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Encyclopedia > Being and Time

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Being and Time (German Sein und Zeit, 1927) is the most important work of German philosopher Martin Heidegger. Although the book as published represents only a third of the total project outlined in its introduction, it marked a turning point in continental philosophy. It has been massively influential and remains one of the most discussed works of 20th-century philosophy; many subsequent philosophical views and approaches, such as existentialism and deconstruction, have been strongly influenced by Being and Time, as has much of the language of continental philosophy, see Heideggerian terminology Image File history File links Heidegger2. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976), German philosopher, attempted to reorient Western philosophy away from metaphysical and epistemological and toward ontological questions, that is, questions concerning the meaning of being, or what it means to be. Heidegger also challenged the idea of phenomenology as defined by his teacher... Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ... The 20th century brought with it upheavals that produced a series of conflicting developments within philosophy over the basis of knowledge and the validity of various absolutes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... // Martin Heidegger, the 20th-century German philosopher, introduced to the world a large body of work that represented a profound change of direction for philosophy. ...


The Meaning Of Being

In this work, Heidegger deals with the question of the meaning of being: what does it mean to say that an entity is? This is the fundamental question of ontology, defined by Aristotle as the study of being qua (Latin, tr. roughly as 'as', or 'in the capacity of') being. In his approach to this question, Heidegger departs from the tradition of Aristotle and of Kant, both of whom, despite the vast difference between their respective philosophical positions, approach the question of the meaning of being from the perspective of the logic of propositional statements. Implicit in this traditional approach is the thesis that theoretical knowledge represents the most fundamental relation between the human individual and the beings in his surrounding world (including himself). In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek , genitive : of being (part. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ...


Phenomenological Method

Explicitly rejecting this thesis, Heidegger instead adopts a version of the phenomenological method, purged of what he regards as the residue of Aristotelian/Kantian cognitivism still present in Husserl's formulation of this method. Like Husserl, Heidegger takes as his starting point the phenomenon of intentionality. Human behaviour is intentional insofar as it is directed at some object or end (all building is building of something, all talking is talking about something, etc). Intentionality was an activity termed by Heidegger as "Sorge" (care) and reflected a positive aspect of Angst. Sorge, or caring, as the fundamental concept of the intentional being, presupposed an ontological significance that distinguishes ontological being from mere ontic being (thinghood). Theoretical knowledge represents only one kind of intentional behaviour, and Heidegger asserts that it is founded on more fundamental modes of behaviour, modes of practical engagement with the surrounding world, rather than being their ultimate foundation. He divides the understanding between the existentiell understanding, which understands existence through existence itself, and existential understanding, which is the theoretical analysis of what constitutes existence. An entity is what it is (i.e., it has being) insofar as it "shows up" within a context of practical engagement (Heidegger calls such a context a 'world'), not because it has certain inherent properties ascertainable by disinterested contemplation. A hammer is a hammer not because it has certain hammer-like properties, but because it is used for hammering. Look up Phenomenology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Edmund Husserl Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (April 8, 1859 - April 26, 1938, Freiburg) was a German philosopher, known as the father of phenomenology. ... Edmund Husserl Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (April 8, 1859 - April 26, 1938, Freiburg) was a German philosopher, known as the father of phenomenology. ... Intentionality, originally a concept from scholastic philosophy, was reintroduced in contemporary philosophy by the philosopher and psychologist Franz Brentano in his work Psychologie vom Empirischen Standpunkte. ... Intentionality, originally a concept from scholastic philosophy, was reintroduced in contemporary philosophy by the philosopher and psychologist Franz Brentano in his work Psychologie vom Empirischen Standpunkte. ... Intentionality, originally a concept from scholastic philosophy, was reintroduced in contemporary philosophy by the philosopher and psychologist Franz Brentano in his work Psychologie vom Empirischen Standpunkte. ... The Scream (1893) by Edvard Munch. ... Intentionality, originally a concept from scholastic philosophy, was reintroduced in contemporary philosophy by the philosopher and psychologist Franz Brentano in his work Psychologie vom Empirischen Standpunkte. ... Intentionality, originally a concept from scholastic philosophy, was reintroduced in contemporary philosophy by the philosopher and psychologist Franz Brentano in his work Psychologie vom Empirischen Standpunkte. ... Intentionality, originally a concept from scholastic philosophy, was reintroduced in contemporary philosophy by the philosopher and psychologist Franz Brentano in his work Psychologie vom Empirischen Standpunkte. ... The word existentiell was first used by Martin Heidegger. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement emphasizing individualism, individual freedom, and subjectivity. ...


Rejection of Descartes

This also necessitated a rejection of the Cartesian, disembodied Cogito: that is, an 'I' as a purely thinking object. Instead, Heidegger insisted that any analysis of human behaviour should begin with the fact that we are in the world (not viewing it in an 'abstract' fashion): therefore the fundamental fact about human existence is our 'being-in-the-world'. Human beings, or Dasein, Heidegger insisted, are embodied beings who act in the world. He therefore rejected the 'subject-object' distinction assumed by most philosophers since Descartes and so rejected terms like Consciousness, ego, human being, Man, which are so laden with Cartesian dualism that, for his purposes, they are practically useless. Instead he uses the German portmanteau, Dasein: Da means there/here and Sein means being. René Descartes (1596-1650) The Latin phrase cogito ergo sum (I think, therefore I am) is possibly the single best-known philosophical statement and is attributed to René Descartes. ... // Martin Heidegger, the 20th-century German philosopher, introduced to the world a large body of work that represented a profound change of direction for philosophy. ... Dasein is a concept forged by Martin Heidegger in his magnum opus Being and Time . ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... eGO is a company that builds electric motor scooters which are becoming popular for urban transportation and vacation use. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... A man is a male human. ... Look up Portmanteau word in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dasein is a concept forged by Martin Heidegger in his magnum opus Being and Time . ...


Things are meaningful to us in terms of their use in certain contexts, which are defined by social norms. However, all of these norms are radically contingent. Their contingency is revealed in the fundamental phenomenon of Angst, in which all norms fall away and beings show up as nothing in particular, in their essential meaninglessness. (Contrary to some existentialist interpretations of Heidegger, this does not mean that all existence is absurd; rather, it means that existence always has the potential for absurdity.) The experience of Angst reveals the essential finitude of Dasein. The Scream (1893) by Edvard Munch. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Scream (1893) by Edvard Munch. ...


Truth as Aletheia

The fact that beings can show up, either as meaningful in a context or as meaningless in the experience of Angst, depends on a prior phenomenon: that beings can show up at all. Heidegger calls the showing up of beings, truth, which he defines as unconcealment rather than correctness or correspondence. This "truth of beings", their self-revelation, involves a more fundamental kind of truth, the "disclosure of being in which the being of beings is unconcealed.", in Greek, aletheia. The Scream (1893) by Edvard Munch. ... Common dictionary definitions of truth mention some form of accord with fact or reality. ... Aletheia in its current sense comes from Heideggers use of it as renewed attempt to understand Truth. ...


It is this unconcealment of being that defines Dasein for Heidegger: Dasein is that being for whom being is an issue, that is, for whom being shows up as such. This is why Heidegger begins his inquiry into the meaning of being with an inquiry into the essence of Dasein; The unconcealment of being is an essentially temporal and historical phenomenon (hence the "time" in Being and Time); what we call past, present, and future correspond originarily to aspects of this unconcealment and not to three mutually exclusive regions of the homogeneous time that clocks measure (although clock-time is derivative from the originary time of unconcealment, as Heidegger attempts to show in the book's difficult final chapters).


Hermeneutics

The total understanding of being results from an explication of the implicit knowledge of being that inheres in Dasein. Philosophy thus becomes a form of interpretation; this is why Heidegger's technique in Being and Time is often referred to as hermeneutical phenomenology. Being and Time, being incomplete, contains Heidegger's statement of this project and his interpretation of Dasein and its temporal horizon, but does not contain the working out of the meaning of being as such on the basis of this interpretation. This ambitious task is taken up in a different way in his later works (see below). Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... Look up Phenomenology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Scandal of Philosophy

For Heidegger the scandal of philiosophy has not been that no proof of a world external to us has been provided but that such a proof is sought in the first place. At the same time his own project is hugely ambitious, in that he is interested not in the being of certain things, such as are studied in various (ontical) categories such as, biology, physics, psychology, and history, but in the question of being in general (the ontological question), of why or how there is something rather than nothing. Being in general is the most difficult because, like a smell that was always in our nose, it is almost always there, it is closest and for the most part there. Only in a state of anxiety (and not fear, which is fear of something in particular), where the whole world itself is pushed away, can we see something of this and get some authentic sight of it, before we again take up some activity and get lost in it.


At the same time that he tackles these soaring questions, he does so in a most practical way, by looking at how we encounter the world in a concrete and non-theoretical manner, how history and tradition affect us and are created by us, in effect how we live together and how our language and meaning is shaped through history by us. Though such a project might remind one of Hegel's pragmatism, Heidegger attempts to do this without resorting to any ideas of positing some overall goal of historical progress toward some Absolute, nor does he talk of the sublation of contradictions in some higher unity. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sublation refers to Hegels use of this term. ...


The Philosophy of Presence

His view inverts the traditional priority of theory over practice. For him the theoretical view is artificial and comes from just looking at something without any involvement, such an experience is 'levelled off'. For Heidegger this attitude is given the moniker, "present-at-hand" and it is parasitic upon are more fundamental mode of interaction, called "ready-to-hand". Parasitic in the sense that in our history we must first have an attitude or mood toward the world before we can adopt a scientific or neutral attitude toward it. Such a re-evaluation of science allows him to say, for example, that the friend caught sight of across the road is in fact closer than the street upon which one walks, that the voice on a phone is closer than the handpiece, that the glasses pushed back on your head, can be, when not found, considered as remote and far away. // Martin Heidegger, the 20th-century German philosopher, introduced to the world a large body of work that represented a profound change of direction for philosophy. ... // Martin Heidegger, the 20th-century German philosopher, introduced to the world a large body of work that represented a profound change of direction for philosophy. ...


Being-with

In addition to present-at-hand and ready-to-hand there is a third mode for Dasein, being-with, that is essential to Dasein. Others we are with are not those over against an individual subject, an "I", which stands apart, but are rather those essentially who are, for the most part, not distinguished from oneself. // Martin Heidegger, the 20th-century German philosopher, introduced to the world a large body of work that represented a profound change of direction for philosophy. ... // Martin Heidegger, the 20th-century German philosopher, introduced to the world a large body of work that represented a profound change of direction for philosophy. ... Dasein is a concept forged by Martin Heidegger in his magnum opus Being and Time . ... // Martin Heidegger, the 20th-century German philosopher, introduced to the world a large body of work that represented a profound change of direction for philosophy. ... The Other or constitutive other is a key concept in continental philosophy, opposed to the Same. ...


For example, a field we walk carefully around not to damage the crops or compact the soil, is ready-to-hand but shows itself also as belonging to someone and cared for by someone. We do not just add this person, "in thought," to the field we see because the farmer(s) already show themselves with the field through its improvements and the object of care. Or, we hear, for example, a scream, not as a noise or a sense-datum, but as someone in distress.


There is a dark side however, to "being-with", Heidegger refers to this as the "They", as in "they say it was done by terrorists", here Heidegger notes, there is a tendency with assertions in general (the apophantic), a tendency to just pass it along without any context, as is the case with news or gossip.


With the idea of the "They" Das Man, the existential notions of what is authentic or inauthentic is explored. Obviously, it is not fully authentic to merely follow the crowd and do as others, neither however, could it be considered authentic to be merely contrary and split off completely from ones social and historical situation.


Time, Temporality

Time is also examined in a novel way. Heidegger claims that time has been interpreted in much the same way since Aristotle. However, time in a primordial, that is a practical, sense, is always the time of something or time for something. We are involved in the world, in projects, and these swallow up time; for example, we open doors without explicitly giving time to it. The present emerges not out of itself but as the time we must act or not act, as a finite being we are always being-towards-death, being itself is an issue for us. Similarly, the past, through tradition, is transmitted to us or rejected by us, but we are thrown into a certain time; one cannot choose to be a genuine Samurai warrior in the twenty first century. The variety of ways time can be thought out, e.g., in Aristotle's simplistic past-present-future, and these others ways of thinking it out are referred to as temporality. Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... // Martin Heidegger, the 20th-century German philosopher, introduced to the world a large body of work that represented a profound change of direction for philosophy. ... Temporality is a term often used in philosophy in talking about the way time is. ...


Destruction of the History of Philosophy

As part of his ontological project, Heidegger undertakes a reinterpretation of previous Western philosophy. He wants to explain why and how theoretical knowledge came to seem like the most fundamental relation to being. This explanation takes the form of a destructuring (Destruktion) of the philosophical tradition, an interpretive strategy that reveals the fundamental experience of being at the base of previous philosophies that had become entrenched and hidden within the theoretical attitude prevalent in the history of philosophy in its metaphysics of presence. Such "destruktion", is to be read not only in its negative sense but also in the positive sense of recovery. In Being and Time he briefly destructures the philosophy of Descartes though the second half of the book which was intended to be a Destruktion was never written; in later works he uses this approach to interpret the philosophies of Aristotle, Kant, Hegel, and Plato, among others. This technique exerted a profound influence on Derrida's deconstructive approach, although there are very important differences between the two methods. In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek , genitive : of being (part. ... In contemporary philosophy and social sciences, the term deconstruction denotes a process by which the texts and languages of (particularly) Western philosophy appear to shift and complicate in meaning when subjected to the textual readings of deconstruction. ... The concept of the metaphysics of presence is a key component of deconstruction in Continental philosophy. ... For other things named Descartes, see Descartes (disambiguation). ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Jacques Derrida (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French literary critic and philosopher of Jewish descent, most often referred to as the founder of deconstruction or, by less sympathetic theorists, deconstructionism. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...


Other Work

Being and Time is the towering achievement of Heidegger's early career, but there are other important works from this period, including Die Grundprobleme der Phänomenologie (The Basic Problems of Phenomenology, 1927), Kant und das Problem der Metaphysik (Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics, 1929), and "Was ist Metaphysik?" ("What Is Metaphysics?", 1929).


Bibliography

  • Martin Heidegger, Being and Time trans. by John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson (London: SCM Press, 1962)
  • Magda King, A guide to Heidegger’s Being and time edited by John Llewelyn (New York: State University of New York Press, 2001)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Being and Time - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1930 words)
roughly as 'as', or 'in the capacity of') being.
This "truth of beings", their self-revelation, involves a more fundamental kind of truth, the "disclosure of being in which the being of beings is unconcealed.", in Greek, aletheia.
In Being and Time he briefly destructures the philosophy of Descartes though the second half of the book which was intended to be a Destruktion was never written; in later works he uses this approach to interpret the philosophies of Aristotle, Kant, Hegel, and Plato, among others.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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