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Encyclopedia > Beef
An uncooked rib roast
An uncooked rib roast

Beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines, especially domestic cattle. Beef is one of the principal meats used in the Cuisine of Australia, European cuisine and cuisine of the Americas, and is also important in Africa, East Asia, and Southeast Asia. In the Middle East, lamb is usually preferred over beef. Beef is taboo for Hindus and is not eaten by the Hindu population in India. It is also discouraged among some Buddhists. Beef may mean: Beef, meat from bovines Beef, a hip hop rivalry Beef (documentary), a documentary series on hip hop rivalry Beef (comics), a Marvel Comics character Category: ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1023 × 767 pixel, file size: 432 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) USCA Choice standing rib roast (2 bone). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1023 × 767 pixel, file size: 432 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) USCA Choice standing rib roast (2 bone). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... Tribes Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of about 24 medium-sized to large ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, the Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Meat is animal flesh (mainly muscle tissue) used as food, sometimes with the exception of fish, other seafood, and poultry. ... Historically Australian cuisine was based on traditional British cooking brought to the country by the first settlers. ... See the individual entries for: // Belarusian cuisine Bulgarian cuisine Czech cuisine Hungarian cuisine Jewish cuisine Polish cuisine Romanian cuisine Russian cuisine Slovak cuisine Slovenian cuisine Ukrainian cuisine British cuisine English cuisine Scottish cuisine Welsh cuisine Anglo-Indian cuisine Modern British cuisine Nordic cuisine Danish cuisine Finnish cuisine Icelandic cuisine Lappish... Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... An unweaned lamb Legs of lamb in a supermarket cabinet The terms lamb, hoggett or mutton are culinary names for the meat of a domestic sheep. ... Swine are considered treyf, non-kosher (unfit or unclean) in Judaism or haraam in Islam Taboo food and drinks are food and drink which people abstain from consuming for religious or cultural reasons. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


Beef can be cut into steaks, pot roasts or short ribs, or it can be ground. The blood is also used in some varieties of blood sausage. Other beef varieties include the tongue, which is usually sliced for sandwiches in Western cooking; tripe from the stomach; various glands—particularly the pancreas and thymus—referred to as sweetbreads; the heart, the brain, the liver, the kidneys; and the tender testicles of the bull popularly known as "calf fries", "prairie oysters", or "Rocky Mountain oysters." Beef bones are essential for making certain varieties of soup stock. Beef rump steak on grill pan, cooked to medium rare A steak (from Old Norse steik, roast) is a slice of meat, typically beef, or fish. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Pot roast (beef) Pot roast is a braised beef dish. ... Short ribs are a popular cut of beef. ... Image:Minced beef USDA.jpg Minced beef in industrial grinder Ground beef, beef mince or hamburger meat, is a meat product, made of beef finely chopped by a meat grinder. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... Morcilla cocida: Spanish-style blood sausage Blood sausage or black pudding or blood pudding is a sausage made by cooking down the blood of an animal with meat, fat or filler until it is thick enough to congeal when cooled. ... For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sandwich (disambiguation). ... Western cuisine is a term used for cuisine in The Americas and in Europe. ... Tripe in an Italian market Look up tripe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Human submaxillary gland. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Thymus, see Thyme. ... Sweetbread is the name of a dish made of the pancreas (belly/stomach) or thymus gland (neck/throat/gullet/heart sweetbread) of an animal younger than one year old. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Stock is a flavoured liquid. ...


The better cuts are usually obtained from the steer; the heifer tends to be kept for breeding. Older animals are used for beef when they are past their reproductive prime. The meat from older cows and bulls is usually tougher, so it is frequently used for mince (UK)/ground beef (US). Cattle raised for beef may be allowed to roam free on grasslands, or may be confined at some stage in pens as part of a large feeding operation called a feedlot, where they are usually fed grain. Example EU engergy label According to an EU Directive most white goods and light bulb packaging must have an EU Energy Label clearly displayed when offered for sale or rent. ... Cattle the charitable organization Heifer International This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Biological reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... Mincing is a cooking technique in which food ingredients are finely divided. ... Image:Minced beef USDA.jpg Minced beef in industrial grinder Ground beef, beef mince or hamburger meat, is a meat product, made of beef finely chopped by a meat grinder. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas. ... Beef cattle on a feedlot in the Texas Panhandle A feedlot or feedyard is a type of concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) (also known as factory farming) which is used for finishing livestock, notably beef cattle, prior to slaughter. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ...


The United States, Brazil, Japan and the People's Republic of China are the world's four largest consumers of beef [1]. The world's largest exporters of beef are Australia, Brazil, Argentina and Canada [2]. Beef production is also important to the economies of Uruguay, Nicaragua, Russia and Mexico.

Contents

A History of Beef

The flesh of bovines has been eaten by hunters from prehistoric times, some of the earliest known cave paintings such as those of Lascaux show Aurochs in hunting scenes. Domestication of the cow occurred around 8000 BC [3], providing ready access to beef and the other products of cattle, milk and leather . Most cattle originated in the Old World with the exception of bison hybrids. Examples include the Wagyu from Japan, Ankole-Watusi from Egypt, and longhorn Zebu from Pakistan & Bangladesh .[4] Cattle were widely used for meat across the Old World. Some breeds were specifically bred to increase meat yield or improve texture like the Murray Grey, Angus or Wagyu, etc. Tribes Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of about 24 medium-sized to large ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, the Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. ... Cave, or rock, paintings are paintings painted on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to pre_historic times. ... Cave painting at Lascaux. ... Binomial name Subspecies Bos primigenius primigenius   (Bojanus, 1827) Bos primigenius namadicus   (Falconer, 1859) Bos primigenius mauretanicus   (Thomas, 1881) See Ur (rune) for the rune. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... A glass of cows milk. ... For other uses, see Leather (disambiguation). ... The following is a list of breeds of cattle. ... For other uses, see Old World (disambiguation). ... Species †B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. priscus Bison in winter. ... This article is about a biological term. ... Wagyu (和牛 in Japanese Kanji characters) refers to several beef breeds of cattle genetically predisposed to intense marbling, and produces a high percentage of oleaginous unsaturated fat. ... Ankole Cattle at Woburn Safari Park Ankole-Watusi cattle at Disneys Animal Kingdom Lodge Ankole-Watusi at the Natural Bridge Caverns Wildlife Park in Texas. ... Trinomial name Bos primigenius indicus Linnaeus, 1758 Zebus (Bos primigenius indicus), sometimes known as humped cattle, are better-adapted to tropical environments than other domestic cattle. ... For other uses, see Old World (disambiguation). ... Beef cattle are bovine cattle (cows, see Bos taurus) raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle). ... Murray Grey is a breed of Australian beef cattle . ... This article is about the Black Angus breed. ... Wagyu (和牛 in Japanese Kanji characters) refers to several beef breeds of cattle genetically predisposed to intense marbling, and produces a high percentage of oleaginous unsaturated fat. ...


Cuts of Beef

Beef is first divided into primal cuts. These are basic sections from which steaks and other subdivisions are cut. Since the animal's legs and neck muscles do the most work, they are the toughest; the meat becomes progressively more tender as distance from "hoof and horn" increases. The closer to the middle back, the more tender the meat. There are different systems of making and naming of the cuts in America, Britain and France.


See the external links section below for links to more beef cut charts and diagrams.


American Primal Cuts

American cuts of beef.
American cuts of beef.

The following is a list of the American primal cuts, ordered front to back, then top to bottom. The short loin and the sirloin are sometimes considered as one section. Image File history File links Beef_cuts. ... Image File history File links Beef_cuts. ...


Upper Half

Chuck steak is a cut of beef and is part of the primal cut known as the chuck. ... This article is about the food item. ... A USDA Choice 2-bone standing rib roast. ... Short ribs are a popular cut of beef. ... A boneless Rib Eye Steak The Rib eye or ribeye is a beef steak from a cows rib section. ... Short loin is a cut of beef that comes from the back of the cow, below the rib cut. ... The T-bone is a steak cut of beef. ... High quality (prime) cut of meat that has been taken from the upper loin or lower ribs of a cow (beef). ... Beef tenderloin Beef tenderloin, or eye fillet (New Zealand and Australia), is cut from the middle of a cow. ... Filet Mignon is a steak cut of beef taken from the tenderloin, or psoas major of the steer or heifer. ... The top sirloin is a cut of beef that comes from just below the tenderloin cut. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Lower Half

  • Brisket — often associated with barbecue beef brisket.
  • Shank — used primarily for stews and soups, but is not usually served another way, due to it being the toughest of the cuts.
  • Plate — produces types of steak such as the skirt steak and hanger steak. It is typically a cheap, tough, and fatty meat.
  • Flank — Long and flat, the flank steak's best known application is London Broil. One of the most affordable steaks on the market, it is substantially tougher than the loin and rib steaks, therefore many flank recipes use marinades or moist cooking methods such as braising.

Brisket is a cut of meat from the breast or lower chest. ... The beef shank comes from the upper portion of a cows legs. ... The plate cut (also known as the short plate) is from the front belly of the cow, just bellow the rib cut. ... The flank steak is a beef steak cut from the stomach muscles of the cow. ... London Broil is a beef-based food dish usually made by broiling or grilling marinated flank or round steak and then cutting it against the grain into thin strips. ...

British Primal Cuts

Beef rump steak on grill pan, cooked to medium rare
Beef rump steak on grill pan, cooked to medium rare
British cuts of beef.
British cuts of beef.
  • Neck & Clod
  • Chuck & Blade
  • Rib
  • Sirloin
  • Rump
  • Silverside
  • Topside
  • Thick Rib
  • Thin Rib
  • Brisket
  • Shin
  • Flank
  • Thick Flank
  • Leg

Image File history File links British_Beef_Cuts. ... Image File history File links British_Beef_Cuts. ... Trimed Silverside Silverside is the name to a cut of beef from the hindquarter of a cow, just above the leg cut. ... Brisket is a cut of meat from the breast or lower chest. ...

Special Beef Designations

  • Certified Angus Beef Certified Angus Beef (CAB) is a specification-based, branded-beef program which was founded in 1978 by Angus cattle producers in order to increase demand for consistent, high-quality beef with superior taste which is cut from registered Angus cattle. The brand is owned by the American Angus Association and its 35,000 rancher members. The terms "Angus Beef" or "Black Angus Beef" are loosely and commonly misused and/or confused with CAB; this is especially common in the foodservice industry. The brand or name Certified Angus Beef can't be legally used by an establishment that is not licensed to do so.
  • Certified Hereford Beef is beef certified to have come from Hereford cattle.
  • Grass fed beef has been raised primarily on forage rather than in a feedlot.
  • Kobe beef : Cattle of the Wagyu breed raised and fattened in the hills above Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan. During the fattening period, the cattle is hand-fed (using high-energy feed, including beer and beer mash) and hand-massaged for tenderness and high fat content.
  • Halal beef has been certified to have been processed in a prescribed manner in accordance with Muslim dietary laws.
  • Kosher beef has been certified to have been processed in a prescribed manner in accordance with Jewish dietary laws.
  • Organic beef is produced without hormones, pesticides, or other chemicals though requirements for labeling something "organic" vary widely.
  • The Flag of Europe European Union recognises the following Protected Designation of Origin beef brands[5]
Flag of Spain Spain - Carne de Ávila, Carne de Cantabria, Carne de la Sierra de Guadarrama, Carne de Morucha de Salamanca, Carne de Vacuno del País o Euskal Okela
Flag of France France - Taureau de Camargue, Boeuf charolais du Bourbonnais, Boeuf de Chalosse, Boeuf du Maine
Flag of Portugal Portugal - Carnalentejana, Carne rouquesa, Carne Barrosã, Carne Cachena da Peneda, Carne da Charneca, Carne de Bovino Cruzado dos Lameiros do Barroso,Carne dos Açores, Carne Marinhoa, Carne Maronesa, Carne Mertolenga, Carne Mirandesa
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom - Orkney Beef, Scotch Beef, Welsh Beef

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Red_Angus. ... A Hereford Bull A de-horned Hereford Bull A genetically-polled Hereford Bull Hereford cattle are a widely-used breed in temperate areas, mainly for beef production. ... Hereford cattle are a widely-used breed in temperate areas, mainly for beef production. ... Grass fed beef is meat from cows that have been raised primarily on forage (i. ... Beef cattle on a feedlot in the Texas Panhandle A feedlot or feedyard is a type of concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) (also known as factory farming) which is used for finishing livestock, notably beef cattle, prior to slaughter. ... Kobe beef for sukiyaki Kobe beef ) refers to beef from the black Tajima-ushi breed of Wagyu cattle, raised according to strict tradition in Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan. ... Wagyu (和牛 in Japanese Kanji characters) refers to several beef breeds of cattle genetically predisposed to intense marbling, and produces a high percentage of oleaginous unsaturated fat. ... This article is about the Japanese city. ... Hyōgo Prefecture (兵庫県 Hyōgo-ken) is located in the Kinki region on Honshu island, Japan. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Halal (حلال, alāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. In the English language it most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The circled U indicates that this product is certified as kosher by the Orthodox Union (OU). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Roots At the end of World War II, food production in the United States took a turn away from natural growing methods and began to rely on chemicals to improve production yields. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Protected geographical indications in the European Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... For the Mesozoic island Cantabria, see Cantabria (Mesozoic island). ... Satellite Map of the Sierra de Guadarrama. ... Salamanca (population 160,000) is a city in western Spain, the capital of the province of Salamanca, which belongs to the autonomous community (region) of Castile-Leon (Castilla y León). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Shoreline of the Étang de Vaccarès For other uses, see Camargue (disambiguation). ... Bourbonnais was an historic province in the centre of France that corresponded to the modern département of Allier, along with part of the département of Cher. ... Flag of Maine Location of Maine in France Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ...

USDA Beef Grades

In the United States, the USDA operates a voluntary beef grading program. The meat processor pays for a trained USDA meat grader to grade whole carcasses at the abattoir. Users are required to comply with Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) grade labeling procedures. The official USDA grade designation can appear in one or any combination of the following ways: container markings, individual bags, legible roller brand appearing on the meat itself, or by a USDA shield stamp that incorporates the quality and/or yield grade. USDA redirects here. ... Workers and cattle in a slaughterhouse. ... The United States Food Safety and Inspection Service is charged with ensuring that all meat, poultry, and processed egg products in the United States are safe to consume and accurately labeled. ...


There are eight beef quality grades. The grades are based on two main criteria: the degree of marbling (intramuscular fat) in the beef, and the age of the animal prior to slaughter. Some meat scientists object to the current scheme of USDA grading since it does not take tenderness into account. Most other countries' beef grading systems mirror the US model. Most beef offered for sale in supermarkets is graded choice or select. Prime beef is sold to hotels and upscale restaurants. Beef that would rate as Standard or leaner is almost never offered for grading. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Adipose tissue. ... Look up Slaughter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Packaged food aisles in a Fred Meyer store in Portland, Oregon A supermarket is a departmentalized self-service store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise. ...

Inspected carcasses tagged by the USDA
Inspected carcasses tagged by the USDA
  • U.S. Prime - Highest in quality and intramuscular fat, limited supply. Currently, only four percent of cuts sold are USDA certified Prime.
  • U.S. Choice - High quality, widely available in foodservice industry and retail markets.
  • U.S. Select - Leanest grade commonly sold, acceptable quality but less juicy and tender.
  • U.S. Standard - Lower quality yet economical, lacking marbling.
  • U.S. Commercial - Low quality, lacking tenderness, produced from older animals.
  • U.S. Utility
  • U.S. Cutter
  • U.S. Canner

Utility, Cutter, and Canner grade are rarely used in foodservice operations and primarily obtained by processors and canners. Image File history File links Beef_inspection_USDA.jpg Summary USDA inspection of beef from [:http://www. ... Image File history File links Beef_inspection_USDA.jpg Summary USDA inspection of beef from [:http://www. ...


Traditionally, beef sold in steakhouses and supermarkets has been advertised by its USDA grading; however, many restaurants and retailers have recently begun advertising beef on the strength of brand names and the reputation of a specific breed of cattle, such as black angus[6][7] This article is about brands in marketing. ... This article is about the Black Angus breed. ...


Consuming and Cooking Beef

Roast beef
Roast beef

Image File history File linksMetadata Roast_beef. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Roast_beef. ...

Cooking Beef

The method of cooking beef is largely determined by the cut of beef to be cooked. For example, tender (and generally more expensive) cuts of meat benefit from fast, high-heat cooking while tough cuts benefit from a slower and longer cooking method.


Dry Heat Cooking Methods

Tender cuts of beef from the loin and rib are best cooked via dry cooking methods, such as charcoal grilling, broiling, roasting, and sautéing

  • Grilling: Grilling is characterized by cooking the beef over a high heat source; generally in excess of 650°F (343°C). This leads to searing of the surface of the beef, which creates a flavorful crust. In the U.S.A., Australia, Canada, and the UK grilling is also known as "Barbecuing" or shorter term of "BBQ."
  • Broiling: Broiling is similar to grilling, except where grilling is performed with the heat source under the beef, broiling is usually performed in an oven with the heat source above the beef
  • Roasting: Roasting is a particularly British way of cooking meat which produces the iconic British dish - Roast beef. British roasting is very similar to American broiling, although the heating is from hot air and the meat is cooked all around. Little if any liquid is added. The liquid produced during cooking is decanted from the fat and usually made into a gravy to serve with the sliced beef
  • Stirfry: Mainly a Chinese way of cooking. Cooking oil with agents such as garlic, ginger and onions are added to the wok which are brought to high heat. Then slices of beef (or any other type of meat) which generally cooks longer are added in. Finally the side ingredients of mixed vegetables are added in to cook for a few minutes. This method of cooking emphasizes on the timing of cooking where the result would be both the meat and vegetables 'just cooked'

Food cooking on a charcoal grill Grilling is a form of cooking that involves direct heat. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Broiling Broiling is a process of cooking food with high heat with the heat applied directly to the food, most commonly from above. ... “Roast” redirects here. ... Sunday roast consisting of roast beef, roast potatoes, vegetables and Yorkshire pudding A dinner of roast beef, potatoes, and green beans Roast beef (is a cut of beef which is roasted in an oven. ... For other uses, see Gravy (disambiguation). ... Stir frying (爆 bào) in a wok Stir frying is an English umbrella term used to describe two fast Chinese cooking techniques: chǎo (炒) and bào (爆). The term stir-fry was introduced into the English language by Buwei Yang Chao, in her book How to Cook and Eat in...

Moist Heat Cooking Methods

Tougher cuts of beef from the round, brisket, flank, plate, shank, and chuck are best cooked by moist heat cooking methods, such as braising, pot-roasting, and stewing. (Some of the tougher cuts may be prepared by dry heat methods given they are tenderized first with a marinade). Marination, also known as marinading, is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned, often acidic, liquid before cooking. ...

  • Stewing: Stewing involves immersing the entire cut of beef in a liquid.
  • Braising: Braising involves cooking meats, covered, with small amounts of liquids (usually seasoned or flavored). Unlike stewing, meat cooked via braising is not fully immersed in liquid.

In cooking, stewing means preparing meat cut into smaller pieces or cubes by simmering it in liquid, usually together with vegetables. ... Braising (from the French braiser) is cooking with moist heat, typically in a covered pot with a small amount of liquid which results in a particular flavor. ...

Cooking Temperature

Main article: Temperature (meat)

Beef is cooked (roughly) on the following scale, based on the internal temperature of the meat: Temperature, or doneness, is a description of how thoroughly cooked a cut of meat is based on the color, juiciness and internal temperature when served. ...

Cooked Traditional Temp. (USA) Description
Very rare 115 – 125°F (46 – 52°C) Blood-red meat, soft, very juicy
Rare 125 – 130°F (52 – 54°C) Red center, gray surface, soft, juicy
Medium rare 130 – 140°F (54 – 60°C) Pink throughout, gray-brown surface, often remains juicy
Medium 140 – 150°F (60 – 66°C) Pink center, becomes gray-brown towards surface
Medium well 150 – 160°F (66 – 71°C) Thin line of pink, firm texture.
Well done >160°F (>71°C) Gray-brown throughout, tough texture.

Raw Beef

Sliced beef.
Sliced beef.

Steak tartare is a French dish made from finely chopped or ground raw meat (often beef). It is often served with onions, capers, seasonings like fresh ground pepper and Worcestershire sauce, and sometimes raw egg. Kibbeh nayyeh is a similar Middle-Eastern dish. And, in Ethiopia, a ground raw meat dish called Kitfo is eaten. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1100 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Beef Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1100 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Beef Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Steak tartare with egg, capers and onions Steak tartare is a meat dish made from finely chopped or ground raw beef. ... Kibbe nayyeh (also kibbee, kubba, Arabic كبة نية or كبة نيئة) is a common Mezze meal in Lebanon, Syria and Palestine. ... The traditional Middle East and the G8s Greater Middle East. ... Kitfo (sometimes ketfo) is a dish consisting of raw beef eaten in Ethiopia and Eritrea. ...


Carpaccio of beef is a thin slice of raw beef dressed with olive oil, lemon juice and seasoning. Often the beef is partially frozen before slicing to allow very thin slices to be cut. Carpaccio is a dish of raw beef, veal or tuna traditionally thinly sliced or pounded thin served as an appetizer. ...


Yukhoe is a variety of hoe, raw dishes in Korean cuisine which is usually made from raw ground beef seasoned with various spices or sauces. The beef part used for yukhoe is tender rump steak. For the seasoning, soy sauce, sugar, salt, sesame oil, green onion, and ground garlic, sesame seed, black pepper and juice of bae (Korean pear) are used. The yolk of a raw egg is mostly topped on the beef. An example of Yukhoe Yukhoe (육회, 肉膾) is a Korean dish consisting of raw seasoned ground beef, very similar to steak tartare. ... Hoe may refer to: Look up hoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hanjeongsik Korean cuisine is based on the traditional foods and preparation techniques of Korea. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ... BAe evolution since 1955 until 1999 merger to form BAE Systems British Aerospace (BAe) was a British aircraft manufacturer, now part of BAE SYSTEMS. The company was formed on April 29, 1977 by the Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act. ... It has been suggested that Asian pear be merged into this article or section. ...


Cured or smoked beef

Bresaola is an air-dried salted beef that has been aged about 2-3 months until it becomes hard and a dark red, almost purple colour. It is lean, has a sweet, musty smell and is tender. It originated in Valtellina, a valley in the Alps of northern Italy's Lombardy region. Bresaola is air-dried salted beef fillet that has been aged about 2-3 months until it becomes hard and a dark red, almost purple colour. ... A whole potato, sliced pieces (right), and dried sliced pieces (left) Drying is a method of food preservation that works by removing water from the food, which prevents the growth of microorganisms and decay. ... A view of Valtellina The church of Tresivio Valtellina (German Veltlin) is a valley in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, bordering Switzerland. ... Alp redirects here. ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ...


Pastrami is often made from beef, the raw beef is salted, then partly dried and seasoned with various herbs and spices and smoked. Pastrami Pastrami is a popular delicatessen meat made from chiefly red meat. ... Salting has other meanings. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Smoking Smoking is the process of curing, cooking, or seasoning food by exposing it for long periods of time to the smoke from a wood fire. ...


Corned beef, is a cut of beef cured or pickled in a seasoned brine. The "corn" in "corned beef" refers to the "corn" or grains of coarse salts used to cure it. The term "corned beef" can denote different styles of brine-cured beef, depending on the region. Some, like American-style corned beef, are highly seasoned and often considered delicatessen fare. Corned beef, (also bully beef in the UK), is a cut of beef (usually brisket, but sometimes round or silverside) cured or pickled in a seasoned brine. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... This article is about food stores. ...


Religious Prohibitions

Bovine cattle are considered sacred in Hinduism, and hence beef is not generally consumed by Hindus. Beef eating among Hindus is not considered a taboo in some parts of India like Kerala, and Coorg. Some historians, most notably Dr D N Jha, have argued that beef eating was never a taboo among Hindu societies starting with early Rig Vedic societies and the taboo was only proliferated later for various socio-political motives. For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... now. ...


Nutrition and Health

Beef is rich in zinc, especially its shank and chuck parts. [1] General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ...


Health Concerns

A study released in 2007 by the World Cancer Research Fund indicated “strong evidence that red meat and processed meats are causes of bowel cancer” and recommends that individuals consume less than 500 g (18 oz) of cooked red meat weekly, and as little processed meat as possible. The report also recommends that average consumption in populations be below 300 g (11 oz) per week, stating that this goal "corresponds to the level of consumption of red meat at which the risk of colorectal cancer can clearly be seen to rise."[8] WCRF redirects here. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Meat is animal tissue (mainly muscle) used as food. ... Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ...


The Harvard School of Public Health recommends that consumers use red meat sparingly due to high levels of saturated fats.[9] Harvard School of Public Health The Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) is Harvard Universitys School of Public Health. ... A saturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are no double bonds between the carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain. ...


"Mad Cow" Disease

In 1984, the use of meat and bone meal in cattle feed resulted in the world's first outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or, colloquially, mad cow disease) in the United Kingdom.[10] Eating beef from cattle with BSE is thought to have caused the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD) in about 131 cases (2003 June data) in the United Kingdom and a few in France. BSE is an illness that cattle can contract when they are fed infected animals (especially the brains and spines) The perception of beef as potentially lethal damaged the UK beef industry. Attempts to wipe out BSE in the UK by a kill-and-burn campaign further damaged the beef industry. Classic image of a cow with BSE. A notable feature of such disease is the inability (of the infected animal) to stand. ... Meat & bone meal Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a by-product of the rendering industry. ... Classic image of a cow with BSE. A notable feature of such disease is the inability (of the infected animal) to stand. ... Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a very rare and incurable degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is ultimately fatal. ...


Since then, other countries have had outbreaks of BSE:

  • In May 2003, due to a BSE scare (after a single cow with BSE was discovered in Alberta) the American border was closed to live Canadian cows in May 2003 and reopened in early 2005.[11]
  • Japan along with many other countries stopped importing United States beef and beef products, but since July 27, 2006 Japan has reopened itself to imports.

For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ...

See also

Argentina is one of the worlds largest producers of beef. ... Asado in preparation. ... Hong Kong style unpackaged jerky Jerky is meat that has been cut into strips trimmed of fat, marinated in a spicy, salty or sweet liquid, and then dried with low heat (usually under 70°C/160°F) or occasionally salted and sun-dried. ... In French, the word entrecôte denotes a cut of beef sirloin also known as a contre-filet. ...

References

  1. ^ Major Countries Beef Production and Consumption. Retrieved on 2008-05-03. USDA PDF
  2. ^ World Beef Overview. Retrieved on 2008-05-03. USDA
  3. ^ Late Neolithic megalithic structures at Nabta Playa. Retrieved on 2008-02-27.
  4. ^ History of Cattle Breeds. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  5. ^ Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) / Protected Geographical Indication (PGI). Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  6. ^ "Branded Beef Booming", Denver Post, 2003-06-17. Retrieved on 2007-04-17. 
  7. ^ Michael Chu. USDA Beef Quality Grades. Cooking for Engineers. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  8. ^ 2007 report by the World Cancer Research Fund
  9. ^ Harvard School of Public Health – Healthy Eating Pyramid
  10. ^ Timeline: BSE and vCJD. NewScientist.com news service (13 December 2004). Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  11. ^ Canadian beef industry loses patience over border dispute

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Beef...from Farm to Table (2659 words)
Some companies promote their beef as "natural" because they claim their cattle weren't exposed to antibiotics or hormones and were totally raised on a range instead of being "finished" in a feedlot.
Beef is aged to develop additional tenderness and flavor.
Beef that has turned brown during extended storage may be spoiled, have an off-odor, and be tacky to the touch.
Beef - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1625 words)
Beef is one of the principal meats used in European cuisine and cuisine of the Americas, and is important in Africa, East Asia, and Southeast Asia as well.
Beef is a taboo meat in a number of religions, most notably Hinduism, whose adherents consider cows deserving of reverence.
Beef is used in a noun form in the phrase "to have (a) beef", the use of which dates back to the 19th Century, when "to beef" initially meant to loudly complain about something.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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