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Encyclopedia > Beirut

Coordinates: 33°53′13″N, 35°30′47″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Beirut
بيروت‎
Beyrouth (French)
Beirut
Beirut

Seal
Location in the Republic of Lebanon
Coordinates: 33°53′13″N 35°30′47″E / 33.88694, 35.51306
Country Lebanon
Governorate Beirut, Capital City
Government
 - Mayor Abdel Mounim Ariss[1]
Area
 - City 100 km² (31 sq mi)
Population (2007)
 - City 1,250,000
 - Density 12,500/km² (32,374.9/sq mi)
 - Metro 1,500,000
Time zone +2 (UTC)
 - Summer (DST) +3 (UTC)
Website: City of Beirut

Beirut (Arabic: بيروت‎, transliteration: Bayrūt, Greek: Βηρυττός Viryttós, French: Beyrouth ) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon. Located on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanon's coastline with the Mediterranean sea, it serves as the country's main seaport. The first mention of this metropolis is found in the ancient Egyptian Tell el Amarna letters, dating to the 15th century BC, and the city has been continuously inhabited over the centuries since. Beirut may refer to: Beirut, the capital city of Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Map of Lebanon from de wiki/CIA World Factbook. ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... Lebanon is divided into 6 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah). ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... ... Arabic redirects here. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... This page lists the 102 largest metropolitan areas of the world by population. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna) is the name given to an extensive archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. ...


Beirut holds Lebanon's seat of government and plays a central role in the Lebanese economy with its Downtown, Hamra, Verdun, and Ashrafieh based corporate firms and banks. The city is also the focal point of the region's cultural life, renowned for its press, theaters and cultural activities. After the destructive Lebanese civil war, Beirut underwent major reconstruction,[2][3][4] and the redesigned historic city center, marina, pubs and nightlife districts have once again rendered it a popular tourist attraction. Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman...

Contents

History

Originally named Bêrūt, "The Wells" by the Phoenicians,[5][6] Beirut's history goes back more than 5000 years.[7][8] Excavations in the downtown area have unearthed layers of Phoenician, Hellenistic, Roman, Arab and Ottoman remains.[9] The first historical reference to Beirut dates from the 14th century BC, when it is mentioned in the cuneiform[8] tablets of the "Amarna letters." Ammunira of Biruta[10] (Beirut) sent 3 letters to the pharaoh of Egypt.[11] Biruta is also referenced in the letters from Rib-Hadda of Byblos. The most ancient settlement was on an island in the river that progressively silted up. The city was known in antiquity as Berytus (see also List of traditional Greek place names); this name was taken in 1934 for the archaeological journal published by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at the American University of Beirut.[12] Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Statue in Martyr’s Square The Beirut Central District (BCD) is the name given Beirut’s historical and geographical core, the “vibrant financial, commercial, and administrative hub of the country. ... Cuneiform redirects here. ... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... Ammunira was the king of Beirut in the mid fourteenth century BCE. He is mentioned in several of the Amarna letters. ... Rib-Hadda (also rendered Rib-Addi, Rib-Addu, Rib-Adda) was king of Byblos during the mid fourteenth century BCE. He is the author of some sixty of the Amarna letters all to Akhenaten. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... This is a list of traditional Greek place names. ... The American University of Beirut (AUB; Arabic: ‎) is a private, independent university in Beirut, Lebanon. ...


In 140 BC, the city was taken and destroyed by Diodotus Tryphon in his contest with Antiochus VII Sidetes for the throne of the Seleucid monarchy. Beirut was soon rebuilt on a more regularized Hellenistic plan, renamed Laodicea in Phoenicia (Greek: Λαοδικεια ή του Φοινίκη) or Laodicea in Canaan, in honor of a Seleucid Laodice. The modern city overlies the ancient one and little archaeology had been accomplished until after the end of the civil war in 1991; now large sites in the devastated city center have been opened to archaeological exploration. A dig in 1994 established that one of Beirut's modern streets, Souk Tawile, still follows the lines of an ancient Hellenistic/Roman one. Categories: Stub | Seleucid rulers ... Antiochus VII Eumenes, nick-named Sidetes (from Sidon), reigned from 138–129 BC over the Seleucid Empire. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... In Greek mythology, the name Laodice referred to different people but most importantly the wife of Telephus and the Queen of Mysia. ...


Mid-first century coins of Berytus bear the head of Tyche, goddess of fortune; on the reverse, the city's symbol appears: a dolphin entwines an anchor. This symbol was taken up by the early printer Aldus Manutius in 15th century Venice. Tyche on the reverse of this coin by Gordian III. In Greek mythology, Tyche (Roman equivalent: Fortuna) was the presiding tutelary deity that governed the fortune and prosperity of a city, its destiny. ... Aldus Manutius (1449/50 - February 6, 1515), the Latin form of Aldo Manuzio (born Teobaldo Mannucci) was the founder of the Aldine Press. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...

Roman baths in downtown Beirut

Beirut was conquered by Agrippa in 64 BC and the city was renamed in honor of the emperor's daughter, Julia; its full name became Colonia Julia Augusta Felix Berytus.[13][14][15] The veterans of two Roman legions were established in the city: the fifth Macedonian and the third Gallic. The city quickly became Romanized. Large public buildings and monuments were erected and Berytus enjoyed full status as a part of the empire.[13] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (500 × 667 pixel, file size: 111 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ancient ruins in Downtown Beirut Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (500 × 667 pixel, file size: 111 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ancient ruins in Downtown Beirut Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free...


Under the Romans, it was enriched by the dynasty of Herod the Great, and was made a colonia, Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus, in 14 BC. Beirut's school of law was widely known at the time.[16] Two of Rome's most famous jurists, Papinian and Ulpian, both natives of Phoenicia,[17] taught at the law school under the Severan emperors. When Justinian assembled his Pandects in the 6th century, a large part of the corpus of laws were derived from these two jurists, and Justinian recognized the school as one of the three official law schools of the empire (533). Within a few years, as the result of a disastrous earthquake (551),[8][13][18] the students were transferred to Sidon.[19][17] About 30,000 were killed in Berytus alone and, along the Phoenician coast, total casualties were close to 250,000.[14] Herod the Great. ... A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it. ... Papinian (Aemilius Papinianus) (died AD 212), was a Roman jurist, magister libellorum and afterwards praetorian prefect under Septimius Severus. ... Domitius Ulpianus, Anglicized as Ulpian, (died 228) was a Roman jurist of Tyrian ancestry. ... The Severan dynasty is a lineage of Roman Emperors, reigning several decades from the late 2nd century to the early 3rd century. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Pandects (Lat. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ...

View of Beirut with snow-capped Mount Sannine in the background - 19th century
View of Beirut with snow-capped Mount Sannine in the background - 19th century

Beirut passed to the Arabs in 635.[20][14] As a trading centre of the eastern Mediterranean, Beirut was overshadowed by Akka during the Middle Ages. From 1110 to 1291 it was in the hands of the Crusaders.[20] No matter who was its nominal overlord, whether Turk or Mamluk, Beirut was ruled locally by Druze emirs.[21] One of these, Fakr ed-Din Maan II, fortified it early in the 17th century,[22] but the Ottomans retook it in 1763 and thenceforth,[22] with the help of Damascus, Beirut successfully broke Akka's monopoly on Syrian maritime trade and for a few years supplanted it as the main trading centre in the region. During the succeeding epoch of rebellion against Ottoman hegemony at Akka under Jezzar and Abdullah pashas, Beirut declined to a small town (population about 10,000), and was fought over among the Druze, the Turks and the pashas. After Ibrahim Pasha captured Akka in 1832,[23] Beirut began its early modern revival. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mount Sannine (Arabic: جبل صنين) is a mountain in the Mount Lebanon range. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Akko (Hebrew עכו; Arabic عكّا ʿAkkā; also, Acre, Accho, Acco, and St. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of Egypt Saudi Arabia Syria Palestine Israel Lebanon Jordan Turkey Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Quran Languages Arabic. ... Fakhr-al-Din II also the Great (1572–April 13, 1635) (Arabic: فخر الدين الثاني بن قرقماز) was a Lebanese prince, son of Prince Qurqumaz from the Maan Druze dynasty and Princess Nassab. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Ahmed al-Jazzar (Arabic أحمد الجزار, lived 1720-1804) was the ruler of Acre and Galilee during Ottoman rule from 1775 till his death. ... Ibrahim Pasha (Arabic: ابراهيم باشا) ‎ (1789 – 10 November 1848), a 19th century general of Egypt. ...

View of Beirut's Grand Serail- 19th century
View of Beirut's Grand Serail- 19th century

Beirut passed to the Arabs in 635.[20] including the sanjaks Latakia, Tripoli, Beirut, Akka and Bekaa.[6] Beirut became a very cosmopolitan city and had close links with Europe and the United States. Beirut became a centre of missionary activity, which was generally very unsuccessful in conversions (a massacre of Christians in 1860 was the occasion for further European interventions), but did build an impressive education system. This included the Syrian Protestant College, which was established by American missionaries and eventually became the American University of Beirut (AUB). Beirut became the centre of Arab intellectual activity in the 19th century. Provided with water from a British company and gas from a French one, the city thrived on exporting silk grown on nearby Mount Lebanon. After French engineers established a modern harbor (1894) and a rail link across Lebanon to Damascus, and then to Aleppo (1907), much of the trade was carried by French ships to Marseille, and soon French influence in the area exceeded that of any other European power. In 1911, the population mix was reported in the Encyclopædia Britannica as Muslims, 36,000; Christians, 77,000; Jews, 2500; Druze, 400; foreigners, 4100. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire following World War I, Beirut, along with all of Lebanon was placed under the French Mandate. The Grand Serail (Arabic: السراي الكبير) is the headquarters of the Prime Minister of Lebanon. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Sanjak and Sandjak (other variants: sinjaq, sanjaq) are the most common English transliterations of the Turkish word Sancak, which literally means banner. In Arabic the sanjaks were also called liwas. ... This page refers to Tripoli, the city in Lebanon. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... Location of the governorate of Aleppo within Syria Aleppo (Arabic: [ḥalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines The Old Port of Marseille Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The French Mandate of Lebanon was a League of Nations Mandate created at the end of World War I. When the Ottoman Empire was split by the Treaty of Versailles, four mandate territories were created, with the rest of the territory, aside from Turkey, being placed under monarchies. ...


Lebanon achieved independence in 1943 and Beirut became its capital city. Beirut remained the intellectual capital of the Arab world and a major commercial and tourist center until 1975 when a brutal civil war broke out in Lebanon.[24][25] During most of the war, the city was divided between the largely Muslim west part and the Christian east.[26] The central area of the city, previously the focus of much of the commercial and cultural activities, became a no man's land. Many of the city's inhabitants fled to other countries. In 1983, French and US barracks were bombed,[27][28][29] killing 302.[citation needed] Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman... 29th Infantry Battalion, 2nd Division, Canadian Corps. ... The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a major incident on October 23, 1983, during the Lebanese Civil War. ...

Solidere Masterplan

Since the end of the war in 1989, the people of Lebanon have been rebuilding Beirut, and by the start of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict the city had somewhat regained its status as a tourist, cultural, and intellectual center in the Middle East, as well as a center for commerce, fashion, and media. However, many would say the city has lost its premier status, due to competition from places like Dubai and Cyprus in the fields of tourism, business, fashion, commerce, and banking.[citation needed] Reconstruction of downtown Beirut has been largely driven by Solidere, a development company established in 1994 by Rafik Hariri. Beirut is home to the international designer Elie Saab, jeweller Robert Moawad, and to some popular satellite television stations, such as LBC, Future TV, New TV and others. The city was host to the Asian Basketball Championship and the Asian Football Championship. Beirut also successfully hosted the Miss Europe pageant eight times, 1960-1964, 1999, 2001-2002. SOLIDERE s. ... Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah) Imad Mughniyeh (Commander of Hezbollahs armed wing)[5] Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[12] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[6] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC)[13... Tourist redirects here. ... Location of Dubai in the UAE Coordinates: , Country Emirate Dubai Incorporated (town) June 9, 1833 Incorporated (emirate) December 2, 1971 Founder Maktoum bin Bati bin Suhail (1833) Seat Dubai Subdivisions Towns and villages Jebel Ali Hatta Al Hunaiwah Al Aweer Al Hajarain Al Lusayli Al Marqab Al Shindagha Al Faq... SOLIDERE s. ... Rafik Bahaeddine Al-Hariri — (November 1, 1944 – February 14, 2005), (Arabic: ) a self-made billionaire and business tycoon, was Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on 20 October 2004. ... Ai Tominaga modeling for Saabs Spring 2006 collection Elie Saab (Arabic: إيلي صعب) (born July 4, 1964), sometimes known simply as ES, is a Lebanese fashion designer. ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... Marina Tsintikidou, Miss Europe 1992. ...


The 2005 assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri near the Saint George Bay in Beirut shook the entire country.[30][31][32] Approximately one million people gathered for an opposition rally in Beirut, a month after the death of Hariri.[33][34]. The "Cedar Revolution" was the largest rally in Lebanon's history.[35] The last Syrian troops withdrew from Beirut on April 26, 2005.[36] The Saint George Bay (known in Lebanon as Golfe de Saint-Georges) is located on the northern coast of the city of Beirut in Lebanon. ... On March 14th 2005, one month after the assassination of Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on February 14, 2005, over 1 million Lebanese nationals marched into Martyr square in downtown Beirut, that later was known as Freedom square, in a protest against the Syrian presence and the Syrian backed government. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Geography

Pigeons' Rock (Raouché)
Pigeons' Rock (Raouché)
Beirut seen from SPOT satellite
Beirut seen from SPOT satellite

Beirut is positioned on a peninsula extending westward into the Mediterranean Sea[37], about 94 km north of the Lebanon-Israel border[38]. The city is flanked by the Lebanon mountains, it has taken on a triangular shape, largely influenced by its situation between and atop two hills: Al-Ashrafieh and Al-Musaytibah. The Beirut Governorate area is of 18 square kilometers, and the city's metropolitan area is of 67 square kilometers[39]. Beirut's coast is rather diverse; rocky beaches, sandy shores, and cliffs are situated beside one another. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 685 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) en: Beirut, Lebanon - Raouché (Pigeon Rocks) sl: Bejrut, Libanon - Raouché (golobje skale) I took the photo myself File links The following pages on... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 685 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) en: Beirut, Lebanon - Raouché (Pigeon Rocks) sl: Bejrut, Libanon - Raouché (golobje skale) I took the photo myself File links The following pages on... Raouché (also spelled Raouche and known as La Grotte aux Pigeons or Pigeons Rock) is a natural landmark off the coast of Beirut, Lebanon. ... Ashrafieh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Climate

Beirut has a Mediterranean climate characterized by a hot and dry (but humid) summer, pleasant fall and spring, and cool, rainy winter. August is the hottest month of the year with a monthly average high temperature of 29 °C (85 °F), and January and February are the coldest months with a monthly average low temperature of 10 °C (50 °F). During the afternoon and evening the prevailing wind direction is from the west, i.e., onshore, or inland from the Mediterranean Sea; at night the wind direction reverses to offshore, i.e., blowing from the land out to the sea.  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Winter is the rainy season, with major precipitation falling after December. The average annual rainfall is 860 millimetres (34.1 Inches); the rainfall is concentrated during scattered days in winter falling in heavy cloudbursts.

Weather averages for Beirut
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 16 (61) 16 (62) 18 (65) 21 (71) 23 (75) 26 (80) 28 (84) 29 (85) 28 (83) 26 (80) 22 (72) 17 (64) 22 (73)
Average low °C (°F) 10 (50) 10 (50) 11 (52) 14 (58) 17 (63) 20 (69) 22 (73) 23 (75) 22 (72) 20 (68) 15 (59) 11 (53) 16 (62)
Precipitation cm (inches) 18 (7.4) 15 (6) 9 (3.8) 5 (2.0) 1 (0.7) 0.25 (0.1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.5 (0.2) 4 (1.9) 11 (4.7) 17 (6.9) 86 (34.1)
Source: Weatherbase[40] 2007

Neighborhoods

Beirut is divided into twelve municipality recognized neighborhoods, these are: Ashrafieh, Beshoura, Dar el Mreyseh, Marfa’, Mazra’a, Mdawar, Mina El Hosson, Msaytbeh, Ras Beirut, Rmeil, Saifi, Zkak El Blat.[41] Four of the twelve official Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon are located in Beirut: Burj el-Barajneh, Dbayeh, Mar Elias, and Shatila.[42] Of the fifteen unregistered or unofficial refugee camps, Sabra, which lies adjacent to Shatila, is also located in Beirut.[43] Palestinian refugee camps were established after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War to accommodate Palestinian refugees who fled from the war. ... The settelment was set up as a refugee camp in 1948 and was laid sieage to by the Isralie army and local Christian Phalangists during 1982, after Israel invaded the Lebanon erlyer that year. ... Mar Elias (Arabic: ) is a Palestinian refugee camp in Lebanon, by Beirut. ... The Shatila refugee camp (Arabic: ‎) (also Chatila refugee camp) is a long-term refugee camp for Palestinian refugees, set up by UNRWA in 1949. ...


Government

The capital Beirut is the seat of the Lebanese Parliament [44] and of the government[45], and encompasses all the Ministries, most of the public administrations, embassies and consulates.[46] Beirut is one of six mohafazah (state governorates; mohafazat, singular), with the others being Beqaa, North Lebanon, South Lebanon, Mount Lebanon and Nabatiye.[47] The Governorate of Beirut The Governorate of Beirut is the only Lebanese governorate that consists of one district and one city, Beirut, which is also its capital, and the capital of Lebanon. ... The Beqaa Beqaa is a governorate in Lebanon with a population of 750,000 inhabitants. ... North Governorate North Governorate (Arabic: الشمال; transliterated: ash-Shamal) is one of the governorates of Lebanon. ... The Governorate of South Lebanon South Governorate (Arabic: ‎; transliterated: al-Janub) is one of the governorates of Lebanon. ... Mount Lebanon (Arabic: جبل لبنان; transliterated: Jabal Libnan) is one of the Governorates of Lebanon. ... Nabatiye Governorate is one of the six governorates of Lebanon. ...

Facade of the Beirut City Hall
Facade of the Beirut City Hall
Lebanese House of Speakers
Lebanese House of Speakers
United Nations headquarters in Beirut.
United Nations headquarters in Beirut.
Governors of Beirut [48]
Name Took office Left office
1 Kamel Abbas Hamieh 1936 1941
2 Nicolas Rizk 1946 1952
3 George Assi 1952 1956
4 Bachour Haddad 1956 1958
5 Philip Boulos 1959 1960
6 Emile Yanni 1960 1967
7 Chafik Abou Haydar 1967 1977
8 Mitri El Nammar 1977 1987
9 George Smaha 1987 1991
10 Nayef Al Maaloof 1992 1995
11 Nicolas Saba 1995 1999
12 Yaacoub Sarraf 1999 2005
13 Nassif Kaloosh 2005

The Grand Serail (Arabic: السراي الكبير) is the headquarters of the Prime Minister of Lebanon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 598 KB) en: Beirut, Lebanon - Lebanese parliament building at the Place dÉtoile sl: Bejrut, Libanon - zgradba libanonskega parlamenta na Place dÉtoile I took the photo myself File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 598 KB) en: Beirut, Lebanon - Lebanese parliament building at the Place dÉtoile sl: Bejrut, Libanon - zgradba libanonskega parlamenta na Place dÉtoile I took the photo myself File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 377 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) UN in Beirut I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 377 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) UN in Beirut I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

International organizations

The city is home to numerous international organizations. The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) is headquartered in Downtown Beirut[49][50] while the International Labour Organization (ILO)[51] and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)[52] both have regional offices in Beirut covering the Arab world. The Arab Air Carriers Organization (AACO) is also headquartered in Beirut.[53] UN redirects here. ... The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (UNESCWA or ESCWA) was established in 1973 (then as the UN Economic Commission for Western Asia) to encourage economic cooperation among its member states. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Arab States redirects here. ... The Arab Air Carriers Organization (Arabic: الإتحاد العربي للنقل الجوي) is a regional airline trade organization of Arab airlines established in 1965 by the League of Arab States (more commonly known as the Arab League). ...


Demographics

There are wide-ranging estimates of Beirut's population, from as low as 938,940 people,[54] to 1,303,129 people,[55] to as high as 2,012,000.[56] The lack of an exact figure is due to the fact that no "comprehensive" population census has been taken in Lebanon since 1932.[57]


Religion

Mosque and Church in Downtown Beirut
Mosque and Church in Downtown Beirut

Beirut is one of the most religiously diverse cities of the Middle East,[58] with Christians, and Muslims both having a significant presence. Beirut is the most Christian capital of the Middle East. There are nine major religious sects in Beirut (Sunni Muslim, Shiite Muslim, Druze, Maronite Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Armenian Catholic, and Protestant). Family matters such as marriage, divorce and inheritance are still handled by the religious authorities representing a person's faith. Calls for civil marriage are unanimously rejected by the religious authorities but civil marriages held in another country are recognized by Lebanese civil authorities. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Quran Languages Arabic. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: HellÄ“northódoxÄ“ EkklÄ“sía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... The Armenian Apostolic Church, sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church is one of the original churches, having separated from the then-still-united Roman Catholic/Byzantine Orthodox church in 506, after the Council of Chalcedon (see Oriental Orthodoxy). ... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Beirut has had a history of political strife due to religious divisions. Religion has historically divided Lebanese society decisively, evident in its prolonged civil war.


Education

The museum of the American University of Beirut

Higher education in Beirut, and all over Lebanon, is provided by technical and vocational institutes, university colleges, university institutes and universities. Among these numbers of institutions nationwide, the Lebanese University is the only public institution in the capital.[59] The responsibility of the Directorate General of Higher Education is responsible for managing the university colleges, university Institutes and Universities in Beirut and nationwide.[59] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The American University of Beirut (AUB; Arabic: ‎) is a private, independent university in Beirut, Lebanon. ... The Lebanese University is the only public university in Lebanon. ...


Among the most famous private schools in Beirut are the International College, the American Community School, the Collège Protestant Français, the Collège Louise Wegman and the Grand Lycée Franco-Libanais. International College (Internationella Gymnasiet) is a gymnasium (similar to an American high school) in Liljeholmen in Stockholm, Sweden. ... The Grand Lycée Franco-Libanais (GLFL), is a French lycée in the Ashrafieh district of Beirut, Lebanon founded in 1909 by the Mission Laïque Française, an organization which also helped found other lycées all over the world. ...


The higher education system is based on the Baccalauréat libanais but the Baccalauréat Français is accepted as an equivalent. Before being admitted to any higher education institution, one must achieve his or her Baccalauréat examinations. Baccalauréat technique is an alternative to credentials.[59]


Foreign students who wish to study in higher Lebanese institutions must also meet Lebanese qualifications. Their examinations must be equivalent to the Baccalauréat system before they are granted admission to higher institutions. They are not subject to any special quota system, and scholarships are granted within the framework of bilateral agreements concluded with other countries.[59] Degrees obtained outside Lebanon must be certified by the Lebanese embassy abroad and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Lebanon. Then, candidates must go in person to the Secretariat of the Equivalence Committee with required documents.[60]


Beirut is home to some of the most well-renowned universities in the middle East, such as the American University of Beirut, Université Saint-Joseph and the Lebanese American University. The American University of Beirut (AUB; Arabic: ‎) is a private, independent university in Beirut, Lebanon. ... Université Saint-Joseph (USJ) is a private higher institute of education founded by the Jesuits in 1875 in Beirut, Lebanon, known for its school of medicine and its hospital, Hôtel-Dieu de France. ... The Lebanese American University is an American institution chartered by the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York and operating in Lebanon. ...


Transportation

Main article: Transport in Beirut

The city's airport is the Beirut International Airport and is located in the southern suburbs.[61][62][63] Transport in Beirut is a daily necessity to everyone living in and outside the capital. ... Image File history File links Overview of the terminal. ... Image File history File links Overview of the terminal. ... Terminal Overview Beirut International Airport is an airport located in Beirut, Lebanon. ... Terminal Overview Beirut International Airport is an airport located in Beirut, Lebanon. ...


By land, the latter are served by either service or taxis. Service is a lot cheaper than taxis however, to avoid misunderstanding, agreement over the pricing need to be made before setting off.[64] A low-cost taxi service that works much like a shuttle. ... For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ...


Beirut has frequent bus connections to other cities in Lebanon and major cities in Syria. The Lebanese Commuting Company, or LCC in short, is just one of a handful brands of public transportation all over Lebanon.[65] On the other hand, the publicly owned buses are managed by Office des Chemins de Fer et des Transports en Commun (OCFTC), or the "Railway and Public Transportation Authority" in English.[66] Buses for northern destinations and Syria leave from Charles Helou Station.[67][68] O.C.F.T.C (Office des Chemins de Fer et des Transports en Commun, French for Railway and Public Transportation Authority) is the Lebanese government authority which operates public transportation in Lebanon. ...


Apart from the international airport, the Port of Beirut is another port of entry. As a final destination, anyone can also reach Lebanon by ferry from Cyprus or by road from Damascus.[64] The Port of Beirut is the main port in Lebanon located in the capital city, Beirut, and is the largest port on the Eastern Mediterranean. ... A port of entry is a place where one may lawfully enter a country. ...


Culture

Beirut has been exposed to cultural changes due to contacts with many civilizations. As mentioned under the history of Beirut, this city had interacted with cultures from the Greeks to the Romans and, presently, to the Arabs. Not only was there a law school under the Romanized Berytus, it was also believed to be the first law school in the world. Because of this, this is currently part of the cultural pride of the Lebanese.[69]


Beirut hosted the Francophonie and the Arab League summits in 2002. In 2007, Beirut hosted the ceremony for Le Prix Albert Londres[70][71], which rewards outstanding Francophone journalists every year.[72] The city is set to host the Jeux de la Francophonie in 2009.[73][74] Motto Égalité, Complémentarité, Solidarité Members and participants of La Francophonie. ... Albert Londres (1884 - 1932) was a French journalist and writer. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The flag of the Francophonie Games The Jeux de la Francophonie (Francophone Games) are a combination artistic and sports events for French speaking nations, held every four years since 1989, partly as a counterweight to the Commonwealth Games. ...


Museums

The National Museum of Beirut

The National Museum of Beirut is just a few blocks from the French Embassy and the Military Tribunal, and is found just at the corner of the Damascus Expressway.[75]
The American University of Beirut archaeological museum is the third oldest museum in the Middle East, it exhibits a wide range of artifacts from Lebanon and neighboring countries.[76]
Sursock Museum was built by the Sursock family at the end of the 19th century as a private villa. It was then donat­ed to the Lebanese government and now houses Beirut's most influential and popular art museum. The permanent collection shows a collection of Japanese engravings and numerous works of Islamic art, and temporary exhibitions are shown throughout the year. [77]
Robert Mouawad Private Museum exhibits Henri Pharaon's private archaeology and antiques collection, located near Beirut's the Grand Serail.[78]
Planet Discovery is a children’s science museum. It holds interactive experiments, exhibitions, performances and workshops, and awareness competitions. [79] Ahirams sarcophagus, with the oldest inscription in the Phoenician script. ... Sursock Museum, which is officially known as Nicolas Sursock Museum is a hisoric building in the city of Beirut and Lebanons only modern arts museum. ... Sursock is a Greek Orthodox , Lebanese family and one of Beiruts aristocratic families. ... Henri Philippe Pharaoun (or Henry Pharaon) (1898 - August 6, 1993), was a Lebanese art collector and politician. ... The Grand Serail (Arabic: السراي الكبير) is the headquarters of the Prime Minister of Lebanon. ...


Media

Beirut is the main center in Lebanon for the television, newspaper, and book publishing industries. The television stations include Tele Liban, LBC, Future TV, New TV, Al-Manar, ANB, NBN , and OTV. The newspapers include An-Nahar, As-Safir, Al Mustaqbal, Al Akhbar, Al-Balad, Ad-Diyar, Al Anwar, Al Sharq, L'Orient Le Jour and the Daily Star. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Founded in August 1985, the Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation International (Arabic: ‎), widely known as LBCI, is the first private television station in Lebanon. ... Future TV is a television station which was launched in Lebanon on February 15, 1993, and quickly became the nations fastest-growing station. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Al-Manar (Arabic: ; The Beacon) is the satellite television station of Hezbollah, broadcasting from Beirut, Lebanon and offering a rich menu of high production news, commentary, and entertainment in the service of what Hezbollah believes is Islamic unity and resistance. ... OTV or Orange TV is a publically-traded television station in Lebanon. ... An-Nahar logo. ... As-Safir (Arabic: السفير) The Embassador, is a leading Arabic-language daily newspaper in Lebanon. ... Al Akhbar (الأخبار) is daily Arabic newspaper published in Beirut, and funded by a group of Lebanese nationals based in London, the United States and Lebanon. ... Al-Balad (Arabic: البلد) The country, officially Sada Al-Balad (Arabic: صدى البلد) The echo of the country, is a new Arabic-language daily newspaper in Lebanon. ... Ad-Diyar (Arabic: الديار) , is an Arabic-language daily newspaper in Lebanon. ... The Daily Star is an English language newspaper based in Lebanon. ...


Sports

Opening ceremony of the 2000 AFC Asian Cup in Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium

Beirut, in addition to Sidon and Tripoli, hosted the 2000 AFC Asian Cup.[80][81] There are two stadiums in the city, Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium and Beirut Municipal Stadium. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium is a 57,600 capacity multi-use stadium in Beirut, Lebanon. ... The Asian Football Confederations 2000 AFC Asian Cup finals were held in the Lebanon between October 12 and October 29. ... Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium is a 57,600 capacity multi-use stadium in Beirut, Lebanon. ... Beirut Municipal Stadium (Arabic: ملعب بيروت البلدي) is a 18,000 capacity multi-use stadium in Beirut, Lebanon. ...


There are eight football teams in the Lebanese Premier League that are based in Beirut: Nejmeh, Al-Ansar, Al-Hikma, Al Ahed, Al-Mabarrah, Safa, Racing Beirut and Shabab Al-Sahel. Soccer redirects here. ... Lebanese Premier League is the top division of the Federation Libanaise de Football, it was created in 1934. ... Nejmeh Sporting Club is a Lebanese football club. ... Al-Ansar is a Lebanese football club. ... Al-Hikma (Arabic: الحكمة; also known as C.S. Sagesse) are a Lebanese football club who play in the Lebanese First Division. ... Al Ahed (Arabic: العهد) is a Lebanese football team playing at the top level. ... Al-Mabarrah (Arabic: المبرة) are a Lebanese football club who play in the Lebanese First Division. ... Safa is a Lebanese professional football (soccer) club based in Beirut. ... Racing Beirut is a Lebanese football team playing at the top level. ... Shabab Al-Sahel (Arabic: شباب الساحل) are a Lebanese football club who play in the Lebanese First Division. ...


Beirut has two Basketball teams, Al Riyadi and Al Hikma, that participate in the premiere division of the Lebanese Basketball Championship.[82] This article is about the sport. ...


Other sports events in Beirut include the annual Beirut Marathon,Hip ball, a weekly Horse racing at Beirut Hippodrome, and Golf and Tennis tournaments that take place at Golf Club of Lebanon. The Beirut Marathon is a marathon sporting event that has been held every year in Beirut, Lebanon since 2003. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... The Beirut Hippodrome is a horse-racing facility in Beirut, Lebanon. ... This article is about the sport. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Golf Club of Lebanon is a country club and golf course founded in 1923 and is located in Beirut, Lebanon. ...


Recently Beirut has taken to rugby league as well, with three out of the five teams in the Lebanon Championship based in Beirut. Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... Logo of the Lebanese Rugby League Rugby league is a team sport that has been played in Lebanon since 2002. ...


Beirut was considered as a possible candidate for the 2024 Summer Olympics games.[83] The massive $1.2 billion Sannine Zenith project will make Lebanon capable of holding the games.[84] The 2024 Summer Olympics, what will be officially known as the Games of the XXXIII Olympiad, is an international athletic event that has yet to be organized by the International Olympic Committee. ...


Arts & Fashion

There are hundreds of art galleries in Beirut and its suburbs. Lebanese people are very involved in art and art production. More than 5000 fine art artists and equal artists working in music, design, architecture, theatre, film, photography and all other forms of art are producing in Lebanon. Every year hundreds of fine art students graduate from universities and institutions. Artist Workshops are flourishing all around Lebanon. In Beirut specifically, the art scene is very rich, vibrant, and diverse. ==



On another scale, fashion and couture are very much thriving throughout the city. Fashion houses are opening up and a number of international fashion designers have displayed their work in various fashion shows. Beirut is home to international fashion designers such as Elie Saab, Zuhair Murad, and Georges Chakra.


Tourism

The once destroyed town center is again active. Its former reputation as a crossroads between three continents and gateway to the East has been restored and modernized. Beirut’s is oft-invoked “Paris of the East”, and there is plenty of sightseeing, shopping, cuisine, and nightlife to keep a tourist within the city limits for the duration a visit to Lebanon.[85] Lebanon's capital city is a vibrant, stylish metropolis, with all of the fun, fashion, and flair that a city lover could look for. All over the city, sleek, modern buildings are springing up, alongside arabesque Ottoman and French-style buildings, giving Beirut a unique style.[86]


In Travel and Leisure magazine's World Best Awards 2006, Beirut was ranked the 9th (out of 10) city in the world, falling just short of New York City and coming ahead of San Francisco.[87] Travel+Leisure Magazine Publisher: American Express Publishing Address: 1120 Avenue of the Americas, 10th Floor, New York, NY 10036 Phone: 212-382-5600 Editor-in-Chief: Nancy Novogrod Executive Editor: Jennifer Barr Design Director: Emily Crawford Managing Editor: Michael S. Cain T+L is the worlds leading travel magazine... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


Famous Births

Keanu Charles Reeves (pronounced ; born September 2, 1964) is a Canadian actor. ... Ai Tominaga modeling for Saabs Spring 2006 collection Elie Saab (Arabic: إيلي صعب) (born July 4, 1964), sometimes known simply as ES, is a Lebanese fashion designer. ... Amin Maalouf (Arabic: ), born 25 February 1949 in Beirut, is a Lebanese author. ... Mica Penniman (born 18 August 1983), known as Mika (IPA []), is a Lebanese-born, London-based singer who has a recording contract with Casablanca Records and Universal Music, and rose to fame around the end of 2006 and the start of 2007. ... Hadi Kazemi is a Lebanese born Iranian actor mostly recognised for his role as Nezam Du Barareh Mehran Modiris hit comedy series Shabhaye Barareh. ... Serj Tankian (Armenian: ) (born August 21, 1967 in Beirut, Lebanon[1]) is a Lebanese-born Armenian-American singer, songwriter, poet, activist, and multi-instrumentalist. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... System of a Down (commonly referred to as System or abbreviated as SOAD) is an American rock band, formed in 1995 in Glendale, California. ... Michel Elefteriades (Μιχαηλ Ελευθεριαδης in Greek) is a Greek-Lebanese politician, artist, producer and businessman born on June 22, 1970 in Beirut, Lebanon. ... KMaro is a francophone rapper from Montréal, Canada. ... Rhythm and blues (or R & B) is a musical marketing term introduced in the United States in the late 1940s by Billboard magazine. ... // Massari whose name is Sari Abboud, (born December 10, 1981 in Beirut, Lebanon) is a R&B, pop and hip-hop singer from Lebanon, who grew up in Canada. ... Breakdance, an early form of hip hop dance, often involves battles, showing off skills without any physical contact with the adversaries. ... Dominic John Joly (born 15 November 1967)[1] is an award-winning British television comedian and journalist. ... Kassem Freddy Deeb (born November 27, 1955[1] in Beirut, Lebanon) is a professional poker player who emigrated from Lebanon to the United States at the age of 19. ... Stephen Douglas Steve Kerr (born September 27, 1965 in Beirut, Lebanon) is a retired American professional basketball player. ... The National Basketball Association of the United States and Canada, commonly known as the NBA, is the premier professional basketball league in North America. ... John Dolmayan (Armenian: ) (born July 15, 1973 in Lebanon) is a musician, best known as the drummer for the Armenian-American alternative metal band System of a Down. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... System of a Down (commonly referred to as System or abbreviated as SOAD) is an American rock band, formed in 1995 in Glendale, California. ...

Sister cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Capital Caen Land area¹ 17,589 km² Regional President Philippe Duron (PS) (since 2004) Population  - Jan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates. ... Location of Dubai in the UAE Coordinates: , Country Emirate Dubai Incorporated (town) June 9, 1833 Incorporated (emirate) December 2, 1971 Founder Maktoum bin Bati bin Suhail (1833) Seat Dubai Subdivisions Towns and villages Jebel Ali Hatta Al Hunaiwah Al Aweer Al Hajarain Al Lusayli Al Marqab Al Shindagha Al Faq... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Essonne Hauts-de-Seine Paris Seine-Saint-Denis Seine-et-Marne Val-de-Marne Val-dOise Yvelines Arrondissements 25 Cantons 317 Communes 1,281 Statistics Land area1 12,012 km² Population (Ranked 1st)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the French city. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines The Old Port of Marseille Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... District Nicosia District Government  - Mayor Eleni Mavrou Population (2004)  - City 270,000 (Greek part) 85,000 (Turkish part) 355,000 (Total) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: www. ...

See also

The Beirut International Exhibition & Leisure Center, frequently referred to as BIEL, is a large multi-purpose facility in downtown Beirut. ...

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Lebanese Forces (LF) (Arabic: القوات اللبنانية al-quwat al-lubnāniyya) is a Lebanese political party and a former militia, which fought on the Christian side during the civil war that ravaged Lebanon from 1975 to 1990. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) was established to provide assistance to Palestinian refugees. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Noia_64_mimetypes_wordprocessing. ... The Rich Text Format (often abbreviated to RTF) is a proprietary document file format developed by Microsoft in 1987 for cross-platform document interchange. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Travel+Leisure Magazine Publisher: American Express Publishing Address: 1120 Avenue of the Americas, 10th Floor, New York, NY 10036 Phone: 212-382-5600 Editor-in-Chief: Nancy Novogrod Executive Editor: Jennifer Barr Design Director: Emily Crawford Managing Editor: Michael S. Cain T+L is the worlds leading travel magazine... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Richard J.A. Talbert (born 1947 in England) is a contemporary British ancient historian on the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he is William Rand Kenan, Jr. ... The Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World is a large-format atlas of ancient Europe, Asia, and North Africa, edited by Richard Talbert. ...

External links

Lebanon Portal
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Image File history File links Flag_of_La_Francophonie. ...


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BETA - Beirut for the Ethical Treatment of Animals | Animals @ Beirut.com (215 words)
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Not many people believed in us, but we have won; Tree Afghani dogs are starting to enjoy their lives in a peaceful country!
it was in May 2007 when I got a mail written from BETA (Beirut for the ethical treatment of animals) from Lebanon.
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Beirut, with its million-plus inhabitants, conveys a sense of life and energy that is immediately apparent.
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