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Encyclopedia > Beersheba

Coordinates: 31°14′0″N, 34°47′0″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Beersheba

Hebrew בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע
Arabic بئر السبع
Name Meaning Well of the Oath or Seven Wells(see also)
Government City
District South
Population 185,500 (Metro 531000) (2005)
Jurisdiction 54,000 dunams (54 km²)
Mayor Yaakov Turner

Beersheba (Hebrew: בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע‎, Be'er Sheva, Arabic: بئر السبع‎, Bi'r as-Sabi', Turkish: Birüssebi) is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel, often being referred to as the "Capital of the Negev." In 2005, when the population reached 185,000, Beersheba became the sixth largest city in Israel. Beersheba is located in the Southern District of the country, acting as its administrative centre and housing Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, the Soroka Medical Center, and the Israel Sinfonietta Beersheba. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 818 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The content of this image was reviewed by Tewfik and afterwards uploaded by FlickrLickr. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Jerusalem Tel Aviv-Jaffa Haifa Rishon LeZion Ashdod Beersheba Petah Tikva Netanya Holon Bnei Brak Bat Yam Ramat Gan Ashkelon Rehovot The following list of cities in Israel is based on the current index of the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). ... Map of the districts of Israel Population density by geographic region, sub-district and district (thicker border indicates higher tier). ... The South District of Israel, highlighted. ... A dunam or dönüm, dunum, donum is a unit of area. ... Yaacov Turner (born 1935 in Kefar Yona) has been the mayor of Beersheva since 1998. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... :For the light machine gun see IMI Negev. ... The South District of Israel, highlighted. ... The Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Hebrew: ) was founded in 1969, in Beer Sheva, Israel. ... Soroka Medical Center is a hospital in Beersheba, Israel. ...


Beersheba has grown considerably since the founding of the state in 1948. A large portion of the population is made up of Jews who immigrated to Israel from Arab countries after 1948, and newcomers from Ethiopia and the former Soviet Union. Beersheba is surrounded by a number of satellite towns including the predominantly Jewish, Omer, Lehavim and Metar, and the Bedouin towns of Rahat, Tel Sheva and Lakiya. Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Omer (Hebrew: עומר) is a town (local council) in the Southern District of Israel, bordering Beersheba. ... Hebrew להבים Government Local council District South Population 5 000 (2004) Jurisdiction 2 525 dunams (2. ... METAR (for METeorological Aerodrome Report) is a format for reporting weather information. ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), is a desert-dwelling Arab nomadic pastoralist, found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev to the Arabian Desert. ... Rahat is also a name for the Turkish Delight Lokum. ... Tel Sheva (Hebrew: תל שבע) is a Bedouin town (local council) in the Southern District of Israel, bordering Beer Sheva. ... Lakiya, or Laqye (Hebrew: לקיה) is a Bedouin town (local council) in the Southern District of Israel. ...

Contents

Etymology

There are several etymologies for the origin of the name "Beersheba": Etymologies redirects here. ...

  • The oath of Abraham and Abimelech (well of the oath)
  • The seven wells dug by Isaac (seven wells), though only three or four have been identified
  • The oath of Isaac and Abimelech (well of the oath)
  • The seven ewes that sealed Abraham and Abimelech's oath (well of the seven).

Beer is the Hebrew word for well, the other half of the word is explained as due to Isaac naming the location:

The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible (Tanakh). ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ...

History

Prehistory and biblical era

From the findings unearthed at Tel Be'er Sheva, an archaeological site a few kilometers northeast of modern day Beersheba, it is believed that the region has been populated since the 4th millennium BC [1]. The city was destroyed and rebuilt many times over the centuries. Biblically, the site of Beersheba is mentioned in two of the three Genesis stories involving a wife confused for a sister. It was the site of a non-aggression pact between the Philistines, represented by a king named Abimelech, and the Israelites. The Bible describes the oath being made on two separate occasions by the Israelites, once represented by Abraham, and once by Isaac. Beersheba is also mentioned in Joshua 19:2. Beersheba was the southernmost city of Israel in Biblical times -hence the expression "from Dan to Beersheba" was sometimes used to describe the whole kingdom. Tel Beer Sheva is an archeological site in southern Israel believed to be the remains of the biblical town of Beer Sheva [1]. The modern town of Beersheba is situated west of the tel. ... The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ... pages edit history. ... Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... Look up Dan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Ottoman Turkish occupation

Beersheba in 1917, when the Australian 4th & 12th Light Horse conquered the city from the Ottoman Turks in World War I
Beersheba in 1917, when the Australian 4th & 12th Light Horse conquered the city from the Ottoman Turks in World War I

The last inhabitants of Tel Be'er-Sheva were the Byzantines, who abandoned the city in the 7th century. The Turkish Ottomans, who had controlled Palestine since the 16th century, took no interest in Beersheba until the end of the 19th century. At the beginning of the 19th century, Beersheba was portrayed by European pilgrims as a barren stretch of land with a well and a handful of Bedouin living nearby. Scanned photo of Beersheba, Palestine, 1917. ... Scanned photo of Beersheba, Palestine, 1917. ... Alternate meaning: Lighthorse (American Indian police) The Australian Light Horse soldiers were mounted infantry who served during the Boer War and World War I. The Light Horse differed from cavalry in that they usually fought dismounted, using their horses as transport to the battlefield and as a means of swift... Ottoman redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), is a desert-dwelling Arab nomadic pastoralist, found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev to the Arabian Desert. ...


Towards the end of the 19th century, the Ottomans built a police station in Beersheba in order to keep the Bedouin in check. They built roads, a number of small buildings from local materials which are still standing today, a train station, and a railway connection to Ashkelon and Gaza. A small settlement to the east of the city was established by Bedouin families and Arabs from Hebron and Gaza. Hebrew אַשְׁקְלוֹן (Standard) AÅ¡qÉ™lon Arabic عسقلان Founded in 1951 Government City Also Spelled Ashqelon (officially) District South Population 105,100 (2004) Jurisdiction 55,000 dunams (55 km²) Mayor Roni Mahatzri Ashkelon (Hebrew: ‎; Tiberian Hebrew ʾAÅ¡qÉ™lôn; Arabic: ‎  ; Latin: Ascalon) is a city in the western Negev, in the... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... Arabic الخليل Government City (from 1997) Also Spelled Al-Khalil (officially) Al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 167,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi , Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city at the... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ...


The Turks built railroad track from Damascus to Beersheba, inaugurating the station on October 30, 1915. The celebration was attended by the Turkish army commander "Jamal Pasha", along with senior government officials. The train line was active until the British took over the region. Later, during Israel's War of Independence, the station was used as the headquarters of The Egyptian Army. For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Egyptian troops with other Arab-Joint-Forces during Gulf War The Egyptian Army is the largest service within the Egyptian military establishment. ...


British Mandate era

The charge of the 4th Light Horse Brigade re-enacted on its 90th anniversary, October 31, 2007
The charge of the 4th Light Horse Brigade re-enacted on its 90th anniversary, October 31, 2007

Beersheba played an important role in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in World War I. On October 31, 1917, 800 soldiers of the Australian 4th and Light Horse Brigade, under Brigadier General William Grant, with only horses and bayonets, charged the Turkish trenches, overran them and captured the wells of Beersheba. This is often described as the Battle of Beersheba, and "the last successful cavalry charge in British military history". On the edge of Beersheba's Old City is a Commonwealth cemetery containing the graves of British and Australian soldiers. On the last row on the right, is the grave of Captain Seymour Van den Berg of the Middlesex Hussars, a British Jew who was killed five days before the capture of Beersheba. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 799 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2143 × 1608 pixel, file size: 640 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 799 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2143 × 1608 pixel, file size: 640 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only country to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ... Alternate meaning: Lighthorse (American Indian police) The Australian Light Horse soldiers were mounted infantry who served during the Boer War and World War I. The Light Horse differed from cavalry in that they usually fought dismounted, using their horses as transport to the battlefield and as a means of swift... Glenfiddich whisky range William Grant & Sons Ltd. ... Combatants United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Henry Chauvel, Philip Chetwode Unknown Strength 2 infantry division, 2 mounted division 1 infantry division Casualties 1,200 1,400 prisoners The Battle of Beersheba took place on 31 October 1917, as part of the Sinai and Palestine campaign during World... The Middlesex Guildhall at Westminster Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and was the second smallest (after Rutland). ...


Beersheba was a major administrative center during the period of the British Mandate for Palestine. Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ...


In 1928, at the beginning of the tension between the Jews and the Arabs over Palestine and wide-scale rioting which left 133 Jews dead and 339 wounded, many Jews abandoned Beersheba, although some returned occasionally. With the Arab attack on a Jewish bus in 1936 which escalated into the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, the remaining Jews left Beersheba and did not return until after the battle with the invading Egyptian army in October, 1948. Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After Israeli independence

The Monument to the Negev Brigade, a memorial designed by Dani Karavan near the eastern entrance of Beersheba
The Monument to the Negev Brigade, a memorial designed by Dani Karavan near the eastern entrance of Beersheba

The 1947 UN Partition Plan included Beersheba in the territory allotted to the Arab state as the city's population of 4,000 was primarily Arab.[2] The Egyptian Army was stationed in Beersheba in May 1948. Convinced that Beersheba was vital for the security of the Jewish state, Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion gave the green light for Operation Yoav. On October 21, 1948, at 04:00 in the morning, the 82nd battalion advanced from Mishmar Hanegev junction, 20 kilometers north of Beersheba. Part of the force attacked from the Turkish train station and part from Hatzerim. By 09:45, the Egyptian forces were surrounded, and Beersheba was in Israeli hands. On November 20, Leonard Bernstein and the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra played for the soldiers.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (841x547, 134 KB) Monument to the Negev Brigade by Dani Karavan photographed by Eman, April 2006 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Beersheba Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (841x547, 134 KB) Monument to the Negev Brigade by Dani Karavan photographed by Eman, April 2006 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Beersheba Metadata This file contains... The Monument to the Negev Brigade (Hebrew: אנדרטת חטיבת הנגב) is a monument designed by Dani Karavan in memory of the members of the Palmach Negev Brigade who fell defending Israel during the War of Independence. ... Dani Karavan (born 1930 in Tel Aviv) is an Israeli sculptor best known for site specific memorials and monuments which merge into the environment, though he has made important installations as well as other significant contributions to art and architecture. ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ... Egyptian troops with other Arab-Joint-Forces during Gulf War The Egyptian Army is the largest service within the Egyptian military establishment. ... Ben Gurion redirects here. ... Operation Yoav (also called Operation Ten Plagues or Operation Yoav) was an Israeli military operation carried out between October 15 - 22, 1948 in the Negev Desert in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Fredric R. Mann Auditorum (he:Hichal Hatarbot), home of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra The Leonard Bernstein Plaza in front of the Mann Auditorum The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra (abbreviation IPO; Hebrew: התזמורת הפילהרמונית הישראלית, ha-Tizmoret ha-Filharmonit ha-Yisreelit) is the leading symphony orchestra in Israel, and one of the top orchestras...


In the 1950s, Beersheba expanded northward. Soroka hospital opened its doors in 1960, and the Negev University, later renamed Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, was established in 1970. In the 1970s, a memorial commemorating the fallen soldiers designed by the sculptor Danny Karavan was erected northeast of the city (approximately 3 kilometers from the city entrance) on a hill overlooking the city.[4]The Beersheba Theater opened in 1973, and Egyptian president Anwar Sadat visited Beersheba in 1979. Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Soroka Medical Center is a hospital in Beersheba, Israel. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dani Karavan (born 1930 in Tel Aviv) is an Israeli sculptor best known for site specific memorials and monuments which merge into the environment, though he has made important installations as well as other significant contributions to art and architecture. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ...


Beersheba today

The Negev Mall Tower in Beersheba
The Negev Mall Tower in Beersheba
Nahal Ashan, Beersheba
Soroka Medical Center, Beersheba
Soroka Medical Center, Beersheba

In the 1990s, the population and size of Beersheba was substantially increased by a large influx of Russian and Ethiopian immigrants. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1965x757, 210 KB) Soroka Hospital. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1965x757, 210 KB) Soroka Hospital. ... Soroka Medical Center is a hospital in Beersheba, Israel. ...


For many years, Beersheba remained untouched by Palestinian terrorism. Relations between Jews and Arabs, and especially the large number of Bedouin who live in the region and do business in Beersheba, were good. This equilibrium was shattered on August 31, 2004, when sixteen people were killed in two suicide bombings on buses in Beersheba for which Hamas claimed responsibility. On August 28, 2005, another suicide bomber attacked the central bus station, seriously injuring two security guards and 45 bystanders.[5] is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A suicide bombing is an attack using a bomb in which the individual(s) carrying the explosive materials composing the bomb intend(s) and expect(s) to die upon detonation (see suicide). ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Geography

Beersheba is located on the northern edge of the Negev desert 115 km south-east of Tel Aviv and 120 km south-west of Jerusalem.[6] The city is located on the main route from the center and north of the country to Eilat in the far south.[6] The Valley of Beer Sheva has been populated since thousands of years ago due to the presence of water which travels here from the Hebron Mountains in the winter and is stored underground in vast quantities.[6] :For the light machine gun see IMI Negev. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Hebrew אילת Founded in 1951 Government City (from 1959) District South Population 55,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 80,000 dunams (80 km²) Mayor Meir Yitzhak Halevi North Beach, Eilat, from southwest. ... Arabic الخليل Government City (from 1997) Also Spelled Al-Khalil (officially) Al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 167,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi , Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city at the...


Climate

Beersheba has very hot summers, with temperature up to 42 °C (110 °F) . In the winter, the temperature at night can be as low as 0 °C (30 °F) .[6] The average precipitation in the city is 260 mm a year[6]


Between summer to winter, Beersheba is prone to sandstorms that cover the whole city in dust.[6] 200-250 tonnes/sqkm of dust are dumped in the area.[6] Fogs and humidity at night are also unique to Beersheba and the Negev region, occuring for some 50% of nights a year and being caused by wet air coming from the sea being trapped under hot, dry air above.[6] The relative humidity in the city reaches 86% through much of August.[6] The tallest buildings in the city are the two towers of the Rambam Square complex. Rambam Square 2 is the tallest apartment building in Israel outside of the Gush Dan Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area.[7] Gush Dan (Hebrew: גּוּשׁ דָּן, Standard Hebrew Guš Dan) is the name of the Tel Aviv metropolitan area including areas from both the Tel Aviv District and the Central District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast. ...


Districts

Further information: Neighborhoods of Beersheba

Beersheba is divided into fourteen residential neighbourhoods in addition to the Old City. Many of the neighbourhoods are named after letters of the Hebrew alphabet, which also have numerical value, but descriptive place names have been given to some of the newer neighborhoods. Note: This article contains special characters. ...


Demographics

According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Beersheba had a population of 184,500 in 2003, compared to 110,800 in a survey conducted 20 years earlier. This makes Beersheba the sixth largest city in Israel. Since then, the population has risen to approximately 200,000. In 2001, the ethnic make-up of the city was 98.9% Jewish and other non-Arab, with no significant Arab population (see Population groups in Israel). According to CBS for 2001, there were 86,500 males and 91,400 females living in Beersheba. The population breakdown by age was 31.8% for 19 years old or younger, 17.4% for 20-29 year olds, 19.6% for 30-44 year olds, 15.8% for 45-59 year olds, 4.0% for 60-64 year olds, and 11.4% for 65 years of age or older. The population growth rate in 2001 was 2.9%. Many people live in Beersheba for short periods of time, e.g. while studying at the university or working at the nearby army bases. For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Population groups in Israel are the major ethnic groups of Jews and Arabs. ...


In 1982, Israel evacuated by air a major portion of the Jewish community of Ethiopia. A large number of the community were settled in Beersheba. There are now approximately 10,000 Ethiopian Israelis living in Beersheba, with their own community center built in the 11th (Yud Aleph) Quarter of the city. To remind the members of the villages they left behind, the roof of the community center is a conic shape, much like their old homes.


According to CBS figures, Beersheba had 61,016 salaried workers and 3,010 self-employed citizens in 2000. Salaried workers earned an average monthly wage of 5,223 NIS. Men earned an average monthly wage of NIS 6,661 (a real change of 5.2%) compared to NIS 3,760 for females (a real change of 3.9%). Self-employed persons had an average income of NIS 6,533. A total of 4,719 persons received unemployment benefits, and 26,469 persons received income supplements. 1 sheqel coin (1994–5). ...


Economy

The largest employers in Beersheba are the municipality, Israel Defence Forces, Ben-Gurion University and the Soroka Medical Center. There are also a number of electronics and chemical plants including Teva Pharmaceutical Industries in and around the city. The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces (army, air force and navy). ... The Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Hebrew: ) was founded in 1969, in Beer Sheva, Israel. ... Soroka Medical Center is a hospital in Beersheba, Israel. ... Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. ...


Local government

The current mayor of Beersheba is Yaakov Turner, and the deputy-mayors are David Bunfeld and Rubik Danilovitch. Sima Navon and Yitzhak Marciano are vice-mayors. Past mayors include David Tuviyahu, Zeev Zrizi, Eliyahu Navi, Moshe Zilberman, Yitzhak Rager and David Bunfeld. Yaacov Turner (born 1935 in Kefar Yona) has been the mayor of Beersheva since 1998. ... David Tuviyahu (Hebrew: דוד טוביהו) was the first mayor of the Israeli city of Beersheba. ... Zeev Zrizi was the second mayor of Beersheva (Israel), after David Tuviahu. ... Eliyahu Nawi (born 1920) is judge, lawyer, Politician, Bible investigator, and mayor of Beersheva. ... Yitzhak Ijo Rager (‎, born 1932, died 1997) was an Israeli journalist, diplomat, and a Likud mayor of Beersheba. ...


The Beersheba municipality was plagued for many years by an ineffectual leadership, political problems and poor financial planning. In the last few years, the situation has improved. Since 2005, attention has been focused on developing parks and infrastructure. A new youth center opened in 2005, and a new cultural center is slated to open in 2007. Parts of the Old City are being renovated, and after many years of financial struggle,the municipality has achieved a balanced budget.[8]


The official emblem of the municipality of Beer Sheva depicts an eshel (tamarisk tree), the tree that Abraham planted[9], and the observation tower connected to the municipality building.


Education

According to CBS, Beersheba has 81 schools and a student population of 33,623: 60 elementary schools with an enrollment of 17,211, and 39 high schools with an enrollment of 16,412. Of Beersheba's 12th graders, 52.7% earned a Bagrut matriculation certificate in 2001. The city also has several private schools and Yeshivot which cater to the religious sector. In terms of higher education, Beersheba is home to one of Israel's major universities, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, which is located on an urban campus in the city. Several local colleges also operate in the city, including the Kaye Academic College of Education, the Sami Shamoon Academic College of Engineering and the Practical Engineering College of Beersheba. Teudat Bagrut (Hebrew: The entire process of the examination is governed by the the countrys Ministry of Education. ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ... The Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Hebrew: ) was founded in 1969, in Beer Sheva, Israel. ... Central Building Kaye Academic College of Education (Heb. ...


Sports

The two most popular sport in Beersheba are soccer and Freestyle_wrestling. The Football led by Hapoel Be'er Sheva which is currently represented in Israel's second tier football league . Formed in 1949, the team has a history of two league championships (1975 and 1976), one national cup (1997) and two Toto cups (1989 and 1996). The local stadium is the Vasermil Stadium with a capacity of 14,000, shared by Hapoel and the city's lesser known club Maccabi Be'er Sheva. Soccer redirects here. ... This article is about freestyle wrestling. ... Hapoel Beer Sheva (‎, Amutat Hapoel Beer Sheva) are an Israeli football club from the southern Israeli city of Beer Sheva. ... The Vasermil Stadium is a multi-use stadium in the southern Israeli city of Beer Sheva. ... Hapoel Beer Sheva (‎, Amutat Hapoel Beer Sheva) are an Israeli football club from the southern Israeli city of Beer Sheva. ... Maccabi Beer Sheva F.C. (Hebrew: מכבי באר שבע), is an Israeli football team based in city of Beer Sheva. ...


Be'er sheve holds the second biggest Wrestling center (AMI wrestling school) led by Leonid Shulman that has allmost 2000 studnets. most of the students comes from the Russian immigrants (since the beginning of the club was in the Na'hal Beka imegration camp ). Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ...



Beersheba is also Israel's leading chess center. The local chess club has won many cups and national championships. It represented Israel in the European Cup and hosted the World teams championship in 2005. The Chess club was founded in 1973 by Eliyahu Levant, who is still the driving spirit behind this club. Beersheba has a higher percentage of grandmasters than any other city worldwide with 8, many of whom are immigrants from the former Soviet Union; the city of 183,000 has one grandmaster per 22,875 residents. This article is about the Western board game. ... The title Grandmaster is awarded to world-class chess masters by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain. ...


Cricket (introduced by the British in the 1960s) is played in the city under the auspices of Israeli Cricket Association whilst the city is also home to The Camels-ASA Beersheba rugby team whose senior and youth squads have won several national titles (including the recent Senior National League 2004-2005 championship). Wrestling, tennis and gliding are also popular sports. Beersheba's tennis center, which opened in 1991, features eight lighted courts, and the Be'er Sheva (Teyman) airfield is used for gliding. For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... A modern glider crossing the finish line of a competition at high speed. ...


Transportation

Be'er Sheva Central Railway Station
Be'er Sheva Central Railway Station

Beersheba is served by both buses and trains. Metrodan Beersheba, established in 2003, has a fleet of 90 buses and operates 19 lines in the city, most of which depart from the Beersheba Central Bus Station.[10] Beer Sheva Center (Merkaz) Railway Station is an Israel Railways terminal in Beer Sheva on the main intercity line from Nahariya to Beer Sheva. ... Metrodan Beersheba Ltd. ...


Israel Railways operates two stations in Beersheba: Be'er Sheva North and Be'er Sheva Central railway station. Israel Railways Logo Israel Railways (Hebrew: רכבת ישראל Rakévet Yisraél) is Israels government-owned national railway company and is responsible for all inter-city and suburban railway passenger and freight traffic in the country. ... Station layout: Platform 2 – grey ; Platform 3 – red ; Platform 4 – green Beer Sheva North Railway Station (‎, Takhanat HaRakevet Be-er Sheva Tzafon) is an Israel Railways station in Beersheba on the main intercity line from Tel Aviv and Nahariya to Beersheba. ... Beer Sheva Center (Merkaz) Railway Station is an Israel Railways terminal in Beer Sheva on the main intercity line from Nahariya to Beer Sheva. ...


Notable residents

Ilan Ramon (Hebrew: אילן רמון) (June 20, 1954 – February 1, 2003) was a combat pilot in the Israeli Air Force and later the first Israeli astronaut. ... Yehudit Ravitz (born 1956) is one of the most successful and famous Israeli rock musicians. ... Zehava Ben is one of the most popular Israeli female vocalists in the Mizrahi genre, the Turkish style of singing which has come to dominate Oriental music in the 90s. ... Avishay Braverman (‎, born 15 January 1948) is an Israeli economist and politician, former president of the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. ...

Sister cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... Addis Ababa (Amharic new flower) is the capital of Ethiopia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Adana (Turkish: }) (the ancient Antioch in Cilicia or Antioch on the Sarus)) is the capital of Adana Province in Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Oni is a town in the Western part of the Republic of Georgia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Winnipeg (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... La Plata is the capital city of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, as well as of the partido of La Plata. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the French city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Nis redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Rosenheim is a town in Bavaria (Germany) on the river Inn, at 47°51′ N 12°8′ E. It is seat of administration of the district of Rosenheim, but is not a part of it. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Wuppertal university Wuppertal is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Nickname: Map of Cebu showing the location of Cebu City Coordinates: 10°17 N 123°54 E Country Region Province Cebu (capital) Districts 1st and 2nd districts of Cebu City Barangays 80 Incorporated (town) 1565 Incorporated (city) February 24, 1937 Government  - Mayor Tomas D.R. Osmeña (BO-PK/Lakas...

References

  1. ^ Z. Herzog. Beer-sheba II: The Early Iron Age Settlements. Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University and Ramot Publishing Co. Tel Aviv 1984
  2. ^ Palestine Plan of Partition Map United Nations, 1956
  3. ^ Israel Philharmonic Beersheba 1948 Library of Congress
  4. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/alabaster/A4499625
  5. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/29/international/middleeast/29mideast.html
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i The climate of Beer Sheva. Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
  7. ^ http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=rambamsquare2-beersheva-israel
  8. ^ Be'er-Sheva Municipality Dun's 100, 2006
  9. ^ Genesis / Bereishit 21:33
  10. ^ http://eng.negev-net.org.il/HTMLs/article.aspx?C2004=12553&BSP=12316

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Combatants United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Henry Chauvel, Philip Chetwode Unknown Strength 2 infantry division, 2 mounted division 1 infantry division Casualties 1,200 1,400 prisoners The Battle of Beersheba took place on 31 October 1917, as part of the Sinai and Palestine campaign during World...

External links

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Beersheba
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Flickr is a photo sharing website and web services suite, and an online community platform, which is generally considered an early example of a Web 2. ... The Catholic Encyclopedia is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the The Encyclopedia Press, designed to give authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine. // History The writing of the encyclopedia began on January 11, 1905 under the supervision of five editors: Charles G... The South District of Israel, highlighted. ... A City council (‎) is the official designation of a city within Israels system of local government. ... For the archaeological site, see Tel Arad. ... Hebrew Founded in 1956 Government City (from 1968) District South Population 204,400 (2005) Jurisdiction 60,000 dunams (60 km²) Mayor Zvi Zilker Ashdod (Hebrew: ‎; Arabic: , Isdud), located in the Southern District of Israel towards the south of the Israeli Coastal Plain, is a city of over 200,000 people... Hebrew אַשְׁקְלוֹן (Standard) AÅ¡qÉ™lon Arabic عسقلان Founded in 1951 Government City Also Spelled Ashqelon (officially) District South Population 105,100 (2004) Jurisdiction 55,000 dunams (55 km²) Mayor Roni Mahatzri Ashkelon (Hebrew: ‎; Tiberian Hebrew ʾAÅ¡qÉ™lôn; Arabic: ‎  ; Latin: Ascalon) is a city in the western Negev, in the... Hebrew דימונה Arabic ديمونة Founded in 1955 Government City District South Population 33,900 Jurisdiction 6,000 dunams (6 km²) Mayor Yitzhak Rochberger Dimona (‎) is an Israeli city in the Negev desert, 36 kilometers to the south of Beer-Sheva and 35 kilometers west of the Dead Sea above the Arabah valley... Hebrew אילת Founded in 1951 Government City (from 1959) District South Population 55,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 80,000 dunams (80 km²) Mayor Meir Yitzhak Halevi North Beach, Eilat, from southwest. ... Qiryat Gat (קרית גת; unofficially also spelled Kiryat Gat) is a city in the Southern District of Israel in Israel. ... Kiryat Malakhi (Hebrew: ‎, also transliterated Kiryat Malachi or Qiryat Malakhi) is a city in the Southern District in Israel. ... Netivot (נתיבות) is a city in the Southern District of Israel in Israel. ... Ofaqim (אופקים; unofficially also spelled Ofakim) is a city in the Southern District of Israel in Israel. ... Rahat is also a name for the Turkish Delight Lokum. ... Hebrew Arabic سديروت Name Meaning Boulevards Founded in 1953 Government City (from 1996) District South Population 19,800 (2006) Jurisdiction 5,000 dunams (5 km²) Mayor Eli Moyal Sderot (Hebrew: ‎, Arabic: ) is a city in the western Negev, in the South District of Israel. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (267x740, 44 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... In Israel, a local council is a locality similar to a city in structure and way of life, that has not yet achieved a status of a city, which requires a minimum number of residents, among other things. ... Ararat an-Naqab or Arara BaNegev (Hebrew: ערערה בנגב , Arabic: عرعرة) is a Bedouin town (local council) in the Southern District of Israel. ... Hura (in Hebrew: חורה) is a Bedouin village, located near Beersheva. ... Kuseife (Hebrew: כסיפה) is a Bedouin town (local council) in the Southern District of Israel. ... Lakiya, or Laqye (Hebrew: לקיה) is a Bedouin town (local council) in the Southern District of Israel. ... Hebrew להבים Government Local council District South Population 5 000 (2004) Jurisdiction 2 525 dunams (2. ... Meitar is a small town north-east of Beersheba, in the southern region of Israel. ... , Mitzpe Ramon is a local council in the Negev desert of southern Israel. ... Omer (Hebrew: עומר) is a town (local council) in the Southern District of Israel, bordering Beersheba. ... Shaqib al-Salam or Segev Shalom (Hebrew: שגב שלום) is a Bedouin town and a local council in the Southern District of Israel, southeast of Beer Sheva. ... Tel as-Sabi or Tel Sheva (Hebrew: תל שבע, Arabic:تل السبع) is a Bedouin town (local council) in the Southern District of Israel, bordering Beer Sheva. ... Yeruham (Hebrew: יְרֻחָם, ) is a town (local council) in the Southern District of Israel, in the Negev desert. ... The Israeli Ministry of Interior recognizes three types of local government in Israel: cities, regional councils, and local councils. ... Abu Basma Regional Council (Hebrew: , Moetza Azurit Abu Basma) is a regional council in the northwestern Negev desert in Israel. ... Council Map. ... main offices The Bnei Shimon Regional Council (Hebrew: ), is a regional council in the northern Negev in the south of Israel. ... The Eshkol Regional Council is a regional council in the north-western Negev, in Israels Southern District. ... Ramat HaNegev Regional Council (Hebrew: , Moetza Azurit Ramat Negev, lit. ... The Shaar HaNegev Regional Council (Hebrew: ‎, Gate of the Negev Regional Council), is a regional council in the north-western Negev, in Israels Southern District. ... Shafir Regional Council is a regional council in southern Israel near the city of Kiryat Gat. ... The Tamar Regional Council () is a regional council in Israels South District, on the south and western edges of the Dead Sea along the Arabah valley. ...

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Beersheba (723 words)
Beersheba was first settled during the Chalcolithic period.
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