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Encyclopedia > Beijing dialect

Beijing dialect (Simplified Chinese: 北京话; Traditional Chinese: 北京話; pinyin: Běijīnghuà) is the dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing, China. The Beijing dialect is the basis of Standard Mandarin, the standard official Chinese spoken language that is used by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China on Taiwan, and Singapore. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Mandarin, when used in the broad sense to refer to most of the Chinese dialects spoken over northern and southwestern China, covers many variations. ...   (Chinese:  ; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... Spoken Chinese The Chinese spoken language(s) comprise(s) many regional variants. ... Motto: Three Principles of the People (三民主義 San-min Chu-i) Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (de facto)  Nanjing (de jure)1  Largest city Taipei Official languages Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Su Tseng-chang...


Although the Beijing dialect and Standard Mandarin are extremely similar, there are some differences that make it easy for Chinese people to tell between a native of Beijing speaking homegrown Beijing dialect, and a non-native of Beijing speaking Standard Mandarin. Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ...

Contents

Distribution

The term "Beijing dialect" usually refers to the dialect spoken in the urban area of Beijing only. However, linguists have given a broader definition for Beijing Mandarin (Simplified Chinese: 北京官话; Traditional Chinese: 北京官話; pinyin: Běijīng Guānhuà) that also includes some dialects extremely akin to that of Beijing. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


For example, the local speech of Chengde, a city north of Beijing, is considered sufficiently close to Beijing dialect to be put into this category. Standard Mandarin is also put into this category, since it is after all based on the local dialect of Beijing. Other examples include the local speech of Hailar, Inner Mongolia; Karamay, Xinjiang; and (increasingly) Shenzhen, Guangdong. Many of these cities are populated by recent Han Chinese immigrants from diverse linguistic backgrounds or their descendants. As a result, the residents of these cities have adopted standard Mandarin (or something very close to it) as the de facto common language. The Putuo Zongcheng ticket to the summer resort (1984) Chengde (Chinese: ; pinyin: Chéngdé; Manchu: Erdemu be aliha fu) is a city approximately one hundred miles northeast of Beijing in northeastern Hebei province, situated near the Luan River. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... Hailar (海拉尔; Pinyin: Hǎilāěr) is a city and administrative district in Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Karamay or Karamai (Uyghur: قاراماي; Uyghur (Latin): KÌ¢aramay; Chinese: 克拉瑪依; pinyin: , Wade-Giles: Ko-la-ma-i) is a prefecture-level city in the north of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, in northwestern China. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Shenzhen (Sham Chun or Shamchun in old documents) is a sub-provincial city of Guangdong province in southern China, located at the border with the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. ... Guangdong, often spelt as Kwangtung, is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Languages Chinese languages, Indian languages, Hebrew Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ...


Phonology

(The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) and Hanyu Pinyin will be used for the rest of this section to show pronunciation.) Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of...


In phonology, Beijing dialect and Standard Mandarin are almost identical. See Standard Mandarin for its phonology charts; the same charts apply to Beijing dialect. Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ...


However, there are some striking differences. Most prominently is the proliferation of rhotic vowels. All rhotic vowels are the result of -儿 /-ɹ/, a noun suffix, except for a few words pronounced as /ɑɹ/ that do not have this suffix. In Standard Mandarin, these also occur, but nowhere near the ubiquity and frequency in which they appear in Beijing dialect. This phenomenon is known as erhua(儿化). Noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Moreover, Beijing dialect has a few phonetic reductions that are usually considered too "slangy" for use in Standard Mandarin. For example, in fast speech, initial consonants go through lenition if they are in an unstressed syllable: pinyin zh ch sh /tʂ tʂʰ ʂ/ become r /ɻ/, so 不知道 bùzhīdào "don't know" can sound like bùrīdào (stress is on the first and third syllables); j q x /tɕ tɕʰ ɕ/ become y /j/, so 赶紧去 gǎnjǐnqù "go quickly" can sound like gǎnyǐnqù; pinyin b d g /p t k/ go through voicing to become [b d g]; similar changes also occur on other consonants. Also, final /-n/ and (less frequently) /-ŋ/ (-ng) can fail to close entirely, so that a nasal vowel is pronounced instead of a nasal consonant; for example, nín ends up sounding like "nyih" (nasalized), instead of "nyeen" in Standard Mandarin: Lenition is a kind of consonant mutation that appears in many languages. ... In linguistics, stress is the emphasis given to some syllables (often no more than one in each word, but in many languages, long words have a secondary stress a few syllables away from the primary stress, as in the words cóunterfòil or còunterintélligence. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the mouth and the nose. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ...

Pinyin Standard Mandarin typical street pronunciation in Beijing
an an æɨ̃
ian iɛn iɛɨ̃
en ən əɨ̃
in in iəɨ̃
ang ɑŋ ɑɯ̃
eng ɤŋ ɤɯ̃
ing iɤŋ iɤɯ̃

The tones of Beijing dialect tend to be more exaggerated than Standard Mandarin. In standard Mandarin, the four tones are high flat, high rising, low dipping, and falling; in Beijing dialect, the first two tones are made higher, the third one dips more prominently, and the fourth one falls more. Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ...


Vocabulary

Beijing dialect has a lot of words that are considered slangy, and therefore occur much less or not at all in Standard Mandarin. Non-Beijing natives often have trouble understanding what most of these mean. Many of these slangwords have the rhotic suffix -r. Examples include: Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • 倍儿 bèir — very, especially (referring to manner or attribute)
  • 别价 biéjie — do not; usually followed by 呀 if used as an imperative (Usually used when rejecting a favor from close friends)
  • 搓火儿 cuōhuǒr — to be angry
  • 颠儿了 diārle — to leave; to run away
  • 二把刀 èrbǎdāo — a person with limited abilities, klutz
  • 嗬 hè — interjection indicating surprise or doubt
  • 瘊儿 hōur — to an extreme extent; used of tastes (usually sweet)
  • 抠门儿 kōuménr — stingy, spendthrift
  • 劳驾 láojia — excuse me; heard often on Beijing buses
  • 溜达 liūda — to stroll about; equivalent to standard Mandarin 逛街 or 散步
  • 怂 sóng / 蔫儿 niānr — no backbone, spiritless
  • 消停 xiāoting — to finally and thankfully become quiet and calm
  • 辙 zhé — way (to do something); equivalent to standard Mandarin 办法

Note that some of the slang are considered to be tuhua (土话), or "base language", that are carryovers from an older generation and are no longer used amongst more educated individuals, for example: Imperative programming, as opposed to functional programming, is a sort of programming employing side-effect as central execution feature. ... Slang is the use of highly informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speakers dialect or language. ...

  • 迄小儿 qíxiǎor — since a young age
  • 晕了菜 yūnlecài — to be disoriented

Others, still, can be construed as neologistic expressions that are used amongst "trendier" crowds: A neologism (Greek νεολογισμός [neologismos], from νέος [neos] new + λόγος [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix -ισμός [-ismos] -ism) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ...

  • 爽 shuǎng — cool *in relation to a matter*; compare with 酷 (kù) *describes a person*
  • 套瓷儿 tàocír — to toss into the hoop; used of basketball
  • 小蜜 xiǎomì — special female friend *negative connotation*

Grammar

As with phonology and vocabulary, the grammar of the colloquial Beijing dialect utilizes more colloquial expressions than does Standard Mandarin. In general, Standard Mandarin is influenced by Classical Chinese, which makes it more condensed and concise; Beijing dialect is not influenced in this way, and can therefore seem more longwinded — though this is made up by the fact that Beijing dialect is spoken faster and has phonetic reductions (see Phonology section above). For the surname, see Grammer. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ...


An example:


Standard Mandarin:
今天会下雨,所以出门时要记得带伞。
Jīntiān huì xiàyǔ, suǒyǐ chūmén shí yào jìde dài sǎn. Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ...


Beijing dialect:
今儿啊可能会下雨,所以呀你出门儿的时候可一定得记着带上伞!
Jīnr a kěnéng huì xiàyǔ, suǒyǐ ya nǐ chūménr de shíhou kě yídìng děi jìzhe dàishang sǎn!
After having gone through Beijing dialect's phonetic reductions:
Jīnr ra kěnéng wèi yàyǔ, suǒyǐ ya nǐ chūménr re ri'ou kě yídìng něi jìre dàirang sǎn!


It might rain today, so remember to bring an umbrella when you go out.


The Beijing dialect sentence would sound too long-winded if used in a context that requires Standard Mandarin (e.g. in writing, or formal speech), though it sounds fine if used among Beijing locals (with Beijing phonetic reductions in place). The Standard Mandarin pronunciation sounds fine if it is used in a context that requires it (e.g. among friends from different Chinese regions), but it is too stilted and short to be able to accommodate all the phonetic reductions of Beijing pronunciation and may be rendered incomprehensible as a result. Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Beijing dialect - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (986 words)
Beijing dialect (Simplified Chinese: 北京话; Traditional Chinese: 北京話; pinyin: Běijīnghuà) is the dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing, China.
The Beijing dialect is the basis of Standard Mandarin, the standard official Chinese spoken language that is used by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China on Taiwan, and Singapore.
Beijing dialect has a lot of words that are considered slangy, and therefore occur much less or not at all in Standard Mandarin.
Beijing - MSN Encarta (1312 words)
Beijing, the second largest city in China after Shanghai, is the cultural, political, and intellectual center of the country, as well as a major industrial and commercial metropolis.
Beijing’s international airport, located 26 km (15 mi) northeast of the city, has extensive domestic service to most of the larger cities in China and is also served by several international carriers with direct service to North America, Europe, and other parts of Asia.
The estimated population of Beijing municipality in 1988 was 9,879,700.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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