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Encyclopedia > Beet
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Beet
Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris
Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Chenopodiaceae
Genus: Beta
Species: B. vulgaris
Binomial name
Beta vulgaris
Carolus Linnaeus

Beta vulgaris, commonly known as beet is a flowering plant species in the family Chenopodiaceae. Several cultivars are valued around the world as edible root vegetables, fodder and sugar-producing sugar beet.[1] Image File history File links Koeh-167. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are the dominant and most familiar group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families Achatocarpaceae Aizoaceae (Fig-marigold family) Amaranthaceae (amaranth family) Ancistrocladaceae Asteropeiaceae Barbeuiaceae Basellaceae (basella family) Cactaceae (cactus family) Caryophyllaceae (carnation family) Dioncophyllaceae Droseraceae (sundew family) Drosophyllaceae Frankeniaceae Molluginaceae (carpetweed family) Nepenthaceae Nyctaginaceae (four-oclock family) Physenaceae Phytolaccaceae (pokeweed family) Plumbaginaceae (plumbago family) Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) Portulacaceae (purslane family) Rhabdodendraceae... Chenopodium capitatum from Thomé (1885) Chenopodiaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. ... Species (not necessarily a complete list) Beta adanensis Beta atriplicifolia Beta lomatogona Beta nana Beta patellaris Beta patula Beta procumbens Beta trigyna Beta trojana Beta vulgaris Beta is a genus in the flowering plant family Amaranthaceae. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal system of naming species. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are the dominant and most familiar group of land plants. ... Chenopodium capitatum from Thomé (1885) Chenopodiaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Root vegetables are underground plant parts used as vegetables. ... Fodder growing from barley In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, including cattle, goats, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs. ... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ...

Contents

Description

Beta vulgaris is a herbaceous biennial or perennial plant with leafy stems growing to 1-2 m tall. The leaves are heart-shaped, 5-20 cm long on wild plants (often much larger in cultivated plants). The flowers are produced in dense spikes, each flower very small, 3-5 mm diameter, green or tinged reddish, with five petals; they are wind-pollinated. The fruit is a cluster of hard nutlets. A herb (pronounced hurb in Commonwealth English and urb in American English) is a plant grown for culinary, medicinal, or in some cases even spiritual value. ... A Biennial plant is a plant that takes between twelve and twenty-four months to complete its lifecycle. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... “Foliage” redirects here. ... A Phalaenopsis flower Rudbeckia fulgida A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel Chestnut A nut can be either a seed or a fruit. ...


Taxonomy

Three subspecies are recognised: This article is about the zoological term. ...

  • Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima. Sea beet. North-West Europe. Plant smaller, to 80 cm tall; root not swollen.
  • Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris. Southern Europe. Plant larger, to 2 m tall; with a rounded fleshy taproot. The ancestor of the cultivated beets (not subsp. maritima, as sometimes stated).
  • Beta vulgaris subsp. cicla - see Chard

Sea Beet is the wild ancestor of common vegetables such as beetroot, sugar beet and swiss chard. ... North-West Europe is not a well defined term. ... Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. ... The dandelions taproot, quite apparent in this drawing, renders this plant very difficult to uproot – the plant itself gives way, but the root stays in the ground and may sprout again. ... For other uses, see Chard (disambiguation). ...

Uses

Food

Spinach beet leaves are eaten as pot herb. Young leaves of the garden beet are sometimes used similarly. The midribs of Swiss chard are eaten boiled while the whole leaf blades are eaten as spinach beet.


In Africa the whole leaf blades are usually prepared with the midribs as one dish.[2]


The leaves and stems of young plants are steamed briefly and eaten as a vegetable; older leaves and stems are stir-fried and have a flavour resembling taro leaves. Stir frying (爆 bào) in a wok Stir frying is an English umbrella term used to describe two fast Chinese cooking techniques: chǎo (炒) and bào (爆). The term stir-fry was introduced into the English language by Buwei Yang Chao, in her book How to Cook and Eat in... Binomial name Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott Taro corms for sale Taro (from Tahitian), more rarely kalo (from Hawaiian), is a tropical plant grown primarily as a vegetable food for its edible corm, and secondarily as a leaf vegetable. ...


The usually deep-red roots of garden beet are eaten boiled either as a cooked vegetable, or cold as a salad after cooking and adding oil and vinegar. A large proportion of the commercial production is processed into boiled and sterilised beets or into pickles. In eastern Europe beet soup, such as Cold borscht, is a popular dish. Yellow-coloured garden beets are grown on a very small scale for home consumption. [2] Salad Platter Salad is a term applied broadly to many food preparations that are a mixture of chopped or sliced ingredients. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Cucumbers gathered for pickling. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Cold borscht or Cold beet soup (Lithuanian: Šaltibarščiai, Polish: Chlodnik Litewski, Russian: Kholodnik) is a soup traditional to the Belarusian, Lithuanian, Polish, and Russian cuisines, a variety of borsch. ...


Beetroot can be peeled, steamed, and then eaten warm with butter as a delicacy; cooked, pickled, and then eaten cold as a condiment; or peeled, shredded raw, and then eaten as a salad. A delicacy is a food that is particularly prized within a given culture. ... Salt, sugar and pepper are the most essential condiments in Western cuisine. ...


Garden beet juice is a popular health food. Betanins, obtained from the roots, are used industrially as red food colourants, e.g. to improve the colour of tomato paste, sauces, desserts, jams and jellies, ice cream, sweets and breakfast cereals.[2] The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Betanin Betanin, or Beetroot Red, is a red glycosidic food dye obtained from beetroot; its aglycone, obtained by hydrolyzing away the glucose molecule, is betanidin. ... Food coloring spreading on a thin water film. ... Tomato paste is a thick paste made from ripened tomatos with skin and seeds removed. ... Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Medicine

The roots and leaves have medicinal uses.[2]


The Romans used beetroot as a treatment for fevers and constipation, amongst other ailments. Apicius in De re coquinaria gives five recipes for soups to be given as a laxative, three of which feature the root of beet.[3] Hippocrates advocated the use of beet leaves as binding for wounds. Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... Apicius was a name applied to three celebrated Roman epicures, the first of whom lived during the Republic; the second of whom, Marcus Gavius (or Gabius) Apicius—the most famous in his own time—lived under the early Empire; a third lived in the late 4th or early 5th century. ... De re coquinaria is the oldest known cookbook, dating from the 3rd century A.D., still in existence. ... An example recipe, printed from the Wikibooks Cookbook. ... Laxatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ... Hippocrates of Cos II or Hippokrates of Kos (ca. ...


Since Roman times, beetroot juice has been considered an aphrodisiac. It is a rich source of the mineral boron, which plays an important role in the production of human sex hormones. Field Marshall Montgomery is reputed to have exhorted his troops to 'take favours in the beetroot fields', a euphemism for visiting prostitutes. From the Middle Ages, beetroot was used as a treatment for a variety of conditions, especially illnesses relating to digestion and the blood. Platina recommended taking beetroot with garlic to nullify the effects of 'garlic-breath'.[4] An aphrodisiac is an agent which increases sexual desire. ... General Name, Symbol, Number boron, B, 5 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 13, 2, p Appearance black/brown Standard atomic weight 10. ... Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (17 November 1887–24 March 1976), often referred to as Monty, was a British Army officer. ... Whore redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Pope Sixtus IV appoints Bartolomeo Platina prefect of the Vatican Library, fresco by Melozzo da Forlì, c. ... Binomial name Allium sativum L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ...


Today the beetroot is still championed as a universal panacea. One of the most controversial examples is the official position of the South African Health Minister on the treatment of AIDS. Dr Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, Health Minister under Thabo Mbeki, has been nicknamed 'Dr Beetroot' for promoting beets and other vegetables over antiretroviral AIDS medicines, which she considers toxic.[5] The panacea (IPA ), named after the Greek goddess of healing, Panacea, was supposed to be a remedy that would cure all diseases and prolong life indefinitely. ... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... Manto Tshabalala-Msimang Dr. Manto Tshabalala-Msimang (9 October 1940 - ) is a a official idiot and the Health Minister of South Africa under the government of Thabo Mbeki (as of 2005). ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942) is the President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV. Different classes of antiretroviral drugs act at different stages of the HIV life cycle. ...


Other uses

Forms with strikingly coloured, large leaves are grown as ornamentals.[2][6] An ornamental plant is a plant that is grown for its ornamental qualities, rather than for its commercial or other value. ...


Beets are used as a food plant by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species — see List of Lepidoptera which feed on Beet. A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Superfamilies Butterflies Hesperioidea Papilionoidea Moths Acanthopteroctetoidea Alucitoidea Axioidea Bombycoidea Calliduloidea Choreutoidea Cossoidea Drepanoidea Epermenioidea Eriocranioidea Galacticoidea Gelechioidea Geometroidea Gracillarioidea Hedyloidea Hepialoidea Heterobathmioidea Hyblaeoidea Immoidea Incurvarioidea Lasiocampoidea Lophocoronoidea Micropterigoidea Mimallonoidea Mnesarchaeoidea Neopseustoidea Nepticuloidea Noctuoidea Palaephatoidea Pterophoroidea Pyraloidea Schreckensteinioidea Sesioidea Simaethistoidea Thyridoidea Tineoidea Tischerioidea Tortricoidea Urodoidea Whalleyanoidea Yponomeutoidea Zygaenoidea The order Lepidoptera... Beet (Beta vulgaris) is used as a food plant by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species including: Angle Shades (Phlogophora meticulosa) Cabbage Moth (Mamestra brassicae) The Flame (Axylia putris) Flame Shoulder (Ochropleura plecta) Garden Dart (Euxoa nigricans) Ghost Moth (Hepialus humuli) Heart and Dart (Agrotis exclamationis) Hypercompe indecisa...


Cultivation

Main article: List of beet diseases
A selection of Beta vulgaris, known as beet, at a grocery store.
A selection of Beta vulgaris, known as beet, at a grocery store.

Numerous cultivars have been selected and bred for several different characteristics. For example, the "earthy" taste of some beet cultivars comes from the presence of the chemical compound geosmin. Researchers have not yet answered whether beets produce geosmin themselves, or whether it is produced by symbiotic soil microbes living in the plant.[7] Nevertheless, breeding programs can produce cultivars with low geosmin levels yielding flavours more acceptable to shoppers.[8] This article is a list of diseases of beets (Beta vulgaris). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Geosmin is the organic compound responsible for the earthy taste of beets. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ...


Major Cultivar groups include: Under the ICNCP, a Cultivar Group is a gathering of cultivars. ...

  • Fodder beet wurzel or mangold used as animal fodder.
  • Sugar beet grown for sugar.
  • Chard, a beet which has been bred for leaves instead of roots and is used as a leaf vegetable.
  • Beetroot or table beet (or, in the 19th century, "blood turnip") used as a root vegetable. Notable cultivars in this group include:
    • Albina Vereduna, a white variety.
    • Bull's Blood, an open-pollinated variety originally from Britain, known for its dark red foliage. It is grown principally for its leaves, which add color to salads.
    • Burpee's Golden, a beet with orange-red skin and yellow flesh.
    • Chioggia, an open-pollinated variety originally grown in Italy. The concentric rings of its red and white roots are visually striking when sliced. As a heritage variety, Chioggia is largely unimproved and has relatively high concentrations of geosmin.
    • Detroit Dark Red has relatively low concentrations of geosmin, and is therefore a popular commercial cultivar in the US.
    • India Beet is not that sweet compared to Western beet.
    • Lutz Greenleaf, a variety with a red root and green leaves, and a reputation for maintaining its quality well in storage.
    • Red Ace, the principal variety of beet found in U.S. supermarkets, typical for its bright red root and red-veined green foliage.

Binomial name Beta vulgaris Mangelwurzel or mangold wurzel (Beta vulgaris), is a root vegetable of the family Chenopodiaceae, genus Beta (the beets). ... Fodder growing from barley In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, including cattle, goats, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs. ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ... For other uses, see Chard (disambiguation). ... Fresh Swiss chard Fresh water spinach Creamed spinach Steamed kale Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, greens, or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ... Root vegetables are underground plant parts used as vegetables. ... Salad Platter Salad is a term applied broadly to many food preparations that are a mixture of chopped or sliced ingredients. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Exterior of a typical British supermarket (a Tesco Extra) Exterior of typical North American supermarket (a Safeway) This Flagship Randalls store in Houston, Texas is an example of an upscale supermarket. ...

Properties

Salad of baby beet, sun-dried tomato and tuna
Salad of baby beet, sun-dried tomato and tuna

Beta vulagris roots contain significant amounts of vitamin C, whilst the leaves are an excellent source of vitamin A. They are also high in folate, soluble and insoluble dietary fibre and antioxidants. It is among the sweetest of vegetables, containing more sugar even than carrots or sweet corn. The content of sugar in beetroot is no more than 10%, in the sugar beet it is typically 15 to 20%. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Vitamin C (disambiguation). ... Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... For other uses, see Sweetness (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Sweetcorn (or sweet corn, also known as sugar corn), is a hybridized variety of maize (Zea mays), specifically bred to increase the sugar content. ...


An average sized cup (225.8 grams) of sliced beets will contain:

Beets, like kale, spinach, carrots and turnips, can be a source of nitrates and should not be fed to infants under 6 months of age. Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ... A calorie is a unit of measurement for energy. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water. ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Kale (also called Borecole) is a form of cabbage (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group), green in color, in which the central leaves do not form a head. ... Binomial name Spinacia oleracea L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Trinomial name Brassica rapa rapa L. For similar vegetables also called turnip, see Turnip (disambiguation). ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion. ...


Beetroots are rich in the nutrient Betaine. Betaine supplements, manufactured as a byproduct of sugar beet processing, are prescribed to lower potentially toxic levels of homocysteine (Hcy), a naturally occurring amino acid that can be harmful to blood vessels thereby contributing to the development of heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.[9] A betaine in chemistry is any neutral chemical compound with a positively charged cationic functional group such as an ammonium ion or phosphonium ion (generally: onium ions) and with a negatively charged functional group such as a carboxyl group. ... Homocysteine is a chemical compound with the formula HSCH2CH2CH(NH2)CO2H. It is a homologue of the naturally-occurring amino acid cysteine, differing in that its side-chain contains an additional methylene (-CH2-) group before the thiol (-SH) group. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and is the leading cause of death in the United States as of 2007. ... Stroke (or cerebrovascular accident or CVA) is the clinical designation for a rapidly developing loss of brain function due to an interruption in the blood supply to all or part of the brain. ... In medicine, peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD, also known as peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a collator for all diseases caused by the obstruction of large peripheral arteries, which can result from atherosclerosis, inflammatory processes leading to stenosis, an embolism or thrombus formation. ...


Red colouring

The colour of red beetroot is due to a purple pigment betacyanin and a yellow pigment betaxanthin known collectively as betalins, unlike Red Cabbage which contains the pigment anthocyanin. Breeds of beetroot which are not the typical deep red, such as 'Burpee's Golden' and 'Albina Vereduna', have a greater or lesser distribution of the two betalin pigments.[10] Nitrogen-based red pigment of beets (Beta spp. ... Cultivar Group Brassica oleracea Capitata Group The Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. ... Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant...


Betacyanin in beetroot may cause red urine and feces in some people who are unable to break it down. This is called beeturia. [11] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) In humans, defecation may occur (depending on the individual and the circumstances) from once every two or three days to several times a day. ... Beeturia is the trait of passing red or pink urine and feces after eating beets. ...


The pigments are contained in cell vacuoles. Beetroot cells are quite unstable and will 'leak' when cut, heated, or when in contact with air or sunlight. This is why red beetroots leave a purple stain. Leaving the skin on when cooking, however, will maintain the integrity of the cells and therefore minimise leakage. Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ...


History

Although beet remains have been excavated in the Third dynasty Saqqara pyramid at Thebes, Egypt, and four charred beet fruits were found in the Neolithic site of Aartswoud in the Netherlands, it is difficult to determine whether these are domesticated or wild forms of B. vulgaris. However Zohary and Hopf note that beet is "linguistically well identified." They state the earliest written mention of the beet comes from 8th century BC Mesopotamia; the Greek Peripatetic Theophrastus later describes the beet as similar to the radish. "Roman and Jewish literary sources indicate that already in the 1st century BC domestic beet was represented in the Mediterranean basin by leafy forms (chard) and very probably also by beetroot cultivars."[12]With the imposition of the blockade of the continent during the Napoleonic Wars there was an impetus to develop beet for their sugar content.[citation needed] Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Third Dynasty. ... Saqqara (Arabic: سقارة) is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, featuring the worlds oldest standing step pyramid. ... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Aartswoud () is a town in the Dutch province of North Holland. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... Binomial name L. This article is about the vegetable. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] Holy Roman Empire[6] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[7] Saxony[8] Denmark [9] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von...


References

  1. ^ The PLANTS Database (Database). United States Department of Agriculture, National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (2006).
  2. ^ a b c d e Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (2004) Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 2. Vegetables. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen; Backhuys, Leiden; CTA, Wageningen.
  3. ^ Apicius De Re Coquinaria 3.2.1, 3, 4
  4. ^ Platina De Honesta Voluptate et Valetudine, 3.14
  5. ^ Blandy, Fran. "'Dr Beetroot' hits back at media over Aids exhibition", Mail & Guardian Online, 2006-08-16. 
  6. ^
  7. ^ (2003 Feb) "Biosynthetic origin of geosmin in red beets (Beta vulgaris L.).". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (abstract) 12 (51(4)): 1026-9. 
  8. ^ Stephen Nottingham (2004). Beetroot (E-book). 
  9. ^ Betaine. University of Maryland Medical Center (April 2002).
  10. ^ Hamilton, Dave (2005). Beetroot Beta vulgaris.
  11. ^ M.A. Eastwood; H. Nyhlin (1995). Beeturia and colonic oxalic acid. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine.
  12. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third edition (Oxford: University Press, 2000), pp. 200f

Capitol Building Baton Rouge is the capital of Louisiana, a state of the United States of America. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... Pope Sixtus IV appoints Bartolomeo Platina prefect of the Vatican Library, fresco by Melozzo da Forlì, c. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • PROTAbase on Beta vulgaris
  • Beta vulgaris craca - Plants For a Future Database entry
  • Stephen Nottingham (2004). Beetroot (e-book). 
  • "Professor upbeat about unappreciated root crop" - general information about beets (UW article)
  • Sorting Beta names - multilingual listing of the Beta species
  • Beet recipes - 66 recipes exhibiting the range of beet uses
  • Nutrition facts

  Results from FactBites:
 
Beet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1043 words)
The Beet (Beta vulgaris) is a flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae, native to the coasts of western and southern Europe, from southern Sweden and the British Isles south to the Mediterranean Sea.
The ancestor of the cultivated beets (not subsp.
Beets contain significant amounts of vitamin C in the roots, and the tops are an excellent source of vitamin A.
Sugar beet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2218 words)
The sugar beet is directly related to the beetroot, chard and fodder beet all descended by cultivation from the sea beet.
The harvest and processing of the beet is referred to as "the campaign," reflecting the organization required to deliver crop at a steady rate to processing factories that run 24 hours a day for the duration of the harvest and processing (for the UK the campaign lasts approx 5 months).
Although beets have been grown as vegetables and for fodder since antiquity (a large root vegetable appearing in 4000-year old Egyptian temple artwork may be a beet), their use as a sugar crop is relatively recent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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