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Encyclopedia > Beer Hall Putsch

The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup d'état that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi party's leader Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund, unsuccessfully tried to gain power in Munich, Bavaria, and Germany. Putsch is the German word for "coup." Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Coup redirects here. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Hitler redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865–December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ... The Kampfbund was a league of patriotic fighting societies and the German National Socialist party in Bavaria, Germany in the 1920s. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Coup redirects here. ...

Contents

Background

Beer halls are huge taverns that existed in most larger southern German cities, where hundreds or even thousands of people are able to gather during the evenings, drink beer out of large stoneware jugs (steins) and sing rousing drinking songs. They are also places where political rallies can be held, a tradition still alive today. One of the largest in Munich was the Bürgerbräukeller, where the Beer Hall putsch was launched. Beer halls are large pubs that specialize in beer. ... The Bürgerbräukeller was an inn cellar in Munich, Germany, by 1923 one of the preferred gathering saloons of the NSDAP, or Nazi Party. ...


German power and prestige were destroyed in the aftermath of World War I. Hitler saw this as a betrayal by the central government. The former corporal and crowd-rousing speaker, who in the chaotic political atmosphere of postwar Munich had risen rapidly to head the small National Socialist party, could call on about 15,000 brown shirts representing several right-wing Bavarian political groups -- the Kampfbund. Hitler announced that starting on September 27, 1923, he would be holding 14 mass meetings. This prompted the Bavarian Prime Minister Eugen von Knilling to declare a state of emergency and named Gustav von Kahr as Bavarian Commissar, Bavarian State Police head Colonel Hans Ritter von Seisser, and Reichswehr General Otto von Lossow as dictators (they were called the "triumvirs") to keep order. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... The seal of SA SA propaganda poster. ... The Kampfbund was a league of patriotic fighting societies and the German National Socialist party in Bavaria, Germany in the 1920s. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the men who have served in the capacity of Minister President or equivalent office in Bavaria from the mid-18th century to the present: // Count Franz Joseph von Berchem 1745-1777 Count Matthäus von Vieregg 1777-1799 Count Maximilian von Montgelas 1799-1817 Count... Eugen Ritter von Knilling (1 August 1856–20 October 1927)[1] was the Prime Minister of Bavaria from 1922 to 1924. ... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ... Gustav Ritter von Kahr (1862–June 30, 1934) was a German right-wing conservative politician, active in the state of Bavaria. ... The uniform patch of the Bavarian Police Force The Bavarian State Police has approximately 32,000 officers and roughly 5,600 civilian employees and is therefore one of the biggest police forces in Germany. ... Colonel Hans Ritter von Seisser (9 December 1874 – 14 April 1973) was the head of the Bavarian State Police in 1923, and formed part of the right-wing triumvirate in Bavaria, along with Gustav von Kahr and Otto von Lossow. ... The Reichswehr (help· info) (literally National Defense or Imperial Defense) formed the military organization of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when the government rebranded it as the Wehrmacht (Defence Force). ... General Otto von Lossow was, at the time of the beer hall putsch, the commander of the Reichswehr in the state of Bavaria. ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ...


Hitler, with other leaders in the Kampfbund, searched out the triumvirs, the leaders of the conservative-nationalist-monarchist groups to convince them to march upon Berlin and seize power. In April, before the establishment of the triumvir, Hitler would call von Kahr almost every day. Each thought to use the other to propel himself into power. Von Kahr sought to restore the monarchy; Hitler wanted to be a dictator. This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


The Putsch

The attempted putsch was inspired by Mussolini's successful March on Rome. Hitler and his associates planned a march on Munich. He planned to use Munich as a base for a big march against Germany's Weimar Republic government in Berlin. But the circumstances were different from those in Italy. Once Hitler realized von Kahr either sought to control him or was losing heart (history is unclear), Hitler decided to take matters into his own hands. Hitler, along with a large detachment of SA, marched on the Bürgerbräukeller, a Munich beer hall where von Kahr was making a speech in front of 3,000 people. Mussolini redirects here. ... For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup détat by which Mussolinis National Fascist Party came to power in Italy. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... ... The seal of SA SA propaganda poster. ... ...


In the cold evening dark, 600 stormtroopers surrounded the beer hall and a machine gun was set up pointing at the auditorium doors. Hitler, surrounded by his associates Hermann Göring, Alfred Rosenberg, Rudolf Hess, Ernst Hanfstaengl, Ulrich Graf, Johann Aigner, Adolf Lenk, Max Amann, Scheubner-Richter, Wilhelm Adam, etc. (some twenty in all) burst through the doors at 8:30 pm, pushed their way laboriously through the crowd, fired a shot into the ceiling and jumped on a chair yelling, "The national revolution has broken out! The hall is filled with six hundred men. Nobody is allowed to leave. The Bavarian government and the government at Berlin are deposed. A new government will be formed at once. The barracks of the Reichswehr and those of the police are occupied. Both have rallied to the swastika." A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring ( ) (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ...   (January 12, 1893 Reval (nowadays Tallinn) – October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ... Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... Putzi together with Hitler, during the time when he acted as his Press Agent Ernst Franz Sedgwick Hanfstaengl (Munich, February 2, 1887 - November 6, 1975) was the only person known to have worked directly for both Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Adolf Hitler. ... Ulrich Graf was one of the very early members of the circle around Adolf Hitler. ... Max Amann Max Amann (November 24, 1891 - March 30, 1957) was a Nazi official with the honorary rank of SS-Obergruppenführer, politician and journalist. ... Ludwig Maximilian Erwin von Scheubner-Richter or Max Scheubner-Richter, born Ludwig Maximilian Erwin Richter (January 21, 1884 - November 9, 1923) was an early member of the Nazi party. ... Wilhelm Adam (born 28 March 1893 in Eichen near Hanau; died 24 November 1978 in Dresden) was a German politician. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... This article is about the symbol. ...


At gunpoint, Hitler, accompanied by Rudolf Hess, Adolf Lenk and Ulrich Graf forced the triumvirate of von Kahr, von Seisser, and von Lossow into a side room (previously hired by Rudolf Hess) and demanded their support for his putsch, or they would be shot. Hitler thought that he would get an immediate response of affirmation from them, imploring von Kahr to accept the position as Regent of Bavaria. Von Kahr reasonably pointed out that he could not be expected to collaborate especially as he had been taken out of the auditorium under heavy guard. Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... Ulrich Graf was one of the very early members of the circle around Adolf Hitler. ... ... Colonel Hans Ritter von Seisser (9 December 1874 – 14 April 1973) was the head of the Bavarian State Police in 1923, and formed part of the right-wing triumvirate in Bavaria, along with Gustav von Kahr and Otto von Lossow. ... General Otto von Lossow was, at the time of the beer hall putsch, the commander of the Reichswehr in the state of Bavaria. ... Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... ... ...


During this time, speeches were held in the main hall by Goering, amongst others, obtaining a temporary calm, whilst no one was allowed to leave, not even to go to the bathroom. Some, however, managed to escape via the kitchen, especially those foreign correspondents eager to file copy. At the same time, Heinz Pernet, Johann Aigner and Scheubner-Richter were dispatched to pick up General Ludendorff, whose personal prestige was being harnessed to give the Nazis credibility. A phone call was made from the kitchen by Kriebel to Ernst Röhm, who was waiting with his Reichskriegflagge in the Löwenbräukeller, another beer hall, and ordered him to seize key buildings throughout the city. At the same time, co-conspirators under Gerhard Rossbach mobilized the students of a nearby Officers Infantry school to seize other objectives. Hermann Göring Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Hermann Goering in English) (January 12, 1893–October 15, 1946) was a prominent and early member of the Nazi party, founder of the Gestapo, and one of the main architects of Nazi Germany. ... Heinz Pernet (September 5, 1896 – ??) a former lieutenant and Ludendorffs stepson. ... Ludwig Maximilian Erwin von Scheubner-Richter or Max Scheubner-Richter, born Ludwig Maximilian Erwin Richter (January 21, 1884 - November 9, 1923) was an early member of the Nazi party. ... General Erich Ludendorff Erich Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as Erich von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, noted as a general during World War I. Ludendorff was born in Kruszewnia near Posen, Prussia (now PoznaÅ„, Poland). ... Hermann Kriebel (1876–1941) was a retired lieutenant colonel and former Bavarian staff officer. ... Ernst Julius Röhm, also known as Ernst Roehm in English (Munich November 28, 1887 – July 2, 1934) was a German military officer, and the commander and co-founder of the Nazi Sturmabteilung — the SA. // Röhm was one of three children of Julius Röhm and his wife Emilie... Reichskriegsflagge (Imperial War Flag) was the official name of the war flag used by the German armed forces from 1867 to 1945. ... Gerhard Roßbach (February 28, 1893–August 30, 1967) was a member of the German armed forces. ...


Hitler became irritated by von Kahr and summoned Ernst Poehner, Friedrich Weber and Hermann Kriebel to stand in for him whilst he returned to the auditorium to make a speech (as he had promised some fifteen minutes earlier). Flanked by Rudolf Hess and Adolf Lenk, Hitler returned to the auditorium to make an extempore speech that changed the mood of the hall almost within seconds. Dr. Karl Alexander von Mueller, a professor of modern history and political science at the University of Munich, a supporter of von Kahr, was an eyewitness. He reported: "I cannot remember in my entire life such a change in the attitude of a crowd in a few minutes, almost a few seconds ... Hitler had turned them inside out, as one turns a glove inside out, with a few sentences. It had almost something of hocus-pocus, or magic about it." ... Ernst Pöhner (January 11, 1870–April 11, 1925) was Munichs Chief of Police (Green Police President) from 1919 to 1922. ... Friedriech Weber, Dr. (January 30, 1892–1954) was an instructor in veterinary medicine at the University of Munich. ... Hermann Kriebel (1876–1941) was a retired lieutenant colonel and former Bavarian staff officer. ... Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... ...


Hitler started quietly reminding the audience that his move was not directed against von Kahr and launched into his speech ending with:

"Outside are Kahr, Lossow and Seisser. They are struggling hard to reach a decision. May I say to them that you will stand behind them?"

The audience roared its approval. He finished triumphantly:

"You can see that what motivates us is neither self-conceit or self-interest, but only a burning desire to join the battle in this grave eleventh hour for our German Fatherland ... One last thing I can tell you. Either the German revolution begins tonight and the morrow will find us in Germany a true nationalist government, or it will find us dead by dawn!"

To the historian Karl Alexander von Mueller, the histrionics and melodrama were painful. He could not make up his mind whether Hitler was a man consumed, a brilliant showman or another Machiavelli. Hitler carried all three traits to extremes. Hitler returned to the ante-room, where the triumvirs remained incarcerated, to ear-shattering acclaim which the triumvirs cannot have failed to notice. On his way back, Hitler ordered Goering and Hess to take von Knilling and seven other members of the Bavarian government into custody. Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... Hermann Göring Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Hermann Goering in English) (January 12, 1893–October 15, 1946) was a prominent and early member of the Nazi party, founder of the Gestapo, and one of the main architects of Nazi Germany. ... Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... Eugen Ritter von Knilling (1 August 1856–20 October 1927)[1] was the Prime Minister of Bavaria from 1922 to 1924. ...


During Hitler's speech, Poehner, Weber and Kriebel had been trying in a conciliatory fashion to bring the triumvirate round to their point of view. The atmosphere in the room had become lighter but von Kahr continued to dig in his heels. Ludendorff showed up a little before 9 p.m. and, being shown into the ante-room, concentrated on von Lossow and von Seisser appealing to their 'sense of duty'. Eventually the triumvirate reluctantly gave in. Ernst Pöhner (January 11, 1870–April 11, 1925) was Munichs Chief of Police (Green Police President) from 1919 to 1922. ... Friedriech Weber, Dr. (January 30, 1892–1954) was an instructor in veterinary medicine at the University of Munich. ... Hermann Kriebel (1876–1941) was a retired lieutenant colonel and former Bavarian staff officer. ... General Erich Ludendorff Erich Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as Erich von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, noted as a general during World War I. Ludendorff was born in Kruszewnia near Posen, Prussia (now Poznań, Poland). ...


Hitler, Ludendorff et al moved back into the auditorium, where they gave speeches, shook hands, and then the crowd was allowed to leave. In a tactical mistake, Hitler decided to leave the Bürgerbräukeller shortly thereafter to deal with a crisis elsewhere. Around 10:30 p.m., Ludendorff released von Kahr and his associates. Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... General Erich Ludendorff Erich Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as Erich von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, noted as a general during World War I. Ludendorff was born in Kruszewnia near Posen, Prussia (now PoznaÅ„, Poland). ... General Erich Ludendorff Erich Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as Erich von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, noted as a general during World War I. Ludendorff was born in Kruszewnia near Posen, Prussia (now PoznaÅ„, Poland). ...


The night was marked by confusion and unrest among government officials, armed forces and police units, and individuals deciding where their loyalties lay. Units of the Kampfbund were scurrying around to arm themselves from secret caches, seizing buildings. At around 3 am, the first casualties of the putsch occurred when the local garrison of the Reichswehr spotted Röhm's men coming out of the beer hall. They were ambushed while trying to reach the Reichswehr barracks and had to fall back. In the meantime, the Reichswehr officers put the whole garrison on alert and called for reinforcements. In a prefiguration of things to come, a list of prominent Jews was made up and squads of SA were sent around to arrest them. Some were taken into custody while others escaped. The foreign attachés were also seized in their hotel rooms and put under house arrest. The Reichswehr (help· info) (literally National Defense or Imperial Defense) formed the military organization of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when the government rebranded it as the Wehrmacht (Defence Force). ...


In the early morning, Hitler ordered the seizure of the Munich city council as hostages. He further sent the communications officer of the Kampfbund, Max Neunzert, to enlist the aid of Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria to mediate between von Kahr and the putschists. Neunzert failed in the mission. For other uses, see Hostage (disambiguation). ... The Coat of arms of the Kings of Bavaria Bold textKing of Bavaria was a title held by the hereditary Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria from 1805 till 1918, when the kingdom was abolished. ... Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria or Crown Prince Rupert of Bavaria (German: Kronprinz Rupprecht von Bayern) (18 May 1869 – 2 August 1955) was the last Bavarian Crown Prince. ...


By midmorning on the 9th, the realization hit that the putsch was going nowhere and Hitler was desperate. They didn't know what to do and were about to give up. At this moment, Ludendorff cried out "Wir marschieren!" (We will march!) and Röhm's force together with Hitler's (a total of approx. 2000 men) marched out with no plan of where to go. At the spur of the moment, Ludendorff led them to the Bavarian Defense Ministry. However, at the Odeonsplatz in front of the Feldherrenhalle, they met with a force of 100 soldiers blocking the way under the command of State Police Senior Lieutenant Baron Michael von Godin. The two groups exchanged fire, killing four state police officers [1] and sixteen Nazis. It was here that the Blutfahne came to be. Hitler and Hermann Göring were both injured, the latter managing to escape while the former was captured shortly thereafter. The Feldherrnhalle (also written Feldherrenhalle, Hall of the Field Lords) is a building in Munich, Germany. ... Consecration by Adolf Hitler of the Blutfahne at the 1938 Nuremburg rally. ...


Counterattack

Police and State Police units were first notified of trouble by two police detectives stationed at the Löwenbräukeller. These reports reached Major Sigmund von Imhoff of the State police. He immediately called all his "green" police units and had them seize the central telegraph office and the telephone exchange, though his most important act was to notify Major General Jakob Ritter von Danner, the Reichswehr city commandant of Munich. As a staunch aristocrat, he loathed the "little corporal" and those "freikorps bands of rowdies." He also didn't much like his commanding officer, Generalleutnant Otto von Lossow, "a sorry figure of a man." He was determined to put down the putsch with or without von Lossow. General Ritter von Danner set up a command post at the 19th Infantry Regiment barracks and alerted all military units. Jakob Ritter von Danner (August 7, 1865 - December 28, 1942) was a Bavarian general in the Imperial German Army and the Reichswehr. ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps, i. ... General Otto von Lossow was, at the time of the beer hall putsch, the commander of the Reichswehr in the state of Bavaria. ...


Meanwhile Captain Karl Wild, learning of the putsch from marchers, mobilized his command to guard von Kahr's government building, the "Commissariat", with orders to shoot.


Around 11:00 p.m., Ritter von Danner, along with fellow officers General Adolf Ritter von Ruith and General Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein, compelled von Lossow to repudiate the putsch. Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein (April 24, 1870 - October 16, 1948) was a German General and a member of the group of German officers who assisted in the direction of the Ottoman Army during World War I. Kress von Kressenstein was part of Otto Liman von Sanders military mission to...


There was one member of the cabinet who was not at the Bürgerbräu Keller: Franz Matt, the vice-premier and minister of education and culture. A staunchly conservative Catholic, he was having dinner with Michael Cardinal von Faulhaber and the Papal Nuncio, Monsignor Eugenio Pacelli (who would later become Pope Pius XII), when he learned of the putsch. He immediately phoned von Kahr. When he found the man vacillitating and unsure, Matt decisively began plans to set up a rump government-in-exile in Regensburg and composed a proclamation calling upon all police, armed forces, and civil servants to remain loyal to the government. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... Franz Matt was the only member of the German cabinet not present at the Beer Hall Putsch. ... Memorial stone of von Faulhaber in the Munich Frauenkirche His Eminence Michael Cardinal von Faulhaber (born March 3, 1869 in Klosterheidenfeld, Unterfranken, died June 12, 1952 in Munich) was Roman Catholic Archbishop of Munich for 35 years, from 1917 to his death in 1952. ... A Papal Nuncio (also known as an Apostolic Nuncio) is a permanent diplomatic representative (head of mission) of the Holy See to a state, having ambassadorial rank. ... Monsignor, monsignori, is the form of address for those members of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church holding certain ecclesiastical honorific titles. ... The Venerable Pius XII, born Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Eugenio Pacelli (Rome, March 2, 1876 - October 9, 1958) served as the Pope from March 2, 1939 to 1958. ... Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ...


The action of these few men spelled doom for the putschists.


On Saturday, 4,000 students from Munich University rioted and marched to the Feldherrnhalle to lay wreaths. (They continued to riot through Monday until learning of Hitler's arrest.) Von Kahr and von Lossow were called "Judases" and "traitors." With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ... View from the Odeonsplatz on to the Feldherrnhalle and the Theatinerkirche The Feldherrnhalle The Feldherrnhalle (also written Feldherrenhalle, Hall of the Commanders) is a monumental building in Munich, Germany. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other...


Trial and prison

Three days after the putsch, Hitler was arrested and charged with treason. Some of his co-conspirators were arrested while others escaped to Austria. The Nazi party headquarters were raided, and its newspaper, the Völkischer Beobachter ("The People's Observer") was banned. For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... One of the last editions of the Völkischer Beobachter (April 20, 1945) hails Adolf Hitler as man of the century on the occasion of his 56th birthday, ten days before his suicide. ...


This, however, was not the first time Hitler had been in trouble with the law. In an incident in September 1921, he and some SA had disrupted a meeting of the Bayernbund, and the Nazis who had gone there to cause trouble were arrested as a result. Hitler had ended up serving a little over a month of a three-month jail sentence. Presiding Judge Georg Neithardt was judge in both Hitler cases.[1]


His trial began on February 26, 1924 and Hitler, along with Hess was sentenced to five years in Festungshaft (literally, "fortress confinement") for treason. "Festungshaft" was a type of jail that excluded forced labor, featured reasonably comfortable cells, and allowed the prisoner to receive visitors almost daily for many hours. It was the customary sentence for people whom the judge believed to have had honourable but misguided motives. is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ...


However, Hitler used his trial as an opportunity to spread his ideas. Every word he spoke was reported in the newspaper the next day. The judges were impressed (Presiding Judge Neithardt was inclined to favoritism towards the defendants prior to the trial), and as a result Hitler only served a little over eight months and was fined 500RM.[2] Due to his war service and connections, Ludendorff was acquitted. Both Röhm and Dr. Wilhelm Frick, though found guilty, were released. Göring, meanwhile, suffered bullet wounds in his leg, which led him to become increasingly dependent on morphine and other painkilling drugs. Dr. Wilhelm Frick (March 12, 1877 â€“ October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi official. ... This article is about the drug. ...


Though Hitler failed to achieve his immediate stated goal—and in fact there seems to be no turn of events which could have caused this rather poorly organized coup not to fail—the event did give the Nazis their first exposure to national attention and a propaganda victory. It was while serving his prison sentence at Landsberg am Lech that he and Rudolf Hess wrote Mein Kampf. Also, the putsch changed Hitler's outlook on violent revolution to effect change. From then on he thought that, in order to win the German heart, he must do everything by the book, strictly legal, since Germans obviously frowned on not following the rules. He decided to manipulate the German Volk so they would choose him as their dictator. Later on, the German people would call him "Adolf Legalité" or "Adolf the Legal One." Soviet Propaganda Poster during World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from the time of the Cultural Revolution. ... Entrance of the Landsberg Prison Landsberg Prison is a penal facility located in the town of Landsberg am Lech in the southwest of the German state of Bavaria, about 30 miles (45 km) west of Munich. ... Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ...


The process of combination, where the conservative-nationalist-monarchist group thought that they could piggyback onto and control the National Socialist movement to garner the seats of power, was to dangerously repeat itself ten years later in 1933 when Franz von Papen would "legally" ask Hitler to form a government. Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ...


Nazi supporters who died in the putsch

Felix Alfarth (b. ... Andreas Bauriedl (d. ... Theodor Casella (August 8, 1900- November 9, 1923) was a bank clerk, who participated in the attempted Nazi overthrow of the the Bavaria Government. ... Wilhelm Ehrlich (August 8, 1894 - November 9, 1923) was a bank clerk, who participated in the attempted Nazi overthrow of the Bavaria, Munich government, which came to be know as the Beer Hall Putsch. ... Martin Faust ( January 4, 1901 - November 10, 1923) was a bank clerk who participated in Adolf Hitlers failed Beer Hall Putsch. ... Anton Hechenberger ( September 28, 1902) - ( November 9, 1923)- He was a locksmith who participated in Hitlers failed Beer Hall Putsch. ... Oskar Körner (January 4, 1875 - November 9, 1923) was a businessman who participated in Hitlers failed Beer Hall Putsch. ... Karl Kuhn ( July 7, 1875 - November 9, 1923) was a headwaiter in a restaurant and also early party member of the Nazi Party who was killed in the failed Beer Hall Putsch. ... Karl Laforce (October 28, 1904 - November 9, 1923) was an early member of the Nazi Party who was killed in Hitlers failed Beer Hall Putsch. ... Kurt Neubauer (March 27, 1899 - November 9, 1923) was an early member of the Nazi Party and one of the first Nazis who was killed in Hitlers failed Beer Hall Putsch. ... Klaus Von Pape ( August 16, 1904 - November 9, 1923) was a businessman and an early member of the Nazi Party who had participated in Hitlers Beer Hall Putsch and was one of the sixteen Nazis to have been killed. ... Theodor Von Der Pfordten (May 14, 1873) - (November 9, 1923)- He was a county court councillor, who was in World War One and was a early member of the Nazi Party who took part in Hitlers failed Beer Hall Putsch. ... Johann Rickmers ( May 7, 1881) - (November 9, 1923)- He was a retired cavalry captain, who was in World War One and an early member of the Nazi Party. ... Ludwig Maximilian Erwin von Scheubner-Richter or Max Scheubner-Richter, born Ludwig Maximilian Erwin Richter (January 9, 1884 - (November 9, 1923) was an early member of the Nazi party. ... Lorenz Ritter Von Stransky (March 14, 1889) - (November 9, 1923)- He was a engineer and an early member of the Nazi Party, he was so transfixed by Hitlers speeches that he couldmt resist joining the party. ... Wilhelm Wolf (October 19, 1898) - (November 9, 1923)-He was a business and a early member of the Nazi Party, who participated in Hitlers failed Beer Hall Putsch and was killed in the courtyard along with fifteen others. ...

Bavarian police who died in the putsch

  • Friedrich Fink
  • Nikolaus Hollweg
  • Max Schobert
  • Rudolf Schraut

Martyrdom

The sixteen fallen were regarded as the first 'blood martyrs' of the NSDAP and were remembered by Hitler in the foreword of Mein Kampf. The Nazi flag they carried, which in the course of events was stained with blood, came to be known as the Blutfahne (blood flag) and was brought out for the swearing in of new recruits in front of the Feldherrnhalle when Hitler was in power. The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ...


Shortly after he came to power, a memorial was placed at the south side of the Feldherrnhalle crowned with a swastika. The back of the memorial read 'Und Ihr Habt Doch Gesiegt!' ("Yet victory was yours"). Behind it flowers were laid, and either policemen or the SS stood guard in between a lower plaque. Passers-by were required to give the Hitler salute. The putsch was also commemorated on three sets of stamps. Mein Kampf was dedicated to the fallen and, in the book Ich Kampfe (given to those joining the party circa 1943), they are listed first even though the book lists hundreds of other dead. The header text in the book read ‘Though They Are Dead For Their Acts They Will Live On Forever’. The army had a division named the Feldherrnhalle regiment and there was also an SA Feldherrnhalle division.


Every year (even during the war up to 1942) a commemoration, attended by Hitler, took place in Munich, the centrepiece of which was usually a recreation of the march, from the Burgerbraukeller to the south side of the Feldherrnhalle. Every Gau (administrative region of Germany) was also expected to hold a small remembrance ceremony. As material given to propagandists said, the sixteen fallen were the first losses and the ceremony was an occasion to commemorate everyone who had died for the movement. A Gau (plural Gaue) is a German term for a region within a country, often a (former or actual) province. ...


On November 9, 1935, the dead were taken from their graves and to the Feldherrnhalle. The SA and SS carried them down to the Konigplatz, where two Ehrentempel (Honour Temples) had been constructed. In each of the structures eight of the martyrs were interred in a sarcophagus bearing their name.


In June 1945 the Allied Control Commission removed the bodies from the Ehrentempels and contacted their families. They were given the option of having their loved ones buried in Munich cemeteries in unmarked graves or having them cremated, common practice in Germany for unclaimed bodies. On January 9, 1947, the upper parts of the structures were blown up. Following the termination of hostilities in World War II, the Allied Powers were in control of the defeated Axis countries, anticipating the defeat of Germany and Japan they had already set up the European Advisory Commission and a proposed Far Eastern Advisory Commission to make recommendations for the post war...


Supporters of the Putsch

Key supporters

Rudolf Hess, Hermann Goering, Erich Ludendorff, Hermann Kriebel, Friedrich Weber, Ernst Röhm, Max Scheubner-Richter, Ulrich Graf, Julius Streicher, Hermann Esser, Ernst Hanfstaengl, Gottfried Feder, Josef Berchtold, Ernst Poehner, Emil Maurice, Max Amann, Heinz Pernet, Wilhelm Brueckner, Lt. Robert Wagner Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... Hermann Göring Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Hermann Goering in English) (January 12, 1893–October 15, 1946) was a prominent and early member of the Nazi party, founder of the Gestapo, and one of the main architects of Nazi Germany. ... General Erich Ludendorff Erich Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as Erich von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, noted as a general during World War I. Ludendorff was born in Kruszewnia near Posen, Prussia (now Poznań, Poland). ... Hermann Kriebel (1876–1941) was a retired lieutenant colonel and former Bavarian staff officer. ... Friedriech Weber, Dr. (January 30, 1892–1954) was an instructor in veterinary medicine at the University of Munich. ... Ernst Julius Röhm, also known as Ernst Roehm in English (Munich November 28, 1887 – July 2, 1934) was a German military officer, and the commander and co-founder of the Nazi Sturmabteilung — the SA. // Röhm was one of three children of Julius Röhm and his wife Emilie... Ludwig Maximilian Erwin von Scheubner-Richter or Max Scheubner-Richter, born Ludwig Maximilian Erwin Richter (January 21, 1884 - November 9, 1923) was an early member of the Nazi party. ... Ulrich Graf was one of the very early members of the circle around Adolf Hitler. ... Julius Streicher (February 12, 1885 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi prior to and during World War II. He was the publisher of the Nazi Der Stürmer newspaper, which was to become a part of the Nazi propaganda machine. ... Hermann Esser (1900-1981) entered the Nazi party with Adolf Hitler in 1920, became the editor of the Nazi paper, Völkischer Beobachter, and a Nazi member of the Reichstag. ... Putzi together with Hitler, during the time when he acted as his Press Agent Ernst Franz Sedgwick Hanfstaengl (Munich, February 2, 1887 - November 6, 1975) was the only person known to have worked directly for both Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Adolf Hitler. ... Gottfried Feder Gottfried Feder (January 27, 1883 – September 24, 1941) was an economist, anti-semite and one of the early key members of the German Nazi party. ... Joseph Berchtold (March 6, 1897–August 23, 1962), a former stationery salesman, succeeded Julius Schreck as Reichsführer SS in 1926. ... Ernst Pöhner (January 11, 1870–April 11, 1925) was Munichs Chief of Police (Green Police President) from 1919 to 1922. ... Emil Maurice (January 19, 1897–February 6, 1972) was an early member of the Nazi Party. ... Max Amann Max Amann (November 24, 1891 - March 30, 1957) was a Nazi official with the honorary rank of SS-Obergruppenführer, politician and journalist. ... Heinz Pernet (September 5, 1896 – ??) a former lieutenant and Ludendorffs stepson. ... Wilhelm Brückner (born 11 December 1884 in Baden-Baden; died 18 August 1954 in Herbstdorf, Chiemgau, Upper Bavaria) was until 1940 Adolf Hitlers chief adjutant. ... Robert Heinrich Wagner (born 13 October 1895 in Lindach, died 14 August 1946) was Gauleiter and Head of the Civil Government of Alsace during the German occupation in World War II. He was later tried, convicted and sentenced to death by the Permanent Military Tribunal in Strasbourg in 1946. ...


Other notable supporters

Heinrich Himmler, Edmund Heines, Gerhard Rossbach, Hans Frank, Julius Schaub, Walter Hewel, Dietrich Eckart, Wilhelm Frick, Julius Schreck, Josef 'Sepp' Dietrich, Philipp Bouhler, Franz Pfeffer von Salomon, Adolf Lenk, Hans Kallenbach, Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg, Adolf Wagner, Jakob Grimminger, Heinrich Trambauer, Karl Beggel, Rudolf Jung, Rudolf Buttmann, Hans Ulrich Klintzsche, Heinrich Hoffmann, Josef Gerum, Capt. Eduard Dietl, Hans Georg Hofmann, Matthaeus Hofmann, Helmut Klotz, Adolf Huehnlein, Max Neunzert, Michael Ried Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and the Nazi hierarchy. ... Edmund Heines (* July 21, 1897 in Munich; † June 30, 1934 in Munich) was one of Ernst Röhms lovers in the 1920s. ... Gerhard Roßbach (February 28, 1893–August 30, 1967) was a member of the German armed forces. ... Hans Frank (May 23, 1900 – October 16, 1946) was a lawyer for the Nazi party during the 1920s and a senior official in Nazi Germany. ... Julius Schaub, Reinhard Heydrich and Walther Hewel at the Berghof. ... Walter Hewel (1904 - May 2, 1945) was a high-ranking German ambassador in the Nazi Government. ... Dietrich Eckart Dietrich Eckart (March 23, 1868 - December 26, 1923) was one of the early key members of the National-Socialist German Workers Party and one of the participants in the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. ... Dr. Wilhelm Frick (March 12, 1877 â€“ October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi official. ... Julius Schreck in 1933 Julius Schreck (July 13, 1898 – May 16, 1936) was an early Nazi Party member and also the first commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS). ... SS-Obergruppenführer Sepp Dietrich Josef Sepp Dietrich also known as Ujac (May 28, 1892–April 21/22, 1966) was a German Waffen-SS general, an SS-Oberstgruppenführer, and one of the closest men to Hitler. ... Philipp Bouhler (born 11 September 1899 in Munich; died 19 May 1945 in Dachau (suicide)) was a Nazi German government official, head of the Führers Chancellery and leader of the euthanasia programme, the so-called Aktion T4. ... Franz Pfeffer Von Salomon (?,?)- He was a Free Corps member and veteran from World War One, he made a name for himself by organizing resistances groups to stop the French occupying the Ruhr. ... Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg (May 10, 1899, Eferding -March 15, 1956, Schruns; Ernst Rüdiger Fürst von Starhemberg until the 1919 abolition of nobility) was an Austrian Fascist and politician prior to World War II. Born in Eferding, Upper Austria, in 1899, von Starhemberg hailed... Adolf Wagner (March 25, 1835 Erlangen - November 8, 1917 Berlin) was a German Economist and Financial scientist. ... Jakob Grimminger in Triumph of the Will. ... Rudolf Jung (April 16, 1882 - December 11, 1945) was an instrumental force and agitator of Austrian National Socialism and, later on, became a member of the daughter party German Nazi Party. ... The signing of the Reichskonkordat on July 20, 1933 in Rome. ... An ex-naval Lieutenant from the Erhardt Brigade, Hans Ulrich Klintzsch served as leader of the SA Stormtroopers from 1921 until May 11th 1923, at which point he returned to his former unit and ceded control to Hermann Göring. ... Youth and Hitler, a Hoffmann picture book Heinrich Hoffmann (October 12, 1885 in Fürth - December 11, 1957 in Munich) was a German photographer, who is best known for his numerous pictures of Adolf Hitler. ...


At the front of the march

In the vanguard were four flag bearers followed by Adolf Lenk and Kurt Neubauer, Ludendorff's servant. Behind those two came more flag bearers then the leadership in two rows. Kurt Neubauer (March 27, 1899 - November 9, 1923) was an early member of the Nazi Party and one of the first Nazis who was killed in Hitlers failed Beer Hall Putsch. ... General Erich Ludendorff Erich Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as Erich von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, noted as a general during World War I. Ludendorff was born in Kruszewnia near Posen, Prussia (now Poznań, Poland). ...


Hitler was in the centre, slouch hat in hand, the collar of his trenchcoat turned up against the cold. To his left in civilian clothes, a green felt hat and a loose loden coat was Ludendorff. To Hitler's right was Scheubner-Richter. To his right came Alfred Rosenberg. On either side of these men were Ulrich Graf, Hermann Kriebel, Friedrich Weber, Julius Streicher, Hermann Goering and Wilhelm Brueckner. Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... water resisting material for clothing made from sheep wool; usually green and used in bavarian traditional clothing. ... General Erich Ludendorff Erich Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as Erich von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, noted as a general during World War I. Ludendorff was born in Kruszewnia near Posen, Prussia (now PoznaÅ„, Poland). ... Ludwig Maximilian Erwin von Scheubner-Richter or Max Scheubner-Richter, born Ludwig Maximilian Erwin Richter (January 21, 1884 - November 9, 1923) was an early member of the Nazi party. ...   (January 12, 1893 Reval (nowadays Tallinn) – October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ... Ulrich Graf was one of the very early members of the circle around Adolf Hitler. ... Hermann Kriebel (1876–1941) was a retired lieutenant colonel and former Bavarian staff officer. ... Friedriech Weber, Dr. (January 30, 1892–1954) was an instructor in veterinary medicine at the University of Munich. ... Julius Streicher (February 12, 1885 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi prior to and during World War II. He was the publisher of the Nazi Der Stürmer newspaper, which was to become a part of the Nazi propaganda machine. ... Hermann Göring Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Hermann Goering in English) (January 12, 1893–October 15, 1946) was a prominent and early member of the Nazi party, founder of the Gestapo, and one of the main architects of Nazi Germany. ... Wilhelm Brückner (born 11 December 1884 in Baden-Baden; died 18 August 1954 in Herbstdorf, Chiemgau, Upper Bavaria) was until 1940 Adolf Hitlers chief adjutant. ...


Behind these came the second string of Heinz Pernet, Johann Aigner (Scheubner-Richter's servant), Gottfried Feder, Theodor von der Pfordten, Wilhelm Kolb, Rolf Reiner, Hans Streck and Heinrich Bennecke, Brueckner's adjutant. Heinz Pernet (September 5, 1896 – ??) a former lieutenant and Ludendorffs stepson. ... Ludwig Maximilian Erwin von Scheubner-Richter or Max Scheubner-Richter, born Ludwig Maximilian Erwin Richter (January 21, 1884 - November 9, 1923) was an early member of the Nazi party. ... Gottfried Feder Gottfried Feder (January 27, 1883 – September 24, 1941) was an economist, anti-semite and one of the early key members of the German Nazi party. ... Theodor Von Der Pfordten (May 14, 1873) - (November 9, 1923)- He was a county court councillor, who was in World War One and was a early member of the Nazi Party who took part in Hitlers failed Beer Hall Putsch. ... Wilhelm Brückner (born 11 December 1884 in Baden-Baden; died 18 August 1954 in Herbstdorf, Chiemgau, Upper Bavaria) was until 1940 Adolf Hitlers chief adjutant. ...


Behind this row marched the Stosstrupp, the SA, the Infantry School and the Oberlaender. Better known as the Stosstrup Hitler it was an elite section of the SA, or Sturmabteilung, the NSDAPs private army, that acted as personal bodygaurds to Hitler. ...


Chief defendants in the 'Ludendorff-Hitler' Trial

The main defendants of the 1923 putsch

Left to Right: File links The following pages link to this file: National Socialist German Workers Party ... File links The following pages link to this file: National Socialist German Workers Party ...


Heinz Pernet, Dr. Friedrich Weber, Wilhelm Frick, Hermann Kriebel, General Erich Ludendorff, Adolf Hitler, Wilhelm Brueckner, Ernst Roehm, Lt. Robert Wagner Heinz Pernet (September 5, 1896 – ??) a former lieutenant and Ludendorffs stepson. ... Friedriech Weber, Dr. (January 30, 1892–1954) was an instructor in veterinary medicine at the University of Munich. ... Dr. Wilhelm Frick (March 12, 1877 â€“ October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi official. ... Hermann Kriebel (1876–1941) was a retired lieutenant colonel and former Bavarian staff officer. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865–December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Wilhelm Brückner (born 11 December 1884 in Baden-Baden; died 18 August 1954 in Herbstdorf, Chiemgau, Upper Bavaria) was until 1940 Adolf Hitlers chief adjutant. ... Ernst Röhm Ernst Röhm (or Roehm) (November 28, 1887 — July 1, 1934) was a German military officer and most recognized commander of the Nazi Stroomtroopers, known as the Sturmabteilung. ... Robert Heinrich Wagner (born 13 October 1895 in Lindach, died 14 August 1946) was Gauleiter and Head of the Civil Government of Alsace during the German occupation in World War II. He was later tried, convicted and sentenced to death by the Permanent Military Tribunal in Strasbourg in 1946. ...


Note only two of the defendants, Hitler and Frick, were dressed as civilians. Hitler redirects here. ... Dr. Wilhelm Frick (March 12, 1877 â€“ October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi official. ...


Miscellany

A stamp published in commemoration of Beer Hall Putsch in 1935
A stamp published in commemoration of Beer Hall Putsch in 1935
  • American newspaper reporters are partly responsible for transferring the originally Italian application "Fascists" to the Nazis.
    • "FASCISTI MOBILIZE IN BAVARIAN HILLS", The New York Times, November 3, 1923.
    • "BAVARIAN FASCISTI IMPATIENT", "...the Bavarian military dictator Dr. von Kahr is experiencing difficulty in his efforts to hold the Bavarian Fascisti in leash..." The New York Times, November 7, 1923.
  • The political disparity of von Kahr and Adolf Hitler is elucidated when the editor of the staunchly royalist newspaper and speech writer for Von Kahr, Paul Egenter, questions Pöhner while locked in the beer hall: "Isn't there a basic contradiction between von Kahr's monarchistic and Hitler's republican-dictatorial aims?" Munich 1923, pg 168.
    • The gloss over of this discrepancy shows itself in NY Times headlines: "MONARCHIST FORCES REPORTED MARCHING ON BERLIN", "LUDENDORFF LEADS ROYALIST ARMY."

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 513 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1230 × 1436 pixel, file size: 373 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) eingescannt von: Prolineserver Briefmarke der Reichspost Gedenke des 9. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 513 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1230 × 1436 pixel, file size: 373 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) eingescannt von: Prolineserver Briefmarke der Reichspost Gedenke des 9. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Johann Georg Elser (4 January 1903 - 9 April 1945) was a German opponent of Nazism. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

In popular culture

The Beer Hall Putsch and the subsequent arrest and trial of Adolf Hitler was portrayed in the anime movie Fullmetal Alchemist: The Conqueror of Shamballa. “Animé” redirects here. ...


See also

This Weimar Timeline charts the chronology of the Weimar Republic, dating the pre-history before the adoption of the actual Weimar constitution. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Bibliography

  • Dornberg, John Munich 1923,(whew) The Story of Hitler's First Grab for Power, Harper & Row Publishers, NY, 1982
  • Gordon, Harold J., Jr. Hitler and the Beer Hall Putsch, Princeton University Press, 1972
  • _______ The Hitler Trial Before the People's Court in Munich University Publications of America, 1976
  • Large, David Clay Where Ghosts Walked, Munich's Road to the Third Reich, W.W. Norton & Co., 1997
  • Louis Leo Snyder Hitler and Nazism, Franklin Watts, Inc., NY, 1961

Louis Leo Snyder (1907-1993) was an American-born German scholar who witnessed the Nazi mass meetings and wrote about them in Hitlerism, the Iron Fist in Germany. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Harold J. Gordon Jr., The Hitler Trial Before the People's Court in Munich (Arlington, VA:
    University Publications of America 1976)
  2. ^ Ibid.

Hitler redirects here. ... Historians and biographers note some difficulty in attributing the political beliefs of Adolf Hitler. ... List of Adolf Hitler speeches is an attempt to aggregate all of Adolf Hitlers speeches. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ... The Zweites Buch (Second Book) is a transcript of Adolf Hitlers unfiltered thoughts on a number of topics that was never edited. ... The last will and testament of Adolf Hitler was dictated by Hitler to his secretary Traudl Junge in his Berlin Führerbunker on April 29, 1945, the day he and Eva Braun married. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 443 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1114 × 1508 pixel, file size: 786 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date circa 1935 Author Heinrich Hoffmann Permission Although this image would not ordinarily enter the public domain until 70 years after Hoffmanns death in Germany... Hitlers rise to power was marked at first by a period of the NSDAP as a fringe party before the events of the Beer hall putsch and the release of Mein Kampf introduced Hitler to a wider audience. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The front cover of Time magazine, May 7, 1945. ... Haus Wachenfeld during its conversion into the Berghof The Berghof was Adolf Hitlers home in the Obersalzberg of the Bavarian Alps near Berchtesgaden, Germany. ... Adolf Hitlers medical health has long been a subject of popular controversy. ... Adolf Hitlers religious beliefs have been a matter of dispute, in part because of apparently inconsistent statements made by and attributed to him. ... Adolf Hitlers sexuality has been the subject of much speculation and controversy. ... According to many biographical sources, Adolf Hitler practiced some form of vegetarianism from the early 1930s until his death in 1945. ... This List of Adolf Hitler Books is an annotated bibliography using APA style citations of the many books related to Adolf Hitler. ... Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889–30 April 1945) was the Führer of the National Socialist German Workers Party and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Sieg des Glaubens (German for Victory of Faith) is the first documentary directed by Leni Riefenstahl, who was hired despite opposition from Nazi officials that resented employing a woman — and a non-Party member too. ... Triumph of the Will (German: Triumph des Willens) is a propaganda film by the German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl. ... The Empty Mirror is a film set within a world where Adolf Hitler and his closest cadre of followers survived, this speculative psychodrama attempts to explore the dark, twisted mind of the mad ruler as he converses with Eva Braun, Hermann Goering, Josef Goebbels, and Sigmund Freud. ... Hitler: The Last Ten Days is a 1973 film depicting the days leading up to Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... Max is a 2002 Drama movie, that depicts a friendship between art dealer Max Rothman and a young painter, Adolf Hitler. ... Downfall (German: Der Untergang) is a 2004 German film depicting the final days of Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany in 1945. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Beer Hall Putsch - MSN Encarta (0 words)
Beer Hall Putsch, failed effort at revolution initiated in 1923 by Adolf Hitler, leader of Germany’s National Socialist (Nazi) Party.
The putsch (German for “coup”) began in Munich on the evening of November 8, when Hitler took control of a meeting of right-wing politicians who had gathered at a beer hall to denounce the current government and call for the restoration of the Bavarian monarchy.
As 600 Nazi storm troopers surrounded the beer hall, Hitler had city leaders held under guard and proclaimed the national revolution.
Beer Hall Putsch: The Times Report - Sidebar - MSN Encarta (437 words)
The Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, Adolf Hitler’s attempt to seize control of the German government by force, was precipitated by international, national, and local politics.
The leaders of the putsch were swiftly arrested; Röhm and Hitler were sentenced to minimal sentences, and Ludendorff’s fame as a hero of World War I led to his release.
Furthermore, the public trial gave Hitler a platform to air his views, never denying his role in the coup but insisting that he was not guilty of treason, for he aimed to save Germany from those in government who had betrayed it by accepting the terms of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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