongest economic sectors are agriculture and manufacturing. A capital city (or just capital) is the area of a country, province, region, or state, regarded as enjoying primary status; although there are exceptions, a capital is almost always a city which physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of the seat of government and is fixed by law. ... This table lists the most notable cities and towns of Belarus. ... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Republics with presidential systems are shown in blue A presidential system, or a congressional system, is a system of government of a republic where the executive branch is elected separately from the legislative. ... History of Belarusian states can be traced far to Duchy of Pólacak. ... Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko or Alyaksandar Ryhoravich Lukashenka (Belarusian: , Russian: ) (born August 30, 1954 at Kopys, Vitebsk voblast) has been the President of Belarus since 1994. ... This is a list of people who have held the position prime minister for the European country of Belarus (Премьер-министр Республики Беларусь): Vyacheslav Kebich (1991 - 1994) Mikhail Chigir (1994 - 1996) Syargey Ling (1996 - 1997 ) Vladimir Yermoshin (1997 - 2001) Gennady Novitsky (2001 - 2003) Sergey Sidorsky (2003 - present) Category: ... Sergei Sergeevich Sidorsky1 (Belarusian: , IPA: , Russian: ) (born March 13, 1954 in Homiel, BSSR, Soviet Union) is the Prime Minister of Belarus. ... Countries by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... Countries by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... This article is a list of countries by percentage of water area in relation to total area (land area and water area). ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of countries by 2007 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, April 2008). ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... Belarusian ruble (ISO-code BYR, before 2000 - BYB) is the official currency of Belarus. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ...  countries with right-hand traffic countries with left-hand traffic The terms right-hand traffic and left-hand traffic refer to regulations requiring all bidirectional traffic to keep either to the right or the left side of the road, respectively. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .by is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Belarus. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Communications in Belarus are dominated by the state which owns most of the corporations and infrastructure. ... Landlocked countries of the world according to The World Factbook. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... Brest (Belarusian: , Russian: , Polish: ; Alternative names), formerly Brest-on-the-Bug and Brest-Litovsk, is a city (population 290,000 in 2004) in Belarus close to the Polish border where the Western Bug and Mukhavets Rivers meet. ... Hrodna City emblem Hrodna (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; Lithuanian: ; Yiddish: Grodne; German: ) is a city in Belarus. ... Homel (Belarusian and Russian: Гомель, Gomeľ; Yiddish: , Homl), also known as Gomel, is the second-largest city of Belarus and the main city of Homel Province. ... Mogilev, or Mahilyow (Belarusian: ; Russian: , translit. ... Location of Vitebsk, shown within the Vitebsk Voblast Coordinates: , Country Subdivision Founded 974 Government  - Mayor Population (2004)  - Total 342,381 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Area code(s) +375-15 License plate 2 Website: [2]] Vitebsk, also known as Vitsyebsk (Belarusian: Ві́цебск, IPA: ; Yiddish: װיטעבסק; Polish: Witebsk...


Until the 20th century, the Belarusians lacked the opportunity to create a distinctive national identity because for centuries the lands of modern-day Belarus belonged to several ethnically different countries, including the Principality of Polotsk, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Russian Empire, and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. After the short-lived Belarusian People’s Republic (1918–19), Belarus became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Byelorussian SSR. Capital Polotsk Language(s) Old East Slavic Religion Eastern Orthodox Church Government Principality Prince of Polotsk  - 1044—1101 Vseslav Legislature Veche History  - Established 9th century  - Incorporation into Lithuania 1397 The Principality of Polotsk, also known as the Kingdom of Polotsk or the Duchy of Polotsk (Belarusian: ; Russian: ) was a medieval... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Motto Latin: (If God is with us, then who is against us) Pro Fide, Lege et Rege (Latin: For Faith, Law and King, since 18th century) The location of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Capital Commonwealth and Crown of the Polish Kingdom: Kraków, Warsaw ca. ... Anthem Belarusian: Come, We Shall March in Joint Endeavour Capital Minsk, Hrodna Capital-in-exile Prague Language(s) Belarusian Government Republic Rada Chairman  - 1918–1919 Jan Sierada  - 1919 Piotra KrečeÅ­ski Chairperson-in-exile  - 1919–1928 Piotra KrečeÅ­ski  - since 1997 Ivonka Survilla Historical era World War I... This article is about the constituent republics of the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Belarusian: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Minsk Official language Belarusian, Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until January 1, 1919 December 30, 1922 August 25, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 6th in the USSR 207,600 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 5th in the USSR...


The final unification of Belarusian lands within its modern borders took place in 1939, when the ethnically Belarusian-Russian lands held by the Second Polish Republic (interwar Poland) were annexed into the Soviet Union under the terms of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact,[5] and attached to Soviet Belarus. The territory and its nation were devastated in World War II, during which Belarus lost about a third of its population and more than half of its economic resources;[6] the republic was redeveloped in the post-war years. Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... Text of the secret protocol (in German) The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, colloquially named after the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, was an agreement officially titled the Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union1 and signed in Moscow in the... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The parliament of the republic declared the sovereignty of Belarus on 27 July 1990, and following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Belarus declared independence on 25 August 1991. Alexander Lukashenko has been the country's president since 1994. During his presidency, Lukashenko has implemented Soviet-era policies, such as state ownership of the economy, despite objections from Western governments. Since 2000, Belarus and Russia signed a treaty for greater cooperation, with some hints of forming a Union State. The Soviet Unions dissolution into independent nations began early in 1985. ... Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko or Alyaksandar Ryhoravich Lukashenka (Belarusian: , Russian: ) (born August 30, 1954 at Kopys, Vitebsk voblast) has been the President of Belarus since 1994. ... For the bank, see Union State Bank. ...


Most of Belarus's population of 9.85 million reside in the urban areas surrounding Minsk and other oblast (regional) capitals.[7] More than 80% of the population are native Belarusians, with sizable minorities of Russians, Poles and Ukrainians. Since a referendum in 1995, the country has had two official languages: Belarusian and Russian. The Constitution of Belarus does not declare an official religion, although the primary religion in the country is Russian Orthodox Christianity. The second most popular, Roman Catholicism, has a much smaller following by comparison, but both Orthodox and Catholic Christmas and Easter are officially respected as national holidays. Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus (Russian: Конституции Республики Беларусь, Belarusian: Канстытуцыя Рэспублікі Беларусь) is a formal document crated by the Government of Belarus to organize their government and to set up the rights and freedoms of their citizens. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Belarus is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ...

Contents

Etymology

The name Belarus derives from the term White Rus, which first appeared in German and Latin medieval literature. The Latin term for the area was Alba Ruthenia. Historically, the country was referred to in English as White Ruthenia. It is also claimed that White Ruthenia describes the area of Eastern Europe populated by Slavic people or the states that occupied the area.[8] The first known use of White Russia to refer to Belarus was in the late-16th century by Englishman Sir Jerome Horsey.[9] During the 17th century, Russian tsars used White Rus', asserting that they were trying to recapture their heritage from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.[9] The banner of White Ruthenia White Russia is a name that was historically applied to different regions in Eastern Europe, most often to the region that roughly corresponds to the present-day Belarus. ... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... Drawing from Stories of Russian Folk-Life. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... Motto Latin: (If God is with us, then who is against us) Pro Fide, Lege et Rege (Latin: For Faith, Law and King, since 18th century) The location of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Capital Commonwealth and Crown of the Polish Kingdom: Kraków, Warsaw ca. ...


Belarus was named Byelorussia (Russian: Белоруссия) in the days of Russian Empire, and the Russian tsar was usually styled Tsar of All the RussiasGreat, Little, and White. Byelorussia was the only Russian language name of the country (its names in other languages such as English being based on the Russian form) until 1991, when the Supreme Soviet of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic decreed by law that the new independent republic should be called Belarus (Беларусь) in Russian and in all other language transcriptions of its name. The change was made to reflect adequately the Belarusian language form of the name.[10] The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Anthem Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital (and largest city) Moscow Official languages Russian official throughout nation; thirty others co-official in various regions Government Semi-presidential federal republic  -  President Vladimir Putin  -  Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Formation  -  Declared June 12, 1990   -  Finalized December 25, 1991  Area  -  Total 17,075,400... National motto: None Official language Russian (among many others in political subdivisions) Official script Cyrillic alphabet Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow President Vladimir Putin Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st 17,075,200 km² 0. ... Little Russia or Malorossiya (Russian: ) was the name for the territory of Ukraine applied in the time of the Russian Empire and earlier. ... The banner of White Ruthenia White Russia is a name that was historically applied to different regions in Eastern Europe, most often to the region that roughly corresponds to the present-day Belarus. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , Russian pronunciation: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages, and the largest native language in Europe. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... Capital Smolensk, Minsk Official language Belarusian, Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until January 1, 1919 December 30, 1922 August 25, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 6th in the USSR 207,600 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 5th in the USSR 10,151,806 (1989) 48. ... The Belarusian or Belorussian language (беларуская мова, BGN/PCGN: byelaruskaya mova, Scientific: bjelaruskaja mova) is the language of the Belarusian people and is spoken in Belarus and abroad, chiefly in Russia, Ukraine, Poland. ...


Accordingly, the name Byelorussia was replaced by Belarus in English,[11] and, to some extent, in Russian (although the traditional name still persists in that language as well); likewise, the adjective Belorussian or Byelorussian was replaced by Belarusian in English (though Russian has not developed a new adjective). Belarusian intelligentsia in the Stalin era attempted to change the name from Byelorussia to a form of Krivia because of the supposed connection with Russia.[12] Some nationalists also object to the name for the same reason.[13][14] However, several popular newspapers published locally still retain the old name of the country in Russian in their names, for example Komsomolskaya Pravda v Byelorussii, which is the localized publication of a popular Russian tabloid. Also, those who wish for Belarus to be reunited with Russia continue to use Byelorussia.[14] Officially, the full name of the country is Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь, Республика Беларусь, Respublika Byelarus').[15] About this sound listen

History

Stamp with the Cross of St. Euphrasyne from 1991

The region that is now modern-day Belarus was first settled by Slavic tribes in the 6th century. They gradually came into contact with the Varangians, a band of warriors consisting of Scandinavians and Slavs from the Baltics.[16] Though defeated and briefly exiled by the local population, the Varangians were later asked to return[16] and helped to form a polity—commonly referred to as the Kievan Rus'—in exchange for tribute. The Kievan Rus' state began in about 862 around the city of Kiev[17] or alternatively around the present-day city of Novgorod,[17] This article describes the history of Belarus. ... 1863 reproduction of the Polotsk Cross The Cross of Saint Euphrosyne was a revered relic of the Russian Orthodox Church and Belarus, which was made in 1161 by Lazar Bogsha for the order of Saint Euphrosyne of Polatsk and lost in June 1941 in Mahilyow. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Countries with dominating Slavic ethnicities  West Slavic  East Slavic  South Slavic Slav redirects here. ... Varangian Guardsmen, an illumination from the 11th century chronicle of John Skylitzes. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... Body politic or body corporate and politic means a state or one of its subordinate civil authorities, such as a: province prefecture county municipality city district etc. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... For other cities named Novgorod, see Novgorod (disambiguation). ...


Upon the death of Kievan Rus' ruler, Prince Yaroslav the Wise, the state split into independent principalities.[18] These Ruthenian principalities were badly affected by a Mongol invasion in the 13th century, and many were later incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.[19] Of the principalities held by the Duchy, nine were settled by ancestors of the Belarusian people.[20] During this time, the Duchy was involved in several military campaigns, including fighting on the side of Poland against the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410; the joint victory allowed the Duchy to control the northwestern border lands of Eastern Europe.[21] Mikhail Gerasimovs reconstruction of Yaroslavs appearance, based on his examination of Yaroslavs skull Yaroslav I the Wise (c. ... Redirect page ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Żamojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Teutonic Order and Mercenaries and Various Knights from the rest of Europe Commanders Władysław II Jagiełło, Vytautas the Great Ulrich von Jungingen† Strength 39,000 27,000 Casualties Unknown 8,000 dead 14,000 captured The Battle of Grunwald...

The first people settled in the territory of Lithuania after the last glacial period in the 10th millennium BC. Over a millennium the Proto-Indo-Europeans, who arrived in the 3rd – 2nd millennium BC, mixed with local population and formed various Baltic tribes. The first written mention of Lithuania is found in a medieval German manuscript, the Quedlinburg Chronicle, on 14 February 1009. Initially inhabited by fragmented Baltic tribes, in 1230s the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas, who was crowned as King of Lithuania on 6 July 1253.[6] After his assassination in 1263, pagan Lithuania was a target of Christian crusades of the Teutonic Knights and Livonian Order. Despite devastating century-long struggle with the Orders, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania expanded rapidly overtaking former Slavic principalities of Kievan Rus'. By the end of the 14th century, Lithuania was the largest country in Europe and included present-day Belarus, Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia.[7] The geopolitical situation between the west and the east determined multi-cultural and multi-confessional character the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Lithuanian ruling elite practiced religious tolerance and borrowed Slavic state traditions, such as using Chancery Slavonic language for official documents. On 2 February 1386, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Lithuania were joined in a personal union through a marriage of their rulers.[22] This union set in motion the developments that eventually resulted in the formation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, created in 1569. The Russians, led by Tsar Ivan the III, began military conquests in 1486 in an attempt to recover the Kievan Rus' lands, specifically the territories of modern day Belarus and Ukraine.[23] Despite Russian attempts at conquest, the territories of modern day Belarus remained an integral part of the Polish-Lithuanina Commonwealth for over 400 years, with the local traditions and languages being supported by the Polish Crown. The union between Poland and Lithuania ended in 1795 with the partitioning of Poland by Imperial Russia, Prussia, and Austria.[24] During this time the territories of modern day Belarus were acquired by the Russian Empire, under the reign of Catherine II[25] and held until their occupation by German Empire during World War I.[26] The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Casimir III in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... Motto Latin: (If God is with us, then who is against us) Pro Fide, Lege et Rege (Latin: For Faith, Law and King, since 18th century) The location of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Capital Commonwealth and Crown of the Polish Kingdom: Kraków, Warsaw ca. ... The first written instance of the name of Lithuania is in the Annals of Quedlinburg (1009) The Annals of Quedlinburg (Latin: , German: ) were written between 1008 and 1030 in the convent of Quedlinburg Abbey. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Church Slavic or Old Bulgarian, incorrectly Old Slavic ) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Solun (Thessaloniki) by 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... The Union of Krewo (or Union of Krevo) was a a political and dynastic agreement between Queen Jadwiga of Poland and Grand Prince Jagiello of Lithuania and the begining of the Polish-Lithuanian Union. ... Motto Latin: (If God is with us, then who is against us) Pro Fide, Lege et Rege (Latin: For Faith, Law and King, since 18th century) The location of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Capital Commonwealth and Crown of the Polish Kingdom: Kraków, Warsaw ca. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with the official... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440, Moscow – October 27, 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Catherine the Great redirects here. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


During the negotiations of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Belarus first declared independence on 25 March 1918, forming the Belarusian People’s Republic. The Germans supported the BPR, which lasted for about ten months.[27] Immediately after the Germans retreated, Polish–Soviet War was started, and Belarus was torn between resurgent Poland and Soviet Russia, part of Belarus under Russian rule became the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1919.[27] Soon that part was merged into the Lithuanian–Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Byelorussian lands were then resplited between Poland and the Soviets after the Polish–Soviet War ended in 1921, and the recreated Byelorussian SSR became a founding member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922.[27] At the same time Western Belarus remained occupied by Poland.[28][29][29] The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... Anthem Belarusian: Come, We Shall March in Joint Endeavour Capital Minsk, Hrodna Capital-in-exile Prague Language(s) Belarusian Government Republic Rada Chairman  - 1918–1919 Jan Sierada  - 1919 Piotra KrečeÅ­ski Chairperson-in-exile  - 1919–1928 Piotra KrečeÅ­ski  - since 1997 Ivonka Survilla Historical era World War I... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000–150,000 Unknown, dead estimated... Capital Smolensk, Minsk Official language Belarusian, Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until January 1, 1919 December 30, 1922 August 25, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 6th in the USSR 207,600 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 5th in the USSR 10,151,806 (1989) 48. ... Flag of the Lithuanian–Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Map of planned Litbel borders (thick blue line) superimposed on state borders of 1920. ... The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик (СССР); tr. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000–150,000 Unknown, dead estimated... CCCP redirects here. ...


A set of agricultural reforms, culminating in the Belarusian phase of Soviet collectivization, began in the 1920s. A process of rapid industrialization was undertaken during the 1930s, following the model of Soviet five-year plans. Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... Five-Year Plan redirects here. ...

The Brest Fortress to the War Memorial
Soviet partisan fighters behind German front lines in Belarus in 1943
"Invincible Man" - a statue at the Khatyn memorial of Yuzif Kaminsky carrying his dying son

In 1939, West Belarus, the territory of modern day Belarus that Poland had occupied by the agreement with Soviet Russia pursuant to Treaty of Riga two decades earlier, was reunited with the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic.[30][31][32][33][34][35] The decision was made by the Soviet controlled Belarusian People Council on October 28, 1939 in Białystok.[35] A stretch of the ring barrack of the Citadel with projecting semi-tower on the left Brest Fortress in Brest, Belarus, formerly known as Brest-Litovsk Fortress (the Polish name of the city was Brześć Litewski), is one of the most important Soviet WWII war monuments marking the heroic and... CCCP redirects here. ... Look up partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A front line is a line of confrontation in an armed conflict, most often a war. ... Statue of the only man from Khatyn to survive the massacre, holding his dead child, by Josef Kaminski (1969). ... West Belarus is the name used sometimes in a historical context to denote the territory of modern Belarus that belonged to Second Polish Republic between Polish-Soviet War and World War II. Most of the Belarusian minority in Poland lived in that region. ... Central and Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga See also Riga Peace Treaty for other treaties concluded in Riga. ... Capital Smolensk, Minsk Official language Belarusian, Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until January 1, 1919 December 30, 1922 August 25, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 6th in the USSR 207,600 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 5th in the USSR 10,151,806 (1989) 48. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina BiaÅ‚ystok Established 14th century City Rights 1692 Government  - Mayor Tadeusz Truskolaski Area  - City 102 km² (39. ...


Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941 – the Brest Fortress in western Belarus receiving one of the fiercest of the war's opening blows, with its notable defense in 1941 coming to be remembered as an act of heroism in countering the German aggression. Statistically, Byelorussia was the hardest hit Soviet Republic in the war and remained in Nazi hands until 1944. During that time, Germany destroyed 209 out of 290 cities in the republic, 85% of the republic's industry, and more than one million buildings.[6] Casualties were estimated to be between two and three million (about a quarter to one-third of the total population), while the Jewish population of Byelorussia was devastated during the Holocaust and never recovered.[6][36] The population of Belarus did not regain its pre-war level until 1971.[36] After the war ended, Byelorussia was officially among the 51 founding countries of the United Nations Charter in 1945. Intense post-war reconstruction was initiated promptly. During this time, the Byelorussian SSR became a major center of manufacturing in the western region of the USSR, increasing jobs and bringing an influx of ethnic Russians into the republic.[37] The borders of Byelorussian SSR and Poland were redrawn to a point known as the Curzon Line.[38] Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... A stretch of the ring barrack of the Citadel with projecting semi-tower on the left Brest Fortress in Brest, Belarus, formerly known as Brest-Litovsk Fortress (the Polish name of the city was Brześć Litewski), is one of the most important Soviet WWII war monuments marking the heroic and... This article is about a 1941 battle between Germany and the USSR. For Polish-German battle of 1939, see Battle of Brześć Litewski. ... Soviet partisan fighters behind German front lines in Belarus in 1943 The occupation of Belarus by Nazi Germany occurred as part of the German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 (Operation Barbarossa) and ended in August 1944 with the Soviet Operation Bagration. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Curzon Line was a demarcation line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a possible armistice line between Poland, to the west, and Soviet Russia to the east, during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–20. ...

Map of the Byelorussian SSR, 1940

Joseph Stalin implemented a policy of Sovietization to isolate the Byelorussian SSR from Western influences.[36] This policy involved sending Russians from various parts of the Soviet Union and placing them in key positions in the Byelorussian SSR government. The official use of the Belarusian language and other cultural aspects were limited by Moscow. After Stalin died in 1953, successor Nikita Khrushchev continued this program, stating, "The sooner we all start speaking Russian, the faster we shall build communism."[36] The Byelorussian SSR was significantly exposed to nuclear fallout from the explosion at the Chernobyl power plant in neighboring Ukrainian SSR in 1986.[39] In June 1988 at the rural site of Kurapaty near Minsk, archaeologist Zianon Pazniak, the leader of Christian Conservative Party of the BPF, discovered mass graves which contained about 250,000 bodies of victims executed in 1937–1941.[39] Some nationalists contend that this discovery is proof that the Soviet government was trying to erase the Belarusian people, causing Belarusian nationalists to seek independence.[40] Capital Smolensk, Minsk Official language Belarusian, Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until January 1, 1919 December 30, 1922 August 25, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 6th in the USSR 207,600 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 5th in the USSR 10,151,806 (1989) 48. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Sovietization is term that may be used with two distinct (but related) meanings: the adoption of a political system based on the model of soviets (workers councils). ... Occident redirects here. ... The Belarusian or Belorussian language (беларуская мова, BGN/PCGN: byelaruskaya mova, Scientific: bjelaruskaja mova) is the language of the Belarusian people and is spoken in Belarus and abroad, chiefly in Russia, Ukraine, Poland. ... The political system of the Soviet Union was characterized by the superior role of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the only party permitted by Constitution. ... Khrushchev redirects here. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The Chernobyl disaster, reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, or simply Chernobyl, was the worst nuclear power plant accident in history and the only... State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... Kurapaty (Belarusian: Курапаты) is a wooded area on the outskirts of Minsk, Belarus, where in 1941 a vast number of people were executed. ... Zianon Pazniak Dr. Zianon Paźniak (Belarusian: Зянон Пазьняк, * April 24, 1944) is a famous Belarusian nationalist politician and public activist, one of the founders of the Belarusian Popular Front and leader of the Christian Conservative Party of the BPF. Zianon Pazniak was born in Subotniki, Hrodna Province. ... The Conservative Christian Party of the Belarusian Peoples Front (Russian:Консервативно-христианская партия — БНФ Belarusian:Кансэрватыўна-Хрысьціянская Партыя - БНФ, KanservatyÅ­na-ChryÅ›cijanskaja Partyja BNF), is a political party in Belarus, that opposes the government of president Alexander Lukashenko. ... Image:Mass Grave Bergen Belsen May 1945. ...


Two years later, in March 1990, elections for seats in the Supreme Soviet of the Byelorussian SSR took place. Though the pro-independence Belarusian Popular Front took only 10% of the seats, the populace was content with the selection of the delegates.[41] Belarus declared itself sovereign on 27 July 1990, by issuing the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic. With the support of the Communist Party, the country's name was changed to the Republic of Belarus on 25 August 1991.[41] Stanislav Shushkevich, the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Belarus, met with Boris Yeltsin of Russia and Leonid Kravchuk of Ukraine on 8 December 1991, in Belavezhskaya Pushcha to formally declare the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States.[41] A national constitution was adopted in March 1994, in which the functions of prime minister were given to the president. The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... Belarusian Popular Front Revival or BPF (Belarus during the perestroika times. ... The Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic was a formal document issued by the Supreme Soviet of Belarus to assert their independence from the Soviet Union. ... Stanislav Stanislavovich Shushkevich (Belarusian: Станісла́ў Станісла́вавіч Шушке́віч; Stanisłaŭ Stanisłavavič Šuškievič) (b. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... Leonid Kravchuk in Kiev, August 1992 Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk (Ukrainian: Леонід Макарович Кравчук born 10 January 1934) is a Ukrainian politician. ... BiaÅ‚owieża Primaeval Forest, known as Belaveskaya Pushcha (Белавеская пушча) or Belovezhskaya Pushcha in Belarus and Puszcza BiaÅ‚owieska in Poland, is an ancient virginal forest straddling the border between Belarus and Poland, located 70 km north of Brest. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus (Russian: Конституции Республики Беларусь, Belarusian: Канстытуцыя Рэспублікі Беларусь) is a formal document crated by the Government of Belarus to organize their government and to set up the rights and freedoms of their citizens. ... History of Belarusian states can be traced far to Duchy of Pólacak. ...


Two-round elections for the presidency (24 June 1994 and 10 July 1994)[42] resulted in the politically unknown Alexander Lukashenko winning more than 45% of the vote in the first round and 80%[41] in the second round, beating Vyacheslav Kebich who got 14%. Lukashenko was reelected in 2001 and in 2006. Vyachaslau Frantsavich Kebich (Belarusian: , IPA: ; born June 10, 1936) is a political figure from Belarus. ... The 2001 Belarusian presidential elections were held on September 9, 2001 with three candidates competing. ... The elections for the position of president of Belarus took place on March 19, 2006. ...

Politics

Victory Square, Minsk

Belarus is a presidential republic, governed by a president and the National Assembly. In accordance with the constitution, the president is elected once every five years. The National Assembly is a bicameral parliament comprising the 110-member House of Representatives (the lower house) and the 64-member Council of the Republic (the upper house). This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... History of Belarusian states can be traced far to Duchy of Pólacak. ... The National Assembly of the Republic of Belarus is the bicameral parliament that governs the Eastern European country of Belarus. ... This article is about bicameralism in government. ... The House of Government, the residence of the House of Representatives of Belarus. ... The Council of the Republic is the upper-chamber in Belarus bicameral parliament, the National Assembly. ...


The House of Representatives has the power to appoint the prime minister, make constitutional amendments, call for a vote of confidence on the prime minister, and make suggestions on foreign and domestic policy. The Council of the Republic has the power to select various government officials, conduct an impeachment trial of the president, and accept or reject the bills passed by the House of Representatives. Each chamber has the ability to veto any law passed by local officials if it is contrary to the Constitution of Belarus.[43] This is a list of people who have held the position prime minister for the European country of Belarus (Премьер-министр Республики Беларусь): Vyacheslav Kebich (1991 - 1994) Mikhail Chigir (1994 - 1996) Syargey Ling (1996 - 1997 ) Vladimir Yermoshin (1997 - 2001) Gennady Novitsky (2001 - 2003) Sergey Sidorsky (2003 - present) Category: ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or other such assembly) a chance to register their confidence in a government. ... The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus (Russian: Конституции Республики Беларусь, Belarusian: Канстытуцыя Рэспублікі Беларусь) is a formal document crated by the Government of Belarus to organize their government and to set up the rights and freedoms of their citizens. ...


Since 1994, Alexander Lukashenko has been the president of Belarus. The government includes a Council of Ministers, headed by the prime minister. The members of this council need not be members of the legislature and are appointed by the president. The judiciary comprises the Supreme Court and specialized courts such as the Constitutional Court, which deals with specific issues related to constitutional and business law. The judges of national courts are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Council of the Republic. For criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the Supreme Court. The Belarusian Constitution forbids the use of special extrajudicial courts.[43] The Supreme Court of the Republic of Belarus is the highest-tier court inside of Belarus and acts as the final court of review. ... The Constitutional Court of Belarus is one of the top-teir courts in the Eastern European country. ...

House of Government in Minsk, with a statue of Vladimir Lenin in the foreground
Residence of the President of the Republic of Belarus, ul. Karla Marxa 38, Minsk, Belarus

As of 2007, 98 of the 110 members of the House of Representatives are not affiliated with any political party and of the remaining twelve members, eight belong to the Communist Party of Belarus, three to the Agrarian Party of Belarus, and one to the Liberal Democratic Party of Belarus. Most of the non-partisans represent a wide scope of social organizations such as workers' collectives, public associations and civil society organizations. Lenin redirects here. ... Americas Asia Europe Middle East Related subjects The Communist Party of Belarus (Belarusian: , Kamunistychnaya Partyia Belarusi; Russian: , Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Belarusi)) is a political party in Belarus, that supports the government of president Alexander Lukashenko. ... The Agrarian Party (Belarusian: ) is an agrarian and communist political party in Belarus that supports the government of president Alexander Lukashenko. ... The Liberal Democratic Party (Russian: , Belarusian: ) is a political party in Belarus. ...


Neither the pro-Lukashenko parties, such as the Belarusian Socialist Sporting Party and the Republican Party of Labor and Justice, nor the People's Coalition 5 Plus opposition parties, such as the Belarusian People's Front and the United Civil Party of Belarus, won any seats in the 2004 elections. Groups such as the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) declared the election "un-free" because of the opposition parties' poor results and media bias in favor of the government.[44] The Belarusian Socialist Sporting Party (Belaruskaya Satsyalistychnaya-Spartynaya Partya) is a political party in Belarus, that supports the regime of president Alexander Lukashenko. ... The Republican Party of Labour and Juctice (Respublikanskaya Partya Pratsy y Spravyadivasti) is a political party in Belarus, that supports the regime of president Alexander Lukashenko. ... The Peoples Coalition 5 Plus (Narodnaja Kaalicja Pjacerka Plys) is a political alliance in Belarus, that opposes the regime of president Alexander Lukashenka. ... The Partyja BPF (Belarusian: Партыя БНФ, BNF Party) is a political party in Belarus. ... The United Civic Party of Belarus (Belarusian: ) is a liberal party in Belarus. ... Elections in Belarus gives information on election and election results in Belarus. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ...


In the country's 2006 presidential election, Lukashenko was opposed by Alaksandar Milinkievič, a candidate representing a coalition of opposition parties, and by Alaksandar Kazulin of the Social Democrats. Kazulin was detained and beaten by police during protests surrounding the All Belarusian People's Assembly. Lukashenko won the election with 80% of the vote, but the OSCE and other organizations called the election unfair.[45] The elections for the position of president of Belarus took place on March 19, 2006. ... Alaksandar Milinkievič (official campaign photo) Alaksandar Milinkievič (also Alexander Milinkevich; Аляксандар Мілінкевіч in Belarusian, born 25 July 1947) is a Belarusian politician. ... Alaksandar Kazulin (Belarusian: ), born 25 November 1955, is the leader of the Belarusian Social Democratic Party and one of the candidates running for the office of President of Belarus on March 19, 2006. ... The All Belarusian Peoples Assembly (Belarusian: , Russian: ) is a general meeting of the Belarusian Goverment with industry leaders and other top officials from every sector of the government. ...


Lukashenko has described himself as having an "authoritarian ruling style."[46] Western countries have described Belarus under Lukashenko as a dictatorship; the government has accused the same Western powers of trying to oust Lukashenko.[47] The Council of Europe has barred Belarus from membership since 1997 for undemocratic voting and election irregularities in the November 1996 constitutional referendum and parliament by-elections.[48] The Belarusian government is also criticized for human rights violations and its actions against non-governmental organizations, independent journalists, national minorities, and opposition politicians.[49][50] Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... NGO redirects here. ...


Belarus is the only nation in Europe that retains the death penalty for certain crimes during times of peace and war.[51] The constitution was also changed by Lukashenko to where the term limits for the presidency were lifted. In testimony to the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, former United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice labeled Belarus among the six nations of the "outposts of tyranny."[52] In response, the Belarusian government called the assessment "quite far from reality."[53] Belarus is the only country in Europe where capital punishment is still used; this dates from when the country had been a part of the Soviet Union. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... World map indicating (in green) the countries of Rices outposts of tyranny. The United States is shown in blue. ...

CIS Headquarter, Minsk

Foreign relations and military

Belarus and Russia have been close trading partners and diplomatic allies since the breakup of the Soviet Union. Belarus is dependent on Russia for imports of raw materials and for its export market.[54] The Union of Russia and Belarus, a supranational confederation, was established in a 1996–99 series of treaties that called for monetary union, equal rights, single citizenship, and a common foreign and defense policy.[54] Although the future of the Union was in doubt because of Belarus's repeated delays of monetary union, the lack of a referendum date for the draft constitution, and a 2006–07 dispute about petroleum trade.[54] On 11 December 2007, reports emerged that a framework for the new state was discussed between both countries.[55] On 27 May 2008, Belarusian President Lukashenko said that he had named Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin the "prime minister" of the Russia-Belarus alliance. The meaning of the move was not immediately clear; however, there was speculation that Putin might become President of a unified state of Russia and Belarus after stepping down as Russian president in May 2008, although this has not happened.[56] Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... Under an arrangement with the former USSR, Belarus (known as Byelorussian SSR) was an original member of the United Nations. ... The armed forces of Belarus consist of the Army and the Air Force, all under the command of the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Belarus. ... Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko or Alyaksandar Ryhoravich Lukashenka (Belarusian: , Russian: ) (born August 30, 1954 at Kopys, Vitebsk voblast) has been the President of Belarus since 1994. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Russian pronunciation: ) (born October 7, 1952, in Leningrad, U.S.S.R., now Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian politician who was the 2nd President of the Russian Federation from 2000 to 2008. ... The President of Russia (Russian: , President of the Russian Federation, Russian: ) (before December 25, 1991: Russian: ) is the Head of State and highest office within the Government of Russia. ... Leonid Kuchma Leonid Danylovych Kuchma (Ukrainian: Леонід Данилович Кучма; born August 9, 1938) was the second President of Ukraine from July 19, 1994, to January 23, 2005. ... Mariyinsky Palace The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of the state of Ukraine and acts in its name. ... The International Festival of Arts Slavianski Bazaar in Vitebsk (Russian: ) is an annual festival held in Vitebsk, Belarus under the auspices of Alla Pugacheva since 1992. ... For the bank, see Union State Bank. ... Druzhba pipeline goes from Russia through Belarus to other European countries The Russia–Belarus energy dispute began when Russian state-owned gas supplier Gazprom demanded an increase in gas prices paid by Belarus, a country which has been closely allied with Moscow and forms a loose union state with Russia. ... The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, (Russian: Председатель Правительства Российской Федерации) unofficially called the Prime-Minister (though such term is not present in the Russian Constitution) is the current Head of Government of the Russian Federation. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Russian pronunciation: ) (born October 7, 1952, in Leningrad, U.S.S.R., now Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian politician who was the 2nd President of the Russian Federation from 2000 to 2008. ...


Belarus was a founding member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS); however, recently other CIS members have questioned the effectiveness of the organization.[57] Belarus has trade agreements with several European Union member states (despite other member states' travel ban on Lukashenko and top officials),[58] as well as with its neighbors Lithuania, Poland and Latvia (all of whom are EU members).[59]  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ...


Bilateral relations with the United States are strained because the U.S. Department of State supports various anti-Lukashenko NGOs and because the Belarusian government has made it harder for US-based organizations to operate within the country.[60] The 2004 US Belarus Democracy Act continued this trend, authorizing funding for what the US considers to be pro-democracy Belarusian NGOs and forbidding loans to the Belarusian government except for humanitarian purposes.[61] Despite this, the two nations cooperate on intellectual property protection, prevention of human trafficking and technology crime, and disaster relief.[62] Department of State redirects here. ... NGO redirects here. ... Belarus Democracy Act of 2004, signed by President George W. Bush and passed unanimously by the U.S. Congress on October 4, 2004 authorizes assistance for Belarusian political parties, non-governmental organizations, and independent media working for democracy and human rights. ...


Belarus has increased cooperation with China,[63] strengthened by the visit of President Lukashenko to China in October 2005.[64] Belarus has strong ties with Syria,[65] which President Lukashenko considers a key partner in the Middle East.[66] In addition to the CIS, Belarus has membership in the Eurasian Economic Community and the Collective Security Treaty Organisation.[59] Belarus has been a member of the international Non-Aligned Movement since 1998[67] and a member of the United Nations since its founding in 1945. Belarus is also a member of the Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). As an OSCE participating State, Belarus’s international commitments are subject to monitoring under the mandate of the U.S. Helsinki Commission.[68] Flag of EurAsEC The Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC or EAEC) was put into motion on 10 October 2000 when Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan signed the treaty. ... In the framework of Commonwealth of Independent States the CIS Collective Security Treaty (CST) was signed on May 15, 1992, by Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, in the city of Tashkent. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... UN redirects here. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ...


The Armed Forces of Belarus have three branches: the Army, the Air Force, and the Ministry of Defense joint staff. Colonel-General Leonid Maltsev heads the Ministry of Defense,[69] and Alexander Lukashenko (as president) serves as Commander-in-Chief.[70] The Armed Forces were formed in 1992 using parts of the former Soviet Armed Forces on the new republic's territory. The transformation of the ex-Soviet forces into the Armed Forces of Belarus, which was completed in 1997, reduced the number of its soldiers by 30,000 and restructured its leadership and military formations.[71] Most of Belarus's service members are conscripts, who serve for 12 months if they have higher education or 18 months if they do not.[72] However, demographic decreases in the Belarusians of conscription age have increased the importance of contract soldiers, who numbered 12,000 as of 2001.[73] In 2005, about 1.4% of Belarus's gross domestic product was devoted to military expenditures.[74] Belarus has not expressed a desire to join NATO but has participated in the Individual Partnership Program since 1997.[75] The armed forces of Belarus consist of the Army and the Air Force, all under the command of the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Belarus. ... The Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Belarus (Russian: Министерство обороны Республики Беларусь, Belarusian: Мiнiстэрства абароны Рэспублікі Беларусь) is the government organization that is charged with the duties of raising and maintaining the armed forces of Belarus. ... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... GDP redirects here. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...

Provinces and districts

Provinces of Belarus

Belarus is divided into six oblasts (obłasć), or provinces, which are named after the cities that serve as their administrative centers.[76] Each voblast has a provincial legislative authority, called an oblsovet (oblast council), which is elected by the voblast's residents, and a provincial executive authority called a voblast administration, whose leader is appointed by the president.[77] Voblasts are further subdivided into raions (commonly translated as districts or regions).[76] As with voblasts, each raion has its own legislative authority (raisovet, or raion council) elected by its residents, and an executive authority (raion administration) appointed by higher executive powers. As of 2002, there are six voblasts, 118 raions, 102 towns and 108 urbanized settlements.[78] Minsk is given a special status, due to the city serving as the national capital. Minsk City is run by an executive committee and granted a charter of self-rule by the national government.[79] At the higher administrative level, Belarus is divided into 6 voblasts. ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ...


Voblasts (with administrative centers):

  1. Brest Voblast (Brest)
  2. Homiel Voblast (Gomel)
  3. Hrodna Voblast (Grodno)
  4. Mahilyow Voblast (Mogilev)
  5. Minsk Voblast (Minsk)
  6. Vitsebsk Voblast (Vitebsk)

Special administrative district: Brest voblast is one of the administrative regions in the Republic of Belarus located in the south-west of Poland and Ukraine. ... Brest (Belarusian: , Russian: , Polish: ; Alternative names), formerly Brest-on-the-Bug and Brest-Litovsk, is a city (population 290,000 in 2004) in Belarus close to the Polish border where the Western Bug and Mukhavets Rivers meet. ... Administrative center Homyel Largest cities Homyel - 481,200 Mazyr - 111,800 Zhlobin - 72,800 Raions 21  - Cities 17  - Urban localities 278  - Villages 2,178 City raions 8 Area  Ranked N/A  - Total 40,400 km²  - % of National total 19. ... Homel (Belarusian and Russian: Гомель, Gomeľ; Yiddish: , Homl), also known as Gomel, is the second-largest city of Belarus and the main city of Homel Province. ... Categories: Belarus-related stubs | Regions of Belarus ... Hrodna (or Grodno; Belarusian: Го́радня, Гро́дна; Grodno in Polish, Гродно in Russian, Gardinas in Lithuanian) is a city in Belarus on the Nemunas river, close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania (about 15 km and 30 km away respectively). ... Categories: Belarus-related stubs | Regions of Belarus ... Mogilev, or Mahilyow (Belarusian: ; Russian: , translit. ... Categories: Stub | Regions of Belarus ... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... Categories: Stub | Regions of Belarus ... Location of Vitebsk, shown within the Vitebsk Voblast Coordinates: , Country Subdivision Founded 974 Government  - Mayor Population (2004)  - Total 342,381 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Area code(s) +375-15 License plate 2 Website: [2]] Vitebsk, also known as Vitsyebsk (Belarusian: Ві́цебск, IPA: ; Yiddish: װיטעבסק; Polish: Witebsk...

  1. Minsk City

Geography

Strusta Lake in the Vitebsk Province.

Belarus is landlocked, relatively flat, and contains large tracts of marshy land.[80] According to a 2005 estimate by the United Nations, 40% of Belarus is covered by forests.[81] Many streams and 11,000 lakes are found in Belarus.[80] Three major rivers run through the country: the Neman, the Pripyat, and the Dnepr. The Neman flows westward towards the Baltic sea and the Pripyat flows eastward to the Dnepr; the Dnepr flows southward towards the Black Sea.[82] Belarus's highest point is Dzyarzhynskaya Hara (Dzyarzhynsk Hill) at 345 metres (1,132 ft), and its lowest point is on the Neman River at 90 metres (295 ft).[80] The average elevation of Belarus is 525 feet (160 m) above sea level.[83] The climate ranges from harsh winters, with average January temperatures at −6 °C (21.2 °F), to cool and moist summers with an average temperature of 18 °C (64.4 °F).[84] Belarus has an average annual rainfall of 550 to 700 mm (21.7 to 27.6 in).[84] The country experiences a yearly transition from a continental climate to a maritime climate.[80] Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... Detailed map of Belarus Satellite image of Belarus in December 2002. ... Categories: Stub | Regions of Belarus ... Landlocked countries of the world according to The World Factbook. ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... The Neman (Belarusian: ; Lithuanian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; German: ) is a major Eastern European river rising in Belarus and flowing through Lithuania before draining into the Baltic Sea near KlaipÄ—da. ... The Pripyat River (Ukrainian: Припять, Prýpyat; Belarusian: Прыпяць, Prýpyats, Polish Prypeć) is a river in Eastern Europe, of approximately 440 miles (710 km). ... The Dnieper River (Russian: , Dnepr; Belarusian: , Dniapro; Ukrainian: , Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Dzyarzhynskaya Hara (Belarusian Гара Дзяржынская) is the highest point in Belarus. ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ...

Horses grazing in Minsk Province.

Belarus's natural resources include peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas, granite, dolomite (limestone), marl, chalk, sand, gravel, and clay.[80] About 70% of the radiation from neighboring Ukraine's 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster entered Belarusian territory, and as of 2005 about a fifth of Belarusian land (principally farmland and forests in the southeastern provinces) continues to be affected by radiation fallout.[85] The United Nations and other agencies have aimed to reduce the level of radiation in affected areas, especially through the use of caesium binders and rapeseed cultivation, which are meant to decrease soil levels of caesium-137.[86][87] Categories: Stub | Regions of Belarus ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Marls are calcium carbonate or lime rich muds or mudstones which contain variable amounts of clays and calcite or aragonite. ... Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The Chernobyl disaster, reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, or simply Chernobyl, was the worst nuclear power plant accident in history and the only... Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... Caesium-137 is a radioactive isotope which is formed mainly by nuclear fission. ...


Belarus is bordered by Latvia on the north, Lithuania to the northwest, Poland to the west, Russia to the north and east and Ukraine to the south. Treaties in 1995 and 1996 demarcated Belarus's borders with Latvia and Lithuania, but Belarus failed to ratify a 1997 treaty establishing the Belarus-Ukraine border.[88] Belarus and Lithuania ratified final border demarcation documents in February 2007.[89]

Economy

Most of the Belarusian economy remains state-controlled,[54] and has been described as "Soviet-style."[90] Thus, 51.2% of Belarusians are employed by state-controlled companies, 47.4% are employed by private Belarusian companies (of which 5.7% are partially foreign-owned), and 1.4% are employed by foreign companies.[91] The country relies on imports such as oil from Russia.[92][93] Important agricultural products include potatoes and cattle byproducts, including meat.[94] As of 1994, the biggest exports from Belarus were heavy machinery (especially tractors), agricultural products, and energy products.[95] // Overview After the collapse of the Soviet Union all former Soviet republics faced a deep economic crisis. ... // Overview After the collapse of the Soviet Union all former Soviet republics faced a deep economic crisis. ... This article refers to an economy controlled by the state. ...

Belarusian GDP growth since 1995 and estimate for 2008
Sector-focused structure of Gross Domestic Product in 2008.JPG

Historically important branches of industry include textiles and wood processing.[96] As of the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, Belarus was one of the world's most industrially developed states by percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) as well as the richest CIS state.[97] Economically, Belarus involved itself in the CIS, Eurasian Economic Community, and Union with Russia. During the 1990s, however, industrial production plunged because of decreases in imported inputs, in investment, and in demand for exports from traditional trading partners.[98] It took until 1996 for the gross domestic product to rise;[99] this coincided with the government putting more emphasis on using the GDP for social welfare and state subsidies.[99] The GDP for 2006 was US$83.1 billion in purchasing power parity (PPP) dollars (estimate), or about $8,100 per capita.[94] In 2005, the gross domestic product increased by about 9.9%, with the inflation rate averaging about 9.5%.[94] GDP redirects here. ... Flag of EurAsEC The Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC or EAEC) was put into motion on 10 October 2000 when Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan signed the treaty. ... For the bank, see Union State Bank. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ...


Belarus's largest trading partner is Russia, accounting for nearly half of total trade in 2006.[100] As of 2006, the European Union is Belarus's next largest trading partner, with nearly a third of foreign trade.[100][101] Because of its failure to protect labor rights, however, Belarus lost its E.U. Generalized System of Preferences status on 21 June 2007, which raised tariff rates to their prior most favoured nation levels.[101] Belarus applied to become a member of the World Trade Organization in 1993.[102] The Generalized System of Preferences (or GSP) is a formal system of exemption from the more general rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO) (formerly, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade or GATT). ... Most favoured nation (MFN), also called normal trade relations in the United States, is a status accorded by one nation to another in international trade. ... -1...

Obverse of the 500 Belarusian ruble (BYB/BYR), the national currency

The labor force consists of more than four million people, among whom women hold slightly more jobs than men.[103] In 2005, nearly a quarter of the population was employed by industrial factories.[103] Employment is also high in agriculture, manufacturing sales, trading goods, and education. The unemployment rate, according to Belarusian government statistics, was about 1.5% in 2005.[103] The number of unemployed persons totaled 679,000 of whom about two-thirds are women.[103] The rate of unemployment has been decreasing since 2003, and the overall rate is the highest since statistics were first compiled in 1995.[103] Belarusian ruble (ISO-code BYR, before 2000 - BYB) is the official currency of Belarus. ...


The currency of Belarus is the Belarusian ruble (BYR). The currency was introduced in May 1992, replacing the Soviet ruble. The ruble was reintroduced with new values in 2000 and has been in use ever since.[104] As part of the Union of Russia and Belarus, both states have discussed using a single currency along the same lines as the Euro. This has led to the proposal that the Belarusian ruble be discontinued in favor of the Russian ruble (RUB), starting as early as 1 January 2008. As of August 2007, the National Bank of Belarus is no longer pegging the Belarusian ruble to the Russian ruble.[105] The banking system of Belarus is composed of 30 state-owned banks and one privatized bank.[106] Belarusian ruble (ISO-code BYR, before 2000 - BYB) is the official currency of Belarus. ... ISO 4217 Code SUR User(s) Soviet Union Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural rublya (gen. ... For the bank, see Union State Bank. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... The National Bank of the Republic of Belarus (Russian: ) is the central bank of Belarus, located in the capital city, Minsk. ...

Demographics

The Resurrection Church of Brest is the largest church in Belarus. Over 5000 people can attend service

Ethnic Belarusians constitute 81.2% of Belarus's total population.[107] The next largest ethnic groups are Russians (11.4%), Poles (3.9%), and Ukrainians (2.4%).[107] Belarus's two official languages are Russian and Belarusian;[108] Russian is the main language, used by 72% of the population, while Belarusian, the second official language, is only used by 19.2%.[109] Minorities also speak Polish, Ukrainian and Eastern Yiddish.[110] Population: 10,322,151 (July 2003 est. ... Brest (Belarusian: , Russian: , Polish: ; Alternative names), formerly Brest-on-the-Bug and Brest-Litovsk, is a city (population 290,000 in 2004) in Belarus close to the Polish border where the Western Bug and Mukhavets Rivers meet. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк; Polish: Połock, also spelt as Polacak; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina river. ... // Yiddish has two main branches: Western and Eastern. ...


Belarus has a population density of about 50 people per square kilometre (127 per sq mi); 71.7% of its total population is concentrated in urban areas.[107] Minsk, the nation's capital and largest city, is home to 1,741,400 of Belarus's 9,724,700 residents.[107] Gomel, with 481,000 people, is the second largest city and serves as the capital of the Homel Oblast. Other large cities are Mogilev (365,100), Vitebsk (342,400), Hrodna (314,800) and Brest (298,300).[111] Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... Homel (Belarusian and Russian: Гомель, Gomeľ; Yiddish: , Homl), also known as Gomel, is the second-largest city of Belarus and the main city of Homel Province. ... Mogilev, or Mahilyow (Belarusian: ; Russian: , translit. ... Location of Vitebsk, shown within the Vitebsk Voblast Coordinates: , Country Subdivision Founded 974 Government  - Mayor Population (2004)  - Total 342,381 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Area code(s) +375-15 License plate 2 Website: [2]] Vitebsk, also known as Vitsyebsk (Belarusian: Ві́цебск, IPA: ; Yiddish: װיטעבסק; Polish: Witebsk... Hrodna City emblem Hrodna (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; Lithuanian: ; Yiddish: Grodne; German: ) is a city in Belarus. ... Brest (Belarusian: , Russian: , Polish: ; Alternative names), formerly Brest-on-the-Bug and Brest-Litovsk, is a city (population 290,000 in 2004) in Belarus close to the Polish border where the Western Bug and Mukhavets Rivers meet. ...


Like many other European countries, Belarus has a negative population growth rate and a negative natural growth rate. In 2007, Belarus's population declined by 0.41% and its fertility rate was 1.22,[107] well below the replacement rate. Its net migration rate is +0.38 per 1,000, indicating that Belarus experiences slightly more immigration than emigration.[107] As of 2007, 69.7% of Belarus's population is aged 14 to 64; 16% is under 14, and 14.6% is 65 or older.[107] Its population is also aging: while the current median age is 37,[107] it is estimated that Belarusians' median age will be 51 in 2050.[112] There are about 0.88 males per female in Belarus.[107] The average life expectancy is 68.7 years (63.0 years for males and 74.9 years for females).[107] Over 99% of Belarusians are literate.[107][113] Map of countries and territories by fertility rate The total fertility rate (TFR, also called fertility rate or total period fertility rate) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if she were to experience the current age-specific... Sub-replacement fertility is a fertility rate that is not high enough to replace an areas population. ... A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country or region to settle in another. ...

Belarus has historically leaned to different religions, mostly Orthodox, Catholicism (mostly in western regions), different denominations of Protestantism (especially during the time of union with Protestant Sweden). Sizable minorities practice Judaism and other religions. Many Belarusians converted to the Russian Orthodox Church after Belarus was annexed by Russia after the partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. As a consequence, now Russian Orthodox church has more members than other denominations. Belarus's Roman Catholic minority, which makes up perhaps 10% of the country's population and is concentrated in the western part of the country, especially around Hrodna, is made up of a mixture of Belarusians and the country's Polish and Lithuanian minorities. About 1% belong to the Belarusian Greek Catholic Church.[114] Belarus was a major center of the European Jewish population, with 10% being Jewish, but the population of Jews has been reduced by war, starvation, and the Holocaust to a tiny minority of about 1% or less. Emigration from Belarus is a cause for the shrinking number of Jewish residents.[115] The Lipka Tatars numbering over 15,000 are Muslims. According to Article 16 of the Constitution, Belarus has no official religion. While the freedom of worship is granted in the same article, religious organizations that are deemed harmful to the government or social order of the country can be prohibited.[116] Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Polotsk The Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Polotsk (Belarusian: ; Russian: ) was built by Prince Vseslav Briacheslavich (rr. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hrodna City emblem Hrodna (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; Lithuanian: ; Yiddish: Grodne; German: ) is a city in Belarus. ... The Belarusian Greek Catholic Church (Belaruskaya Hreka-Katalickaya Carkva, BHKC), sometimes called, in reference to its Byzantine Rite, the Belarusian Byzantine Catholic Church, is the heir within Belarus of the Union of Brest. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Lipka Tatars were a noble military caste of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who followed the Sunni branch of the Islamic religion and whose origins can be traced back to the Mongol Empire of Ghengis Khan, through the Khanate of the White Horde of Siberia. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: pasted numbers with no context If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ...

Culture

National Library of Belarus
Francysk Skaryna, developer of the Belarusian language, and one of the first people to print in the Cyrillic alphabet.

Literature

Belarusian literature began with 11th- to 13th century religious writing; the 12th century poetry of Cyril of Turaw is representative.[117] By the 16th century, Polotsk resident Francysk Skaryna translated the Bible into Belarusian. It was published in Prague and Vilnius between 1517 and 1525, making it the first book printed in Belarus or anywhere in Eastern Europe.[118] The modern period of Belarusian literature began in the late 19th century; one important writer was Yanka Kupala. Many notable Belarusian writers of the time, such as Uładzimir Žyłka, Kazimir Svayak, Yakub Kolas, Źmitrok Biadula and Maksim Haretski, wrote for a Belarusian language paper called Nasha Niva, published in Vilnius. After Belarus was incorporated into the Soviet Union, the Soviet government took control of the Republic's cultural affairs. The free development of literature occurred only in Polish-held territory until Soviet occupation in 1939.[118] Several poets and authors went into exile after the Nazi occupation of Belarus, not to return until the 1960s.[118] The last major revival of Belarusian literature occurred in the 1960s with novels published by Vasil Bykaŭ and Uladzimir Karatkievich. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... FranciÅ¡ak Skaryna (or Skoryna; the first name also spelled as Francis, Franciszak, Frantsiszak, Francisk, Frantzisk, Francysk; Belarusian: ) was a Belarusian famous for being the printer of the first book in an Eastern Slavic language. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced ; also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by six Slavic national languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian and Ukrainian) as well as non-Slavic (Kazakh, Uzbek, Kyrgyz and Tajik of... Cyril of Turaŭ (1130 - 1182) (Belarusian: Кіры́ла Ту́раўскі, Kiryla Turaŭski) was an Orthodox Christian bishop and saint in the Orthodox Church. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк; Polish: Połock, also spelt as Polacak; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina river. ... FranciÅ¡ak Skaryna (or Skoryna; the first name also spelled as Francis, Franciszak, Frantsiszak, Francisk, Frantzisk, Francysk; Belarusian: ) was a Belarusian famous for being the printer of the first book in an Eastern Slavic language. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Vilnius city municipality. ... Yanka Kupała (Янка Купала) (July 7, 1882 - June 28, 1942)penname Ivan Dominikovich Lucevich was a famous Belarussian poet. ... UÅ‚adzimir ŽyÅ‚ka (27 May 1900 in Makaszy near by Nyasvizh, Belarus – 1 March 1933; Belarusian: ) was a Belarusian poet. ... Yakub Kolas (Якуб Колас, 1882–1956), real name Kanstantsin Mikhailavich Mitskevich (Міцке́віч Канстанці́н Міха́йлавіч) was a Belarussian writer, Peoples Poet of the Byelorussian SSR (1926), and member (1928) and vice-president (from 1929) of the Belarussian Academy of Sciences. ... Shmuel Yefimovich Plavnik (SamuiÅ‚ Jafimowicz PÅ‚aÅ­nik, Belarusian: ; April 23, 1886–November 3, 1941, age 55), better known by the pen name Źmitrok Biadula, (Belarusian: Змітрок Бядуля), was a famous Jewish Belarusian poet, prose writer, cultural worker, and political activist in the Belarusian independence movement. ... Memorial plaque to Haretski Maksim Haretski (18 February 1893 - 10 February 1938) was a Belarusian prose writer. ... NaÅ¡a Niva (Наша Ніва, Nasha Niva) is one of the oldest Belarusian weekly newspaper founded in 1906 and re-established in 1991. ... Vasil BykaÅ­ in Romania, 1944 Vasil Uladzimiravich BykaÅ­ (Belarusian: ; Russian: ) (June 19, 1924 - June 22, 2003) a prolific author of novels and novellas about World War II, is a monumental figure in Belarusian literature and civic thought. ... Uladzimir Karatkevich or Vladimir Korotkevich (Belarusian: ) (November 26, 1930 - July 25, 1984) was a Belarusian romantic writer. ...

Music

In the 17th century, Polish composer Stanisław Moniuszko composed operas and chamber music pieces while living in Minsk. During his stay, he worked with Belarusian poet Vintsent Dunin-Martsinkyevich and created the opera Sielanka (Peasant Woman). At the end of the 19th century, major Belarusian cities formed their own opera and ballet companies. The ballet Nightingale by M. Kroshner was composed during the Soviet era and became the first Belarusian ballet showcased at the National Academic Bolshoi Ballet Theatre in Minsk.[119] After the Great Patriotic War, music focused on the hardships of the Belarusian people or on those who took up arms in defense of the homeland. During this period, A. Bogatyryov, creator of the opera In Polesye Virgin Forest, served as the "tutor" of Belarusian composers.[120] The National Academic Theatre of Ballet, in Minsk, was awarded the Benois de la Dance Prize in 1996 as the top ballet company in the world.[120] Rock music has risen in popularity in recent years, though the Belarusian government has attempted to limit the amount of foreign music aired on the radio in favour of traditional Belarusian music. Since 2004, Belarus has been sending artists to the Eurovision Song Contest.[121] StanisÅ‚aw Moniuszko StanisÅ‚aw Moniuszko (b. ... Vintsent Dunin-Martsinkyevich (Belarusian: ; Polish: ; c. ... Nightingale was a ballet composed in the Byelorussian SSR (now Belarus). ... This article discusses the term Great Patriotic War; for the military details see Eastern Front (World War II). ... The Benois de la Danse is a ballet competition founded by the International Dance Association in Moscow in 1991. ... Eurovision redirects here. ...

Performances

The regional theater in Gomel

The Belarusian government sponsors annual cultural festivals such as the Slavianski Bazaar in Vitebsk, which showcases Belarusian performers, artists, writers, musicians, and actors. Several state holidays, such as Independence Day and Victory Day, draw big crowds and often include displays such as fireworks and military parades, especially in Vitebsk and Minsk.[122] The government's Ministry of Culture finances events promoting Belarusian arts and culture both inside and outside the country. The International Festival of Arts Slavianski Bazaar in Vitebsk (Russian: ) is an annual festival held in Vitebsk, Belarus under the auspices of Alla Pugacheva since 1992. ... Independence Day redirects here. ... For the song, see Den Pobedy. ...

Dress

The traditional Belarusian dress originates from the Kievan Rus' period. Because of the cool climate, clothes, usually composed of flax or wool, were designed to keep the body warm. They are decorated with ornate patterns influenced by the neighboring cultures: Poles, Lithuanians, Latvians, Russians, and other European nations. Each region of Belarus has developed specific design patterns.[123] An ornamental pattern used on some early dresses is currently used to decorate the hoist of the Belarusian national flag, adopted in a disputed referendum in 1995.[124] Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... The current national flag of Belarus was formally changed on June 7, 1995, following the result of a referendum voted on by the Belarusian people in the previous month. ... The May 14, 1995 Belarus Referendum required the population of Belarus to vote on four issues: The state status of the Russian language Economic integration with Russia The introduction of new national symbols The Presidents right to dismiss the Parliament, if the latter violates the Constitution The first three...

Cuisine

Belarusian cuisine consists mainly of vegetables, meat (especially pork), and breads. Foods are usually either slowly cooked or stewed. A typical Belarusian eats a very light breakfast and two hearty meals, with dinner being the largest meal of the day. Wheat and rye breads are consumed in Belarus, but rye is more plentiful because conditions are too harsh for growing wheat. To show hospitality, a host traditionally presents an offering of bread and salt when greeting a guest or visitor.[125] Popular drinks in Belarus include Russian wheat vodka and kvass, a soft drink made from malted brown bread or rye flour. Kvass may also be combined with sliced vegetables to create a cold soup called okroshka.[126] Potato pancakes or latkes (sometimes spelled latkas) are a dish made predominantly of grated potatoes fried in oil. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A glass of mint kvass. ...

Heritage Sites

Belarus has four World Heritage Sites: the Mir Castle Complex, the Nesvizh Castle, the Belovezhskaya Pushcha (shared with Poland), and the Struve Geodetic Arc (shared with nine other countries).[127] A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The Mirsky Castle Complex (Belarusian: Мі́рскі за́мак), is a UNESCO World Heritage site in Belarus located near Mir in the Karelichy District of the Hrodna voblast, at , 29 km to the north-west from another World Heritage site, Nesvizh Castle. ... Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh is the official name for UNESCO World Heritage Site comprising the Radziwill family estate in Niasvizh, Belarus. ... BiaÅ‚owieża Primaeval Forest, known as Belaveskaya Pushcha (Белавеская пушча) or Belovezhskaya Pushcha in Belarus and Puszcza BiaÅ‚owieska in Poland, is an ancient virginal forest straddling the border between Belarus and Poland, located 70 km north of Brest. ... Type Cultural Criteria ii, iv, vi Reference 1187 Region† Inscription History Inscription 2005  (29th Session) The Struve Geodetic Arc is a chain of survey triangulations stretching from Hammerfest in Norway to the Black Sea, through ten countries and over 2,820 km. ...

TV and Broadcasting

Broadcasting center of state-run TV in Minsk

The largest media holding group in Belarus is the state-owned National State Teleradiocompany. It operates several television and radio stations that broadcast content domestically and internationally, either through traditional signals or the Internet.[128] The Television Broadcasting Network is one of the major independent television stations in Belarus, mostly showing regional programming. Several newspapers, printed either in Belarusian or Russian, provide general information or special interest content, such as business, politics or sports. In 1998, there were fewer than 100 radio stations in Belarus: 28 AM, 37 FM and 11 shortwave stations.[129] Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... The National State TV and Radio Company of the Republic of Belarus (Belarusian: , Russian: ) (Belteleradio) is the state television and radio broadcasting service in Belarus. ... AM broadcasting is radio broadcasting using Amplitude Modulation. ... FM broadcasting is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation (FM) to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. ... A solid-state, analog shortwave receiver Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 3 MHz (3,000 kHz) and 30 MHz (30,000 kHz) [1] and came to be referred to as such in the early days of radio because the wavelengths associated with this frequency range were shorter than...


All media companies are regulated by the Law On Press and Other Mass Media, passed on 13 January 1995.[130] This grants the freedom of press; however, Article 5 states that slander cannot be made against the president of Belarus or other officials outlined in the national constitution.[130] The Belarusian Government has since been criticized for acting against media outlets. Newspapers such as Nasha Niva and the Belaruskaya Delovaya Gazeta have been targeted for closure by the authorities after they published reports critical of President Lukashenko or other government officials.[131][132] The OSCE and Freedom House have commented regarding the loss of press freedom in Belarus. In 2005, Freedom House gave Belarus a score of 6.75 (not free) when it came to dealing with press freedom. Another issue for the Belarusian press is the unresolved disappearance of several journalists.[133]
Naša Niva (Наша Ніва, Nasha Niva) is one of the oldest Belarusian weekly newspaper founded in 1906 and re-established in 1991. ... Freedom House is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom and human rights. ...

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace [1] Global Peace Index[134] 98 out of 144
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 68 out of 182
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 139 out of 180

See also

References

Notes

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  98. ^ "Belarus – Industry". Country Studies. Library of Congress. 1995. http://countrystudies.us/belarus/30.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-08. 
  99. ^ a b World Bank (2006). "Belarus – Country Brief 2003". http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/eca/eca.nsf/2656afe00bc5f02185256d5d005dae97/8ec2dc1ef03aed3e85256d5d0067dc90?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  100. ^ a b Council of Ministers Foreign trade in goods and services in Belarus up by 11.5% in January–October. Published 2006. Retrieved October 6, 2007.
  101. ^ a b European Union The EU's Relationship With Belarus – Trade (PDF). Published November 2006. Retrieved October 6, 2007.
  102. ^ World Trade Organization Accessions – Belarus. Retrieved October 6, 2007.
  103. ^ a b c d e Ministry of Statistics and Analysis Labor Statistics in Belarus. Published 2005. Retrieved 18 March 2007.
  104. ^ National Bank of the Republic of Belarus History of the Belarusian Ruble. Retrieved 18 March 2007.
  105. ^ Pravda.ru Belarus abandons pegging its currency to Russian ruble. Published 23 August 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  106. ^ "Heritage Foundation's Index of Economic Freedom – Belarus". http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/country.cfm?id=Belarus. Retrieved March 18, 2007. 
  107. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "CIA World Factbook (2007) – Belarus – People". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bo.html. Retrieved 2007-11-07. 
  108. ^ "Languages across Europe." BBC Education at bbc.co.uk. Retrieved November 6, 2007.
  109. ^ "Tres de cada cuatro bielorrusos emplean en su vida cotidiana el ruso (Three of every four Belarusians use Russian in their daily lives)" (in Spanish). http://www.informador.com.mx/cultura/2009/139096/6/tres-de-cada-cuatro-bielorrusos-emplean-en-su-vida-cotidiana-el-ruso.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-25. "According to results announced today from an investigation by The Center for Information and Analysis of the Presidency of Belarus... [f]or 72% of the population, Russian in the primary language used in everyday life.... According to the study, only 11.9% of inhabitants primarily speaks Belarusian, while the rest uses a mix of Russian and Belarusian. 29.4%... speaks, reads, and writes in Belorusian, while 52.5% only speaks and reads it.... [O]ne in ten does not understand Belorusian [at all]. (quote translated)" 
  110. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: Ethnologue.com.
  111. ^ World Gazette Largest Cities of Belarus (2007). Published in 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
  112. ^ "Population Pyramid Summary for Belarus". US Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/ipc/idbpyrs.pl?cty=BO&out=s&ymax=250. Retrieved 2006-03-26. [dead link]
  113. ^ The literacy rate is defined as the percentage of people aged 15 and older who can read and write.
  114. ^ Library of Congress Country Studies Belarus – Religion. Retrieved 9 July 2007.
  115. ^ Minsk Jewish Campus Jewish Belarus. Retrieved 9 July 2007.
  116. ^ Webportal of the President of the Republic of Belarus Section One of the Constitution. Published 1994, amended in 1996. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
  117. ^ "Old Belarusian Poetry". Virtual Guide to Belarus. 1994. http://www.belarusguide.com/culture1/literature/Old_Poetry.html. Retrieved 2007-10-09. 
  118. ^ a b c "Belarus." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-33482>.
  119. ^ Zou, Crystal (2003-12-11). "Ballets for Christmas". Shanghai Star. http://app1.chinadaily.com.cn/star/2003/1211/wh28-1.html. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  120. ^ a b Virtual Guide to Belarus – Classical Music of Belarus. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
  121. ^ National State Teleradiocompany Page on the 2004 Belarusian entry to the Eurovision Song Contest. Published 2004. Retrieved March 18, 2007.
  122. ^ "Belarusian National Culture". Embassy of the Republic of Belarus in the United States of America. http://www.belarusembassy.org/belarus/culture.htm. Retrieved 2006-03-26. 
  123. ^ Virtual Guide to Belarus Belarusian traditional clothing. Retrieved on March 21, 2007.
  124. ^ Flags of the World Belarus – Ornament. Published November 26, 2006. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
  125. ^ Canadian Citizenship and Immigration – Cultures Profile Project – Eating the Belarusian Way. Published in 1998. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
  126. ^ University of Nebraska-Lincoln – Institute of Agriculture and National Resources. Situation and Outlook – People and Their Diets. Published in April 2000. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
  127. ^ "Belarus – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/by. Retrieved 2006-03-26. 
  128. ^ National State Teleradiocompany About us. Retrieved 5 October 2007.
  129. ^ "CIA World Factbook (2007) – Belarus – Communications". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bo.html. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  130. ^ a b Law of the Republic of Belarus Law On Press and Other Mass Media. Retrieved 5 October 2007.
  131. ^ Eurozine Independent Belarusian newspaper "Nasha Niva" to close. Published April 19, 2006.
  132. ^ United States Department of States Media Freedom in Belarus[dead link]. Press release by Philip T. Reeker. Published May 30, 2003.
  133. ^ Freedom House Country Report – Belarus. Published 2005. Reviewed October 6, 2007.
  134. ^ "Vision of Humanity". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 

Further reading

  • Zaprudnik, Jan, Belarus: At a Crossroads in History, Westview Press, 1993 (ISBN 0813317940)

External links

Find more about Belarus on Wikipedia's sister projects: World map of the Global Peace Index The Global Peace Index is an attempt to measure the relative position of nations’ and regions’ peacefulness. ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as... The location of Belarus An enlargeable map of the Republic of Belarus See also: Index of Belarus-related articles and List of Belarus-related topics The Republic of Belarus is a landlocked sovereign country located in Eastern Europe. ... The location of Belarus An enlargeable map of the Republic of Belarus See also: Index of Belarus-related articles and List of Belarus-related topics The Republic of Belarus is a landlocked sovereign country located in Eastern Europe. ... This article describes the history of Belarus. ... Principality of Polatsk (Belarusian: Полацкае княства ,Russian: Полоцкое княжество ) is a medieval principality of the Early East Slavs, one of the constituent principalities within the Kievan Rus. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Motto Latin: (If God is with us, then who is against us) Pro Fide, Lege et Rege (Latin: For Faith, Law and King, since 18th century) The location of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Capital Commonwealth and Crown of the Polish Kingdom: Kraków, Warsaw ca. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... National motto: None Official language Belarusian Capital Minsk, Currently in Exile Chairperson of the Rada Ivonka Survilla Independence  - Declared  - Forced into Exile Treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 25, 1918 January 5, 1919 The Belarusian National Republic (Belarusian: Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка, also translated as Belarusian Peoples Republic, Belarusian Democratic Republic... Capital Smolensk, Minsk Official language Belarusian, Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until January 1, 1919 December 30, 1922 August 25, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 6th in the USSR 207,600 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 5th in the USSR 10,151,806 (1989) 48. ... There are two Biosphere Reserves in Belarus (1) Berezinskiy (1978) and (2) Belovezhskaya Pushcha (1993) that are recognized as Biosphere Reserves by UNESCO. Categories: Geography of Belarus ... This table lists the most notable cities and towns of Belarus. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Under an arrangement with the former USSR, Belarus (known as Byelorussian SSR) was an original member of the United Nations. ... The turbulent history of Belarus, as well as its close relationship with Russia, have played a large role in its military structure and deployment. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues with the aim to participate in power, usually by participating in elections. ... Elections in Belarus gives information on election and election results in Belarus. ... Map of the Union of Russia and Belarus. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... In recent years, the government of Belarus has been accused of serious human rights violations, the most recent of these being the harassment of an organisation which represents ethnic Poles in the region. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage · LGBT adoption LGBT rights opposition · Heterosexism Violence This box:      Homosexual sex was legalised in Belarus in 1994, however Gay rights in Belarus are still severely limited. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 2. ... // Dress Children dressed in the traditional outfits of Belarus Traditional Belarusian dress originated from the time of Kievian Rus, and continues to be worn today at special functions. ... 20th century artists who were born and lived in Belarus: Marc Chagall Mai Dantsig Pavel Kastusik Michel Kikoine Pinchus Kremegne Chaim Livshits Kazimir Malevich Mikhail Savitsky Chaim Soutine Sergey Voychenko Ossip Zadkine Categories: | ... List of Belarusians is the list of people related to Republic of Belarus in some way or another. ... Kalvaryja (be: Кальварыя) is a Catholic Calvary cemetery in Minsk, Belarus which contains a small Catholic chapel, currently used for general worship. ... The Belarusian or Belorussian language (беларуская мова, BGN/PCGN: byelaruskaya mova, Scientific: bjelaruskaja mova) is the language of the Belarusian people and is spoken in Belarus and abroad, chiefly in Russia, Ukraine, Poland. ... Belarusian media, since the days when Belarus gained its independence, comprise state-owned and private newspapers and magazines, and state-owned radio and television. ... Belarus is an Eastern European country which has a rich tradition of unique folk and religious music. ... Flag of Belarus (Since 1995) Belarus (IOC country code:BLR) began their Olympic participation at the 1952 Summer Olympics, which were held in Helsinki, Finland. ... Public holidays in Belarus Categories: Public holidays by country | Belarus ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Belarus is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... The Belarusian Greek Catholic Church (Belaruskaya Hreka-Katalickaya Carkva, BHKC), sometimes called, in reference to its Byzantine Rite, the Belarusian Byzantine Catholic Church, is the heir within Belarus of the Union of Brest. ... The Belarusian Autocephalous Orthodox Church initially belonged to the Polish Orthodox Church that was granted autocephaly by Constantinople following the First World War. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: pasted numbers with no context If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... This is a list of topics related to Belarus. ... Awards and decorations of Belarus are governed by the Law of the Republic of Belarus on State Awards of May 18, 2004. ... Upon the independence of Belarus from the Soviet Union, the country resurrected national symbols that were used before the Soviet era. ... The Scout movement in Belarus consists of an unknown number of independent organizations. ... Action banner A Day of Solidarity with Belarus is an action proposed by a Belarusian journalist Iryna Khalip, supported by the civic initiative We Remember and the Zubr movement. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... ISBN redirects here. ... ISBN redirects here. ... Westview Press was founded in 1975 in Boulder Colorado by Fred Praeger. ... ISBN redirects here. ... ISBN redirects here. ... ISBN redirects here. ... 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The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus (Russian: Конституции Республики Беларусь, Belarusian: Канстытуцыя Рэспублікі Беларусь) is a formal document crated by the Government of Belarus to organize their government and to set up the rights and freedoms of their citizens. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... UN redirects here. ... The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus (Russian: Конституции Республики Беларусь, Belarusian: Канстытуцыя Рэспублікі Беларусь) is a formal document crated by the Government of Belarus to organize their government and to set up the rights and freedoms of their citizens. ... The International Institute for Strategic Studies is a British think tank based in London. ... The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus (Russian: Конституции Республики Беларусь, Belarusian: Канстытуцыя Рэспублікі Беларусь) is a formal document crated by the Government of Belarus to organize their government and to set up the rights and freedoms of their citizens. ... The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus (Russian: Конституции Республики Беларусь, Belarusian: Канстытуцыя Рэспублікі Беларусь) is a formal document crated by the Government of Belarus to organize their government and to set up the rights and freedoms of their citizens. ... ISBN redirects here. ... ISBN redirects here. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
Belarus. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1266 words)
Belarus borders on Poland in the west, on Lithuania and Latvia in the north, on Russia in the east, and on Ukraine in the south.
Belarus is governed under the constitution of 1994 as amended in 1996.
The reform-minded Stanislav Shushkevich became head of state and, along with Russia and Ukraine, Belarus was one of the original signatories to the treaty establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Belarus - MSN Encarta (618 words)
Belarus, officially Respublika Belarus (Republic of Belarus), landlocked republic in east central Europe, bordered by Russia to the east, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and the Baltic republics of Latvia and Lithuania to the northwest.
Belarus was established in 1919 as the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), which in 1922 became one of the four founding republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
Belarus has four additional discernible geographic regions: an area of lakes, hills, and forests in the north; an agricultural region with mixed-conifer forests in the west; a broad elevated plain in the east; and the Poles’ye (also called the Pripet Marshes), a lowland of rivers and swamps that extends into Ukraine, in the south.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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