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Encyclopedia > Beijing
Municipality of Beijing/Peking
北京市
Běijīng Shì
The Temple of Heaven in Beijing
The Temple of Heaven in Beijing
Location of Beijing Municipality within China
Location of Beijing Municipality within China
Coordinates: 39°54′20″N 116°23′29″E / 39.90556, 116.39139
Country Flag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of China
County-level divisions 18
Township divisions 273
Settled c.473 BC
Government
 - CPC Beijing Liu Qi Committee Secretary
 - Mayor Guo Jinlong
Area (ranked 29th)
 - Municipality 16,801.25 km² (6,487 sq mi)
Elevation 43.5 m (143 ft)
Population (2007)
 - Municipality 17,430,000
 - Density 1,037.4/km² (2,686.9/sq mi)
 - Urban 8,495,000
 - Ranks in China Population: 26th; Density: 4th
 - Major nationalities Han: 96%
Manchu: 2%
Hui: 2%
Mongolian: 0.3%
Time zone China Standard Time (UTC+8)
Postal code 100000 - 102600
Area code(s) +86/10
License plate prefixes 京A, C, E, F, H, J, K, L
京B (taxis)
京G (outside urban area)
京O (police and authorities)
京V (military headquarters,
central government)
ISO 3166-2 cn-11
GDP (2007) CNY 887.9 billion (10th)
 - per capita CNY 57,431 (2nd)
HDI (2005) 0.882 (2nd) — high
City trees
Chinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis)
Pagoda tree (Sophora japonica)
City flowers
Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium)
Chinese rose (Rosa chinensis)
Website: www.beijing.gov.cn(Chinese)
www.ebeijing.gov.cn (English)

Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: Běijīng; Wade-Giles: Peiching or Pei3-ching1; IPA[pèitɕíŋ]; Chinese Postal Map Romanization: Peking; pronunciation ), a metropolis in Northern China, is the capital of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It is also known in English as Peking (English pronunciation ). Beijing is also one of the four municipalities of the PRC, which are equivalent to provinces in China's administrative structure and is one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China.[1] Beijing Municipality borders Hebei Province to the north, west, south, and for a small section in the east, and Tianjin Municipality to the southeast.[2] Peking may be: BÄ›ijÄ«ng, capital city of the Peoples Republic of China Peking (ship), a square-rigged sailing ship 2045 Peking, an asteroid named after Beijing Saron panerus, an Indonesian musical instrument IFK Norrköping, a Swedish soccer club. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1880x1395, 751 KB) The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest, Temple of Heaven, Beijng Photographer: Saad Akhtar Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times. ... Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ... Liu Qi (刘淇) (b. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Guo Jinlong (Chinese: 郭金龙; Pinyin: Guō JÄ«nlóng; born July 1947) is a politician of the Peoples Republic of China and acting Mayor of Beijing. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of Mainland China (including all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities) in order of their total areas. ... Direct-controlled municipalities are the highest-level cities in China, with status equal to that of the provinces. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Direct-controlled municipalities are the highest-level cities in China, with status equal to that of the provinces. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of Mainland China (including all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities) in order of their total populations in 2002. ... This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of Mainland China(including all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities) in order of their total population density in 2002. ... Ethnolinguistic map of China The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a multi-ethnic unitary state and, as such, officially recognizes 56 nationalities or mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (å¾½) dialects. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Certain regions of eastern Asia, including Greater China, observe a time zone eight hours ahead of UTC (UTC+8), and currently do not observe daylight saving time. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating telephone number ranges to countries, regions, areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks such as mobile phone networks. ... Blue PRC licence plates of the 1992 standard (August 2004 image). ... ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ... This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of Mainland China (including all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities) in order of their total gross domestic product in 2002. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ... This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of Mainland China (including all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities) in order of their total gross domestic product per capita in 2002. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... Map showing the HDI of the first-order administrative divisions of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Binomial name Platycladus orientalis Chinese Arborvitae, Platycladus orientalis, is a distinct species of evergreen coniferous tree in the cypress family Cupressaceae, native to northwestern China and widely naturalised elsewhere in east Asia. ... Species Styphnolobium affine - Coralbean Styphnolobium japonicum - Pagoda Tree Styphnolobium monteviridis Styphnolobium is a small genus of three or four species of small trees and shrubs in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae, formerly included within a broader interpretation of the genus Sophora. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Species Chrysanthemum aphrodite Chrysanthemum arcticum Chrysanthemum argyrophyllum Chrysanthemum arisanense Chrysanthemum boreale Chrysanthemum chalchingolicum Chrysanthemum chanetii Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Chrysanthemum coronarium, Crown daisy Chrysanthemum crassum Chrysanthemum glabriusculum Chrysanthemum hypargyrum Chrysanthemum indicum Chrysanthemum japonense Chrysanthemum japonicum Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium Chrysanthemum mawii Chrysanthemum maximowiczii Chrysanthemum mongolicum Chrysanthemum morifolium Chrysanthemum morii Chrysanthemum okiense Chrysanthemum oreastrum Chrysanthemum... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Chinese Postal Map Romanization (Traditional Chinese: 郵政式拼音; Pinyin: Yóuzhèngshì PÄ«nyÄ«n) refers to the system of romanization for Chinese place names which came into use in the late Qing dynasty and was officially sanctioned by the Imperial Postal Joint-Session Conference (帝國郵電聯席會議), which was held in Shanghai in the... Image File history File links Zh-Beijing. ... For other uses, see Metropolis (disambiguation). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Image File history File links Peking_pronounced_in_English_way. ... Direct-controlled municipalities are the highest-level cities in China, with status equal to that of the provinces. ... A province, in the context of China, is a translation of Sheng (Chinese: 省 ShÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times. ... The Chinese phrase Four Great Ancient Capitals of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngguó Sì Dà GÇ”dÅ«) traditionally refers to Beijing, Nanjing, Luoyang, and Xian. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ...


Beijing is China's second largest city, after Shanghai. It is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and motorways passing through the city. It is also the focal point of many international flights to China. Beijing is recognised as the political, educational, and cultural center of the People's Republic of China, while Shanghai and Hong Kong predominate in economic fields.[3] The city will host the 2008 Summer Olympics.[1] For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... The 2008 Summer Olympics (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be celebrated from August 8, 2008, to August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony commencing at 08:08:08 pm CST (12:08:08 UTC) at the Beijing National Stadium in...

Contents

Names

Beijing or Peking () means "northern capital", in line with the common East Asian tradition whereby capital cities are explicitly named as such. Other cities that are similarly named include Nanjing (), China, meaning "southern capital"; Tokyo (), Japan, and Đông Kinh (Chinese: 東京, now Hanoi), Vietnam, both meaning "eastern capital"; as well as Kyoto (), Japan, and Gyeongseong (; now Seoul), Korea, both meaning simply "capital". This article is about the geographical region. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i), estimated population 3,083,800 (2004), is the capital of Vietnam. ... For the puzzle, see Tower of Hanoi. ... For other uses, see Kyoto (disambiguation). ... Gyeongseong is the Korean form of Keijō (京城), the former Japanese name of Seoul used during the Japanese Colonial Period (1910-1945). ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ...


Peking is the name of the city according to Chinese Postal Map Romanization, and the traditional customary name for Beijing in English (passports issued by the British Embassy are still printed as being issued by the "British Embassy, Peking"). The term Peking originated with French missionaries four hundred years ago and corresponds to an older pronunciation predating a subsequent sound change in Mandarin from [kʲ] to [tɕ][4] ([tɕ] is represented in pinyin as j, as in Beijing). It is still used in many languages (as in French (Pékin), Italian (Pechino), Spanish (Pekín), Portuguese (Pequim), Lithuanian (Pekinas), Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, Dutch, German, Hungarian, Czech, and Polish). Chinese Postal Map Romanization (Traditional Chinese: 郵政式拼音; Pinyin: Yóuzhèngshì PÄ«nyÄ«n) refers to the system of romanization for Chinese place names which came into use in the late Qing dynasty and was officially sanctioned by the Imperial Postal Joint-Session Conference (帝國郵電聯席會議), which was held in Shanghai in the... Sound change or phonetic change is a historical process of language change consisting in the replacement of one speech sound or, more generally, one phonetic feature by another in a given phonological environment. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...


The city has been renamed several times. During the Jin Dynasty, the city was known as Zhongdu (中都) , and then later under the Mongol Yuan Dynasty as Dadu (大都) in Chinese, and Khanbaliq in Mongolian (recorded as Cambuluc by Marco Polo). After the reconquest of the city by the Ming it was known as Shuntian (順天, "obedient to Heaven"). Geographical renaming is the act of changing the name of a geographical feature or area. ... Location of Jin Capital Huining (1122-1153) Zhongdu (1153-1214) Kaifeng (1214-1233) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1115-1123 Emperor Taizu  - 1234 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1115  - Ended Liaos rule 1125  - Captured Bianliang January 9, 1127  - Fall of Caizhou February 9, 1234 The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Manchu: Aisin... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Khanbaliq or Cambuluc (great residence of the Khan) is the ancient Mongol name[1] for the city at the present location of Beijing, the current capital of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ...


Twice in the city's history, the name was changed from "Beijing" (Peking) to Peiping (Beiping) ( Pinyin: Beiping; Wade-Giles: Pei-p'ing), literally "Northern Peace". This occurred first under the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming Dynasty, and again in 1928 with the Kuomintang (KMT) government of the Republic of China.[3] On each occasion, the name change removed the element meaning "capital" (jing or king, Chinese: ) to reflect the fact the national capital had changed to Nanjing. The city's name was also twice changed from "Beiping" (Peiping) to "Beijing" (Peking). This occurred first under the Yongle Emperor of the Ming Dynasty, who moved the capital from Nanjing back to Beijing, and again in 1949, when the Communist Party of China restored Beijing as China's capital after the founding of the People's Republic of China.[3] Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... izzy lewis loves the weewee in her pooter. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360 – August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di (Chu Ti) , was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ...


Yanjing (; Pinyin: Yānjīng; Wade-Giles: Yen-ching) is and has been another popular informal name for Beijing, a reference to the ancient State of Yan that existed here during the Zhou Dynasty. This name is reflected in the locally-brewed Yanjing Beer as well as Yenching University, an institution of higher learning that was merged into Peking University. Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... State of Yan (small seal script, 220 BC) Yan (pinyin: yan1, simplified Chinese/traditional Chinese: 燕) was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods in China. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Yanjing beer (Chinese: 燕京啤酒; Hanyu Pinyin: yānjÄ«ng píjiÇ”) is a malty, smooth lager beer from China. ... Yenching University was a notable university in Peking (present-day Beijing) in China. ...

The history section below outlines other historical names of Beijing.

History

Main article: History of Beijing

There were cities in the vicinities of Beijing by the 1st millennium BC, and the capital of the State of Yan, one of the powers of the Warring States Period, was established at Ji (T: è–Š / S: è“Ÿ), near modern Beijing. ...

Early history

The earliest remnants of human habitation in the Beijing municipality are found in the caves of Dragon Bone Hill near the village of Zhoukoudian in Fangshan District, where the Peking Man lived. Homo erectus fossils from the caves date to 230,000 to 250,000 years ago. Paleolithic homo sapiens also lived there about 27,000 years ago[5]. There were cities in the vicinities of Beijing by the 1st millennium BC, and the capital of the State of Yan, one of the powers of the Warring States Period (473-221 BC), Ji (薊/蓟), was established in present-day Beijing.[6] Zhoukoudian Site - Museum. ... Zhoukoudian Site - Museum. ... Zhoukoudian Peking Man Site - the Caves (taken in July 2004) Zhoukoudian or Choukoutien (周口店) is a cave system near Beijing in China. ... Zhoukoudian Peking Man Site - the Caves (taken in July 2004) Zhoukoudian or Choukoutien (周口店) is a cave system near Beijing in China. ... Fangshan District (Simplified Chinese: 房山区; Traditional Chinese: 房山區; Hanyu Pinyin: Fángshān QÅ«) is situated in the southwest of Beijing and 38km away from downtown Beijing. ... Trinomial name Homo erectus pekinensis (Black, 1927) Peking Man (sometimes now called Beijing Man), also called Sinanthropus pekinensis (currently Homo erectus pekinensis), is an example of Homo erectus. ... Binomial name (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of successive empires. ... State of Yan (small seal script, 220 BC) Yan (pinyin: yan1, simplified Chinese/traditional Chinese: 燕) was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods in China. ... Warring States redirects here. ...


After the fall of the Yan, the subsequent Qin, Han, and Jin dynasties set-up local prefectures in the area.[6] In Tang Dynasty it became the headquarter for Fanyang jiedushi, the virtual military governor of current northern Hebei area. An Lushan launched An Shi Rebellion from here in 755 AD. Yan State knife money Yan (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods in China. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... The Jiedushi (T: 節度使 S: 节度使) were regional military governors in China during the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... An Lushan (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (ca. ... The An Shi Rebellion (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) took place in China during the Tang Dynasty, from December 16, 755 to February 17, 763. ...

The Pagoda of Tianning Temple near Guang'anmen in Beijing, built in 1120 during the Liao Dynasty.
The Pagoda of Tianning Temple near Guang'anmen in Beijing, built in 1120 during the Liao Dynasty.

Medieval period

In 936, the Later Jin Dynasty (936-947) of northern China ceded a large part of its northern frontier, including modern Beijing, to the Khitan Liao Dynasty. In 938, the Liao Dynasty set up a secondary capital in what is now Beijing, and called it Nanjing (the "Southern Capital"). In 1125, the Jurchen Jin Dynasty conquered Liao, and in 1153 moved its capital to Liao's Nanjing, calling it Zhongdu (中都), "the central capital."[6] Zhongdu was situated in what is now the area centered around Tianningsi, slightly to the southwest of central Beijing. Some of the oldest existing relics in Beijing including the Niujie Mosque and the Tianning Temple date to the Liao era. The Later Jin (936-947) was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ... The Khitan (or Khitai, Chinese: ; pinyin: Qìdān) were an ethnic group which dominated much of Manchuria in the 11th century and has been classified by Chinese historians as one of the Eastern proto-Mongolic ethnic groups Donghu (東胡族 dōng hú zú). They established the Liao Dynasty in 907... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... The Jin Dynasty (金 pinyin: JÄ«n 1115-1234; Anchu in Jurchen), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Mongol forces burned Zhongdu to the ground in 1215 and rebuilt it to the north of the Jin capital in 1267.[7] In preparation for the conquest of all of China, Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty founder Kublai Khan made this his capital as Dadu (大都, Chinese for "great capital")[7], or Khanbaliq to the Mongols, otherwise spelled as Cambuluc in Marco Polo's accounts.[6] Construction of Dadu finished in 1293.[6] The decision of the Khan greatly enhanced the status of a city that had been situated on the northern fringe of China proper. Dadu was situated north of modern central Beijing. It centered on what is now the northern stretch of the 2nd Ring Road, and stretched northwards to between the 3rd and 4th Ring Roads. There are remnants of Yuan-era wall still standing and are known as the Tucheng (土城 literally, the 'earth wall').[8] Expansion of the Mongol Empire Mongol dominions, ca. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Khanbaliq or Cambuluc (great residence of the Khan) is the ancient Mongol name[1] for the city at the present location of Beijing, the current capital of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Various styles of Chinese calligraphy. ... Khanbaliq or Cambuluc (great residence of the Khan) is the ancient Mongol name[1] for the city at the present location of Beijing, the current capital of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ... 2nd Ring Road (Eastern segment, taken in July of 2004) Yonghegong Lamasery from the 2nd Ring Road (Northern segment, taken in July of 2004) Central to Beijing, the 2nd Ring Road (pinyin: Er Huan Lu) lies just a few kilometres away from the city centre and is an extremely convenient... 3rd Ring Road (Southeastern segment, taken in July of 2004) The 3rd Ring Road pinyin: San Huan Lu) is a 48-kilometer city ring road that encircles the centre of the city of Beijing. ... Beijings 4th Ring Road (April 2003 image) Eastern 4th Ring Road (August 2004 image) The 4th Ring Road (Hanyu Pinyin: Si Huan Lu) is an express route ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 8 kilometres from the centre of the city. ...


Ming and Qing period

A corner tower of the Forbidden City, located at the middle of Beijing.
A corner tower of the Forbidden City, located at the middle of Beijing.

After the fall of the Yuan Dynasty in 1368, the city was later rebuilt by the Ming Dynasty and Shuntian (順天) prefecture was established in the area around the city. In 1403, the third Ming Emperor Yongle moved the Ming capital from Nanjing (Nanking) to the renamed Beijing (Peking) (北京), the "northern capital", situated in the north. The capital was also known as Jingshi 京師, simply meaning capital. During the Ming Dynasty, Beijing took its current shape, and the Ming-era city wall served as the Beijing city wall until modern times, when it was pulled down and the 2nd Ring Road was built in its place. For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360 – August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di (Chu Ti) , was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... The city wall of Beijing was a fortification built around 1435. ... 2nd Ring Road (Eastern segment, taken in July of 2004) Yonghegong Lamasery from the 2nd Ring Road (Northern segment, taken in July of 2004) Central to Beijing, the 2nd Ring Road (pinyin: Er Huan Lu) lies just a few kilometres away from the city centre and is an extremely convenient...


It is believed that Beijing was the largest city in the world from 1425 to 1650 and from 1710 to 1825. It is now the 17th largest city in the world.[9]

Panorama view of the Forbidden City, home to the Emperors of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.
Panorama view of the Forbidden City, home to the Emperors of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.

The Forbidden City was constructed soon after that (1406-1420), followed by the Temple of Heaven (1420), and numerous other construction projects. Tiananmen, which has become a state symbol of the People's Republic of China and is featured on its emblem, was burned down twice during the Ming Dynasty and the final reconstruction was carried out in 1651. For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ... The Temple of Heaven, literally the Altar of Heaven (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Manchu: Abkai mukdehun) is a complex of Taoist buildings situated in southeastern urban Beijing, in Xuanwu District. ... The Tiananmen The Gate of Heavenly Peace is the front entrance into the Imperial City A close-up of the rooftop The Tiananmen or Tiananmen (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Tiānānmén; Manchu: Abkai elhe obure duka), is the main entrance to the Imperial City, the...


After the Manchus overthrew the Ming Dynasty and established the Qing Dynasty in its place, Beijing remained China's capital throughout the Qing period. Just like during the preceding dynasty, Beijing was also known as Jingshi, which corresponded to the Manchu Gemun Hecen with the same meaning. It was the scene of the siege of the foreign legations during the Boxer Rebellion in the 1900. The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire French Third Republic United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50...


Republican era

The Xinhai Revolution of 1911, aimed at replacing Qing rule with a republic, originally intended to establish its capital at Nanjing. After high-ranking Qing official Yuan Shikai forced the abdication of the Qing emperor in Beijing and ensured the success of the revolution, the revolutionaries in Nanjing accepted that Yuan should be the president of the new Republic of China, and that the capital should remain at Beijing. Belligerents Qing Dynasty Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Commanders Feng Guozhang, Yuan Shikai, and local Qing governors. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán Shìkǎi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


Yuan gradually consolidated power, culminating in his declaration of a Chinese Empire in late 1915 with himself as emperor. The move was highly unpopular, and Yuan himself died less than a year later, ending his brief reign. China then fell under the control of regional warlords, and the most powerful factions fought frequent wars (the Zhili-Anhui War, the First Zhili-Fengtian War, and the Second Zhili-Fengtian War) to take control of the capital at Beijing. The Zhili-Anhui War (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhíwǎn Zhànzhēng) was a 1920 conflict in the Republic of Chinas Warlord Era between the Zhili clique and Anhui cliques for control of Beijing. ... The First Zhili-Fengtian War (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a 1922 conflict in the Republic of Chinas Warlord Era between the Zhili and Fengtian cliques for control of Beijing. ... The Second Zhili-Fengtian War (Chinese: ; pinyin: Dìèrcì Zhífèng Zhànzhēng) was a 1924 conflict in the Republic of Chinas Warlord era between the Zhili and Fengtian cliques for control of Beijing. ...

Following the success of the Kuomintang (KMT)'s Northern Expedition which pacified the warlords of the north, Nanjing was officially made the capital of the Republic of China in 1928, and Beijing was renamed Beiping (Peip'ing) (北平) on June 28 that year[10], in English meaning "northern peace" or "north pacified".[3] Tiananmen Square has been the central point for several major historical protests. ... For the 1989 protest, see Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ... Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the...


During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Beiping fell to Japan on 29 July 1937.[3] During the occupation, the city was reverted to its former name, Beijing, and made the seat of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China, a puppet state that ruled the ethnic Chinese portions of Japanese-occupied northern China. It was later merged into the larger Wang Jingwei Government based in Nanjing. The Imperial Japanese Army established in the city the bacteriological research unit 1855, a section of unit 731 where Japanese doctors experimented on humans. Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... Alternative meaning: In geology, North China (continent) and South China (continent) were two ancient landmasses that correspond to modern northern and southern China. ... The Wang Jingwei was a government under the leadership of Wang Jingwei in the Republic of China, set up by the Empire of Japan in March 1940. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... Unit 1855 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of biological weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried...


With Japan's surrender in World War II, on 15 August 1945, Beijing's name was changed back to Beiping. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949
Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949
A man stands before a column of tanks sent to Tiananmen Square to suppress the 1989 Tiananmen Square student protests.
A man stands before a column of tanks sent to Tiananmen Square to suppress the 1989 Tiananmen Square student protests.

Image File history File links PRCFounding. ... Image File history File links PRCFounding. ... Mao redirects here. ... Image File history File links Tianasquare. ... Image File history File links Tianasquare. ... For the 1989 protest, see Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship...

People's Republic

On January 31, 1949, during the Chinese Civil War, Communist forces entered Beijing without a fight. On October 1 of the same year, the Communist Party of China, under the leadership of Mao Zedong, announced in Tiananmen the creation of the People's Republic of China in Beijing. Just a few days earlier, the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference had decided that Beijing would be the capital of the new government, and that its name would be changed back to Beijing. is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ... Mao redirects here. ... The Tiananmen The Gate of Heavenly Peace is the front entrance into the Imperial City A close-up of the rooftop The Tiananmen or Tiananmen (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Tiānānmén; Manchu: Abkai elhe obure duka), is the main entrance to the Imperial City, the... The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


At the time of the founding of the People's Republic, Beijing Municipality consisted of just its urban area and immediate suburbs. The urban area was divided into many small districts inside what is now the 2nd Ring Road. Since then several surrounding counties have been incorporated into the Municipality, enlarging the limits of Beijing Municipality by many times and giving it its present shape. The Beijing city wall was torn down between 1965 and 1969 to make way for the construction of the 2nd Ring Road. 2nd Ring Road (Eastern segment, taken in July of 2004) Yonghegong Lamasery from the 2nd Ring Road (Northern segment, taken in July of 2004) Located in the central of Beijing, the 2nd Ring Road (pinyin: Er Huan Lu) is just a few kilometres away from the city center and is... In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 (xiàn). ... The city wall of Beijing was a fortification built around 1435. ... 2nd Ring Road (Eastern segment, taken in July of 2004) Yonghegong Lamasery from the 2nd Ring Road (Northern segment, taken in July of 2004) Located in the central of Beijing, the 2nd Ring Road (pinyin: Er Huan Lu) is just a few kilometres away from the city center and is...


Following the economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping, the urban area of Beijing has expanded greatly. Formerly within the confines of the 2nd Ring Road and the 3rd Ring Road, the urban area of Beijing is now pushing at the limits of the recently-constructed 5th Ring Road and 6th Ring Road, with many areas that were formerly farmland now developed residential or commercial districts. A new commercial area has developed in the Guomao area, Wangfujing and Xidan have developed into flourishing shopping districts, while Zhongguancun has become a major centre of electronics in China. Economic reforms have triggered internal migrations within China. ... Deng Xiaoping   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 â€“ February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician, pragmatist and reformer, as well as the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CPC). ... 2nd Ring Road (Eastern segment, taken in July of 2004) Yonghegong Lamasery from the 2nd Ring Road (Northern segment, taken in July of 2004) Central to Beijing, the 2nd Ring Road (pinyin: Er Huan Lu) lies just a few kilometres away from the city centre and is an extremely convenient... 3rd Ring Road (Southeastern segment, taken in July of 2004) The 3rd Ring Road pinyin: San Huan Lu) is a 48-kilometer city ring road that encircles the centre of the city of Beijing. ... Beijings 5th Ring Road (taken in March of 2003) The 5th Ring Road at Shangqing Bridge (July 2004 image) The Western 5th Ring Road nears the Western Hills in Beijing (July 2004 image) Beijings 5th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 五环路, Traditional Chinese: 五環路, Hanyu Pinyin: Wu Huan Lu... The 6th Ring Road (Simplified Chinese: 六环路, Hanyu Pinyin: Liu Huan Lu) is an expressway ring road in Beijing, China which runs around the city approximately 15-20 kilometres from the centre of the city. ... Guomao Bridge. ... Wangfujing, looking south (August 2004 image) Night view of Wangfujing (July 2004 image) Wangfujing street (Simplified Chinese 王府井; Hanyu Pinyin: WángfÇ”jǐng DàjiÄ“) in Beijing is one of the Chinese capitals most famous shopping streets. ... Xidan in Beijing (July 2004 image) Xidan (西单) is home to a commercial district in Beijing. ... Zhongguancun -- buildings and park-like landscape Zhongguancun Street -- a road through the tech hub Zhong Guan Cun (often Zhongguancun) is a technology hub in Beijing. ...


In recent years, the expansion of Beijing has also brought to the forefront some problems of urbanization, such as heavy traffic, poor air quality, the loss of historic neighbourhoods, and significant influx of migrants from poorer regions of the country, especially rural areas. The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized index of the air quality in a given location, given in parts per billion. ...


Early 2005 saw the approval by government of a plan to finally stop the sprawling development of Beijing in all directions. Development of the Chinese capital would now proceed in two semicircular bands just outside of the city centre (both west and east) instead of being in concentric rings.


Geography and climate

Main article: Geography of Beijing
Beijing seen from SPOT satellite
Beijing seen from SPOT satellite
A simulated-color image of Beijing, taken by NASA's Landsat 7.
A simulated-color image of Beijing, taken by NASA's Landsat 7.

Beijing is situated at the northern tip of the roughly triangular North China Plain, which opens to the south and east of the city. Mountains to the north, northwest and west shield the city and northern China's agricultural heartland from the encroaching desert steppes. The northwestern part of the municipality, especially Yanqing County and Huairou District, are dominated by the Jundu Mountains, while the western part of the municipality is framed by the Xishan Mountains. The Great Wall of China, which stretches across the northern part of Beijing Municipality, made use of this rugged topography to defend against nomadic incursions from the steppes. Mount Dongling in the Xishan ranges and on the border with Hebei is the municipality's highest point, with an altitude of 2303 m. Major rivers flowing through the municipality include the Yongding River and the Chaobai River, part of the Hai River system, and flowing in a southerly direction. Beijing is also the northern terminus of the Grand Canal of China which was built across the North China Plain to Hangzhou. Miyun Reservoir, built on the upper reaches of the Chaobai River, is Beijing's largest reservoir, and crucial to its water supply. The geography of Beijing Municipality is characterized by flat land, except for hills that dominate in the north, northwest and west of Beijing. ... Download high resolution version (800x800, 214 KB)Large Beijing Landsat File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (800x800, 214 KB)Large Beijing Landsat File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Landsat 7 is the latest satellite of the Landsat program. ... The North China Plain (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also called the Central Plain(s) (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is based on the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ... The Guyaju Ruins, showing ancient cave dwellings, are located in Yanqing County. ... Huairou District (Simplified Chinese: 怀柔区; Traditional Chinese: 懷柔區; Hanyu Pinyin: Huáiróu QÅ«) is situated at northeast Beijing. ... The Xishan Mountains also known as the Western Mountains are a mountain range in western Beijing in eastern China. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Hai River basin The Hai River (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally sea river), previously called Bai He (Chinese: 白河; pinyin: Bái Hé; literally white river; Pei Ho in Western sources), is a river in China which flows through Beijing and Tianjin into Bohai Gulf of the Yellow Sea. ... Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ...


The urban area of Beijing, located at 39°55′N(Latitude)″116, 26°E(Longitude)′″{{{8}}} (39.9056, 116.3914), is situated in the south-central part of the municipality and occupies a small but expanding part of the municipality's area. It spreads out in bands of concentric ring roads, of which the fifth and outermost (the Sixth Ring Road; the numbering starts at 2) passes through several satellite towns. Tian'anmen (Gate of Heavenly Peace) and Tian'anmen Square are at the centre of Beijing, and are directly to the south of the Forbidden City, former residence of the emperors of China. To the west of Tian'anmen is Zhongnanhai, residence of the paramount leaders of the People's Republic of China. Running through central Beijing from east to west is Chang'an Avenue, one of Beijing's main thoroughfares. The eastern 3rd Ring Road (August 2004 image) Beijing is one of the very few cities to possess multiple ring roads (or beltways). ... Sixth Ring Road (Beijing) This Ring Road is not a ring, because it begins by Daxing (Jingkai expressway)in the south and go anticlockwise to the north to Shahe at the Badaling expressway. ... Tiananmen Gate The Tiananmen or Tiananmen (Simplified Chinese: 天安门; Traditional Chinese: 天安門; Pinyin: tiān ān mén), literally meaning Gate of Heavenly Peace, is the principal entrance to the Imperial Palace Grounds, commonly called the Forbidden City, in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ... Tiananmen Square (Simplified Chinese: 天安门广场; Traditional Chinese: 天安門廣場; pinyin: ) is a very large plaza near the center of Beijing, China, named for the Tiananmen (literally, Gate of Heavenly Peace) which sits to its north, separating it from the Forbidden City. ... For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ... An aerial view of Zhongnanhai The Zhongnanhai (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngnánhăi) is a complex of buildings in Beijing, China which serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China and the government of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Changan Avenue Changan Avenue is a major through route in Beijing, China. ...


The city's climate is a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dwa), characterised by hot, humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and generally cold, windy, dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone. Average temperatures in January are at around -7 to -4 °C (19 to 24 °F), while average temperatures in July are at 25 to 26 °C (77 to 79 °F). Highest temperature ever recorded is 42°C and lowest recorded is -27°C. [11] Annual precipitation is over 600 mm, with 75% of that in summer.[12] The humid continental climate is a climate found over large areas of land masses in the temperate regions of the mid-latitudes where there is a zone of conflict between polar and tropical air masses. ... The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... Siberian federal subjects of Russia Siberia (Russian: Сиби́рь, common English transliterations: Sibir, Sibir; possibly from the Mongolian for the calm land) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting all of northern Asia. ... In meteorology, an anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon in which there is a descending movement of the air and a high pressure area over the part of the planets surface affected by it. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ...

Weather averages for Beijing, China
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1 (34) 3 (38) 11 (52) 19 (67) 25 (78) 29 (85) 30 (86) 29 (85) 25 (78) 18 (66) 9 (49) 2 (37) 17 (63)
Average low °C (°F) -8 (17) -5 (22) 0 (33) 8 (47) 13 (57) 18 (66) 22 (72) 20 (69) 15 (59) 8 (47) 0 (32) -5 (22) 7 (45)
Precipitation cm (inches) 0 (0.2) 0 (0.2) 0 (0.3) 1 (0.7) 3 (1.3) 7 (3.1) 22 (8.8) 17 (6.7) 5 (2.3) 1 (0.7) 1 (0.4) 0 (0.1) 63.7 (25.1)
Source: Weatherbase[13] Feb 2007


Pollution

Heavy air pollution has resulted in widespread smog
Heavy air pollution has resulted in widespread smog

Air pollution levels on an average day in Beijing are nearly five times above World Health Organization standards for safety.[14] China's extremely inefficient use of coal - the country's main source of energy - results in much of the pollution. Despite promises to stage a green 2008 Summer Olympics, Bejing has had persistent air pollution - thus city officials are planning to reduce its motor traffic by half during the Games to improve air quality.[15] In February 2008, the Chinese government announced that it would close 144 gas stations in Beijing, which amounts to about 10% of such stations in the city, to improve air quality in preparation for the Olympics.[16] WHO redirects here. ... The 2008 Summer Olympics (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be celebrated from August 8, 2008, to August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony commencing at 08:08:08 pm CST (12:08:08 UTC) at the Beijing National Stadium in...


Since 2001, when Beijing won the right to hold the Olympics, nearly $17 billion has been spent to clean the air, but the city remains under smoggy conditions on many days and athletes frequently complain about the air quality.[17]


Dust storm

Dust from erosion of deserts in northern and northwestern China result in seasonal dust storms that plague the city; the Beijing Weather Modification Office sometimes artificially induces rainfall to fight such storms and mitigate their effects.[18] In the first four months of 2006 alone, there were no fewer than eight such storms.[19] In April 2002, one dust storm alone dumped nearly 50,000 tons of dust onto the city before moving on to Japan and Korea.[20] “Sandstorm” redirects here. ... The Beijing Weather Modification Office is a unit of the Beijing Meteorological Bureau tasked with weather control in Beijing and its surrounding areas, including parts of Hebei and Inner Mongolia. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ...


City layout

Layout Map


Neighbourhoods

Southern end of Wangfujing Road (July 2004 image).
Southern end of Wangfujing Road (July 2004 image).
Beijing by night
Beijing by night
Beijing Bookshop at Xidan
Beijing Bookshop at Xidan

Major neighbourhoods in urban Beijing include the following. Neighbourhoods may overlap across multiple districts (see below): Wangfujing Nankou. ... Wangfujing Nankou. ... Wangfujing, looking south (August 2004 image) Night view of Wangfujing (July 2004 image) Wangfujing street (Simplified Chinese 王府井; Hanyu Pinyin: WángfÇ”jǐng DàjiÄ“) in Beijing is one of the Chinese capitals most famous shopping streets. ... Beijing by Night. ... Beijing by Night. ... Xidan in Beijing (July 2004 image) Xidan (西单) is home to a commercial district in Beijing. ...

Several place names in Beijing end with mén (), meaning "gate", as they were the locations of gates in the former Beijing city wall. Other place names end in cūn (), meaning "village", as they were originally villages outside the city wall. Andingmen (Simplified Chinese: 安定门; Traditional Chinese: 安定門; pinyin: Ä€ndìngmén; Manchu: Elhe toktoho duka) is the name of a gate in the former city wall of Beijing. ... Chaoyangmen (Simplified Chinese: 朝阳门; Traditional Chinese: 朝陽門; pinyin: Cháoyángmén; Manchu: Å un be aliha duka) is the name of a gate in the former city wall of Beijing. ... Dongzhimen (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Manchu: Tob dergi duka; lit. ... Fangzhuang is a large living district in Beijing. ... Fuchengmen (Simplified Chinese: 阜成门; Traditional Chinese: 阜成門; pinyin: Fùchéngmén) is a former Beijing city gate, which was located in the western parts of the city. ... Fuxingmen (复兴门) is situated in central Beijing, and is on the northwestern stretch of the 2nd Ring Road. ... Guomao Bridge. ... Hepingli -- view of residential blocks (2003 image) Hepingli (Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 和平里) is an area, predominantly residential, in Beijing, China. ... Korean shopsigns in Wangjing, Beijing Wangjing (望京 Hanyu Pinyin: Wàngjīng) is a major residential area in Chaoyang District, in the northeast of Beijing. ... Wangfujing, looking south (August 2004 image) Night view of Wangfujing (July 2004 image) Wangfujing street (Simplified Chinese 王府井; Hanyu Pinyin: WángfÇ”jǐng DàjiÄ“) in Beijing is one of the Chinese capitals most famous shopping streets. ... The railway crossing under the Wudaokou subway station, click for animation Wudaokou (五道口) is a neighborhood in the Haidian District of North West Beijing. ... Xidan in Beijing (July 2004 image) Xidan (西单) is home to a commercial district in Beijing. ... Xizhimen is a transportation node in Beijing. ... Yayuncun is the site of the 1990 Asian Games and a major residental area in the Chaoyang District of Beijing. ... Zhongguancun -- buildings and park-like landscape Zhongguancun Street -- a road through the tech hub Zhong Guan Cun (often Zhongguancun) is a technology hub in Beijing. ... The city wall of Beijing was a fortification built around 1435. ...


Towns

Towns within Beijing Municipality but outside the urban area include (but are not limited to):

Changping District (Simplified Chinese: 昌平区; Traditional Chinese: 昌平區; Hanyu Pinyin: Chāngpíng QÅ«) is situated at the suburb of northwest Beijing. ... Huairou District (Simplified Chinese: 怀柔区; Traditional Chinese: 懷柔區; Hanyu Pinyin: Huáiróu QÅ«) is situated at northeast Beijing. ... Miyun is a city in the northeast of Beijing. ... Tongzhou (通州; pinyin: Tōngzhōu; Wade-Giles: Tungchow) can refer to: Tongzhou District, a district of Beijing, China Tongzhou City, a county-level city in Jiangsu province, China This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Yizhuang is a town of Daxing district, Beijing ,China. ... Xiaotangshan is a small town in the Changping District of Beijing in the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Subdivisions

See also: List of administrative divisions of Beijing

Beijing Municipality comprises 18 administrative sub-divisions, county-level units governed directly by the municipality (second-level divisions). Of these, 16 are districts and 2 are counties. The urban and suburban areas of the city are divided into eight (8) districts:[2] Beijing, an independent municipality in China is divided into ten districts and eight counties. ... Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times. ... District, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ... In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 (xiàn). ...

District Population (2000 census) Area (km²) Density (per km²)
Dongcheng District (东城区: Dōngchéng Qū) 536,000 24.7 21,700
Xicheng District (西城区: Xīchéng Qū) 707,000 30.0 23,567
Chongwen District (崇文区: Chóngwén Qū) 346,000 15.9 21,761
Xuanwu District (宣武区: Xuānwǔ Qū) 526,000 16.5 31,879
Chaoyang District (朝阳区: Cháoyáng Qū) 2,290,000 470.8 4,864
Haidian District (海淀区: Hǎidiàn Qū) 2,240,000 426.0 5,258
Fengtai District (丰台区: Fēngtái Qū) 1,369,000 304.2 4,500
Shijingshan District (石景山区: Shíjǐngshān Qū) 489,000 89.8 5,445
City proper + inner suburbs 8.50 million 1377.9 6,171

The following six districts encompass the more distant suburbs and satellite towns, constituting part of the metropolitan area: Spanning an area of 24. ... Beijings Xicheng District/Precinct (Simplified Chinese: 西城区) (West City District) spans 32 square kilometres, making it the largest portion of the old city (inside the 2nd Ring Road), and has 790,000 inhabitants. ... Beijings Chongwen District (Simplified Chinese: 崇文区; Hanyu Pinyin: Chóngwén Qū) is located southeast relative to city center (Tiananmen), and is situated between Yongdingmen and Qianmen. ... Xuanwu District (Simplified Chinese: 宣武区, Hanyu Pinyin: Xuānwǔ Qū) is a district of the municipality of Beijing. ... Beijings Chaoyang district (Simplified Chinese: 朝阳区; Hanyu Pinyin: Cháoyáng Qū) is home to a good part of Beijings diplomatic quarters, with many embassies located in the area. ... Haidian District (Simplified Chinese: 海淀区 (officially), 海甸区 (alternatively), Hanyu Pinyin: Hǎidiàn Qū) is a district of the municipality of Beijing. ... Fengtai District (Simplified Chinese: 丰台区, Hanyu Pinyin: Fēngtái Qū) is a district of the municipality of Beijing. ... Shijingshan Ass (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a district of the municipality of Beijing. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

District Population (2000 census) Area (km²) Density (per km²)
Mentougou District (门头沟区: Méntóugōu Qū) 267,000 1,331.3 201
Fangshan District (房山区: Fángshān Qū)
Fangshan County until 1986
814,000 1,866.7 436
Tongzhou District (通州区: Tōngzhōu Qū)
Tong County until 1997
674,000 870.0 775
Shunyi District (顺义区: Shùnyì Qū)
Shunyi County until 1998
637,000 980.0 650
Changping District (昌平区: Chāngpíng Qū)
Changping County until 1999
615,000 1,430.0 430
Daxing District (大兴区: Dàxīng Qū)
Daxing County until 2001
672,000 1,012.0 664
Outer suburbs 3.68 million 7,490 491

The other two districts and the two counties located further out govern semirural and rural areas:[21] Mentougou District is in west Beijing. ... Fangshan District (Simplified Chinese: 房山区; Traditional Chinese: 房山區; Hanyu Pinyin: Fángshān Qū) is situated in the southwest of Beijing and 38km away from downtown Beijing. ... // Overview Tongzhou District (Simplified Chinese: 通州区; Traditional Chinese: 通州區; Hanyu Pinyin: Tōngzhōu Qū), located in southeast Beijing, is considered as the capitals eastern gate. ... Shunyi District is an administrative District outside of Beijing proper. ... Changping District (Simplified Chinese: 昌平区; Traditional Chinese: 昌平區; Hanyu Pinyin: Chāngpíng Qū) is situated at the suburb of northwest Beijing. ... Daxing District (Simplified Chinese: 大兴区; Traditional Chinese: 大興區; Hanyu Pinyin: Dàxīng Qū) is situated at the suburb of south Beijing. ...

District Population (2000 census) Area (km²) Density (per km²)
Pinggu District (平谷区: Pínggǔ Qū)
Pinggu County until 2001
397,000 1,075.0 369
Huairou District (怀柔区: Huáiróu Qū)
Huairou County until 2001
296,000 2,557.3 116
Miyun County (密云县: Mìyún Xiàn) 420,000 2,335.6 180
Yanqing County (延庆县: Yánqìng Xiàn) 275,000 1,980.0 139
Peripheral areas 1.39 million 7,947.9 175

Beijing's 18 districts and counties are further subdivided into 273 lower (third)-level administrative units at the township level: 119 towns, 24 townships, 5 ethnic townships and 125 subdistricts. Beijings Pinggu District lies at the extreme eastern end of Beijing municipality, and borders Tianjin municipality near Jixian County. ... Huairou District (Simplified Chinese: 怀柔区; Traditional Chinese: 懷柔區; Hanyu Pinyin: Huáiróu QÅ«) is situated at northeast Beijing. ... Miyun County (Simplified Chinese: 密云县; Traditional Chinese: 密雲縣; Hanyu Pinyin: Mìyún Xiàn) is situated at northeast Beijing. ... The Guyaju Ruins, showing ancient cave dwellings, are located in Yanqing County. ... Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times. ... When referring to Political Divisions of China, town is the standard English translation of the Chinese 镇 (zhèn). ... When referring to Political Divisions of China, township is the standard English translation of the Chinese 乡 (xiāng). ... The Peoples Republic of China has created, following Soviet nationality policy, a number of administrative divisions designated as autonomous, although many disagree of their actual autonomy. ... The Subdistrict is one of the smallest Political divisions of China. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Beijing

The Politics of Beijing is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in the mainland China. The Politics of Beijing is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in the mainland of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Mayor of Beijing is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Beijing. Since Beijing is a centrally administered municipality, the mayor occupies the same level in the order of precedence as provincial governors. However, in the city's dual party-government governing system, the mayor has less power than the Beijing Communist Party of China Municipal Committee Secretary. The politics of China may also include or exclude, depending on context or point of view: The politics of the Peoples Republic of China (mainland China 1949-present) The politics of Hong Kong The politics of Macau The politics of the Republic of China (Taiwan) The politics of imperial... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ...


Economy

The Beijing CBD area around Dawangqiao and Dabeiyao, as seen from the Jingtong Expressway.
The Beijing CBD area around Dawangqiao and Dabeiyao, as seen from the Jingtong Expressway.

In 2006, Beijing's nominal GDP was 772.03 billion RMB (about 97 billion USD), a year-on-year growth of 12% from the previous year. Its GDP per capita was 49,505 RMB, an increase of 8.8% from the previous year and more than twice as much as in 2000. In 2005, Beijing's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 9.77 billion RMB, 210.05 billion RMB, and 461.63 billion RMB. In 2008, Urban disposable income per capita was 21,989 yuan, a real increase of 10% from the previous year. Per capita pure income of rural residents was 9,559 RMB, a real increase of 10.9%. Per capita disposable income of the 20% low-income residents increased 16.7%, 11.4 percentage points higher than the growth rate of the 20% high-income residents. The Engel's coefficient of Beijing's urban residents reached 31.8% in 2005 and that of the rural residents was 32.8%, declining 4.5 percentage points and 3.9 percentage points, respectively, compared with 2000. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Dawangqiao area around Beijing CBD (September 2004 image) The Beijing CBD or Beijing Central Business District is a projected part of China). ... Dawangqiao is the starting point of the Jingtong Expressway, an express route linking central Beijing to Tongzhou District approximately 15 kilometres to the east. ... Dabeiyao/Guomao Area (August 2004 image) Dabeiyao is a part of Beijing city. ... Jingtong Expressway between the 4th and 5th Ring Roads (taken in March of 2003) Jingtong Expressway near Shuangqiao (August 2004 image) The Jingtong Expressway (Hanyu Pinyin: Jingtong Kuaisu Gonglu) is an expressway with express road characteristics in Beijing, China which links central Beijing to Tongzhou District. ... Dawangqiao (Beijing). ... Dawangqiao (Beijing). ... Dawangqiao is the starting point of the Jingtong Expressway, an express route linking central Beijing to Tongzhou District approximately 15 kilometres to the east. ... Dawangqiao area around Beijing CBD (September 2004 image) The Beijing CBD or Beijing Central Business District is a projected part of China). ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... For the album by punk rock band, Snuff, see Disposable Income (album) Disposable income is the total amount of income an individual makes after direct taxes. ... In economics, the distinction between nominal and real numbers is often made. ...


Beijing's real estate and automobile sectors have continued to bloom in recent years. In 2005, a total of 28.032 million square metres of housing real estate was sold, for a total of 175.88 billion RMB. The total number of cars registered in Beijing in 2004 was 2,146,000, of which 1,540,000 were privately-owned (a year-on-year increase of 18.7%).[22] Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... Car redirects here. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ...


The Beijing CBD, centred at the Guomao area, has been identified as the city's new central business district, and is home to a variety of corporate regional headquarters, shopping precincts, and high-end housing. The Beijing Financial Street, in the Fuxingmen and Fuchengmen area, is a traditional financial centre. The Wangfujing and Xidan areas are major shopping districts. Zhongguancun, dubbed "China's Silicon Valley", continues to be a major centre in electronics- and computer-related industries, as well as pharmaceuticals-related research. Meanwhile, Yizhuang, located to the southeast of the urban area, is becoming a new centre in pharmaceuticals, IT, and materials engineering.[23] Urban Beijing is also known for being a centre of pirated goods and anything from the latest designer clothing to the latest DVDs can be found in markets all over the city, often marketed to expatriates and international visitors.[24] It is also a world leader in the production and distribution of melamine and melamine-related compounds.[25] Dawangqiao area around Beijing CBD (September 2004 image) The Beijing CBD or Beijing Central Business District is a projected part of China). ... Guomao Bridge. ... The Central Business District of Sydney, Australia. ... Beijing Financial Street The Beijing Financial Street (Hanyu Pinyin: Beijing Jinrong Jie) lies in the western part of the 2nd Ring Road, in a nearly vertical band just east of Fuxingmen. ... Fuxingmen (复兴门) is situated in central Beijing, and is on the northwestern stretch of the 2nd Ring Road. ... Fuchengmen (Simplified Chinese: 阜成门; Traditional Chinese: 阜成門; pinyin: Fùchéngmén) is a former Beijing city gate, which was located in the western parts of the city. ... Wangfujing, looking south (August 2004 image) Night view of Wangfujing (July 2004 image) Wangfujing street (Simplified Chinese 王府井; Hanyu Pinyin: WángfÇ”jǐng DàjiÄ“) in Beijing is one of the Chinese capitals most famous shopping streets. ... Xidan in Beijing (July 2004 image) Xidan (西单) is home to a commercial district in Beijing. ... Zhongguancun -- buildings and park-like landscape Zhongguancun Street -- a road through the tech hub Zhong Guan Cun (often Zhongguancun) is a technology hub in Beijing. ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... This article is about the machine. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Yizhuang is a town of Daxing district, Beijing ,China. ...

A corner of the emerging Beijing CBD.
A corner of the emerging Beijing CBD.

Major industrial areas include Shijingshan, located on the western outskirts of the city. Agriculture is carried out outside the urban area of Beijing, with wheat and maize (corn) being the main crops. Vegetables are also grown in the regions closer to the urban area in order to supply the city. Download high resolution version (992x517, 681 KB)Beijing CBD,by 39degN. File links The following pages link to this file: Beijing ... Download high resolution version (992x517, 681 KB)Beijing CBD,by 39degN. File links The following pages link to this file: Beijing ... Shijingshan District (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a district of the municipality of Beijing. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ...


Beijing is increasingly becoming known for its innovative entrepreneurs and high-growth start-ups. This culture is backed by a large community of both Chinese and foreign venture capital firms, such as Sequoia Capital, whose head office in China resides in Chaoyang, Beijing. Though Shanghai is seen as the economic centre of China, this is typically based on the numerous large corporations based there, rather than as a centre for Chinese entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs created by Thomas Clarke in 2001. ... Venture capital is a general term to describe financing for startup and early stage businesses as well as businesses in turn around situations. ... Sequoia Capital is a venture capital firm founded by Don Valentine in 1972. ... Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations or revitalizing mature organizations, particularly new businesses generally in response to identified opportunities. ...


The development of Beijing continues to proceed at a rapid pace, and the vast expansion of Beijing has created a multitude of problems for the city. Beijing is known for its smog as well as the frequent "power-saving" programmes instituted by the government. Citizens of Beijing as well as tourists frequently complain about the quality of the water supply and the cost of the basic services such as electricity and natural gas. The major industrial areas outside of Beijing were ordered to clean their operations or leave the Beijing area in an effort to alleviate the smog that covers the city. Most factories, unable to update, have moved and relocated to other cities such as Xi'an, China. For other uses, see Smog (disambiguation). ... Xian redirects here. ...


Beijing also holds the record for the largest settlement based in the eastern and northern hemispere reaching over 3 million people.


Demographics

The Wangjing neighbourhood, in Chaoyang District, Beijing, known for its Koreatown.
The Wangjing neighbourhood, in Chaoyang District, Beijing, known for its Koreatown.
Wangfujing Cathedral
Wangfujing Cathedral

The population of Beijing Municipality, defined as the total number of people who reside in Beijing for 6 months or more per year, was 17.43 million in 2007. 12.03 million people in Beijing Municipality had Beijing hukou (permanent residence) and the remainder were on temporary residence permits.[26] In addition, there is a large but unknown number of migrant workers (min gong) who live illegally in Beijing without any official residence permit (or unregistered people). The population of Beijing's urban core (city proper) is around 7.5 million. I took this picture on August 5, 2004. ... I took this picture on August 5, 2004. ... Beijings Chaoyang district (Simplified Chinese: 朝阳区; Hanyu Pinyin: Cháoyáng Qū) is home to a good part of Beijings diplomatic quarters, with many embassies located in the area. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2079 KB) Description: Wangfujing cathedral Beijing Source: Date: On May 28 2005 Author: Taken by Fanghong Permission: Other versions of this file: File links The following pages link to this file: Beijing ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2079 KB) Description: Wangfujing cathedral Beijing Source: Date: On May 28 2005 Author: Taken by Fanghong Permission: Other versions of this file: File links The following pages link to this file: Beijing ... A hùkÇ’u (Chinese: ) or hùjí (Chinese: ) refers to residency permits (household registration) issued in mainland China (by the Peoples Republic of China) and Taiwan (by the Republic of China). ... Migrant farm worker, New York A migrant worker is someone who regularly works away from home, if they even have a home. ...


Over 95% of Beijing's residents belong to the Han Chinese majority. Other major ethnic minorities include the Manchu, Hui, and Mongol, etc. A Tibetan high school exists for youth of Tibetan ancestry, nearly all of whom have come to Beijing from Tibet expressly for their studies. Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (徽) dialects. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


A sizable international community exists in Beijing, mostly attracted by the highly growing foreign business and trade sector, and many live in the Beijing urban area's densely populated northern, northeastern and eastern sections. In recent years there has also been an influx of South Koreans who live in Beijing predominantly for business and study purpose. Many of them live in the Wangjing and Wudaokou areas. For other places with the same name, see Korea (disambiguation). ... Korean shopsigns in Wangjing, Beijing Wangjing (望京 Hanyu Pinyin: Wàngjīng) is a major residential area in Chaoyang District, in the northeast of Beijing. ... The railway crossing under the Wudaokou subway station, click for animation Wudaokou (五道口) is a neighborhood in the Haidian District of North West Beijing. ...

Ethnic groups in Beijing, 2000 census
Nationality Population Percentage
Han Chinese 12,983,696 95.69%
Manchu Chinese 250,286 1.84%
Hui Chinese 235,837 1.74%
Mongol Chinese 37,464 0.28%
Korean Chinese 20,369 0.15%
Tujia Chinese 8372 0.062%
Zhuang Chinese 7322 0.054%
Miao Chinese 5291 0.039%
Uyghur Chinese 3129 0.023%
Tibetan Chinese 2920 0.022%

Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
[27] Ethnolinguistic map of China The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a multi-ethnic unitary state and, as such, officially recognizes 56 nationalities or mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (徽) dialects. ... Korean Chinese (朝鲜族, Cháoxiǎnzú; Korean: 조선족, Joseonjok or Chosŏnjok) are citizens of the Peoples Republic of China who are ethnically Korean. ... Language(s) Hmong/Mong Religion(s) Shamanism, Buddhism, Christianity, others The terms Hmong (pronounced ) and Mong () both refer to an Asian ethnic group in the mountainous regions of southern China. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. ... Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ...


Architecture

Three styles of architecture predominate in urban Beijing. First, the traditional architecture of imperial China, perhaps best exemplified by the massive Tian'anmen (Gate of Heavenly Peace), which remains the PRC's trademark edifice, the Forbidden City, and the Temple of Heaven. Next there is what is sometimes referred to as the "Sino-Sov" style, built between the 1950s and the 1970s, which tend to be boxy, bland, and poorly made. Finally, there are much more modern architectural forms — most noticeably in the area of the Beijing CBD. Pictured below are some images of Beijing architecture — blending the old and the new. Tiananmen Gate The Tiananmen or Tiananmen (Simplified Chinese: 天安门; Traditional Chinese: 天安門; Pinyin: tiān ān mén), literally meaning Gate of Heavenly Peace, is the principal entrance to the Imperial Palace Grounds, commonly called the Forbidden City, in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ... The Temple of Heaven, literally the Altar of Heaven (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Manchu: Abkai mukdehun) is a complex of Taoist buildings situated in southeastern urban Beijing, in Xuanwu District. ... Dawangqiao area around Beijing CBD (September 2004 image) The Beijing CBD or Beijing Central Business District is a projected part of China). ...

A mixture of both old and new styles of architecture can be seen at the 798 Art Zone, which mixes 1950s-design with a blend of the new. The influence of American urban form and social values in manifest in the creation of Orange County, China, a suburban development about one hour north of the city. An exhibition at 798 Space gallery, July 2004. ... Orange County, China refers to a $60 million, 143-unit housing development situated about one hour north of Beijing, China, comprised entirely of expensive American-style townhouses and tract homes, decorated and furnished with American products. ...


Culture

A Beijing performance of the classic opera Farewell my Concubine (September 2002).

People native to urban Beijing speak the Beijing dialect, which belongs to the Mandarin subdivision of spoken Chinese. Beijing dialect is the basis for Standard Mandarin, the language used in the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China on Taiwan, and Singapore. Rural areas of Beijing Municipality have their own dialects akin to those of Hebei province, which surrounds Beijing Municipality. Image File history File links BejingOperaProduction. ... Image File history File links BejingOperaProduction. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Spoken Chinese The Chinese spoken language(s) comprise(s) many regional variants. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Beijing Opera, or Peking Opera (Jingju京剧), is well-known throughout the national capital. Commonly lauded as one of the highest achievements of Chinese culture, Beijing Opera is performed through a combination of song, spoken dialogue, and codified action sequences, such as gestures, movement, fighting and acrobatics. Much of Beijing Opera is carried out in an archaic stage dialect quite different from modern Standard Mandarin and from the Beijing dialect; this makes the dialogue somewhat hard to understand, and the problem is compounded if one is not familiar with Chinese. As a result, modern theaters often have electronic titles in Chinese and English. A female Beijing opera performer with traditional costume and makeup A male Beijing opera performer Beijing opera or Peking opera (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a form of traditional Chinese theatre which combines music, vocal performance, mime, dance and acrobatics. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

A ts of a square housing compound, with rooms enclosing a central courtyard. This courtyard often contains a pomegranate or other type of tree, as well as potted flowers or a fish tank.
A ts of a square housing compound, with rooms enclosing a central courtyard. This courtyard often contains a pomegranate or other type of tree, as well as potted flowers or a fish tank.

Siheyuans line Hutongs (胡同), or alleys, which connect the interior of Beijing's old city. They are usually straight and run east to west so that doorways can face north and south for Feng Shui reasons. They vary in width — some are very narrow, enough for only a few pedestrians to pass through at a time. Binomial name L. The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ... Aquarium is also the name of the Russian band, which is also spelled Akvarium A 335,000 US gallon (1. ... A typical street in a Bejing hutong Hutongs (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are narrow streets or alleys, most commonly associated with Beijing, China. ... Fēng Shuǐ (風水 – literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ...


Once ubiquitous in Beijing, siheyuans and hutongs are now rapidly disappearing, as entire city blocks of hutongs are leveled and replaced with high-rise buildings. Residents of the hutongs are entitled to apartments in the new buildings of at least the same size as their former residences. Many complain, however, that the traditional sense of community and street life of the hutongs cannot be replaced. Some particularly historic or picturesque hutongs are being preserved and restored by the government, especially for the 2008 Olympics. One such example can be seen at Nanchizi.


Mandarin cuisine is the local style of cooking in Beijing. Peking Roast Duck is perhaps the most well-known dish. The Manhan Quanxi ("Manchu-Han Chinese full banquet") is a traditional banquet originally intended for the ethnic-Manchu emperors of the Qing Dynasty; it remains very prestigious and expensive. Mandarin cuisine or Beijing cuisine (Chinese: 京菜; pinyin: ) is a cooking style in Beijing, China. ... Peking Duck, or more accurately, Peking Roast Duck (Chinese: 北京烤鸭, pinyin: běijīng kaoyā), is a famous dish from northeastern China. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


Teahouses are also common in Beijing. Chinese tea comes in many varieties and some rather expensive types of Chinese tea are said to cure an ailing body extraordinarily well. Yugao-tei, Kanazawa A tea house (茶室, cha-shitsu) is a structure designed for holding Japanese tea ceremonies. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ...


The cloisonné (or Jingtailan) metalworking technique and tradition is a specialty of Beijing's cultural art, and is one of the most revered traditional crafts in China. Beijing lacquerware is well known for the patterns and images carved into its surface. Cloisonné is a multi-step enamel process used to produce jewelry, vases, and other decorative items. ... Chinese lacquerware box from the Qing Dynasty, Museum für angewandte Kunst, Frankfurt, Germany. ...


The Fuling Jiabing is a traditional Beijing snack food, a pancake (bing) resembling a flat disk with filling, made from fu ling (Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf, or "tuckahoe"), an ingredient common in traditional Chinese medicine. Fuling Jiabing(茯苓夹饼) is a traditional specialty snack food of Beijing. ... Poria cocos is a medicinal mushroom, widely used and highly respected in Asia. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ...

Beijing Houhai ("Back Sea") lake area with traditional architecture, where many trendy bars and restaurants are located.

Transportation

With the growth of the city following economic reforms, Beijing has evolved as an important transportation hub. Encircling the city are five ring roads, nine expressways and city express routes, eleven China National Highways, several railway routes, and an international airport. Roads in Beijing Beijing, as the capital and a municipality of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), is a transportation hub, with a sophisticated network of roads, railways and a major airport. ...


Rail

Beijing has two major railway stations: Beijing Railway Station (or the central station) and Beijing West Railway Station. Three other railway stations in Metropolitan Beijing handle regular passenger traffic: Beijing East, Beijing North, and Fengtai. There are also several other small stations serving suburban area. Beijing Railway Station (September 2004 image) Beijing Railway Station (Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 北京站, Hanyu Pinyin: Beijing Zhan) is Beijings first railway station, opened in the 1950s, as can be seen from its architecture (which merges traditional architecture with 50s-design). ... Beijings West Railway Station, abb. ... The Beijing North Railway Station (Chinese: 北京北站) is a railway station in Beijing, China. ...


As of August 1, 2006, Beijing Railway Station has 167 trains stopping daily, while Beijing West Railway Station has 176 trains. is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Beijing Railway Station (September 2004 image) Beijing Railway Station (Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 北京站, Hanyu Pinyin: Beijing Zhan) is Beijings first railway station, opened in the 1950s, as can be seen from its architecture (which merges traditional architecture with 50s-design). ... Beijings West Railway Station, abb. ...


Beijing is a railway hub. There are railway lines from Beijing to Guangzhou, Shanghai, Harbin, Baotou, Taiyuan, Chengde and Qinhuangdao. Direct trains to Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR also depart from Beijing. This articles main focus is on the rail transport in China (including the Qing Dynasty (before 1912) and the Republic of China (1912 to 1949) eras, and in modern times under the Peoples Republic of China (1949 onwards)). See also rail transport in Hong Kong (1842 onwards) and... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Harbin on a map of China For other meanings of Harbin, see Harbin (disambiguation). ... Baotou (Chinese: 包头; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city and the largest city in Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China. ... Taiyuan (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tai-yüan lit. ... The Putuo Zongcheng ticket to the summer resort (1984) Chengde (Chinese: ; pinyin: Chéngdé; Manchu: Erdemu be aliha fu) is a city approximately one hundred miles northeast of Beijing in northeastern Hebei province, situated near the Luan River. ... Categories: China geography stubs | Cities in China ... In modern day Hong Kong, Kowloon refers to the urban area made up of Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon, bordered by the Lei Yue Mun strait in the east, Mei Foo Sun Chuen and Stonecutters Island in the west, Tates Cairn and Lion Rock in the north, and... Special administrative region may be: Peoples Republic of China Special administrative regions, present-day administrative divisions (as of 2006) set up by the Peoples Republic of China to administer Hong Kong (since 1997) and Macau (since 1999) Republic of China Special administrative regions, also translated as special administrative...


International trains, including lines to cities in Russia and Pyongyang, North Korea (DPRK), all run through Beijing. Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ...


Construction on a Beijing-Tianjin high-speed rail began on July 4, 2005, and is scheduled to be completed in 2007. Beijing-Tianjin high-speed rail (京津城际轨道交通) will be a high-speed rail system between Beijing and Tianjin. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Roads and expressways

See: Ring Roads of Beijing, Expressways of Beijing and China National Highways of Beijing for more related information.
An air-conditioned articulated bus operating on Beijing Bus Rapid Transit Line 1.

Beijing is connected via road links from all parts of China. Nine expressways of China (with six wholly new expressways under projection or construction) connect with Beijing, as do eleven China National Highways. Within Beijing itself, an elaborate network of five ring roads has developed, but they appear more rectangular than ring-shaped. Roads in Beijing often are in one of the four compass directions (unlike, for example, Tianjin). The eastern 3rd Ring Road (August 2004 image) Beijing is one of the very few cities to possess multiple ring roads (or beltways). ... The Jingcheng Expressway near Gaoliying (July 2004 image) The Jingha Expressway (July 2004 image) The Jingshi Expressway (July 2004 image) The Airport Expressway near the toll gate (July 2004 image) The Jingkai Expressway near the Southern 4th Ring Road (October 2004 image) Beijing was first linked to outside areas by... Beijing, as a transportational hub of China, is the starting point for eleven out of twelve series-100 China National Highways. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Chinese expressway, complete with signage. ... The China National Highways are a series of trunk roads throughout all of China. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ...


One of the biggest concerns with traffic in Beijing deals with its apparently ubiquitous traffic jams. Traffic in the city centre is often gridlocked, especially around rush hour. Even outside of rush hour, several roads still remain clogged up with traffic. Urban area ring roads and major thoroughfares especially near Chang'an Avenue, are normally cited as high congestion areas. Changan Avenue Changan Avenue is a major through route in Beijing, China. ...


Recently expressways have been extended (in some cases reconstructed as express routes) into the territories within the 3rd Ring Road. As they are either expressways or express routes, drivers do not need to pass through intersections with traffic lights. This may finally solve the difficulties in "hopping between one ring and another". 3rd Ring Road (Southeastern segment, taken in July of 2004) The 3rd Ring Road pinyin: San Huan Lu) is a 48-kilometer city ring road that encircles the centre of the city of Beijing. ...


Exacerbating Beijing's traffic problems is its underdeveloped mass transit system. Frequently cited is the city's subway system which has 5 lines for its 17 million citizens. In comparison, New York City has 26 lines for its 8 million citizens. Beijing's urban design layout further complicates the situation of the transportation system.[28] Compounding the problem is patchy enforcement of traffic regulations, and road rage. Beijing authorities claim that traffic jams may be a thing of a past come the 2008 Olympics. The authorities have introduced several bus lanes where, during rush hour, all vehicles except for public buses must keep clear. Times Square–42nd Street station entrance The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority , an affiliate of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority and also known as MTA New York City Transit. ... Road rage or road violence is the common name for deliberately dangerous and/or violent behaviour under the influence of heightened anger by a motor vehicle operator that affects the safety of one or more other operators or bystanders. ... (Redirected from 2008 Olympics) The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be held in Beijing in the Peoples Republic of China from August 8, 2008 to August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony to take place at 8 PM on August 8...


Chang'an Avenue runs east-west through the centre of Beijing, past Tian'anmen. It is a major through route and is often called the "First Street in China" by authorities.[29] Changan Avenue Changan Avenue is a major through route in Beijing, China. ... Tiananmen Gate The Tiananmen or Tiananmen (Simplified Chinese: 天安门; Traditional Chinese: 天安門; Pinyin: tiān ān mén), literally meaning Gate of Heavenly Peace, is the principal entrance to the Imperial Palace Grounds, commonly called the Forbidden City, in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Air

Beijing's main airport is the Beijing Capital International Airport (PEK) near Shunyi, which is about 20 km northeast of Beijing city centre. Most domestic and nearly all international flights arrive and depart at Capital Airport. Capital Airport is the main hub for Air China. It is linked to central Beijing by the Airport Expressway and is a roughly 40-minute drive from the city centre during good traffic hours. In preparation for the 2008 Olympics, another expressway is being built to the Airport, as well as a lightrail system. Beijing Capital International Airport, (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (IATA: PEK, ICAO: ZBAA) is the main international airport that serves the capital city of Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ... Shunyi District is an administrative District outside of Beijing proper. ... Not to be confused with China Airlines, the national airline of the Republic of China (Taiwan). ... Airport Expressway (heading towards the airport, July 2004 image) The old and the new: The Airport Expressway Toll Gate at Xiaotianzhu (August 2004 image) Old Airport Road (August 2004 image) The Airport Expressway (机场高速公路, Hanyu Pinyin: JÄ«chÇŽng Gāosù Gōnglù) is an expressway in Beijing, China, which links...


Other airports in the city include Beijing Liangxiang Airport, Beijing Nanyuan Airport, Beijing Xijiao Airport, Beijing Shahe Airport and Beijing Badaling Airport. However, these are primarily for military use and less well-known to the public. Beijing Nanyuan Airport is an airport in Beijing, China (IATA: NAY, ICAO: ZBBB). ...

Inside Beijing's Tian 'An Men Subway station (Line 1)
Inside Beijing's Tian 'An Men Subway station (Line 1)

Image File history File linksMetadata Tiananmenstation01. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tiananmenstation01. ...

Public transit

The evolving Beijing Subway has five lines (two above ground, three underground), with several more being built in preparation for the 2008 Summer Olympics. There were 599 bus and trolleybus routes in Beijing as of 2004. [2] The logo of Beijing Subway The Beijing Subway (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a rapid transit system that serves downtown Beijing and its various outlying suburbs. ... The 2008 Summer Olympics (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be celebrated from August 8, 2008, to August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony commencing at 08:08:08 pm CST (12:08:08 UTC) at the Beijing National Stadium in... Autobus redirects here. ... A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ...


Beijing has simplified its bus fare system from Jan 1, 2007 as follows: January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Pay by cash:

  • Lines 1-199 (Mainly operated in inner city) 1 Yuan per trip.
  • Lines 200-299 (Night services): 2 Yuan per trip.
  • Lines 300-899 (Mainly operated in outer city / suburb): 1 Yuan for the first 12 km and another 0.5 yuan for each additional 5 km.
  • Lines 900-999 (Mainly operated from city center to rural area): 1 Yuan per 10 km.

Pay by prepaid Yikatong smartcard: Beijing Municipal Administration and Communications Card (北京市政交通一卡通) is a store-value contactless smart card used in Beijing, China, for public transportation and related uses. ...

  • Lines 1-499: 0.4 Yuan (USD$ 5 cents, EUR 4 Cents) per single journey.
  • Lines 500-899: 0.4 Yuan for the first 12 km and another 0.2 Yuan for each additional 5 km.
  • Lines 900-999: 0.8 Yuan per 10 km.

3-day, 7-day and 14-day bus passes are available for travelers.


Surcharges of air-conditioned buses have been canceled.


Since October, Subway tickets cost only 2 Yuan. No matter where you get on and where you get down. There is no discount for smartcard users.


Registered Taxis can be found throughout Beijing although a large number of unregistered taxis also exist. As of June 30, 2008 all fares on legal taxis start at 10 Renminbi for the first 3 km and 2.00 Renminbi per additional kilometer not counting idling fees. Most taxis are Hyundai Elantras, Hyundai Sonatas, Peugeot Citroen and Volkswagen Jettas. After 15 km, the base fare is increased by 50% (but only applied to the portion of the distance over 15 km, so that the passenger is not retroactively charged extra for the first 15 km). Between 11pm and 6am, the fee is increased by 20%, starting at 11 RMB and increasing at a rate of 2.4 RMB per km. Rides over 15 km and between 11pm and 6am apply both charges, for a total increase of 80% (120%*150%=180%). A taxis (plural taxes, pronounced ) is an innate behavioural response by an organism to a directional stimulus. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ...


Education

Main article: List of colleges and universities in Beijing

Beijing is home to a great number of colleges and universities, including several well-regarded universities of international stature. Particularly of note are China's two most prestigious institutions, Peking University, and Tsinghua University. Owing to Beijing's status as the political and cultural capital of China, a larger proportion of tertiary-level institutions are concentrated here than any other city in China, reaching at least 59 in number. Many international students from Japan, Korea, North America, Europe, Southeast Asia, and elsewhere come to Beijing to study every year. The institutions listed here are administered by China's Ministry of Education. Peking University (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), colloquially known in Chinese as Beida (北大, Běidà), was established in 1898. ... Tsinghua University (THU; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is a university in Beijing, China. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Peoples Republic of China State Education Commission, headquartered in Beijing, is the PRC agency of the State Council which regulates all aspects of the educational system in mainland China. ...

Peking University (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), colloquially known in Chinese as Beida (北大, BÄ›idà), was established in 1898. ... Peking University 博学审问慎思明辨 Peking University or Beijing University (pinyin Běijīng Dàxué), colloquially Beida (北大, pinyin běidà), is one of the most prestigious universities in China. ... Tsinghua University (THU; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is a university in Beijing, China. ... Renmin University of China (RUC), previously known as Peoples University of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), colloquially Renda (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is a university in Beijing, China. ... Beijing Normal University (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a university located in Beijing, P.R. China. ... Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , in short: BÄ›iháng 北航; sometimes abbreviated as BUAA or Beihang in English) is a university located in Beijing, China. ... Beijing Institute of Technology (BIT,北京理工大学) is a university located in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ... Beijing Foreign Studies University (北京外国语大学), one of the most reputable universities in China, has won the name of a “garden university” with its attractive physical environment for learning in the Western suburbs of Beijing. ... Central University of Finance and Economics (中央财经大学) is a university in Beijing, China. ... Beijing Forestry University (北京林业大学) is a university in Beijing, China, established in 1952. ... Beijing Language and Culture University (BLCU; BÄ›ijÄ«ng yÇ”yán dàxué 北京语言大学) is the only one of its kind in China with its main task set at teaching the Chinese language and culture to foreign students. ... The Beijing Institute of Posts and Telecommunications (BIPT) was founded in 1955 under the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications and the Communications Department of the General Staff Department of the PLA. It changed name to the Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT) in 1993. ... The Communication University of China, CUC, (Simplified Chinese: 中国传媒大学) is a university in Beijing, China. ... Beijing Jiaotong University (Chinese:北京交通大学; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng Jiāotōng Dàxúe), formerly known as Northern Jiaotong University (Chinese: 北方交通大学; pinyin: BÄ›ifāng Jiāotōng Dàxúe), is a university in Beijing, China. ... Beijing Film Academy (北京电影学院; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng Diànyìng Xuéyuàn; abbreviated BFA) is a prestigious film school located in Beijing, China. ... Beijing University of Chemical Technology (北京化工大学) is a university in Beijing, China. ... Beijing University of Chinese Medicine (北京中医药大学) is a university in Beijing, China. ... Beijing University of Petroleum (石油大学) is a university in China. ... Beijing University of Technology (北京工业大学) (formerly known as Beijing Polytechnic University), often called Beijing Tech or Beigongda (北工大), is a member of 211 project university. ... Capital Normal University (首都师范大学) is a university in Beijing, China. ... The Central Academy of Drama (中央戏剧学院) is the most prestigious drama school in Beijing, China. ... Central Institute of Fine Arts (中央美术学院) is a university in Beijing, China. ... The Central Conservatory of Music (中央音乐学院) is a university in Beijing, China. ... Central University of Nationalities (中央民族大学, pinyin: Zhōngyāng Mínzú Dàxúe) is a small national-level university located in Beijing, China designated for minority nationalities. ... China Agricultural University (中国农业大学) is a university in Beijing, China. ... China University of Political Science and Law (中国政法大学) is a university in Beijing, China. ... North China Electric Power University (华北电力大学) is a university in Hebei, China under the national Ministry of Education. ... The University of International Business and Economics (UIBE) (Chinese: 对外经济贸易大学, pinyin: Duiwai Jingji Maoyi Daxue--abbr. ... University of International Relations (UIR) (Chinese: 国际关系学院 Traditional Chinese: 國際關係學院) is one of the key national universities in China. ... University of Science and Technology Beijing (北京科技大学) is a university in Beijing, China. ...

Media

Download high resolution version (784x1482, 553 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (784x1482, 553 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Front gate of the main building of Xinhua News Agency in Beijing For other uses, see Xinhua (disambiguation). ...

Television and radio

Beijing Television (BTV) broadcasts on numbered channels 1 through 10. Unlike China Central Television (CCTV), there is at present no exclusive English-language TV channel on a citywide level in Beijing. China Beijing TV Station (Chinese: 北京电视台, Pinyin: běi jīng diàn shì tái) is a government-owned television network in the Peoples Republic of China and is chiefly broadcast in the Chinese language. ... China Central Television or Chinese Central Television, commonly abbreviated as CCTV (simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the major television broadcaster in Mainland China. ...


Three radio stations feature programmes in English: Hit FM on FM 88.7, Easy FM by China Radio International (CRI) on FM 91.5, and the newly launched Radio 774 on AM 774. China Radio International (CRI), (Chinese: 中国国际广播电台, Pinyin: Zhōng Guó Guó Jì Guǎng Bō Diàn Tái) the former Radio Beijing and originally Radio Peking, is one of the two state-owned national radio broadcasting networks in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Other Beijing Radio Stations are listed as follows: Beijing Ren Min Guangbo Dian Tai (translated as the Beijing People Broadcasting Station) (Simplified Chinese: 北京人民广播电台), is a family of radio stations that also include news, music, and sports in Beijing. ...

Beijing Radio Stations
Frequency/Internet Description
Xinwen - Internet Streaming News
Gudian - Internet Streaming Classical Music
Jingji - Internet Streaming City Management
Tongsu - Internet Streaming Popular Music
Jiaotong - Internet Streaming Traffic
Jiaoxue - Internet Streaming School Radio
Wenyi - Internet Streaming Chinese Literature Broadcast
Wuexueyingshi - Internet Streaming Chinese Movie Broadcast
Tiyu - Internet Streaming Sports Broadcast
Xiquzongyi - Internet Streaming Drama Broadcast
Yinyue - Internet Streaming/97.4 FM Music
Yazhouliuxing - Internet Streaming Asian Broadcast
Shenghuo - Internet Streaming Beijing City Life Broadcast
Qingyinyue - Internet Streaming Light Music Broadcast
Waiyu - Internet Streaming Foreign Broadcast
DAB - Internet Streaming DAB Broadcast
Qingmeng - Internet Streaming Blue Network Broadcast

Press

The well-known Beijing Evening News (Beijing Wanbao) newspaper is distributed every afternoon, covering news about Beijing in Chinese. Other newspapers include The Beijing News (Xin Jing Bao), the Beijing Star Daily, the Beijing Morning News, the Beijing Youth Daily (Beijing Qingnian Bao), as well as English-language weeklies Beijing Weekend and Beijing Today (the English-language edition of Youth Daily). People's Daily and China Daily (English) are also published in Beijing. The Beijing Evening News is a Chinese language newspaper in the Peoples Republic of China from Beijing. ... The China Youth Daily ( Chinese:中国青年报 Pinyin:Zhōngguó Qīngnián Bào ) is a popular official daily newspaper and the first independently operated central government news media portal in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Peoples Daily (Chinese: 人民日报 Pinyin ) is the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation of 3 to 4 million. ... It has been suggested that China Daily Hong Kong Edition be merged into this article or section. ...


Nationally-circulated Chinese newspapers are also available in Beijing.


Publications primarily aimed at international visitors and the expatriate community include the English-language periodicals City Weekend, Beijing This Month, Beijing Talk, that's Beijing and MetroZine. An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... Beijing This Month is a free English language magazine, published in Beijing by the Beijing Foreign Cultural Exchanges Centre in association with the Beijing City Government. ... thats Beijing is a free monthly English magazine that covers art, cinema, music, nightlife, dining, and health in Beijing. ...


The international press, including English and Japaneselanguage newspapers and magazines, are available in major international hotels and Friendship stores, and content often appears complete. A Friendship store was a store in China which sold exclusively to tourists, foreigners, and goverment officials. ...


Sports

Beijing will host the 2008 Summer Olympics and the 2008 Summer Paralympics. According to author Mike Davis in his book Planet of Slums, which details urban population growth and the urban poor in developing nations, Beijing removed and relocated 350,000 people for the construction of the stadium that will house the Olympics. The 2008 Summer Olympics (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be celebrated from August 8, 2008, to August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony commencing at 08:08:08 pm CST (12:08:08 UTC) at the Beijing National Stadium in... See also: 2008 Summer Olympics The 2008 Summer Paralympic Games, the thirteenth Paralympics, will be held in Beijing, China from September 6 - 17, 2008. ...


Professional sports teams based in Beijing include:

The Beijing Aoshen Olympians of the ABA, formerly a CBA team, kept their name and maintained a roster of primarily Chinese players after moving to Maywood, California in 2005. The Chinese Football Association Super League (中国足球协会超级联赛 or 超级联赛 or 中超) or Chinese Super League or China Super League, known as the CSL, is the premier league of Chinese football (soccer), under the auspices of the Chinese Football Association. ... The so called club is a totally disgrace and only Pekinese Eunuch play for and watch them. ... The Chinese Football Association Jia League is the first-division league of Chinese football (soccer), under the auspices of the Chinese Football Association. ... Beijing Hongdeng is a Football Club based in Beijing, China, currently playing in the Chinese Football Association Jia League. ... Beijing Institute of Technology FC is a Chinese football club playing in the Chinese Football Association Jia League. ... The Chinese Basketball Association (CBA; Chinese 中国男子篮球职业联赛) is the premier professional basketball league in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Beijing Jinyu Ducks (北京金隅鸭) or Beijing Ducks or Beijing Jinyu are a basketball team in the North Division of the Chinese Basketball Association, based in Beijing. ... The Womens Chinese Basketball Association is a womens basketball league in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Asia League Ice Hockey (ALIH) is an ice hockey league that has teams from Japan, China, and South Korea. ... The China Baseball League (中国棒球联赛) or Chinese Baseball League or CBL is a fledgling professional baseball league in the Peoples Republic of China, founded in 2002. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Beijing Aoshen Olympian (北京奥神) or Beijing Olympian or Beijing Olympians or Beijing Aoshen are a basketball team that formerly played in the Chinese Basketball Association and now play in the American Basketball Association. ... The American Basketball Association (ABA) is a mens basketball league founded in 1999. ... The Chinese Basketball Association (CBA; Chinese 中国男子篮球职业联赛) is the premier professional basketball league in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Location of Maywood in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles Incorporated (city) 1924-09-02 [2] Government  - Mayor Sergio Calderon [1] Area  - Total 1. ...


City and regional partnerships

Beijing maintains partnerships or "sister city" status with the following international locations. (Note: some locations are provinces or regional-level units, not cities properly. Beijing itself is not technically a city, being a Chinese municipality).[30] Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Direct-controlled municipalities are the highest-level cities in China, with status equal to that of the provinces. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Köln may refer to: Cologne (German: Köln), the fourth largest city in Germany and largest city of the North Rhine-Westphalia state German Cruiser Köln that served from 1930-1945 mostly for the Kriegsmarine German Frigate Köln (1961-1982), a F120 Köln class frigate of... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Location Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... For the puzzle, see Tower of Hanoi. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Categories: South Africa stubs | Provinces of South Africa | Gauteng Province ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Askar Mamin Population (estimated)  - City 600,000 Time zone BTT (UTC+6) This article is about the capital of Kazakhstan; for the article on the palace in Sarawak, see Astana (Sarawak); for the professional road-cycling team see Astana Team; for the Iranian city, see Astaneh-e... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Satellite image of Santiago Santiago (full form Santiago de Chile) is the capital of Chile. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

See also

Lăo zìhào (Chinese: 老字号, lit. ... The following is a list of mayors of Beijing, capital of China, in chronological order of office: Ye Jianying (lived 1898-1986): also PLA general, one of the Ten Great Marshals Nie Rongzhen (聂荣臻; lived 1899-1992): also one of the Ten Great Marshals Peng Zhen (1951) Wu De (吴德): acting mayor... This is a list of hospitals in Beijing. ... Yanjing beer (Chinese: 燕京啤酒; Hanyu Pinyin: yānjīng píjiǔ) is a malty, smooth lager beer from China. ... Beijings tourist attractions are plenty and rich in history. ...

References

  1. ^ a b "Beijing airport beefs up security for Olympics", MSNBC, Associated Press, 2008-02-22. Retrieved on 2008-03-15. 
  2. ^ a b Basic Information. Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved on 2008-02-09.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Beijing". The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th). (2007). 
  4. ^ Coblin, W. South. "A Brief History of Mandarin." Journal of the American Oriental Society 120, no. 4 (2000): 537-52.
  5. ^ The Peking Man World Heritage Site at Zhoukoudian
  6. ^ a b c d e Beijing's History. China Internet Information Center. Retrieved on 2008-05-01.
  7. ^ a b Beijing - Historical Background. Cities Guide. Economist.com (2008). Retrieved on 2008-05-01.
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ Rosenburg, Matt T.. Largest Cities Through History. About.com.
  10. ^ MacKerras & Yorke 1991, p. 8
  11. ^ China Travel Service-Destination beijing tour beijing guide beijing travel beijing hotel beijing Air Ticket beijing tailor made tour
  12. ^ Georgraphy & Climate. 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Travel Places. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  13. ^ Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Beijing, China (English). Weatherbase (2007).
  14. ^ Macur, Juliet (2008-01-24), “Olympic Teams Vying to Defeat Beijing’s Smog”, The New York Times, <http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/24/sports/othersports/24mask.html?_r=1&oref=slogin&pagewanted=all> 
  15. ^ Yardley, Jim (2008-01-24), “Smoggy Beijing Plans to Cut Traffic by Half for Olympics, Paper Says”, New York Times, <http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/24/world/asia/24beijing.html> 
  16. ^ "Beijing petrol stations to close", BBC News, 2008-02-15. Retrieved on 2008-02-15. 
  17. ^ Shipley, Amy (2008-03-18), “IOC wants to clear the air in Beijing”, Washington Post, <http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23682873/> 
  18. ^ "China says it made rain to wash off sand", MSNBC, 2006-05-05. 
  19. ^ "Beijing hit by eighth sandstorm", BBC News, 2006-04-17. 
  20. ^ Weaver, Lisa Rose. "More than a dust storm in a Chinese teacup", CNN, 2002-04-04. Retrieved on 2008-02-07. 
  21. ^ Geohive
  22. ^ Urban Construction. Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics (2006). Retrieved on 2008-03-15.
  23. ^ (2004-02-12). "Statistical Communique on the 2003 National Economic and Social Development of the City of Beijing". . Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics Retrieved on 2008-03-15.
  24. ^ "Pirates weave tangled web on 'Spidey'", The Hollywood Reporter, Reuters, 2007-04-27. Retrieved on 2008-03-15. 
  25. ^ Niu, Shuping; Hornby, Lucy. "Melamine in big demand in China as a food additive", The Boston Globe, Reuters, 2007-04-30. Retrieved on 2008-03-15. 
  26. ^ "Beijing's population exceeds 17.4 million", Xinhua News Agency, 2007-12-04. 
  27. ^ Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)
  28. ^ "Beijingers spend lives on road as traffic congestion worsens", China Daily, Xinhua News Agency, 2003-10-06. 
  29. ^ Minzu Hotel Beijing. Sino Hotel Guide. Retrieved on 2008-02-06.
  30. ^ Beijing Official Website International. Beijing International (2007-10-22). Retrieved on 2007-10-23.

For the news website, see msnbc. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of About. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Boston Globe (and Boston Sunday Globe) is the most widely circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and New England. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Front gate of the main building of Xinhua News Agency in Beijing For other uses, see Xinhua (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that China Daily Hong Kong Edition be merged into this article or section. ... Front gate of the main building of Xinhua News Agency in Beijing For other uses, see Xinhua (disambiguation). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Li, Lillian; Dray-Novey, Alison & Kong, Haili (2007), Beijing: From Imperial Capital to Olympic City, New York, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 1403964734 
  • MacKerras, Colin & Yorke, Amanda (1991), The Cambridge Handbook of Contemporary China, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521387558, <http://books.google.com/books?id=yiq_f71uXboC&printsec=frontcover&dq=beiping+beijing&source=gbs_summary_r> 

Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ... This article is about Cambridge, England; see also other places called Cambridge. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ...

External links

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Preceded by
Lin'an (Song Dynasty)
Capital of China (as Dadu)
1264-1368
Succeeded by
Nanjing (Ming Dynasty)
Preceded by
Nanjing (Ming Dynasty)
Capital of China
1420-1928
Succeeded by
Nanjing (ROC)
Preceded by
Nanjing (ROC)
Capital of the People's Republic of China
1949-present
Succeeded by
present capital

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Location Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... Saigon redirects here. ... Nickname: Map of the Dem. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... Bogota redirects here. ... Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to... Essen is a city in the center of the Ruhr Area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Madras redirects here. ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... A map of Gauteng, showing the East Rand. ... , For other uses, see Hyderabad. ... Dongguan (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Province Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - MPs List of MPs Dean Allison Chris Charlton David Christopherson Wayne Marston David Sweet  - MPPs List of MPPs Sophia Aggelonitis Andrea... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... Miami redirects here. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California Location of San Jose with the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Pueblo founded November 29, 1777 Incorporated March 27, 1850 Government  - Type charter city, mayor-council  - Mayor Chuck Reed  - Vice... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Beijing Travel Guide, Beijing Tours, Beijing Hotel, Vacation, City Map, Climate, China Trip Beijing (1265 words)
Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China serves the political, economic, travel, cultural and transportation center of the nation.
Beijing, Jing for short, is the nation's political, economic, cultural and educational center as well as China's most important center for international trade and communications.
Beijing is a city with four distinct seasons.
Beijing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6028 words)
Beijing is one of the four municipalities of the PRC, equivalent to a province in China's administrative structure.
Beijing Municipality borders Hebei Province to the north, west, south, and for a small section in the east, and Tianjin Municipality to the southeast.
Beijing's 18 districts and counties are further subdivided into 273 lower (third)-level administrative units at the township level: 119 towns, 24 townships, 5 ethnic townships and 125 subdistricts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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