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Encyclopedia > Beetle
Beetles
Hylobius abietis, a weevil
Hylobius abietis, a weevil
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Subclass: Pterygota
Infraclass: Neoptera
Superorder: Endopterygota
Order: Coleoptera
Linnaeus, 1758
Suborders

Adephaga
Archostemata
Myxophaga
Polyphaga
See subgroups of the order Coleoptera Beetle may refer to: Beetles, insects belonging to the family Coleoptera. ... The Coleopter was a VTOL aircraft developed by the French in the 1950s. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 593 pixelsFull resolution (918 × 680 pixel, file size: 156 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Beentree, Hylobius abietis, Szeliniak sosnowy, Bialowieza forest, Poland, 05. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Wikispecies has information related to: Hylobius abietis Hylobius abietis is a beetle belonging to the family Curculionidae (the true weevils). ... Families Anthribidae - fungus weevils Attelabidae - leaf rolling weevils Belidae - primitive weevils Brentidae - straight snout weevils Caridae Curculionidae - true weevils Nemonychidae - pine flower weevils Wikispecies has information related to: Curculionoidea A weevil is any beetle from the Curculionoidea superfamily. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Orders     Palaeodictyoptera - extinct     Ephemeroptera (mayflies)     Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies)   Infraclass Neoptera     Blattodea (cockroaches)     Mantodea (mantids)     Isoptera (termites)     Zoraptera     Grylloblattodea (rock crawlers)     Dermaptera (earwigs)     Plecoptera (stoneflies)     Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)     Phasmatodea (walking sticks, timemas)     Embioptera (webspinners)     Mantophasmatodea (gladiators)    Superorder Hemipterodea     Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)     Phthiraptera (lice)     Hemiptera (true bugs)     Thysanoptera (thrips)    Superorder... Orders     Blattodea (cockroaches)     Mantodea (mantids)     Isoptera (termites)     Zoraptera     Grylloblattodea     Dermaptera (earwigs)     Plecoptera (stoneflies)     Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)     Phasmatodea (walking sticks, timemas)     Embioptera (webspinners)     Mantophasmatodea (gladiators)    Superorder Hemipterodea     Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)     Phthiraptera (lice)     Hemiptera (true bugs)     Thysanoptera (thrips)    Superorder Endopterygota     Miomoptera - extinct     Megaloptera (alderflies, etc. ... Orders Coleoptera (beetles) Diptera (flies and relatives) Hymenoptera (wasps and relatives) Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Mecoptera Megaloptera Miomoptera (extinct) Neuroptera Raphidioptera (snakeflies) Siphonaptera (fleas) Strepsiptera Trichoptera (caddisflies) The Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, are insects of the subclass Pterygota which go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ... ... Families Amphizoidae Carabidae Cicindelidae Dytiscidae Gyrinidae Haliplidae Noteridae Rhysodidae Adephaga is the second largest suborder in the Coleoptera order. ... Families Crowsoniellidae Cupedidae Micromalthidae Ommatidae Archostemata is the smallest suborder of beetles, consisting of fewer than 50 known species organized in four families. ... Families Hydroscaphidae Lepiceridae Sphaeriusidae Torridincolidae This smallest suborder of Coleoptera consists of four families of small-to-minute beetle. ... Infraorders Bostrichiformia Cucujiformia Elateriformia Scarabaeiformia Staphyliniformia The Polyphagans are the biggest and most diverse suborder of beetles. ... The extraordinary number of species of beetle poses special problems for classification, with some families consisting of thousands of species and needing further division into subfamilies and tribes. ...

Beetles are a group of insects which have the largest number of species. They are placed in the order Coleoptera, means "sheathed wing", and contains more described species than in any other order in the animal kingdom and constitute about twenty-five percent of all known life-forms.[1] Forty percent of all described insect species are beetles (about 350,000 species[1]), and new species are frequently discovered. Estimates put the total number of species, described and undescribed, at between 5 and 8 million. Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ...


Beetles can be found in almost all habitats, but are not known to occur in the sea or in the polar regions. They interact with their ecosystems in several ways. They often feed on plants and fungi, break down animal and plant debris, and eat other invertebrates. Some species are prey of various animals including birds and mammals. Certain species are agricultural pests, such as the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata, the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, and the mungbean or cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, while other species of beetles are important controls of agricultural pests. For example, coccinellidae ("ladybirds" or "ladybugs") consume aphids, scale insects, thrips, and other plant-sucking insects that damage crops. Location of the polar regions Northern Hemisphere permafrost (permanently frozen ground) in purple. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Binomial name Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, 1824 The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, also known as the Colorado beetle, ten-striped spearman, the ten-lined potato beetle) is an important pest of potato crops. ... Binomial name Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 Wikispecies has information related to: Boll weevil The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a beetle measuring an average length of six millimeters (¼ inch). ... Ladybird and ladybug redirect here. ... Families There are 10 families: Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects. ... Families Aclerdidae Asterolecaniidae Beesoniidae Carayonemidae Cerococcidae Coccidae Conchaspididae Dactylopiidae Diaspididae Electrococcidae Eriococcidae Grimaldiellidae Halimococcidae Inkaidae Jersicoccidae Kermesidae Kerriidae Kukaspididae Labiococcidae Lecanodiaspididae Margarodidae Micrococcidae Ortheziidae Phenacoleachiidae Phoenicococcidae Pseudococcidae Putoidae Stictococcidae The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, notable for their habit of secreting a waxy covering that covers... Families Terebrantia Adiheterothripidae Aeolothripidae Fauriellidae † Hemithripidae Heterothripidae † Karataothripidae Melanthripidae Merothripidae Thripidae † Triassothripidae Uzelothripidae Tubulifera Phlaeothripidae Thrips on finger Thrips (Order Thysanoptera) are tiny, slender insects with fringed wings (thus the scientific name, from the Greek thysanos (fringe) + pteron (wing)). Other common names for thrips include thunderflies, thunderbugs, storm flies and...

Contents

Description

The name "Coleoptera" was given by Aristotle for the hardened shield like forewings (coleo = shield + ptera = wing).[1] For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...

A cockchafer with its elytra raised, exposing the membranous flight wings, where the veins are visible
A cockchafer with its elytra raised, exposing the membranous flight wings, where the veins are visible
Trogodendron fasciculatum, a clerid beetle with bright yellow antennae
Trogodendron fasciculatum, a clerid beetle with bright yellow antennae

Other characters of this group which are believed to be monophyletic include a holometabolous life cycle; having a prothorax that is distinct from and freely articulating with the mesothorax; the meso- and meta-thoracic segments fusing to form a pterothorax; a depressed body shape with the legs on the ventral surface; the coxae of legs recessed into cavities formed by heavily sclerotized thoracic sclerites; the abdominal sternites more sclerotized than the tergites; antennae with 11 or fewer segments; and terminal genitalic appendages retracted into the abdomen and invisible at rest.[1] Download high resolution version (758x614, 46 KB)From the de: Wikipedia. ... Download high resolution version (758x614, 46 KB)From the de: Wikipedia. ... Species M. melolontha (Linnaeus, 1758) M. hippocastani Fabricius, 1801 M. pectoralis Germar, 1824 Wikispecies has information related to: Cockchafer The cockchafer (or may bug, as it is colloquially called, or sometimes billy witch or spang beetle, particularly in East Anglia) is a European beetle of the genus Melolontha, in the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1067 pixel, file size: 432 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A clerid beetle of the species Trogodendron fasciculatum (Schreibers), commonly known as the yellow-horned clerid, sits atop a eucalyptus branch in Swifts Creek, Victoria, Australia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1067 pixel, file size: 432 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A clerid beetle of the species Trogodendron fasciculatum (Schreibers), commonly known as the yellow-horned clerid, sits atop a eucalyptus branch in Swifts Creek, Victoria, Australia. ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ... Holometabolism, also called complete metamorphism, is a term applied to insect groups to describe the specific kind of insect development which includes four life stages - as an embryo, a larva, a pupa and an imago. ... The prothorax is the foremost of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the first pair of legs. ... Theta Leonis (θ Leo / θ Leonis) is a star in the constellation Leo. ...


The general anatomy of beetles is quite uniform, although specific organs and appendages may vary greatly in appearance and function between the many families in the order. Like all insects, beetles' bodies are divided into three sections: the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. When viewed from below, the thorax is that part from which all three pairs of legs and both pairs of wings arise. The abdomen is everything posterior to the thorax. When viewed from above, most beetles appear to have three clear sections, but this is deceptive: on the beetle's upper surface, the middle "section" is a hard plate called the pronotum, which is only the front part of the thorax; the back part of the thorax is concealed by the beetle's wings. Like all arthropods, beetles are segmented organisms, and all three of the major sections of the body are themselves composed of several further segments, although these are not always readily discernible. This further segmentation is usually best seen on the abdomen. Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Look up appendage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The pronotum is the dorsal plate of the prothorax in insects ... Wing structure of a dragonfly (family Gomphidae) Insect wings are outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly. ... Vertebrates have a segmented vertebral column and brain. ...


Beetles are generally characterised by a particularly hard exoskeleton and hard forewings (elytra). The beetle's exoskeleton is made up of numerous plates called sclerites, separated by thin sutures. This design creates the armoured defences of the beetle while maintaining flexibility. The elytra are not used for flight, but tend to cover the hind part of the body and protect the second pair of wings (alae). The elytra must be raised in order to move the hind flight wings. A beetle's flight wings are crossed with veins and are folded after landing, often along these veins, and are stored below the elytra. An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body, in contrast to the internal endoskeleton of, for example, a human. ... The elytra of this cockchafer are readily distinguished from the transparent hindwings. ... A sclerite (Greek skleros meaning hard) is a hardened body part. ... The Dragonfly Insect flight, In the past several million years, flying insects have evolved with amazing flight characteristics and abilities. ... Wing structure of a dragonfly (family Gomphidae) Insect wings are outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly. ...


In some beetles, the ability to fly has been lost. These include the ground beetles (family Carabidae) and some "true weevils" (family Curculionidae), but also some desert and cave-dwelling species of other families. Many of these species have the two elytra fused together, forming a solid shield over the abdomen. In a few families, both the ability to fly and the elytra have been lost, with the best known example being the glow-worms of the family Phengodidae, in which the females are larviform throughout their lives. Genera Many genera; see text. ... Subgroups See Subgroups of Curculionidae. ... Photo of a glowworm on a stick. ... Genera about 30 genera The beetle family Phengodidae (LeConte, 1861) is known also as glowworm beetles or glowworms. ... Larviform females occur in many different insect groups, including many beetle species. ...


Beetles have mouthparts similar to those of grasshoppers. Of these parts, the most commonly known are probably the mandibles, which appear as large pincers on the front of some beetles. The mandibles are a pair of hard, often tooth-like structures that move horizontally to grasp, crush, or cut food or enemies (see defence, below). Two pairs of finger-like appendages are found around the mouth in most beetles, serving to move food into the mouth. These are the maxillary and labial palpi. The mouthparts of arthropods have evolved into a number of forms, each adapted to a different style of feeding. ... For other uses, see Grasshopper (disambiguation). ... Insect mandibles are a pair of appendages near the insect’s mouth. ... Look up appendage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The eyes are compound and may display remarkable adaptability, as in the case of whirligig beetles (family Gyrinidae), in which the eyes are split to allow a view both above and below the waterline. Other species also have divided eyes — some longhorn beetles (family Cerambycidae) and weevils — while many beetles have eyes that are notched to some degree. A few beetle genera also possess ocelli, which are small, simple eyes usually situated farther back on the head (on the vertex). Compound eye of a dragonfly Compound eye of Antarctic krill as imaged by an electron microscope A compound eye is a visual organ found in certain arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. ... Genera Spanglerogyrus Dineutus Gyrinus Gyretes (eight others) The whirligig beetles are a family (Gyrinidae) of water beetles that normally live on the surface of the water. ... Subfamilies Aseminae Cerambycinae Disteniinae Laminae Lepturinae Necydalinae Paradrinae Prioninae Spondylidinae etc. ... An ocellus (plural: ocelli) is a type of photoreceptor organ in animals. ... In arthropod and vertebrate anatomy, the vertex (or cranial vertex) refers to the upper surface of the head. ...


Beetles' antennae are primarily organs of smell, but may also be used to feel out a beetle's environment physically. They may also be used in some families during mating, or among a few beetles for defence. Antennae vary greatly in form within the Coleoptera, but are often similar within any given family. In some cases, males and females of the same species will have different antennal forms. Antennae may be clavate (flabellate and lamellate are sub-forms of clavate, or clubbed antennae), filiform, geniculate, moniliform, pectinate, or serrate. For images of these antennal forms see antenna (biology). Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ... Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ...

Acilius sulcatus, a diving beetle showing hind legs adapted for life in water
Acilius sulcatus, a diving beetle showing hind legs adapted for life in water

The legs, which are multi-segmented, end in two to five small segments called tarsi. Like many other insect orders beetles bear claws, usually one pair, on the end of the last tarsal segment of each leg. While most beetles use their legs for walking, legs may be variously modified and adapted for other uses. Among aquatic families — Dytiscidae, Haliplidae, many species of Hydrophilidae and others — the legs, most notably the last pair, are modified for swimming and often bear rows of long hairs to aid this purpose. Other beetles have fossorial legs that are widened and often spined for digging. Species with such adaptations are found among the scarabs, ground beetles, and clown beetles (family Histeridae). The hind legs of some beetles, such as flea beetles (within Chrysomelidae) and flea weevils (within Curculionidae), are enlarged and designed for jumping. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 625 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (780 × 748 pixel, file size: 314 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 625 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (780 × 748 pixel, file size: 314 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... An insect leg The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. ... Genera at least 160, see text Wikispecies has information related to: Dytiscidae Dytiscidae (known by various common names around the world, including predaceous diving beetles, water beetles and diving beetles) is a family of water beetles. ... Genera Algophilus Apteraliplus Brychius Haliplus Peltodytes The crawling water beetles are a family (Haliplidae) of water beetles who swim poorly using an alternate motion of the legs, and therefore prefer to get around by crawling. ... Genera about 160, see text The water scavenger beetles are a family (Hydrophilidae) of beetles that are mostly aquatic, but includes a terrestrial subfamily. ... A fossorial is an organism that is adapted to digging and life underground such as the mole salamanders Ambystomatidae. ... Genera about 330, see text The clown beetles or more traditionally hister beetles are a family (Histeridae) of beetles of distinctive appearance; their flattened leg segments recall the baggy or flowing clothes of clowns or actors (hister is from the Latin histrio, actor). ... Genera many; see text. ...


Oxygen is obtained via a tracheal system. Air enters a series of tubes along the body through openings called spiracles, and is then taken into increasingly finer fibres. Pumping movements of the body force the air through the system. General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Many terrestrial arthropods have evolved a closed respiratory system composed of spiracles, tracheae, and tracheoles to transport metabolic gasses to and from tissue. ... Spiracles are small openings on the surface of animals that usually lead to respiratory systems. ...


Beetles have haemolymph instead of blood, and the open circulatory system of the beetle is powered by a tube-like heart attached to the top inside of the thorax. Hemolymph (or haemolymph) is the blood analogue used by all arthropods and most mollusks that have an open circulatory system. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... An open circulatory system is an arrangement of internal transport in which blood bathes the organs directly and there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid. ...


Development

Scarabaeiform larva of the cockchafer, Melolontha melolontha
Scarabaeiform larva of the cockchafer, Melolontha melolontha

Beetles are endopterygotes with complete metamorphosis. Image File history File links Picture made by myself; larva of Meikever (Melolontha melolontha); Melolontha File links The following pages link to this file: Beetle ... Image File history File links Picture made by myself; larva of Meikever (Melolontha melolontha); Melolontha File links The following pages link to this file: Beetle ... Species Melolontha melolontha; Linnaeus 1758 Melolontha hippocastani; Fabricius 1801 Melolontha pectoralis; Megerle von Mühlfeld 1812 Note: there are many more species of Melolontha, but these do not occur in Europe. ... Orders Coleoptera (beetles) Diptera (flies and relatives) Hymenoptera (wasps and relatives) Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Mecoptera Megaloptera Miomoptera (extinct) Neuroptera Raphidioptera (snakeflies) Siphonaptera (fleas) Strepsiptera Trichoptera (caddisflies) The Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, are insects of the subclass Pterygota which go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages. ... A Pieris rapae larva An older Pieris rapae larva A Pieris rapae pupa A Pieris rapae adult Metamorphosis is a process in biology by which an individual physically develops after birth or hatching, and involves significant change in form as well as growth and differentiation. ...


A single female may lay from several dozen to several thousand eggs during her lifetime. Eggs are usually laid according to the substrate the larva will feed on upon hatching. Among others, they can be laid loose in the substrate (e.g. flour beetle), laid in clumps on leaves (e.g. Colorado potato beetle), or individually attached (e.g. mungbean beetle and other seed borers) or buried in the medium (e.g. carrot weevil). A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Binomial name Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, 1824 The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, also known as the Colorado beetle, ten-striped spearman, the ten-lined potato beetle) is an important pest of potato crops. ...


The larva is usually the principal feeding stage of the beetle life cycle. Larvae tend to feed voraciously once they emerge from their eggs. Some feed externally on plants, such as those of certain leaf beetles, while others feed within their food sources. Examples of internal feeders are most Buprestidae and longhorn beetles. The larvae of many beetle families are predatory like the adults (ground beetles, ladybirds, rove beetles). The larval period varies between species but can be as long as several years. A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... A life cycle is a period involving one generation of an organism through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. ... Genera about 450 genera The jewel beetles or metallic wood-boring beetles are a family Buprestidae of beetles known for their glossy iridescent colors. ...


Beetle larvae can be differentiated from other insect larvae by their hardened, often darkened head, the presence of chewing mouthparts, and spiracles along the sides of the body. Like adult beetles, the larvae are varied in appearance, particularly between beetle families. Beetles whose larvae are somewhat flattened and are highly mobile are the ground beetles, some rove beetles, and others; their larvae are described as campodeiform. Some beetle larvae resemble hardened worms with dark head capsules and minute legs. These are elateriform larvae, and are found in the click beetle (Elateridae) and darkling beetle (Tenebrionidae) families. Some elateriform larvae of click beetles are known as wireworms. Beetles in the families of the Scarabaeoidea have short, thick larvae described as scarabaeiform, but more commonly known as grubs. Spiracles are small openings on the surface of animals that usually lead to respiratory systems. ... Genera Click beetles (family Elateridae), sometimes called elaters, Skipjack, Snapping, or Spring Beetle, are distinguished by the unique click sound they produce. ... Subfamilies Lagriinae Phrenapatinae Pimeliinae Diaperinae Hypophloeinae Opatrinae Tenebrioninae Alleculinae Coelometopinae Wikispecies has information related to: Darkling beetle Darkling beetles are a family of beetles found worldwide, estimated at more than 20,000 species. ... Genera Click beetles (family Elateridae), sometimes called elaters, Skipjack, Snapping, or Spring Beetle, are distinguished by the unique click sound they produce. ... Families See text. ...


All beetle larvae go through several instars, which are the developmental stages between each moult. In many species the larvae simply increase in size with each successive instar as more food is consumed. In some cases, however, more dramatic changes occur. Among certain beetle families or genera, particularly those that exhibit parasitic lifestyles, the first instar (the planidium) is highly mobile in order to search out a host, while the following instars are more sedentary and remain on or within their host. This is known as hypermetamorphosis; examples include the blister beetles (family Meloidae) and some rove beetles, particularly those of the genus Aleochara. An instar is a developmental stage of arthropods, such as insects, between each molt. ... Ecdysis is the molting of the cuticula in arthropods and related groups (Ecdysozoa). ... A planidium is a specialized type of first-instar insect larva, seen in groups that are parasitoids; they are generally flattened, highly sclerotized, have legs, are quite mobile, and sometimes have eyes. ... Hypermetamorphosis is the form of metamorphosis done by certain beetles, notably Meloidae and Rhipiphoridae, and the Strepsiptera. ... Genera See text. ... Wikispecies has information related to: Aleochara Rove beetles of the genus Aleochara are among the only insect parasites in the beetle family Staphylinidae. ...


As with all endopterygotes, beetle larvae pupate, and from this pupa emerges a fully formed, sexually mature adult beetle, or imago. Adults have an extremely variable lifespan, from weeks to years, depending on the species. Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa A pupa (Latin pupa for doll, pl: pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. ... The imago is the last stage of development of an insect, after the last ecdysis of an incomplete metamorphosis, or after emergence from pupation where the metamorphosis is complete. ...


Physiology and behaviour

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Reproduction

Beetles mating in San Francisco
Beetles mating in San Francisco
Flamboyant flower beetle, Eudicella gralli, from the forests of Central Africa. The iridescent elytra are used in marriage ceremonies.
Flamboyant flower beetle, Eudicella gralli, from the forests of Central Africa. The iridescent elytra are used in marriage ceremonies.

Beetles may display extremely intricate behaviour when mating. Smell is thought to be important in the location of a mate. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,000 × 1,500 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,000 × 1,500 pixels, file size: 1. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1038x832, 624 KB) Striped Love Beetle Eudicella gralli at Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1038x832, 624 KB) Striped Love Beetle Eudicella gralli at Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England. ... Binomial name Eudicella gralli (Buquet, 1836) The Flamboyant Flower Beetle is one of the most brightly colored members of the scarab beetle family. ...


Conflict can play a part in the mating rituals of species such as burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus) where conflicts between males and females rage until only one of each is left, thus ensuring reproduction by the strongest and fittest. Many beetles are territorial and will fiercely defend their small patch of territory from intruding males. Species See text. ...


Pairing is generally short but in some cases will last for several hours. During pairing sperm cells are transferred to the female to fertilise the egg. A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... This article is about fertilisation in animals and plants. ...


Parental care varies between species, ranging from the simple laying of eggs under a leaf to certain scarab beetles, which construct underground structures complete with a supply of dung to house and feed their young. Other beetles are leaf rollers, biting sections of leaves to cause them to curl inwards, then laying their eggs, thus protected, inside. subfamily Aegialiinae Aphodiinae Cetoniinae Dynastinae Euchirinae Hopliinae Idiostominae Melolonthinae Orphninae Pachypodinae Phaenomerinae Phileurinae Rutelinae Scarabaeinae Sericinae Taurocerastinae Trichiinae Valginae Wikispecies has information related to: Scarabaeidae The family Scarabaeidae as presently defined consists of over 30,000 species of beetles worldwide. ...


Defense

Brachinus sp., a bombardier beetle
Brachinus sp., a bombardier beetle

Beetles and their larvae have a variety of strategies to avoid being attacked by predators or parasitoids. These include camouflage, mimicry, toxicity, and active defence. Image File history File linksMetadata Brachinus_spPCCA20060328-2821B.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bombardier beetle Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Brachinus_spPCCA20060328-2821B.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bombardier beetle Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Tribes Brachinini Paussini Ozaenini Metriini Wikispecies has information related to: Brachinini Bombardier Beetles are ground beetles (Carabidae) in the tribes Brachinini, Paussini, Ozaenini, or Metriini—more than 500 species altogether—that are most notable for the defense mechanism that gives them their name: They can fire a mixture of chemicals... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ... For other uses, see Mimic (disambiguation). ...


Camouflage involves the use of colouration or shape to blend into the surrounding environment. Among those that exhibit this defensive strategy are some of the leaf beetles (family Chysomelidae), having green colouring very similar to their habitat on plant leaves. More complex camouflage also occurs, as with some weevils, where various coloured scales or hairs cause the beetle to resemble bird dung. Subfamilies See text. ... Families Anthribidae - fungus weevils Attelabidae - leaf rolling weevils Belidae - primitive weevils Brentidae - straight snout weevils Caridae Curculionidae - true weevils Nemonychidae - pine flower weevils Wikispecies has information related to: Curculionoidea A weevil is any beetle from the Curculionoidea superfamily. ...


Another defence that often uses colour or shape to deceive potential enemies is mimicry. A number of longhorn beetles (family Cerambycidae) bear a striking resemblance to wasps, which fools predators into keeping their distance even though the beetles are in fact harmless. This defence can be found to a lesser extent in other beetle families, such as the scarab beetles. Beetles may combine their colour mimicry with behavioural mimicry, acting like the wasps they already closely resemble. Subfamilies Aseminae Cerambycinae Disteniinae Laminae Lepturinae Necydalinae Paradrinae Prioninae Spondylidinae etc. ... For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ...


Many beetle species, including ladybirds and blister beetles, can secrete distasteful or toxic substances to make them unpalatable or even poisonous. These same species often exhibit aposematism, where bright or contrasting colour patterns warn away potential predators. Ladybird and ladybug redirect here. ... Genera See text. ... The bright colours of this Yellow-winged Darter dragonfly serve as a warning to predators of its noxious taste. ...


Large ground beetles and longhorn beetles may go on the attack, using their strong mandibles to forcibly persuade a predator to seek out easier prey. Others, such as bombardier beetles (within Carabidae) spray acidic gas from their abdomen to repel predators. Genera Many genera; see text. ... Insect mandibles are a pair of appendages near the insect’s mouth. ... Tribes Brachinini Paussini Ozaenini Metriini Wikispecies has information related to: Brachinini Bombardier Beetles are ground beetles (Carabidae) in the tribes Brachinini, Paussini, Ozaenini, or Metriini—more than 500 species altogether—that are most notable for the defense mechanism that gives them their name: They can fire a mixture of chemicals...


Feeding

Besides being abundant and varied, the Coleoptera are able to exploit the wide diversity of food sources available in their many habitats. Some are generalists, eating both plants and animals. Other beetles are highly specialised in their diet. Many species of leaf beetles, longhorn beetles, and weevils are very host specific, feeding on only a single species of plant. Ground beetles and rove beetles (family Staphylinidae), among others, are primarily carnivorous and will catch and consume many other arthropods and small prey such as earthworms and snails. While most predatory beetles are generalists, a few species have more specific prey requirements or preferences. Genera Many genera; see text. ... Genera (thousands, see text) The rove beetles are a large family (Staphylinidae) of beetles, primarily distinguished by their short elytra that leave more than half of their abdomens exposed. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ...


Decaying organic matter is a primary diet for many species. This can range from dung, which is consumed by coprophagous species such as certain scarab beetles (family Scarabaeidae), to dead animals, which are eaten by necrophagous species such as the carrion beetles (family Silphidae). Some of the beetles found within dung and carrion are in fact predatory, such as the clown beetles, preying on the larvae of coprophagous and necrophagous insects. Dung can refer to: (what lana belchers face looks like) Look up dung in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Coprophagia is the consumption of feces, from the Greek copro (feces) and phagy (eat). ... A dung beetle, with a shovel-like head, rolling a dung ball with its hindlegs. ... Necrophagy is the act of feeding on corpses or carrion. ... Subfamilies Nicrophorinae Silphinae (15 genera) Carrion beetles (Family Silphidae) are a minor group of beetles, consisting of about 300 species. ... Genera about 330, see text The clown beetles or more traditionally hister beetles are a family (Histeridae) of beetles of distinctive appearance; their flattened leg segments recall the baggy or flowing clothes of clowns or actors (hister is from the Latin histrio, actor). ...


Adaptations to the environment

Aquatic beetles use several techniques for retaining air beneath the water's surface. Beetles of the family Dytiscidae hold air between the abdomen and the elytra when diving. Hydrophilidae have hairs on their under surface that retain a layer of air against their bodies. Adult crawling water beetles use both their elytra and their hind coxae (the basal segment of the back legs) in air retention [2] while whirligig beetles simply carry an air bubble down with them whenever they dive. Theta Leonis (θ Leo / θ Leonis) is a star in the constellation Leo. ... Genera Spanglerogyrus Dineutus Gyrinus Gyretes (eight others) The whirligig beetles are a family (Gyrinidae) of water beetles that normally live on the surface of the water. ...


Evolutionary history and classification

Sphaerius acaroides, a member of the small suborder Myxophaga
Sphaerius acaroides, a member of the small suborder Myxophaga

Beetles entered the fossil record during the Lower Permian, about 265 million years ago. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Species (19 species) The minute bog beetle is a small and obscure family (Sphaeriusidae) of beetle typically found along the edges of streams and rivers, where it feeds on algae. ... Families Hydroscaphidae Lepiceridae Sphaeriusidae Torridincolidae This smallest suborder of Coleoptera consists of four families of small-to-minute beetle. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ...


The four extant suborders of beetle are these:

These suborders diverged in the Permian and Triassic. Their phylogenetic relationship is uncertain, with the most popular hypothesis being that Polyphaga and Myxophaga are most closely related, with Adephaga as the sister group to those two, and Archostemata as sister to the other three collectively. Infraorders Bostrichiformia Cucujiformia Elateriformia Scarabaeiformia Staphyliniformia The Polyphagans are the biggest and most diverse suborder of beetles. ... Genera (thousands, see text) The rove beetles are a large family (Staphylinidae) of beetles, primarily distinguished by their short elytra that leave more than half of their abdomens exposed. ... subfamily Aegialiinae Aphodiinae Cetoniinae Dynastinae Euchirinae Hopliinae Idiostominae Melolonthinae Orphninae Pachypodinae Phaenomerinae Phileurinae Rutelinae Scarabaeinae Sericinae Taurocerastinae Trichiinae Valginae Wikispecies has information related to: Scarabaeidae The family Scarabaeidae as presently defined consists of over 30,000 species of beetles worldwide. ... Genera See text. ... Subfamilies not a complete list Aesalinae Figulinae Lampriminae Lucaninae Nicaginae Penichrolucaninae Syndesinae Mating pair Stag beetles are a group of about 1,200 species of beetle in the family Lucanidae. ... Subgroups See Subgroups of Curculionidae. ... A sclerite (Greek skleros meaning hard) is a hardened body part. ... Families Amphizoidae Carabidae Cicindelidae Dytiscidae Gyrinidae Haliplidae Noteridae Rhysodidae Adephaga is the second largest suborder in the Coleoptera order. ... Genera Many genera; see text. ... Genera at least 160, see text Wikispecies has information related to: Dytiscidae Dytiscidae (known by various common names around the world, including predaceous diving beetles, water beetles and diving beetles) is a family of water beetles. ... Genera Spanglerogyrus Dineutus Gyrinus Gyretes (eight others) The whirligig beetles are a family (Gyrinidae) of water beetles that normally live on the surface of the water. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body, in contrast to the internal endoskeleton of, for example, a human. ... Theta Leonis (θ Leo / θ Leonis) is a star in the constellation Leo. ... Families Crowsoniellidae Cupedidae Micromalthidae Ommatidae Archostemata is the smallest suborder of beetles, consisting of fewer than 50 known species organized in four families. ... Genera Adinolepsis Ascioplaga Cupes Distocupes Paracupes Priacma Prolixocupes Rhipsideigma Tenomerga The reticulated beetles are a small family (Cupedidae) of primitive beetles, notable for the square pattern of windows on their elytra that gives the family its common name. ... Binomial name Micromalthus debilus The telephone-pole beetles are a family (Micromalthidae) of small beetles, consisting of, at present, one described species Micromalthus debilus. ... Families Hydroscaphidae Lepiceridae Sphaeriusidae Torridincolidae This smallest suborder of Coleoptera consists of four families of small-to-minute beetle. ... Genera Hydroscapha Scaphydra Yara The skiff beetles are a small family (Hydroscaphidae) of water beetles, consisting of 13 species in three genera. ... Species (19 species) The minute bog beetle is a small and obscure family (Sphaeriusidae) of beetle typically found along the edges of streams and rivers, where it feeds on algae. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ...


There are about 350,000 species of beetles. Such a large number of species poses special problems for classification, with some families consisting of thousands of species and needing further division into subfamilies and tribes. Title page of Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758. ...


Impact on humans

Pests

Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae
Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae

Many agricultural, forestry, and household insect pests are beetles. These include the following: Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, 1824 The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, also known as the Colorado beetle, ten-striped spearman, the ten-lined potato beetle) is an important pest of potato crops. ...

Binomial name Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, 1824 The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, also known as the Colorado beetle, ten-striped spearman, the ten-lined potato beetle) is an important pest of potato crops. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ... “Nightshade” redirects here. ... Species See text Solanum is a genus of annuals, perennials, sub-shrubs, shrubs and climbers. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. The aubergine, eggplant or brinjal (Solanum melongena) is a solanaceous plant bearing a fruit of the same name, commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. ... Species C. annuum (incl. ... Binomial name Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 Wikispecies has information related to: Boll weevil The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a beetle measuring an average length of six millimeters (¼ inch). ... Genera See text. ... Species See Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees making up the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Siberia to Indonesia, Mexico to Japan. ... Branch death, or Flagging, at multiple locations in the crown of a diseased elm. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Binomial name De Geer, 1774 The death watch beetle (Xestobium rufovillosum) is a woodboring beetle, namely a beetle whose larvae are xylophagous. ... Genera See text. ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood For the record label, see Hardwood Records. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Species Castanea alnifolia - Bush Chinkapin* Castanea crenata - Japanese Chestnut Castanea dentata - American Chestnut Castanea henryi - Henrys Chestnut Castanea mollissima - Chinese Chestnut Castanea ozarkensis - Ozark Chinkapin Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinkapin Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut Castanea seguinii - Seguins Chestnut * treated as a synonym of by many authors Chestnut is a... Binomial name Cano, 1894 [1] Synonyms Anthonomus aeneotinctus Champion, 1903 Wikispecies has information related to: Asian long-horned beetle The Asian long-horned beetle or pepper weevil [2] (Anoplophora glabripennis), sometimes called Starry Sky (Sky Oxen in China) beetle, is native to China and where it causes widespread mortality of... Binomial name Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, China and Korea, where it is considered a serious pest. ... The Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera, is a beetle. ... For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ... Leaves are an Icelandic five-piece alternative rock band who came to prominence in 2002 with their debut album, Breathe, drawing comparisons to groups such as Coldplay and Doves. ... Seedlings are a type of popular gumball that contains many mini-gumballs. ... For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ... Palms is a neighborhood in western Los Angeles. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the capital city of the Philippines, see Manila. ... Province is a name for a secondary, or subnational entity of government in most countries. ... At the Drive-In (ATDI) was a post-hardcore band from El Paso, Texas from 1993 until 2001 and was one of the most influential bands of the genre. ... Look up Pest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Pest may refer to: A pest, an animal (usually an insect), or sometimes a plant (weed) with characteristics that are injurious or harmful to humans. ... For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ...

Beneficial organisms

Coccinella septempunctata, a beneficial beetle
Coccinella septempunctata, a beneficial beetle
  • Both the larvae and adults of some ladybirds (family Coccinellidae) are found in aphid colonies. Other lady beetles feed on scale insects and mealybugs. If normal food sources are scarce they may feed on other things, such as small caterpillars, young plant bugs, honeydew and nectar.
  • Ground beetles (family Carabidae) are common predators of many different insects and other arthropods, including fly eggs, caterpillars, wireworms and others.
  • Plant-feeding beetles are often important beneficial insects, controlling problem weeds. Some flea beetles of the genus Aphthona feed on leafy spurge, a considerable weed of rangeland in western North America.

Some farmers develop beetle banks to foster and provide cover for beneficial beetles. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1305x903, 126 KB) Summary Description: Close-up view of an adult lady beetle. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1305x903, 126 KB) Summary Description: Close-up view of an adult lady beetle. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Wikispecies has information related to: Coccinella septempunctata Coccinella septempunctata, the seven-spot ladybird (or, in North America, seven-spotted ladybug or seven-spotted lady beetle), is the most common ladybird in Europe. ... Subfamilies Chilocorinae Coccidulinae Coccinellinae Epilachninae Scymininae Sticholotidinae etc. ... Ladybird and ladybug redirect here. ... Families There are 10 families: Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects. ... Families Aclerdidae Asterolecaniidae Beesoniidae Carayonemidae Cerococcidae Coccidae Conchaspididae Dactylopiidae Diaspididae Electrococcidae Eriococcidae Grimaldiellidae Halimococcidae Inkaidae Jersicoccidae Kermesidae Kerriidae Kukaspididae Labiococcidae Lecanodiaspididae Margarodidae Micrococcidae Ortheziidae Phenacoleachiidae Phoenicococcidae Pseudococcidae Putoidae Stictococcidae The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, notable for their habit of secreting a waxy covering that covers... Mealybug is the common name of insects in Pseudococcidae, a family of unarmored scale insects found in moist, warm climates. ... The term honeydew has more than one meaning. ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... Genera Many genera; see text. ... This article is about a form of an insect. ... Aphthona is a genus in the Chrysomelidae family of beetles. ... Binomial name Euphorbia esula L. Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula), also known as Wolfs Milk, or Wolfs-milk is a flowering plant native to North America. ... In agriculture, a beetle bank is a strip of grass or perennials in a field that provide habitat which fosters and provides cover for insects hostile to pests. ...


Beetles of the Dermestidae family are often used in taxidermy to clean bones of remaining flesh. Genera many, see text The skin beetles are a family Dermestidae (Gyllenhal 1808) of beetles. ... A mounted snow leopard. ...


Beetles in ancient Egypt and other cultures

Ancient Egyptian scene depicting a scarab beetle
Ancient Egyptian scene depicting a scarab beetle

Several species of dung beetle, most notably Scarabaeus sacer (often referred to as "scarab"), enjoyed a sacred status among the ancient Egyptians, as the creatures were likened to the major god Khepri. Some scholars suggest that the Egyptians' practice of making mummies was inspired by the brooding process of the beetle. Many thousands of amulets and stamp seals have been excavated that depict the scarab. In many artifacts, the scarab is depicted pushing the sun along its course in the sky, much as scarabs push or roll balls of dung to their brood sites. During and following the New Kingdom, scarab amulets were often placed over the heart of the mummified deceased. Scarab beetle in Tomb KV6, Valley of the Kings Photo taken by Hajor, Dec. ... Scarab beetle in Tomb KV6, Valley of the Kings Photo taken by Hajor, Dec. ... A dung beetle, with a shovel-like head, rolling a dung ball with its hindlegs. ... Dung beetles refer to those beetles which feed partly or exclusively on feces. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... Khepri as a scarab beetle, pushing the sun across the sky In Egyptian mythology, Khepri (also spelt Khepera, Kheper, Chepri, Khepra) is the name of a minor god. ... This article is about the corpse preparation method, for other uses of Mummy see Mummy (disambiguation) An Egyptian mummy kept in the Vatican Museums. ... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ...


Some tribal groups, particularly in tropical parts of the world, use the colourful, iridescent elytra of certain beetles, especially certain Scarabaeidae, in ceremonies and as adornment. The elytra of this cockchafer are readily distinguished from the transparent hindwings. ...


Study and collection

Beetle collection at the Melbourne Museum, Australia
Beetle collection at the Melbourne Museum, Australia

The study of beetles is called coleopterology, and its practitioners are coleopterists. Coleopterists have formed organisations to facilitate the study of beetles. Among these is The Coleopterists Society, an international organisation based in the United States. Such organisations may have both professionals and amateurs interested in beetles as members. Download high resolution version (800x605, 164 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Linnaean taxonomy Entomology ... Download high resolution version (800x605, 164 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Linnaean taxonomy Entomology ... Exhibition space Museum hall The Melbourne Museum is located in the Carlton Gardens in Melbourne, Australia. ... A beetle Coleopterology is the scientific study of beetles (insects of the order Coleoptera). ... Notable students of coleopterology (beetles) include the following. ... For the political science journal, see: International Organization An international organization (also called intergovernmental organization) is an organization of international scope or character. ...


Research in this field is often published in peer-reviewed journals specific to the field of coleopterology, though journals dealing with general entomology also publish many papers on various aspects of beetle biology. Some of the journals specific to beetle research are: Nature, Science and PNAS In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. ...

  • The Coleopterist (United Kingdom beetle fauna)
  • The Coleopterists Bulletin (published by The Coleopterists Society)

There is a thriving industry in the collection of beetle specimens for amateur and professional collectors. Many coleopterists prefer to collect beetle specimens for themselves, recording detailed information about each specimen and its habitat. Such collections add to the body of knowledge about the Coleoptera. Some countries have established laws governing or prohibiting the collection of certain rare (and often much sought after) species. One such beetle whose collection is illegal or restricted is the American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus. The Coleopterist is a UK-based journal for specialists in coleopterology (the study of beetles). ... Binomial name Nicrophorus americanus (Olivier, 1790) Nicrophorus americanus, the American burying beetle or giant carrion beetle, is an endangered species of beetle endemic to North America. ...


References

General references

  • Poul Beckmann, Living Jewels: The Natural Design of Beetles ISBN 3-7913-2528-0
  • Arthur V. Evans, Charles Bellamy, and Lisa Charles Watson, An Inordinate Fondness for Beetles ISBN 0-520-22323-3
  • Entomological Society of America, Beetle Larvae of the World ISBN 0-643-05506-1
  • David Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, Evolution of the Insects ISBN 0-521-82149-5
  • Ross H. Arnett, Jr. and Michael C. Thomas, American Beetles (CRC Press, 2001-2). ISBN 0-8493-1925-0
  • K. W. Harde, A Field Guide in Colour to Beetles ISBN 0-7064-1937-5 Pages 7-24
  • White, R.E. 1983. Beetles. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, NY. ISBN 0-395-91089-7

The Entomological Society of America (ESA) was founded in 1889 and today has more than 6,000 members, including educators, extension personnel, consultants, students, researchers, and scientists from agricultural departments, health agencies, private industries, colleges and universities, and state and federal governments. ... David Grimaldi (entomologist) (born September 22, 1957) is an entomologist and Curator of Invertebrate Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. ... Michael S. Engel (born 24 September 1971 in Creve Coeur, Missouri) is a paleontologist and entomologist. ... Ross Harold Arnett, Jr. ... Michael C. Thomas is an American entomologist who is co-author of the book series American Beetles. ... American Beetles is the single most comprehensive description of the beetles of North America north of the tropical area of Mexico. ...

Cited references

  1. ^ a b c d James K. Liebherr and Joseph V. McHugh in Resh, V. H. & R. T. Cardé (Editors) 2003. Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press.
  2. ^ R. H. Arnett, Jr. & M. C. Thomas (2001). "Haliplidae", American Beetles, Volume 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 138–143. ISBN 0-8493-1925-0. 
  3. ^ Inquirer.net, Beetles infest coconuts in Manila, 26 provinces

Ross Harold Arnett, Jr. ... Michael C. Thomas is an American entomologist who is co-author of the book series American Beetles. ... American Beetles is the single most comprehensive description of the beetles of North America north of the tropical area of Mexico. ... The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group which specializes in producing technical books in a wide range of subjects. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Palm Beach Founded 1925 Government  - Type Commission-Manager  - Mayor Steven L. Abrams Area  - City  29. ...

See also

  • Heteroptera - insect suborder that is superficially similar to beetles

Infraorders Enicocephalomorpha Dipsocoromorpha Gerromorpha Nepomorpha Leptopodomorpha Cimicomorpha Pentatomomorpha Heteroptera is a group of about 40,000 species of insects (also called true bugs) in the order Hemiptera. ...

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