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Encyclopedia > Beethoven and his contemporaries

During the course of his lifetime (1770-1827), the composer Ludwig van Beethoven enjoyed relationships with many of his musical contemporaries. Beethoven was famously difficult to get along with, and the history of his relationships with contemporaries is littered with arguments, misunderstandings, and reconciliations. Beethoven had well-known falling outs with his one-time teacher, Joseph Haydn, with the piano virtuoso and composer Johann Nepomuk Hummel, and the German composer Carl Maria von Weber. 1820 portrait by Karl Stieler Ludwig van Beethoven (pronounced ) (baptized December 17, 1770[1] – March 26, 1827) was a German composer and pianist. ... Franz Joseph Haydn[1] (March 31 or April 1, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was one of the most prominent composers of the Classical period, called the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. A life-long resident of Austria, Haydn spent most of his career as a... A grand piano, with the lid up. ... Niccolò Paganini - widely regarded as the first ever virtuoso violinist A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso, late Latin virtuosus, latin virtus meaning: skill, manliness, excellence) is an individual who possesses outstanding technical ability at singing or playing a musical instrument. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Johann Nepomuk Hummel Johann Nepomuk Hummel or Jan Nepomuk Hummel (14 November 1778 – 17 October 1837) was a composer and virtuoso pianist of Austrian origin who was born in today Slovakia. ... Carl Maria von Weber Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst, Freiherr von Weber (November 18, 1786 in Eutin, Holstein – June 5, 1826 in London, England) was a German composer. ...


Beethoven and Joseph Haydn

Perhaps the most important relationship in Beethoven's early life, and certainly the most famous, was the young pianist's tutorship under the Austrian composer Joseph Haydn. Beethoven studied with a number of composers and teachers in the period 1792-1795, including Antonio Salieri and Johann Georg Albrechtsberger. However, of all Beethoven's teachers, Haydn enjoyed the greatest reputation having just returned from his first successful voyage to London. In the year before his second trip to London (1794), Haydn agreed to take on Beethoven as a student. Franz Joseph Haydn[1] (March 31 or April 1, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was one of the most prominent composers of the Classical period, called the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. A life-long resident of Austria, Haydn spent most of his career as a... Antonio Salieri Antonio Salieri (August 18, 1750 – May 7, 1825), born in Legnago, Italy, was a composer and conductor, as well as one of the most important and famous musicians of his time. ... Johann Georg Albrechtsberger (February 3, 1736 - March 7, 1809) was an Austrian musician who was born at Klosterneuburg, near Vienna. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ...

There is evidence that Haydn assigned his student composition exercises based on the Fux text Gradus ad Parnassum. During the course of the year, however, the relationship between the two men soured. According to contemporary accounts, the issue surfaced most notably upon the publication of Beethoven's first compositions, the Trios Op. 1. (See List of works by Beethoven). Wishing to assist the young composer, Haydn suggested that Beethoven include the phrase 'pupil of Haydn' underneath his name in order to garner advantage from Haydn's considerable fame. There is generally strong evidence of Haydn's goodwill toward Beethoven, including an interest in taking his pupil with him on his second London voyage, and the personal missives Haydn sent Beethoven's early patron Maximilian Francis of Austria, Elector of Cologne. Johann Joseph Fux (1660 – February 13, 1741) was an Austrian composer, music theorist and pedagogue of the late Baroque era. ... Gradus, or Gradus ad Parnassum (a step to Parnassus), is a Latin (or Greek) dictionary, in which the quantities of the vowels of the words are marked. ... Below is a complete list of works by Beethoven with dates of publication in parentheses: // [edit] Beethoven works, by genre [edit] Symphonies Opus 21: Symphony No. ... Maximilian Francis (or Franz) of Austria, Elector of Cologne (1756 - 1801) was the youngest of sixteen children born into the imperial household of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Theresa, whose more famous progeny included Marie Antoinette and Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor. ...

Beethoven, however, seems to have harboured ill-will toward Haydn. At the suggestion that he include the phrase pupil of Haydn, Beethoven bristled. According to the account left by Ferdinand Ries "Beethoven was unwilling to because, as he said, although he had some instruction from Haydn he had never learned anything from him." The bad-feelings produced by the Opus 1 Trios was compounded upon their first performance. Haydn, present in the audience, is reported to have recommended against the publication of the C minor Trio (Opus 1, no. 3) since he suspected the music would not gain public acceptance. Beethoven interpreted this as an indication of Haydn's envy and jealousy.

Despite this, however, Beethoven and Haydn remained on generally good terms until Haydn's death in 1809. Haydn's towering reputation in Vienna made it hard for Beethoven to be openly antagonistic. However, Haydn was also genuinely admiring of Beethoven's compositions, a trait that usually succeeded in earning Beethoven's goodwill.

Beethoven and Johann Nepomuk Hummel

Johann Nepomuk Hummel, born in 1778, was a fixture in the Viennese musical world. A child prodigy and former pupil of W.A. Mozart, Hummel was renowned for his incredible virtuosity at the keyboard and legendary prowess at improvisation. Alongside Beethoven, he was widely considered the finest performer of his day. For many years, Hummel enjoyed a close friendship with Beethoven. Johann Nepomuk Hummel Johann Nepomuk Hummel or Jan Nepomuk Hummel (14 November 1778 – 17 October 1837) was a composer and virtuoso pianist of Austrian origin who was born in today Slovakia. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (baptized as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart; January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and highly influential composer of Classical music. ...

Several incidents, however, marred their relationship. In a famous incident, Beethoven was invited by Prince Nikolaus Esterhazy to write a mass for his wife in 1807. Beethoven agreed and produced the Mass in C, which was performed at the prince's estate, Eisenstadt. Hummel was at the time the Kapellmeister, having been appointed Haydn's successor to the Esterhazy court. The performance did not go well, and the prince is purported to have made a barbed remark to Beethoven afterwards. According to Schindler, Hummel laughed at the prince's words, compounding the always-sensitive Beethoven's feelings of humiliation and persecution. Beethoven promptly left Eisenstadt and carried the grudge for years aftwerward. This incident, however, likely did not prompt the eventual falling-out between the two men. The House of Esterházy (- German, in Hungarian: Eszterházy, in Slovak: Esterházi) was a noble family in the Kingdom of Hungary since the Middle Ages, which was among the great territorial magnates of the Kingdom of Hungary, during the time it was part of the Austrian Habsburg Empire. ... Ludwig van Beethoven wrote his Mass in C major (or Mass in C) to a commission from Nikolaus Esterházy in 1807. ... Eisenstadt (Hungarian Kismarton, Croatian Željezno) is a city in Austria, the state capital of Burgenland. ...

A more likely source of contention between them was artistic. Hummel was well-known for his keyboard arrangements of Beethoven's works, particularly his symphonies. Beethoven disliked Hummel's style of performance and composition, and according to Ignaz Moscheles objected to Hummel's arrangements. Some time in the late 1810s, disagreement surfaced, the exact cause of which is unknown, but which may well have centered around discord over Hummel's arrangements of Beethoven's music. Ignaz Moscheles, from a portrait by his son Felix. ...

Hummel spent most of the 1820s at the Weimar Court, where he was a friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and did not see Beethoven again until a remarkable reconciliation took place between the two men upon Beethoven's deathbed. Hummel, hearing of Beethoven's serious illness, travelled from Weimar to Vienna to visit his erstwhile friend. According to the account left by Hummel's then-student Ferdinand Hiller (who accompanied his teacher), Hummel may have been motivated by more than compassion. Hummel solicited Beethoven's signature upon a petition he was taking to the Bundestag in order to protect his (and others) compositions from illegal copying. All told, Hummel visited Beethoven three times upon his death bed, the last being on March 23, 1827, just three days before his death, and was present at his funeral. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ... The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ...

Beethoven and Luigi Cherubini

Beethoven met the composer Luigi Cherubini upon the latter's voyage to Vienna in 1805. Cherubini, a longtime resident of Paris, was invited to mount a production of his opera Die Tage der Gefahr (or Der Wasserträger) after the success of his 1791 opera Lodoïska, which was staged by Emanuel Schikaneder on March 23, 1803 at the Theater an der Wien. Cherubini's time in Vienna was generally unhappy, but he did have the opportunity to meet Beethoven. Cherubini was in attendance for the first performances of Beethoven's Opera Fidelio, to which he reacted sneeringly. He also described Beethoven's piano style as "rough," and more famously the man himself as "an unlicked bear." It is remarkable, therefore that Beethoven, normally so quick to take offense, named Cherubini as the greatest contemporary composer. This extraordinary judgment persisted; upon nearing his death, Beethoven remarked to his friend Karl Holz that he considered Cherubini's Requiem of 1816 a superior composition to Mozart's! Luigi Cherubini (September 14, 1760 – March 15, 1842) was an Italian composer. ...   City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan. ... Emanuel Schikaneder (September 9, 1751, Straubing - September 21, 1812, Vienna), born Johann Joseph Schikaneder, was mostly famous for his collaboration as a librettist with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, on popular operas such as Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute). ... The Theater an der Wien is a historic theatre in Vienna. ... Fidelio (Op. ... The Requiem or Requiem Mass, also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Catholic Church and its Eastern Rite. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Beethoven and Franz Liszt

On April 13, 1823, the twelve year old Hungarian pianist Franz Liszt gave a concert and it is often said that the 53-year-old Ludwig van Beethoven gave him a kiss for his marvellous playing, although this is unlikely to be true as Beethoven was profoundly deaf by this time. A more reasonable account of the Beethoven kiss event is reported in the reminiscences of the pianist Ilka Horovitz-Barnay: April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Pianist Claudio Arrau, Carnegie Hall, 1954. ... Franz Liszt (Hungarian: Liszt Ferenc) (Slovak: List Franz) (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a Hungarian ( with both parents from Slovakia ) virtuoso pianist and composer. ... A classical music concert in the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne. ... 1820 portrait by Karl Stieler Ludwig van Beethoven (pronounced ) (baptized December 17, 1770[1] – March 26, 1827) was a German composer and pianist. ... The Kiss by Francesco Hayez, 19th century. ... The word deaf can have very different meanings depending on the background of the person speaking or the context in which the word is used. ...

"The most memorable time I experienced with Liszt was when he told me of his meeting with Beethoven. 'I was about eleven years old', he began, 'when my highly esteemed teacher Czerny introduced me to Beethoven. He had long before told him about me and had asked him to hear me play. But Beethoven had aversions against prodigies and for a long time refused to hear me. Finally though he was persuaded by my indefatigable teacher Czerny and said: 'Then for God's sake – bring the little rascal'.
It was one morning about ten o'clock when we entered the two small rooms of the Schwarzspanierhaus, where Beethoven lived. I was somewhat embarrassed – but Czerny kindly encouraged me. Beethoven was sitting by the window at a long narrow table working. For a moment he looked at us with a serious face, said a couple of quick words to Czerny but turned silent as my dear teacher signaled to me to go to the piano.
First I played a small piece of [Ferdinand] Ries [another pupil of Beethoven]. When I had finished Beethoven asked if I could play a fugue by Bach. I chose the C minor fugue from Wohltemperiertes Klavier. 'Can you transpose this fugue', Beethoven asked.
Fortunately I could. After the finishing chord I looked up. Beethoven's deep glowing eyes rested upon me — but suddenly a light smile flew over his otherwise serious face. He approached me and stroked me several times over my head with affection.
'Well – I'll be blowed' he whispered, 'such a little devil'.
Suddenly my courage rose: 'May I play one of your pieces?' I asked with audacity. Beethoven nodded with a smile. I played the first movement of his C major piano concerto [nr. 1]. When I had finished Beethoven stretched out his arms, kissed me on my forehead and said in a soft voice:
'You go on ahead. You are one of the lucky ones! It will be your destiny to bring joy and delight to many people and that is the greatest happiness one can achieve'.
Liszt told me this with great emotion; his voice trembled but you could feel what divine joy these simple words had given him. Never did Liszt – the human being – make a greater impression on me. The flamboyant man-of-the-world, the revered artist was gone; this great moment he had experienced in his childhood still resounded in his soul. For a little while he was silent – then he said quietly:
'This was the proudest moment in my life – the inauguration to my life as artist. I tell this very rarely – and only to special friends.'"

This story is somewhat more convincing, although Beethoven was just as deaf in 1822 as in 1823. It's possible, however, to speculate that Beethoven felt the vibrations of the piano with his hands as he is said to have been able to do, as well as observe Liszt's fingerings. Also, at the time it is meant to have occurred Beethoven was not residing in the Schwarzspanierhaus — but when Liszt told this story he was in his latter years, and his memory may have been a little foggy, if the story itself was not a confabulation. Carl Czerny (sometimes Karl; February 21, 1791 – July 15, 1857) was an Austrian pianist, composer and teacher. ... A child prodigy, or simply prodigy, is someone who is a master of one or more skills or arts at an early age. ... Ferdinand Ries (1784–1838) was a Bonn-born pupil of Beethoven who published a collection of reminiscences of his teacher. ... Bach redirects here. ... In music, a fugue (IPA: ) is a type of contrapuntal composition. ... Title-page of Das wohltemperirte Clavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (in the original German: Das wohltemperierte Clavier[1]) is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... In music transposition is moving a note or collection of notes (or pitches) up or down in pitch by a constant interval. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Beethoven and his contemporaries - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1579 words)
Beethoven interpreted this as an indication of Haydn's envy and jealousy.
Beethoven agreed and produced the Mass in C, which was performed at the prince's estate, Eisenstadt.
Beethoven met the composer Luigi Cherubini upon the latter's voyage to Vienna in 1805.
Ludwig van Beethoven: Biography and Much More from Answers.com (5119 words)
Beethoven's epochal career is often divided into early, middle, and late periods, represented, respectively, by works based on Classic-period models, by revolutionary pieces that expanded the vocabulary of music, and by compositions written in a unique, highly personal musical language incorporating elements of contrapuntal and variation writing while approaching large-scale forms with complete freedom.
Beethoven died on 26 March 1827, after a long illness, in the midst of a fierce thunderstorm, and legend has it that the dying man shook his fists in defiance of the heavens.
Beethoven, though living in Vienna, had adopted a much heavier style of playing than most of his contemporaries, and although he was not the only pianist of the time to lobby for a heavier instrument, he was the only one whose musical genius had become synonymous with the artistic culture of Vienna.
  More results at FactBites »



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