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Encyclopedia > Beiyang Government
National flag 1912-1928
National flag 1912-1928

The Beiyang government (Chinese: 北洋政府; Pinyin: beiyang zhengfu) or warlord government collectively refers to a series of military regimes that ruled from Beijing from 1912 to 1928 at Zhongnanhai. It was internationally recognized as the legitimate government of China. The name comes from the Beiyang Army which dominated its politics with the rise of Yuan Shikai who was a general of the Qing government. Though Yuan's death fractured the army into competing factions, the government was always under the control of Beiyang generals with a "constitutional" or civilian facade. Overall, it was extremely corrupt, incompetent, and tyrannical. Most of the revenue was spent on the military forces of whichever faction that was currently in power. The short lived legislatures did have civilian cliques and debates but were subject to bribery, forced resignations, or dissolution altogether. The brightest spot was its foreign ministry which had a renowned diplomatic corps with figures such as Wellington Koo. Because the generals required their skills, the foreign ministry was given substantial independence. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China_1912-1928. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China_1912-1928. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An aerial view of Zhongnanhai The Zhongnanhai (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngnánhăi) is a complex of buildings in Beijing, China which serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China and the government of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Beiyang Army (北洋軍 bÄ›iyáng-jÅ«n) was a powerful and Western-appearing Chinese military force created by the Qing dynasty government in the late 19th century. ... Yuan Shikai in military uniform Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... The Warlord era represents the period in the history of the Republic of China from 1916 to the mid-1930s when the country was divided by various military cliques, and this division continued until the fall of the nationalist government in mainland China in many regions, such as in Sichuan... Vi Kyuin Wellington Koo (顾维钧, Gu Weijun in Chinese) (January 29, 1887 - 1985) was a Chinese diplomat, educated at Columbia University. ...

Domestically, its legitimacy was challenged by Sun Yat-sen's Guangzhou based KMT government in 1917. Sun's successor, Chiang Kai-shek, led the Northern Expedition in 1928,wiped out the Beiyang warlords in Beijing and other warlords in Southern and Northern China,after the unification, international recognition was given to the Nanjing based KMT regime. And so the flag of China was changed into the "Blue sky white sun" flag. The "Five-colored flag" was suggested to be the future Federal China flag. Sun Yat-sen (Chinese: ; November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the “father of modern China”. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... KMT might stand for: Kuomintang, is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Federal Republic of China is a proposed future federal republic encompassing the Peoples Republic of China, Macau, Hong Kong and Taiwan. ...



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