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Encyclopedia > Beer
Leffe, a Belgian beer, served in branded glasses
Leffe, a Belgian beer, served in branded glasses
Schlenkerla Rauchbier straight from the cask
Schlenkerla Rauchbier straight from the cask
Kriek, a beer brewed with cherries
Kriek, a beer brewed with cherries

Beer is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of sugars derived from starch-based material. Beer may refer to: Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: beer Beer, an alcoholic beverage Beer, Devon Beer-Lambert law (named for August Beer), an equation describing the absorption of light Beer (lunar crater) (named for Wilhelm Beer), lunar crater Beer (Martian crater) (also named for Wilhlem Beer), Martian... Download high resolution version (900x1200, 118 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (900x1200, 118 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Leffe served in special glasses Leffe is a Belgian brand of Abbey beer. ... Belgian beer varies from the popular pale lager to the esoteric appeal of lambic beer and Flemish red. ... Image File history File links GravityTap. ... Image File history File links GravityTap. ... Schlenkerla is a historical brewery-tavern in Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany. ... Rauchbier (German for smoke beer) is a German beer, typically dark in color and smoky in taste. ... A barrel is a hollow cylindrical container, usually made of wood staves and bound with iron bands. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kriek is a Belgian beer fermented with cherries. ... Booze redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ...


It is the world's oldest[1] and most popular[2][3] alcoholic beverage. Some of the earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer.[4]


The most common starch source for beer is malted barley; however, wheat, corn, and rice are also widely used, usually in conjunction with barley. The starch source is mashed, steeped in water while enzymes in the malt break down the starch molecules, producing a sugary liquid known as wort, which is then flavoured with hops, which acts as a natural preservative. Other ingredients such as herbs or fruit may be added. Yeast is then used to cause fermentation, which produces alcohol and other waste products from anaerobic respiration of the yeast as it consumes the sugars. The process of beer production is a branch of zymurgy called brewing. Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Mashing is a stage in the brewing process where grains are steeped in water at specific temperatures, to facilitate enzyme activity and starch conversion. ... Steeping may mean: Soaking in liquid until saturated with a soluble ingredient, as in, for example, the steeping of tea. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Wort (IPA ) is the liquid extracted from the mashing process during the brewing of beer or whisky. ... Hop umbel (branched floral structure resembling nested-inverted umbrellas) in a Hallertau hop yard Hops are a flower used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, as well as in herbal medicine. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Anaerobic respiration refers to the oxidation of molecules in the absence of oxygen to produce energy, in opposition to Aerobic respiration which does use oxygen. ... Zymology is the science of fermentation. ... This article is about beer. ...


Beer uses many varying ingredients, production methods and traditions. Different types of yeast and production methods may be used to classify beer as ale, lager or spontaneously fermented beer. Some beer writers and organisations differentiate and categorise beers by various factors into beer styles. Alcoholic beverages fermented from non-starch sources such as grape juice (wine) or honey (mead), as well as distilled beverages, are not classified as beer. For other uses, see Ale (disambiguation). ... Lager is a well attenuated beer brewed in cool conditions using a slow-acting brewers yeast, known as a bottom-fermenting yeast, and then stored (or lagered) for a period in cool conditions to clear away particles and certain flavour compounds to produce a clean taste. ... Traditional wooden Lambic barrels; the L on the barrel indicates the brewery. ... Rauchbier, a smokey style of beer Beer style is a term used to differentiate and categorize beers by various factors such as colour, flavour, strength, ingredients, production method, recipe, history, or origin. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... Distillation is a means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of beer
Egyptian wooden model of beer making in ancient Egypt, Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, San Jose, California.
Egyptian wooden model of beer making in ancient Egypt, Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, San Jose, California.

Beer is one of the world's oldest beverages, possibly dating back to the 6th millennium BC, and is recorded in the written history of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.[5] The earliest Sumerian writings contain references to beer. A prayer to the goddess Ninkasi known as "The Hymn to Ninkasi" serves as both a prayer as well as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people.[citation needed] Alulu Tablet - a receipt for best beer from 2050 BC in the ancient Kingdom of Ur Beer is one of the oldest beverages humans have produced, dating back to at least the 5th millennium BC and recorded in the written history of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 2. ... The pyramids are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Justin is the ancient Sumerian matron goddess of beer. ...


The earliest known chemical evidence of beer dates to circa 3500–3100 BC from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran.[6] As almost any substance containing carbohydrates, namely sugar or starch, can naturally undergo fermentation, it is likely that beer-like beverages were independently invented among various cultures throughout the world. The invention of bread and beer has been argued to be responsible for humanity's ability to develop technology and build civilization.[7][8][9] The Zagros Mountains (Kurdish: زنجیره‌ چیاکانی زاگروس), make up Irans and Iraqs largest mountain range. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ...


As for the close link between bread- and beer-making, women produced most beer prior to the introduction of hops in the thirteenth century, selling the beverage from their homes as a means of supplementing the family income.[citation needed] However, by the 7th century AD beer was also being produced and sold by European monasteries. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, and domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century.[10] The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process, and greater knowledge of the results. Hop umbel (branched floral structure resembling nested-inverted umbrellas) in a Hallertau hop yard Hops are a flower used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, as well as in herbal medicine. ... Family income is generally considered a primary measure of a nations financial prosperity. ... Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... A hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the specific gravity (or relative density) of liquids; that is, the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water. ... A clinical mercury thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient, using a variety of different principles. ...


Beer was also known by Slavic tribes in early 5th century.


Brewing industry

Today, the brewing industry is a huge global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries.[11] More than 133 billion liters (35 billion gallons) are sold per year—producing total global revenues of $294.5 billion (£147.7 billion) in 2006.[12] multinational corporation (or transnational corporation) (MNC/TNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... A brewpub is a microbrewery, often combined with a restaurant, that sells the majority of its beer on premises. ... Regional brewery is a term used in the UK to decribe a long established brewery that supplied beer to tied pubs in a fixed geographical location such as South Wales, The Midlands or the Isle of Man. ...


SABMiller became the largest brewing company in the world when it acquired Royal Grolsch, Brewer of Dutch premium beer brand Grolsch.[13] InBev is the second-largest beer-producing company in the world,[14]and Anheuser-Busch holds the third spot. SABMiller (South African Breweries - Miller) (LSE: SAB, JSE: SAB,Official site) is one of the world’s largest brewers, with brewing interests and distribution agreements in over 60 countries across six continents. ... Grolsch is a Dutch brewery founded in 1615 by Willem Neerfeldt in Groenlo. ... InBev (Euronext: INB, NYSE: ABV) is the largest beer company in the industry. ... Anheuser-Busch Companies, Inc. ...


Brewing

Main article: Brewing

Beer is made by brewing. The essential stages of brewing are mashing, sparging, boiling, fermentation, and packaging. Most of these stages can be accomplished in several different ways, but the purpose of each stage is the same regardless of the method used to achieve it. This article is about beer. ... This article is about beer. ... Mashing is a stage in the brewing process where grains are steeped in water at specific temperatures, to facilitate enzyme activity and starch conversion. ... Sparging in chemical sciences refers to the bubbling of a chemically inert gas through a liquid. ...

A 16th century brewery
A 16th century brewery

Mashing manipulates the temperature of a mixture of water and a starch source (known as mash) in order to convert starches to fermentable sugars. The mash goes through one or more stages of being raised to a desired temperature and left at the temperature for a period of time. During each of these stages, enzymes (alpha and beta amylase primarily) break down the long dextrins that are present in the mash into simpler fermentable sugars, such as glucose. The number of stages required in mashing depends on the starch source used to produce the beer. Most malted barley used today requires only a single stage. Image File history File links 16thCenturyBrewer. ... Image File history File links 16thCenturyBrewer. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ...


Sparging (a.k.a. lautering) extracts the fermentable liquid, known as wort, from the mash. During sparging the mash is contained in a lauter-tun, which has a porous barrier through which wort but not grain can pass. The brewer allows the wort to flow past the porous barrier and collects the wort. The brewer also adds water to the lauter-tun and lets it flow through the mash and collects it as well. This rinses fermentable liquid from the grain in the mash and allows the brewer to gather as much of the fermentable liquid from the mash as possible. The leftover grain is not usually further used in making the beer. However, in some places second or even third mashes would be performed with the not quite spent grains. Each run would produce a weaker wort and thus a weaker beer. Lautering is a process in brewing beer in which the mash is separated into the clear liquid wort and the residual grain. ... The exterior of the WORT studio building. ... A Lauter Tun is a special container used in all-grain brewing for separating the sweet wort from the spent grains (malted barley etc. ...


Boiling sterilises the wort and increases the concentration of sugar in the wort. The wort collected from sparging is put in a kettle and boiled, usually for about one hour. During boiling, water in the wort evaporates, but the sugars and other components of the wort remain; this allows more efficient use of the starch sources in the beer. Boiling also destroys any remaining enzymes left over from the mashing stage as well as coagulating proteins passing into the wort, especially from malted barley, which could otherwise cause protein 'hazes' in the finished beer. Hops are added during boiling in order to extract bitterness, flavour and aroma from them. Hops may be added at more than one point during the boil. As hops are boiled longer, they contribute more bitterness but less hop flavour and aroma to the beer. Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ... Hop umbel (branched floral structure resembling nested-inverted umbrellas) in a Hallertau hop yard Hops are a flower used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, as well as in herbal medicine. ...


Fermentation uses yeast to turn the sugars in wort to alcohol and carbon dioxide. During fermentation, the wort becomes beer. Once the boiled wort is cooled and in a fermenter, yeast is propagated in the wort and it is left to ferment, which requires a week to months depending on the type of yeast and strength of the beer. In addition to producing alcohol, fine particulate matter suspended in the wort settles during fermentation. Once fermentation is complete, the yeast also settles, leaving the beer clear. Fermentation is sometimes carried out in two stages, primary and secondary. Once most of the alcohol has been produced during primary fermentation, the beer is transferred to a new vessel and allowed a period of secondary fermentation. Secondary fermentation is used when the beer requires long storage before packaging or greater clarity. Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... In brewing and wine-making, secondary fermentation is the fermentation some beers and sparkling wines undergo in their final containers, giving natural carbonation. ...


Pasteurisation is an optional stage of the beer process in which the beer is slowly heated and cooled to kill off any existing bacteria in order to maintain longer shelf life. This is generally a stage not included in higher end beers, but is quite common in mass-produced beers such as American-Style lite beers, and other mass-produced lagers. It is less common in ales as pasteurization can change the many flavours.


Packaging, the fifth and final stage of the brewing process, prepares the beer for distribution and consumption. During packaging, beer is put into the vessel from which it will be served: a keg, cask, can or bottle. Beer is carbonated in its package, either by forcing carbon dioxide into the beer or by "natural carbonation". Naturally carbonated beers may have a small amount of fresh wort/sugar and/or yeast added to them during packaging. This causes a short period of fermentation which produces carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Ingredients

Main articles: Malt and Barley
Malted barley before roasting
Malted barley before roasting

The basic ingredients of beer are water; a fermentable starch source, such as malted barley; and yeast. It is common for a flavouring to be added, the most popular being hops. A mixture of starch sources may be used, with the secondary starch source, such as corn, rice and sugar, often being termed an adjunct, especially when used as a lower cost substitute for malted barley. Less widely used starch sources include millet, sorghum and cassava root in Africa, potato in Brazil, and agave in Mexico, among others. Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Subject Malted (germinated) barley for Single Malt Scotch in the malting room at the Laphroaig distillery on Islay in Scotland. ... Subject Malted (germinated) barley for Single Malt Scotch in the malting room at the Laphroaig distillery on Islay in Scotland. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ... Hop umbel (branched floral structure resembling nested-inverted umbrellas) in a Hallertau hop yard Hops are a flower used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, as well as in herbal medicine. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... In beer making and homebrewing, an adjunct is an ingredient other than water, barley, hops, and yeast. ... For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are used as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... For the Gibraltar company, see Cassava Enterprises. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Species see text. ...


Water

Beer is composed mostly of water, and the water used to make beer nearly always comes from a local source. The mineral components of water are important to beer because minerals in the water influence the character of beer made from it. Different regions have water with different mineral components. As a result, different regions are better suited to making certain types of beer. For example, Dublin has hard water well-suited to making stout, such as Guinness, and Pilzen has soft water well-suited to making pale lager, such as Pilsner Urquell.[15] As a result, it is argued that the mineral components of water have an influence on the character of regional beers.[15] For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... The hardness of the water results in a calcification Hard water is a type of water that has high mineral content (in contrast with soft water). ... Bottles of Imperial Stout Stout and porter are dark beers made using roasted malts or roast barley. ... Guinness logo Guinness is Good for You Irish language advertisement. ... Country Czech Republic Region Pilsen Area 137. ... (North) American lagers, as defined by the Association of Brewers, are a family of very pale to golden colored beers with light body and low to medium bitterness. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Starch source

The starch source in a beer provides the fermentable material in a beer and is a key determinant of the character of the beer. The most common starch source used in beer is malted grain. Grain is malted by soaking it in water, allowing it to begin germination, and then drying the partially germinated grain in a kiln. Malting grain produces enzymes that convert starches in the grain into fermentable sugars. Different roasting times and temperatures are used to produce different colours of malt from the same grain. Darker malts will produce darker beers. Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ...


Nearly all beer includes barley malt as the majority of the starch. This is because of its fibrous husk, which is not only important in the sparging stage of brewing, but also a rich source of amylase, a digestive enzyme which facilitates conversion of starch into sugars. Other malted and unmalted grains (including wheat, rice, oats, and rye, and less frequently, corn and sorghum) may be used. In recent years several American manufacturers have produced gluten-free beer made with sorghum with no barley malt for those who cannot consume gluten-containing grains like wheat, barley, and rye.[citation needed] Amylase is the name given to glycoside hydrolase enzymes that break down starch into glucose molecules. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... Human glyoxalase I. Two zinc ions that are needed for the enzyme to catalyze its reaction are shown as purple spheres, and an enzyme inhibitor called S-hexylglutathione is shown as a space-filling model, filling the two active sites. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are used as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... Buckwheat (left) and sorghum (right), two key ingredients used by gluten-free brewers Gluten-free beer is beer made from ingredients without glycoproteins (gluten) that, for people with a variety of medical conditions, cause an autoimmune response that can lead to more serious conditions. ... Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous mixture of ergastic (i. ...


Hops

Main article: Hops
Crushed hops
Crushed hops

The flower of the hop vine is used as a flavouring and preservative agent in nearly all beer made today. The flowers themselves are often called "hops". The use of hops in beer was recorded by captive Jews in Babylon[16] around 400 BC. Hops were used by monastery breweries, such as Corvey in Westphalia, Germany, from 822 AD,[10][17] though the date normally given for widespread cultivation of hops for use in beer is the thirteenth century.[10][17] Hop umbel (branched floral structure resembling nested-inverted umbrellas) in a Hallertau hop yard Hops are a flower used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, as well as in herbal medicine. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2608x1952, 1094 KB) beer brewing: crushed elderly hops used for lambic brewing picture taken by myself on april 4th 2005 in brewery De Cam File links The following pages link to this file: Lambic ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2608x1952, 1094 KB) beer brewing: crushed elderly hops used for lambic brewing picture taken by myself on april 4th 2005 in brewery De Cam File links The following pages link to this file: Lambic ... Species Humulus lupulus L. Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc. ...


Hops contain several characteristics that brewers desire in beer: hops contribute a bitterness that balances the sweetness of the malt; hops also contribute floral, citrus, and herbal aromas and flavours to beer; hops have an antibiotic effect that favours the activity of brewer's yeast over less desirable microorganisms; and the use of hops aids in "head retention",[18][19] the length of time that a foamy head created by carbonation will last. The acidity of hops acts as a preservative that—after its introduction—gave brewers the ability to transport their product over longer distances, thereby allowing for the rise to commercial breweries.[citation needed] Hop umbel (branched floral structure resembling nested-inverted umbrellas) in a Hallertau hop yard Hops are a flower used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, as well as in herbal medicine. ... Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, and concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue, appear to be receptive to relatively few chemical species as tastes. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Brewers yeast (also known as brewers yeast or brewing yeast) can mean any live yeast used in brewing. ... A typical mug of lager beer, showing the golden colour of the beer and the foamy head floating on top. ...


The bitterness of beers is measured on the International Bitterness Units scale. Beer is the sole major commercial use of hops. The International Bitterness Units scale, or simply IBU scale, provides a measure of the bitterness of beer, which is provided by the hops used during brewing. ...


In the past, other plants have been used for similar purposes; for instance, Glechoma hederacea. Combinations of various aromatic herbs, berries, and even ingredients like wormwood would be combined into a mixture known as gruit and used as hops are now used. Binomial name Glechoma hederacea L. Glechoma hederacea (Ground-ivy) is a flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, native to Europe and southwestern Asia. ... Binomial name L. <3Artemisia absinthium (Absinthium, Absinthe Wormwood, Wormwood or Grand Wormwood) is a species of wormwood, native to temperate regions of Europe, Asia and northern Africa. ... Gruit (or sometimes grut) is an old fashioned herb mixture used for bittering and flavoring beer, popular before the extensive use of hops. ...


Yeast

Yeast is the microorganism that is responsible for fermentation in beer. Yeast metabolizes the sugars extracted from grains, which produces alcohol and carbon dioxide, and thereby turns wort into beer. In addition to fermenting the beer, yeast influences the character and flavour. The dominant types of yeast used to make beer are ale yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and lager yeast (Saccharomyces uvarum); their use distinguishes ale and lager. Brettanomyces ferments lambics, and Torulaspora delbrueckii ferments Bavarian weissbier. Before the role of yeast in fermentation was understood, fermentation involved wild or airborne yeasts. A few styles such as lambics rely on this method today, but most modern fermentation adds pure yeast cultures directly to wort. Brewers yeast (also known as brewers yeast or brewing yeast) can mean any live yeast used in brewing. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Binomial name Saccharomyces uvarum Nguyen & Gaillardin ex. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Binomial name Saccharomyces uvarum Nguyen & Gaillardin ex. ... For other uses, see Ale (disambiguation). ... (North) American lagers, as defined by the Association of Brewers, are a family of very pale to golden colored beers with light body and low to medium bitterness. ... [[|Diversity]] Binomial name Trinomial name Type Species Species [[Image: ]] Synonyms Brettanomyces is a single-celled fungus that is important in brewing and winemaking as it is resistant to alcohol so can grow even after fermentation starts. ... Traditional wooden Lambic barrels; the L on the barrel indicates the brewery. ... Torulaspora delbrueckii is a yeast strain related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used for brewing wheat beer. ... Wheat beer is a beer that is brewed with both malted barley and malted wheat, rather than only barley. ... Traditional wooden Lambic barrels; the L on the barrel indicates the brewery. ... A microbiological culture is a way to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply (reproduce) in predetermined media. ...


Clarifying agent

Some brewers add one or more clarifying agents to beer. Common examples of these include isinglass finings, obtained from swimbladders of fish; Irish moss, a seaweed; kappa carrageenan, from the seaweed Kappaphycus cottonii; Polyclar (artificial); and gelatin. Clarifying agents typically precipitate out of the beer along with protein solids, and are found only in trace amounts in the finished product. If a beer is marked 'suitable for Vegans' then it has either been clarified with seaweed or with artificial agents. Clarity is the property of being clear or transparent. ... Isinglass is a substance obtained from the swimbladders of fish (especially Beluga sturgeon), used mainly for the clarification of wine and beer. ... Finings are substances that are usually added at or near the completion of the processing of wine, beer and various nonalcoholic juice beverages. ... The gas bladder (also fish maw, less accurately swim bladder or air bladder) is an internal organ that contributes to the ability of a fish to control its buoyancy, and thus to stay at the current water depth, ascend, or descend without having to waste energy in swimming. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Chondrus crispus Stackhouse Irish moss, or carrageen moss (Irish carraigín, moss of the rock) is a species of red algae (Chondrus crispus) which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. ... Carrageenans or carrageenins (pronounced ) are a family of linear sulphated polysaccharides extracted from red seaweeds. ... For the art collective, see Gelitin. ...


Types and styles of beer

Main article: Beer style

A great many beers are brewed across the globe. Local traditions will give beers different names, giving the impression of a multitude of different styles. However, the basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries. Rauchbier, a smokey style of beer Beer style is a term used to differentiate and categorize beers by various factors such as colour, flavour, strength, ingredients, production method, recipe, history, or origin. ...


The late British beer writer Michael Jackson wrote about beers from around the world in his 1977 book The World Guide To Beer and organised them into local style groups based on local information. This book had an influence on homebrewers in United States who developed an intricate system of categorising beers which is exemplified by the Beer Judge Certification Program. For other persons named Michael Jackson, see Michael Jackson (disambiguation). ... Homebrewing typically refers to the brewing of beer on a very small scale, as a hobby. ... The Beer Judge Certification Program or BJCP is a non-profit organization formed in 1985 to encourage the educational advancement of people interested in the evaluation of beer and related brewed products. Membership is limited to beer judges holding the rank of Recognized (or Apprentice; see below) and as of...


The traditional European brewing regions—Germany, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Poland, the Czech Republic, Denmark, The Netherlands and Austria—have local varieties of beer. In some countries, notably the USA, Canada and Australia, brewers have adapted European styles to such an extent that they have effectively created their own indigenous types. Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...


Categorising by yeast

Main article: Brewer's yeast

The most common method of categorising beer is by the behaviour of the yeast used in the fermentation process. In this method of categorising, those beers which use a fast-acting yeast, which leaves behind residual sugars, are termed ales, while those beers which use a slower and longer acting yeast, which removes most of the sugars, leaving a clean and dry beer, are termed lagers. Brewers yeast (also known as brewers yeast or brewing yeast) can mean any live yeast used in brewing. ...


Differences between some ales and lagers can be difficult to categorise. Steam beer, Kölsch, Alt, and some modern British Golden Summer Beers use elements of both lager and ale production. Baltic Porter and Bière de Garde may be produced by either lager or ale methods or a combination of both. However, lager production results in a cleaner tasting, drier and lighter beer than ale. Steam beer may be defined as a highly effervescent beer made by brewing lager yeasts at ale fermentation temperatures. ... Kranz (Wreath) of Kölsch Kölsch Kölsch is a local beer speciality, brewed in Cologne, Germany. ... Altbier (often abbreviated to Alt) is a dark, top-fermented type of beer from Düsseldorf and the Niederrhein region in Germany. ... A version of porter which is brewed in Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia. ... A lighter coloured example of a Bière de Garde Bière de Garde is a style of ale traditionally brewed in France. ...


Ale

Main article: Ale
Cask ales
Cask ales

A modern ale is commonly defined by the strain of yeast used and the fermenting temperature. For other uses, see Ale (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links HandPumps. ... Image File history File links HandPumps. ... For other uses, see Ale (disambiguation). ...


Ales are normally brewed with top-fermenting yeasts (most commonly Saccharomyces cerevisiae), though a number of British brewers, including Fullers and Weltons, use ale yeast strains that have less pronounced top-fermentation characteristics. The important distinction for ales is that they are fermented at higher temperatures and thus ferment more quickly than lagers. Top-fermenting yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae, is one of the two types of yeast used in the brewing of beer, so called because when the fermentation process is complete it rises to top of the fermentation vessel. ... Fuller, Smith and Turner PLC is the full name of the brewery company better known simply as Fullers. ... Ray Welton of Weltons Brewery An independent brewery founded by Ray Welton in 1995 in Dorking. ...


Ale is typically fermented at temperatures between 15 and 24 °C (60 and 75 °F). At these temperatures, yeast produces significant amounts of esters and other secondary flavour and aroma products, and the result is often a beer with slightly "fruity" compounds resembling apple, pear, pineapple, banana, plum, or prune, among others. Typical ales have a sweeter, fuller body than lagers. For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... Species About 30 species; see text For other uses, see Pear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Species See text. ... This article is about the fruit. ... In many areas related to the testing and evaluating of foodstuffs,such as wine-tasting and rheology, mouthfeel is a product’s physical and chemical interaction in the mouth from initial perception on the palate, to first bite, through mastication to swallowing. ...


A particularly well-known ale type is India Pale Ale (or "IPA"), developed by British brewers in the 19th century. The ale was light, and suited to a hot climate, but with a moderately high alcohol strength and strong hop content, intended to preserve it over a long ocean voyage. Some mass-produced beers (e.g. Alexander Keith's, brewed in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada) use the term "India Pale Ale", but are not in any way true IPAs. A bottle of Fullers IPA India Pale Ale, otherwise known as an IPA, is a distinct style of beer and is characterized as a sparkling pale ale with a slightly higher level of alcohol and hops than a typical Pale Ale; the hops lending it a distinct bitterness. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ...


Real ale is a natural product brewed using traditional ingredients and left to mature in the cask (container) from which it is served through a process called secondary fermentation where the beer slowly ferments in its cask producing its own natural CO2. This causes a build up of pressure in the cask which literally forces it out of the barrel when it is being poured.


Lager

Main article: Lager

Lager is the English name for bottom-fermenting beers of Central European origin. They are the most commonly consumed beers in the world. The name comes from the German lagern ("to store"). Lagers originated from European brewers storing beer in cool cellars and caves and noticing that the beers continued to ferment, and also to clear of sediment. Lager yeast is a bottom-fermenting yeast (e.g., Saccharomyces pastorianus), and typically undergoes primary fermentation at 7–12 °C (45–55 °F) (the "fermentation phase"), and then is given a long secondary fermentation at 0–4 °C (32–40 °F) (the "lagering phase"). During the secondary stage, the lager clears and mellows. The cooler conditions also inhibit the natural production of esters and other byproducts, resulting in a "cleaner" tasting beer. Lager is a well attenuated beer brewed in cool conditions using a slow-acting brewers yeast, known as a bottom-fermenting yeast, and then stored (or lagered) for a period in cool conditions to clear away particles and certain flavour compounds to produce a clean taste. ... Download high resolution version (600x755, 69 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (600x755, 69 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... German Maßkrug of Augustiner Bräu. ... Lager is a well attenuated beer brewed in cool conditions using a slow-acting brewers yeast, known as a bottom-fermenting yeast, and then stored (or lagered) for a period in cool conditions to clear away particles and certain flavour compounds to produce a clean taste. ... Lager is a well attenuated beer brewed in cool conditions using a slow-acting brewers yeast, known as a bottom-fermenting yeast, and then stored (or lagered) for a period in cool conditions to clear away particles and certain flavour compounds to produce a clean taste. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Bottom-fermenting yeast, usually of the species saccharomyces uvarum (also known as saccharomyces carlsbergensis), is one of the two types of yeast used in the brewing of beer, so called because when the fermentation process is complete it settles to the bottom of the fermentation vessel. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ...


Modern methods of producing lager were pioneered by Gabriel Sedlmayr the Younger, who perfected dark brown lagers at the Spaten Brewery in Bavaria, and Anton Dreher, who began brewing a lager, probably of amber-red colour, in Vienna in 1840–1841. With improved modern yeast strains, most lager breweries use only short periods of cold storage, typically 1–3 weeks. Spaten Brewery is a Munich brewery now owned by Spaten-Löwenbräu-Gruppe. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... This article lacks information on the subject matters importance. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...


Lambic beers: spontaneous fermentation

Main article: Lambic

Lambic beers, a speciality of Belgian beers, use wild yeasts, rather than cultivated ones. Many of these are not strains of brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and may have significant differences in aroma and sourness. Yeast varieties such as Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Brettanomyces lambicus are quite common in lambics. In addition, other organisms such as Lactobacillus bacteria produce acids which contribute to the sourness. Traditional wooden Lambic barrels; the L on the barrel indicates the brewery. ... Belgian beer comprises the most varied and numerous collection of beers in the world. ... Binomial name Brettanomyces bruxellensis Kufferath and von Laer Brettanomyces bruxellensis (the anamorph of Dekkera bruxellensis) is a spoilage yeast of the wine industry where it is often referred to as brett. ... Species L. acidophilus L. brevis L. delbrueckii subsp. ...


Pale and dark beer

German dunkel beer served in a branded glass.
German dunkel beer served in a branded glass.

The most common colour is a pale amber produced from using pale malts. Pale lager is a term used for beers made from malt dried with coke. Coke had been first used for roasting malt in 1642, but it wasn't until around 1703 that the term pale ale was first used. Dunkel (or dunkles) is a style of dark German lager beer. ... Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ...


In terms of sales volume, most of today's beer is based on the pale lager brewed in 1842 in the town of Pilsen, in the Czech Republic. The modern pale lager is light in colour with a noticeable carbonation, and a typical alcohol by volume content of around 5%. The Pilsner Urquell, Bitburger, and Heineken brands of beer are typical examples of pale lager, as are the American brands Budweiser, Coors, and Miller. (North) American lagers, as defined by the Association of Brewers, are a family of very pale to golden colored beers with light body and low to medium bitterness. ... Plzeň (Czech name) or Pilsen (German equivalent, sometimes used in English) is a city in western Bohemia in the Czech Republic. ... Alcohol by volume (ABV) is an indication of how much alcohol (expressed as a percentage) is included in an alcoholic beverage. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Bitburger is a pilsner beer brewed in Bitburg, Germany since 1817. ... Heineken is a Dutch 5% abv pale lager, made by Heineken International since 1864. ... For the other beer named Budweiser, see Budějovický Budvar. ... The Coors Brewing Company is a regional division of the world’s fifth-largest brewery companies, the Molson Coors Brewing Company. ... Miller Brewing Company is the second largest American beermaker and is based in Milwaukee. ...


Dark beers are usually brewed from a pale malt or lager malt base with a small proportion of darker malt added to achieve the desired shade. Other colourants—such as caramel—are also widely used to darken beers. Very dark beers, such as stout use dark or patent malts that have been roasted longer. Guinness and similar beers include roasted unmalted barley. Bottles of Imperial Stout Stout and porter are dark beers made using roasted malts or roast barley. ... Guinness logo Guinness is Good for You Irish language advertisement. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ...


Serving

Draught and keg

Main articles: Draught beer and Keg beer
Draught beer keg fonts at the Delirium Café in Brussels
Draught beer keg fonts at the Delirium Café in Brussels

Draught beer from a pressurised keg is the most common method of dispensing in bars around the world. A metal keg is pressurised with carbon dioxide (CO2) gas which drives the beer to the dispensing tap or faucet. Some beers, notably stouts, such as Guinness and "smooth" bitters, such as Boddingtons, may be served with a nitrogen/carbon dioxide mixture. Nitrogen produces fine bubbles, resulting in a dense head and a creamy mouthfeel. Some types of beer can also be found in smaller, disposable kegs called beer balls. Draught beer keg fonts at the Delirium Café in Brussels Draught beer (also known as draught beer or draught beer or even draught beer) has several related though slightly different understandings. ... A typical half-keg with single opening in the centre of the top end Keg beer is a term for beer which is served from a pressurized keg. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1272x954, 197 KB) Summary John White. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1272x954, 197 KB) Summary John White. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Categories: Stub ... Bottles of Imperial Stout Stout and porter are dark beers made using roasted malts or roast barley. ... Guinness logo Guinness is Good for You Irish language advertisement. ... The logo of Boddingtons Bitter Boddingtons is an English beer, originally from Manchester, United Kingdom that has been brewed for more than 200 years. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Froth is foam consisting of bubbles in a liquid. ... In many areas related to the testing and evaluating of foodstuffs,such as wine-tasting and rheology, mouthfeel is a product’s physical and chemical interaction in the mouth from initial perception on the palate, to first bite, through mastication to swallowing. ...


In the 1980s, Guinness introduced the beer widget, a nitrogen pressurised ball inside a can which creates a foamy head.[20] The words "draft" and "draught" can be used as marketing terms to describe canned or bottled beers containing a beer widget, or which are cold filtered rather than pasteurised. Guinness floating widget The original widget was patented in the UK by Guinness. ... A typical can of Diet Coke. ... Assortment of beer bottles A beer bottle is a glass (or, less commonly, plastic) container filled with beer. ...


Cask-conditioned ales

Main article: Cask ale
A selection of cask beers
A selection of cask beers

Cask-conditioned ales (or "cask ales") are unfiltered and unpasteurised beers. These beers are termed "real ale" by the Camra organisation. Typically, when a cask arrives in a pub, it is placed horizontally on a stillage and allowed to cool to cellar temperature (typically around 13 °C/55 °F), before being tapped and vented—a tap is driven through a (usually rubber) bung at the bottom of one end, and a hard spile or other implement is used to open a hole in the side of the cask, which is now uppermost. The act of stillaging and then venting a beer in this manner typically disturbs all the sediment, so it must be left for a suitable period to "drop" (clear) again, as well as to fully condition—this period can take anywhere from several hours to several days. At this point the beer is ready to sell, either being pulled through a beer line with a hand pump, or simply being "gravity-fed" directly into the glass. Cask ales on racks Cask ale or cask-conditioned beer is the term for unfiltered and unpasteurised beer which is conditioned and served from a cask, usually without additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide pressure. ... Image File history File links Cask_Ales. ... Image File history File links Cask_Ales. ... Cask ales on racks Cask ale or cask-conditioned beer is the term for unfiltered and unpasteurised beer which is conditioned and served from a cask, usually without additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide pressure. ... CAMRA (the CAMpaign For Real Ale) is an independent, voluntary, consumer organisation in the United Kingdom, with the main aim of promoting real ale and the traditional British pub. ... A very large stillage, consisting of metal racking, at Warwick Universitys annual student beer festival. ... A spile is a small wooden peg used to control the flow of carbon dioxide out of a cask of real ale. ...


Bottles

Main article: Beer bottle

Most beers are cleared of yeast by filtering when bottled. However, bottle conditioned beers retain some yeast—either by being unfiltered, or by being filtered and then reseeded with fresh yeast. It is usually recommended that the beer be poured slowly, leaving any yeast sediment at the bottom of the bottle. However, some drinkers prefer to pour in the yeast; this practice is, in fact, customary with wheat beers. Typically, when serving a hefeweizen, 90% of the contents are poured, and the remainder is swirled to suspend the sediment before pouring it into the glass. Alternatively, the bottle may be inverted prior to opening. Assortment of beer bottles A beer bottle is a glass (or, less commonly, plastic) container filled with beer. ... Typical filtered beer Filtered beer is beer which has been cleaned of significant contact with yeast. ... Bottle conditioning is the process by which an alcoholic drink, typically beer, is wholly or partially fermented in the bottle from which it is served. ... It has been suggested that Kristall Weissbier be merged into this article or section. ... A pint of American Hefeweizen Hefeweizen, is a variety of wheat beer in which the yeast is not filtered out. ...


Cans

Main article: Beverage can
Kannenbeer, 1900 advertisement for selling beer in sealed stone jugs
Kannenbeer, 1900 advertisement for selling beer in sealed stone jugs

Many beers are sold in beverage cans, though there is considerable variation in the proportion between different countries. In 2001, in Sweden 63.9% of beer was sold in cans.[21] People either drink from the can or pour the beer into a glass. Cans protect the beer from light and have a seal less prone to leaking over time than bottles. Cans were initially viewed as a technological breakthrough for maintaining the quality of a beer, then became commonly associated with less-expensive, mass-produced beers, even though the quality of storage in cans is much like bottles.[22] Glass bottles are always used for bottle conditioned beers, so are associated with higher-regarded beers. Plastic (PET) bottles are used by some breweries.[23] The pull-tab opening mechanism characteristic of post-1970s drinking cans. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The pull-tab opening mechanism characteristic of post-1970s drinking cans. ... Beer bottles have been in use for a long time. ... An alcoholic drink, typically beer, that is bottle-conditioned is one that has been wholly or partially fermented in the bottle from which it is served. ... PETE redirects here. ...


Serving temperature

Édouard Manet's painting The Waitress showing a woman serving beer
Édouard Manet's painting The Waitress showing a woman serving beer

The temperature of a beer has an influence on a drinker's experience. Colder temperatures allow fully attenuated beers such as pale lagers to be enjoyed for their crispness; while warmer temperatures allow the more rounded flavours of an ale or a stout to be perceived. Beer writer Michael Jackson proposed a five-level scale for serving temperatures: well chilled (7 °C/45 °F) for "light" beers (pale lagers), chilled (8 °C/47 °F) for Berliner Weisse and other wheat beers, lightly chilled (9 °C/48 °F) for all dark lagers, altbier and German wheat beers, cellar temperature (13 °C/55 °F) for regular British ale, stout and most Belgian specialities and room temperature (15.5 °C/60 °F) for strong dark ales (especially trappist beer) and barley wine. Download high resolution version (828x1016, 157 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Beer Categories: Édouard Manet ... Download high resolution version (828x1016, 157 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Beer Categories: Édouard Manet ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Pale lager is a family of very pale to golden coloured beers with well attentuated body and noble hop bitterness. ... Bottles of Imperial Stout Stout and porter are dark beers made using roasted malts or roast barley. ... For other persons named Michael Jackson, see Michael Jackson (disambiguation). ... Berliner Weiße is a wheat and barley beer variant brewed exclusively in the area of Berlin, Germany. ... Altbier (often abbreviated to Alt) is a dark, top-fermented type of beer from Düsseldorf and the Niederrhein region in Germany. ... For other uses, see Ale (disambiguation). ... Bottles of Imperial Stout Stout and porter are dark beers made using roasted malts or roast barley. ... Belgian beer varies from the popular pale lager to the esoteric appeal of lambic beer and Flemish red. ... Trappist logo A Trappist beer is a beer brewed by or under control of Trappist monks. ... Barley wine or Barleywine is a style of strong ale originating in England in the nineteenth century (derived from the March or October beers of the 18th century) but now brewed worldwide. ...


Vessels

Main article: Beer glassware

Beer is consumed out of a variety of vessels, such as a glass, a beer stein, a mug, a pewter tankard, a beer bottle or a can. Some drinkers consider that the type of vessel influences their enjoyment of the beer. In Europe, particularly Belgium, breweries offer branded glassware intended only for their own beers. Beer glassware are the containers out of which beer is drunk. ... German Maßkrug of Augustiner Bräu. ... Pewter plate Pewter is a metal alloy, traditionally between 85 and 99 percent tin, with the remainder consisting of 1-15 percent copper, acting as a hardener, with the addition of lead for the lower grades of pewter, which have a bluish tint. ... A tankard is a form of drinkware consisting of a large drinking cup that usually features a single handle, usually of silver or pewter construction. ... Assortment of beer bottles A beer bottle is a glass (or, less commonly, plastic) container filled with beer. ... The pull-tab opening mechanism characteristic of post-1970s drinking cans. ... Branded was a Western series which aired on NBC from 1965 through 1966. ...


The pouring process has an influence on a beer's presentation. The rate of flow from the tap or other serving vessel, tilt of the glass, and position of the pour (in the centre or down the side) into the glass all influence the end result, such as the size and longevity of the head, lacing (the pattern left by the head as it moves down the glass as the beer is drunk), and turbulence of the beer and its release of carbonation. Categories: Stub ... In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. ... For the chemical reaction forming calcium carbonate, see carbonatation. ...


Beer and society

Social context

See also: Category:Beer culture

Various social traditions and activities are associated with beer drinking, such as bowling, softball, or other sports; cards, darts, bags, or other pub games; attending beer festivals, or visiting a series of different pubs in one evening; joining an organisation such as CAMRA; or rating beer. Various drinking games, such as beer pong, flippy cup and quarters are also very popular. the sport of cricket|Bowling (cricket)}} For other uses, see Bowling (disambiguation). ... Softball is a team sport popular especially in the United States. ... Set of 78 French style playing cards with twenty two atouts, typically used to play French Tarot Set of 52 French style playing cards with two jokers Set of 52 Anglo-American style playing cards Some typical Anglo-American playing cards from the Bicycle brand Paul Cézanne - The Card... For the British doo-wop revival band of the 1970s and 1980s, see Darts (band). ... For other uses, see Cornhole. ... It has been suggested that Pub sports be merged into this article or section. ... A Beer Festival is an organised event during which a variety of beers (and often other alcoholic drinks) are available for tasting and purchase. ... A pub like this would be a likely stop on a pub crawl. ... CAMRA (the CAMpaign For Real Ale) is an independent, voluntary, consumer organisation in the United Kingdom, with the main aim of promoting real ale and the traditional British pub. ... Rating beer is an activity that combines the enjoyment of beer drinking with the hobby of collecting. ... Drinking games are games which involve drinking alcoholic beverages. ... For the similar drinking game involving table tennis paddles, see beer pong (paddles). ... For other uses, see Quarter. ...


International consumption

See also: Beers of the world and Beer consumption by country

Beer is considered to be a social lubricant in many societies.[24] Beer is consumed in countries all over the world. There are breweries in Middle Eastern countries such as Iraq and Syria as well as African countries (see African beer) and remote countries such as Mongolia. Sales of beer are four times that of wine, the second most popular alcoholic beverage.[25][26] // What follows is a list of beers by the country within which they originate, and the beer drinking and brewing practices within those countries: Main article: Canadian beer Main article: Mexican beer Main article: American beer Main articles: Central American beer and Caribbean beer Belikin is the leading domestically produced... This is a list of countries ordered by per-capita consumption of beer, as of 2004. ... African beer refers to beer made in Africa. ...


Health effects

Light-beer contains far less calories and ethanol-content and thus negates the effects of gaining weight and/or other alcoholic beverage-associated problems

The moderate consumption of alcohol, including beer, is associated with a decreased risk of cardiac disease, stroke and cognitive decline.[27][28][29][30] The relationship between alcohol consumption and health has been the subject of formal scientific research since at least 1926, when Dr. Raymond Pearl published his book, Alcohol and Longevity, in which he reported his finding that drinking alcohol in moderation was associated with greater longevity than either abstaining or drinking... Hoppy, a low alcohol beer Low alcohol beer (also, non-alcoholic beer, small beer, or small ale or near-beer) is beer with very low or no alcohol content. ...


Brewer's yeast is known to be a rich source of nutrients; therefore, as expected, beer can contain significant amounts of nutrients, including magnesium, selenium, potassium, phosphorus, biotin, and B vitamins. In fact, beer is sometimes referred to as "liquid bread".[31] Some sources maintain that filtered beer loses much of its nutrition.[32][33] Brewers yeast (also known as brewers yeast or brewing yeast) can mean any live yeast used in brewing. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Vitamin H redirects here. ... The B vitamins are eight water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. ...


A 2005 Japanese study found that low alcohol beer may possess strong anti-cancer properties.[34] Another study found nonalcoholic beer to mirror the cardiovascular benefits associated with moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages.[35] However, much research suggests that the primary health benefit from alcoholic beverages comes from the alcohol they contain.[36] Hoppy, a low alcohol beer Low alcohol beer (also, non-alcoholic beer, small beer, or small ale or near-beer) is beer with very low or no alcohol content. ...


It is considered that overeating and lack of muscle tone is the main cause of a beer belly, rather than beer consumption. A recent study, however, found a link between binge drinking and a beer belly. But with most overconsumption it is more a problem of improper exercise and overconsumption of carbohydrates than the product itself.[37] The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Drinking too much alcohol may qualify as binge drinking if it leads to at least two days of inebriation and the drinker neglects usual responsibilities The British Medical Association states that there is no consensus on the definition of binge drinking. ...


There is conclusive evidence that heavy and prolonged consumption of alcohol leads to liver disease including cirrhosis and malignancy. Heavy alcohol consumption has also been linked to pancreatitis and gout.[38] Liver cirrhosis as seen on an axial CT of the abdomen. ... Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. ...


Several diet books quote beer as having the same glycemic index as maltose, a very high (and therefore undesirable) 110. Critics rejoin that beer consists mostly of water, hop oils and only trace amounts of sugars, including maltose.[39] Glycemic index (also glycaemic index, GI) is a ranking system for carbohydrates based on their effect on blood glucose levels. ... Maltose, or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) linkage. ...


Alcoholic strength

Beer ranges from less than 3% alcohol by volume (abv) to almost 30% abv. The alcohol content of beer varies by local practice[40] or beer style. The pale lagers that most consumers are familiar with fall in the range of 4–6%, with a typical abv of 5%.[41] The customary strength of British ales is quite low, with many session beers being around 4% abv.[42] Some beers, such as table beer are of such low alcohol content (1%~4%) that they are served instead of soft drinks in some schools.[43] Alcohol by volume (ABV) is an indication of how much alcohol (expressed as a percentage) is included in an alcoholic beverage. ... (North) American lagers, as defined by the Association of Brewers, are a family of very pale to golden colored beers with light body and low to medium bitterness. ... Image:Frans Hals 002 . ... Belgian beer varies from the popular pale lager to the esoteric appeal of lambic beer and Flemish red. ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ...


The alcohol in beer comes primarily from the metabolism of sugars that are produced during fermentation. The quantity of fermentable sugars in the wort and the variety of yeast used to ferment the wort are the primary factors that determine the amount of alcohol in the final beer. Additional fermentable sugars are sometimes added to increase alcohol content, and enzymes are often added to the wort for certain styles of beer (primarily "light" beers) to convert more complex carbohydrates (starches) to fermentable sugars. Alcohol is a byproduct of yeast metabolism and is toxic to the yeast; typical brewing yeast cannot survive at alcohol concentrations above 12% by volume. Low temperatures and too little fermentation time decreases the effectiveness of yeasts, and consequently decreases the alcohol content.


Exceptionally strong beers

The strength of beers has climbed during the later years of the 20th century. Vetter 33 a 10.5% abv (33 degrees Plato, hence Vetter "33") doppelbock was listed in the 1994 Guinness Book of World Records as the strongest beer at that time,[44][45] though Samichlaus, by the Swiss brewer Hürlimann, had also been listed by the Guinness Book of World Records as the strongest at 14% abv.[46][47][48] An empirically derived hydrometer scale developed in 1843 by German scientist Karl Balling, and improved by Fritz Plato to measure density of beer wort in terms of percentage of extract by weight. ... This article is about beer. ... Guinness World Records 2008 edition. ... Samichlaus (pronounced Sammy-Claws) is a Swiss beer which is one of the strongest beers in the world, at 14% alcohol by volume. ...


Since then some brewers have used champagne yeasts to increase the alcohol content of their beers. Samuel Adams reached 20% abv with Millennium[49] and then surpassed that amount to 25.6% abv with Utopias. The strongest beer sold in Britain was Delaware's Dogfish Head's World Wide Stout, a 21% abv stout which was available from UK Safeways in 2003.[50] In Japan in 2005, the Hakusekikan Beer Restaurant sold an eisbock, strengthened through freeze distillation, believed to be 28% abv.[51] The beer that is considered to be the strongest yet made is Hair of the Dog's Dave—a 29% abv barley wine made in 1994. The strength was achieved by freeze distilling a 10% ale twice.[52][53] This article is about Champagne, the alcoholic beverage. ... Samuel Adams is the brand name of American beers produced by the Boston Beer Company (NYSE: SAM) and named after Samuel Adams, a brewer[1] and patriot. ... Samuel Adams is the brand name of American beers produced by the Boston Beer Company (NYSE: SAM) and named after Samuel Adams, a brewer[1] and patriot. ... Dogfish Head Brewery is a beer manufacturer based in Milton, Delaware. ... Bottles of Imperial Stout Stout and porter are dark beers made using roasted malts or roast barley. ... A Safeway supermarket in Camberwell, South East London, in 2003 Safeway was a chain of 479 supermarkets and convenience stores in the UK that is now part of Wm Morrison Supermarkets. ... This article is about beer. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fractional freezing. ... Hair of the Dog Brewing Company is an American microbrewery based in Portland, Oregon. ... Barley wine or Barleywine is a style of strong ale originating in England in the nineteenth century (derived from the March or October beers of the 18th century) but now brewed worldwide. ...


Related beverages

See also: Category:Types of beer

There are a number of related beverages such as kvass, sahti and chicha. A glass of mint kvass. ... Finlandia Sahti, Finnish sahti label Sahti is a traditional beer from Finland made from a variety of grains, malted and unmalted, including barley, rye, wheat, and oats; sometimes bread made from these grains is fermented instead of malt itself. ... Chicha served with pipeño Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. ...

  • Africa: Hundreds of local drinks, such as banana beer[54] (eg Mongozo), and millet beer. Thie first one is made from grain eg sorghum or millet) and bananas; and the second beer is made solely from millet, sorghum, or other available starch crops.
  • Andes, South America: Chicha, an Andean beverage made from germinated corn.
  • Bhutan, Nepal, Tibet and Sikkim: Chhaang, a popular semi-fermented rice/millet drink in the eastern Himalaya.
  • China: Huangjiu, Choujiu. Jiǔ refers to all alcoholic drinks, most of which are distilled liquors (báijiǔ), but there are traditional grain-based relatives of beer such as sulima, made by the Mosuo people, and lijiang yinjiu, made by the Nakhi people, both in the Lijiang region of Yunnan.
  • Finland: Sahti, a traditional Finnish beer.
  • Kyrgyzstan: Bozo is a low alcohol, somewhat porridgey drink made from millet. The Kyrgyz also consume kymyz
  • Mexico: Pulque, an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented sap of the agave plant. Though commonly believed to be a beer, the main carbohydrate is a complex form of fructose rather than starch.
  • Russia/Ukraine: Kvass, a fermented nonalcoholic or mildly alcoholic beverage.
  • Bouza: An ancient Egyptian beer made from bread which is still made in Sudan.

A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Millet beer, also known as Bantu beer, kaffir beer, or opaque beer, is an alcoholic beverage made from malted millet. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are used as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mountain range in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Chicha served with pipeño Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. ... Binomial name L. Corn (Zea mays L. ssp. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... Chhaang or chang (Nectar of Gods)is a popular alcoholic beverage in the eastern Himalayas. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Shaoxing jiu, a famous huangjiu Huangjiu (黄酒; pinyin: huáng jiÇ”, lit. ... Main article: Chinese wine Choujiu (chinese:稠酒) is a type of Chinese fermented alcoholic beverage brewed directly from glutinous rice. ... Jiu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the Chinese word that refers to all alcoholic beverages. ... The Mosuo (also spelled Moso) (Chinese: 摩梭; pinyin: Mósuō) are a small ethnic group living in the Yunnan Province in China, south of Sichuan Province. ... The Nakhi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are an ethnic group inhabiting the foothills of the Himalayas in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, as well as the southwestern part of Sichuan Province in China. ... Lijang may refer to: Lijiang is a city in Yunnan Province, China. ... For the tea from this region, see Yunnan tea. ... Finlandia Sahti, Finnish sahti label Sahti is a traditional beer from Finland made from a variety of grains, malted and unmalted, including barley, rye, wheat, and oats; sometimes bread made from these grains is fermented instead of malt itself. ... In the West, Kumis has been touted for its health benefits, as in this 1877 book also naming it Milk Champagne. Kumis (also spelled kumiss, koumiss, kymys; called airag in Mongolian cuisine) is a fermented milk drink traditionally made from the milk of horses. ... Pulque, or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica. ... Species see text. ... A glass of mint kvass. ...

See also

Beer Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Kettles in a modern Trappist brewery A brewery can be a building or place that produces beer, or a business (brewing company) whose trade is the production and sale of beer. ... This article is about beer. ... Alulu Tablet - a receipt for best beer from 2050 BC in the ancient Kingdom of Ur Beer is one of the oldest beverages humans have produced, dating back to at least the 5th millennium BC and recorded in the written history of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. ... For other meanings, see Homebrew. ... Rauchbier, a smokey style of beer Beer style is a term used to differentiate and categorize beers by various factors such as colour, flavour, strength, ingredients, production method, recipe, history, or origin. ... A map of the world coloured by per-capita beer consumption This is a list of countries ordered by annual per capita consumption of beer. ... The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between an amino acid and a reducing sugar, usually requiring the addition of heat. ...

References

  1. ^ Arnold, John P. Origin and History of Beer and Brewing: From Prehistoric Times to the Beginning of Brewing Science and Technology. 
  2. ^ Volume of World Beer Production. European Beer Guide. Retrieved on 2006-10-17.
  3. ^ The Barbarian's Beverage: A History of Beer in Ancient Europe. 
  4. ^ Beer Before Bread. Alaska Science Forum #1039, Carla Helfferich. Retrieved on 2008-05-13.and Nin-kasi: Mesopotamian Goddes of Beer. Matrifocus 2006, Johanna Stuckey. Retrieved on 2008-05-13.
  5. ^ Beer. Britannica.com.
  6. ^ EARLIEST KNOWN CHEMICAL EVIDENCE OF BEER. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Retrieved on 2007-11-04.
  7. ^ Mirsky, Steve (May 2007). "Ale's Well with the World". Scientific American. Retrieved on 2007-11-04. 
  8. ^ Dornbusch, Horst. "Beer: The Midwife of Civilization", Assyrian International News Agency, 2006-08-27. Retrieved on 2007-11-04. 
  9. ^ Protz, Roger (2004). The Complete Guide to World Beer. “When people of the ancient world realised they could make bread and beer from grain, they stopped roaming and settled down to cultivate cereals in recognisable communities.”
  10. ^ a b c Cornell, Martyn (2003). Beer: The Story of the Pint. Headline. 
  11. ^ Industry Browser - Consumer Non-Cyclical - Beverages (Alcoholic) - Company List. Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  12. ^ Beer: Global Industry Guide. Research and Markets. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  13. ^ "Brewer to snap up Miller for $5.6B", CNN, 2002-05-30. Retrieved on 2007-11-04. 
  14. ^ Arvedlund, Erin E. "A Beer Ban Fails, and Russians Hoist Bottles", New York Times, 2004-11-12. Retrieved on 2007-11-05. 
  15. ^ a b "Geology and Beer", Geotimes, 2004-08. Retrieved on 2007-11-05. 
  16. ^ A Short History of Hops. Coop's Maps. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  17. ^ a b Unger, Richard W. Beer in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, 54–55. ISBN 0812237951. 
  18. ^ Head Retention. BrewWiki. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  19. ^ Hop Products: Iso-Extract. Hopsteiner. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  20. ^ How does the widget in a beer can work?. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  21. ^ European Beer Statistics—beer sales by package type. European Beer Guide. Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
  22. ^ Beer Packaging Secrets. All About Beer Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-11-05. “From a quality point of view, cans are much like bottles.”
  23. ^ Holsten-Brauerei Pet Line for Bottled Beer, Brunswick, Germany. Packaging-Gateway.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  24. ^ Sherer, Michael. "Beer Boss", Cheers, findarticles.com, 2001–06. Retrieved on 2007-11-14. 
  25. ^ Beer Production Per Capita. European Beer Guide. Retrieved on 2006-10-17.
  26. ^ Cazin, Natasha. "Global wine market shows solid growth", Euromonitor International, 2004-07-20. 
  27. ^ Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive function in women.
  28. ^ Genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase and the beneficial effect of moderate alcohol consumption on myocardial infarction.
  29. ^ Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and risk of stroke among U.S. male physicians.
  30. ^ Roles of drinking pattern and type of alcohol consumed in coronary heart disease in men.
  31. ^ Bamforth, C. W. (September 17–20, 2006). "Beer as liquid bread: Overlapping science.". World Grains Summit 2006: Foods and Beverages. Retrieved on 2006-11-06. 
  32. ^ Arthur Harden and Sylvester Solomon Zilva (July 21, 1924). "CXLVII. Investigation of barley, malt, and beer for vitamins B and C" (pdf). Biochemical department, Lister Institute. Retrieved on 2006-11-06.
  33. ^ Why our beer is special and, dare we say, better; No filtering. Franconia Notch Brewing Company. Retrieved on 2006-11-06.
  34. ^ "Non-alcoholic beer may help mice fight cancer", Reuters, 2005-01-21. 
  35. ^ "Double benefit from alcohol-free beer", Food Navigator, 2005-05-17. 
  36. ^ Dean edell. Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. NY: Harper Collins, 2004, pp. 191–192.
  37. ^ "Drink binges 'cause beer belly'", BBC News, 28 November 2004. Retrieved on 2006-11-06. (English) 
  38. ^ [1] Gout associated with Beer Drinking
  39. ^ Skilnik, Bob, Is there maltose in your beer?, Realbeer, <http://www.realbeer.com/edu/health/maltose.php>. Retrieved on 23 December 2007 
  40. ^ Pattinson, Ron (2007 July 6), European Beer Statistics: Beer production by strength, European Beer Guide, <http://www.europeanbeerguide.net/eustats.htm#gravity>. Retrieved on 2007 December 23 .
  41. ^ Fourth Annual Bend Brew Fest
  42. ^ Beer Facts 2003, The Brewers of Europe, 2004 January 6, <http://www.brewersofeurope.org/docs/publications/beerfacts2003.pdf>. Retrieved on 2007 December 23 .
  43. ^ Osborn, Andrew (2001 June 21), School dinner? Mine's a lager, please, Guardian Unlimited, <http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,510202,00.html>. Retrieved on 2007 December 23 .
  44. ^ Vetter Brauhaus, Vetter Brauhaus, <http://www.brauhaus-vetter.de/>. Retrieved on 2008 January 22 .
  45. ^ In 1994, the 33 Plato gave it the world's highest gravity. Though the beer can no longer make this claim, it is still one of the world's most renowned strong lagers., Rate Beer, <http://www.ratebeer.com/Ratings/Beer/Beer-Ratings.asp?BeerID=13030>. Retrieved on 14 February 2008 
  46. ^ Schloss Eggenberg
  47. ^ Michael Jackson's Beer Hunter - Mine's a pint of Santa Claus
  48. ^ Hurlimann Samichlaus from Hürlimann (Feldschlösschen), a Doppelbock style beer: An unofficial page for Hurlimann Samichlaus from Hürlimann (Feldschlösschen) in Zürich, , Switzerland
  49. ^ The 48 proof beer”, Beer Break (Realbeer) 2 (19), 2002 February 13, <http://www.realbeer.com/library/beerbreak/archives/beerbreak20020214.php>. Retrieved on 2007 December 23 .
  50. ^ Henegan, Nick (2003 August 6), World's Strongest Beer .. at £10 a Pint, Sunday Mirror, <http://www.sundaymirror.co.uk/news/page.cfm?method=full&objectid=13044414>. Retrieved on 2007 December 23 .
  51. ^ Hakusekikan Eisbock 28%
  52. ^ Hair of the Dog Dave (RETIRED)
  53. ^ Beer Alcohol Content
  54. ^ Banana beer and how to make it
  55. ^ Bravo, Adriana; Julio C. Herrera, Erika Scherer, Yon Ju-Nam, Heinrich Rübsam, Jorge Madrid, Carsten Zufall, Rafael Rangel-Aldao (2008-06-11). "Formation of α-dicarbonyl compounds in beer during storage of Pilsner". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (11): 4134–4144. doi:10.1021/jf703696p. ISSN 0021-8561. Retrieved on 2008-06-16. 
  56. ^ Matt Kaplan (2008-06-02). Beer gets fresh approach. DOI:10.1038/news.2008.869. Retrieved on 2008-06-16.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology is a small, but very high quality museum in West Philadelphia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Roger Protz is a British writer and campaigner. ... Yahoo redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... HowStuffWorks is a website created by Marshall Brain but now owned by the Convex Group. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Archeological Parameters For the Origins of Beer. Thomas W. Kavanagh. http://www.brewingtechniques.com/library/backissues/issue2.5/kavanagh.html
  • The Complete Guide to World Beer, Roger Protz. ISBN 1-84442-865-6.
  • The Barbarian's Beverage: a history of beer in ancient Europe, Max Nelson. ISBN 0-415-31121-7.
  • The World Guide to Beer, Michael Jackson. ISBN 1-85076-000-4
  • The New World Guide to Beer, Michael Jackson. ISBN 0-89471-884-3
  • Beer: The Story of the Pint, Martyn Cornell. ISBN 0-7553-1165-5
  • Beer and Britannia: An Inebriated History of Britain, Peter Haydon. ISBN 0-7509-2748-8
  • The Book of Beer Knowledge: Essential Wisdom for the Discerning Drinker, a Useful Miscellany, Jeff Evans. ISBN 1-85249-198-1
  • Country House Brewing in England, 1500–1900, Pamela Sambrook. ISBN 1-85285-127-9
  • Ale, Beer and Brewsters in England: Women's Work in a Changing World, 1300–1600 , Judith M. Bennett. ISBN 0-19-512650-5
  • A History of Beer and Brewing, I. Hornsey. ISBN 0-85404-630-5
  • Beer: an Illustrated History, Brian Glover. ISBN 1-84038-597-9
  • Beer in America: The Early Years 1587–1840—Beer's Role in the Settling of America and the Birth of a Nation, Gregg Smith. ISBN 0-937381-65-9
  • Big Book of Beer, Adrian Tierney-Jones. ISBN 1-85249-212-0
  • Gone for a Burton: Memories from a Great British Heritage, Bob Ricketts. ISBN 1-905203-69-1
  • Farmhouse Ales: Culture and Craftsmanship in the Belgian Tradition, Phil Marowski. ISBN 0-937381-84-5
  • The World Encyclopedia of Beer, Brian Glover. ISBN 0-7548-0933-1
  • The Complete Joy of Homebrewing, Charlie Papazian ISBN 0-380-77287-6 (This is the seminal work on home brewing that is almost universally suggested to new hobbyist)
  • The Brewmaster's Table, Garrett Oliver. ISBN 0-06-000571-8
  • Vaughan, J. G.; C. A. Geissler (1997). The New Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854825-7. 
  • Bacchus and Civic Order: The Culture of Drink in Early Modern Germany, Ann Tlusty. ISBN 0-813920-45-0

Booze redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... In scuba diving, the word cocktail also means a hazard with diving with some rebreathers: it means a caustic solution resulting from water reaching and dissolving the absorbent. ... This article is about beer. ... Winemakers often use carboys like these to ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ... An American-produced bottle of ginjō-shu sake. ... The relationship between alcohol consumption and health has been the subject of formal scientific research since at least 1926, when Dr. Raymond Pearl published his book, Alcohol and Longevity, in which he reported his finding that drinking alcohol in moderation was associated with greater longevity than either abstaining or drinking... Alcohol advertising is the promotion of alcoholic beverages by alcohol producers through a variety of media. ... Image:Frans Hals 002 . ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... Rice wine refers to alcoholic beverages made from rice. ... Chicha served with pipeño Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. ... Shaoxing jiu, a famous huangjiu Huangjiu (黄酒; pinyin: huáng jiǔ, lit. ... In the West, Kumis has been touted for its health benefits, as in this 1877 book also naming it Milk Champagne. Kumis (also spelled kumiss, koumiss, kymys; called airag in Mongolian cuisine) is a fermented milk drink traditionally made from the milk of horses. ... A glass of mint kvass. ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... Pulque, or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica. ... Finlandia Sahti, Finnish sahti label Sahti is a traditional beer from Finland made from a variety of grains, malted and unmalted, including barley, rye, wheat, and oats; sometimes bread made from these grains is fermented instead of malt itself. ... Main article: Chinese wine Gouqi jiu(zh:枸杞酒) is one kind of fruit alcoholic beverage made from Gouqi. ...


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The Brewers' Handbook: The Complete Book To Brewing Beer (490 words)
Before that point, beers were heavily oriented toward ale, porter, and stout and were mostly brewed at home.
Barley malt is to beer as grapes are to wine.
Microorganisms causing spoilage during brewing and beer processing are limited to a few genera of bacteria, wild yeasts, and molds.
Encyclopedia4U - Anthony Stafford Beer - Encyclopedia Article (534 words)
Anthony Stafford Beer (September 25, 1926 - August 23, 2002) was an theorist in operational research and management cybernetics.
Beer was made development director at IPC and pushed for the adoption of new computer technologies.
In the mid 1970s Beer renounced material possessions and moved to mid-Wales where he lived in an almost austere style, he became interested in poetry and art.
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