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Encyclopedia > Bee sting
A bee
A bee

A bee sting strictly means a sting from a bee (honeybee, bumblebee, sweat bee etc). In the vernacular it can mean a sting of a bee, wasp, hornet, yellowjacket or sawfly. Some people may even call the bite of a horsefly a bee sting. It is important to differentiate a bee sting from an insect bite. It is also important to recognize that the venom or toxin of stinging insects is quite different. Therefore, the body's reaction to a bee sting may differ significantly from one species to another. Bee sting is the sting from a bee. ... Download high resolution version (800x667, 126 KB)Bees wings This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (800x667, 126 KB)Bees wings This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... Species Apis andreniformis Apis cerana, or eastern honey bee Apis dorsata, or giant honey bee Apis florea Apis koschevnikovi Apis laboriosa Apis mellifera, or western honey bee Apis nigrocincta Apis nuluensis Honey bees are a subset of bees which represent a far smaller fraction of bee diversity than most people... Species more than 250 species and subspecies in 38 subgenera Bumblebees (also spelled bumble bee, also known as humblebee) are flying insects of the genus Bombus in the family Apidae. ... Sweat bee is the common name for bees that are attracted to pollen and the salt in human perspiration. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ... This article refers collectively to all true hornets. ... Yellowjacket or yellow-jacket is the common name in North America for wasps of the genera Vespula and Dolichovespula. ... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Cephoidea    Family Cephidae (stem sawflies) Superfamily Megalodontoidea    Family Megalodontesidae    Family Pamphiliidae (leaf-rolling & web-spinning sawflies) Superfamily Orussoidea    Family Orussidae (parasitic wood wasps) Superfamily Siricoidea    Family Anaxyelidae (cedar wood wasps)    Family Siricidae (horntails) Superfamily Tenthredinoidea    Family Argidae (argid sawflies)    Family Blasticotomidae (fern sawflies)    Family Cimbicidae (cimbicid... Genera as listed in ITIS: Subfamily Chrysopsinae: Merycomyia Chrysops Neochrysops Silvius Subfamily Pangoniinae: Apatolestes Asaphomyia Brennania Esenbeckia Pegasomyia Stonemyia Goniops Subfamily Tabaninae: Anacimas Bolbodimyia Catachlorops Chlorotabanus Diachlorus Dichelacera Holcopsis Lepiselaga Leucotabanus Microtabanus Stenotabanus Haematopota Agkistrocerus Atylotus Hamatabanus Hybomitra Poeciloderas Tabanus Whitneyomyia Not placed: Zophina Among the worlds largest flies... Insect bites and stings can cause an immediate skin reaction often resulting in redness and swelling in the injured area. ... It has been suggested that Snake poison be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


The most aggressive stinging insects are wasps (including bald-faced hornets) but not in general hornets (the European hornet is gentle). All of these insects aggressively defend their nests, although they have not developed a sting targeted at mammals like the honeybees. Families See text. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1763) Hacota Matata is an insect which, despite commonly being called the bald-faced hornet (or white-faced hornet), is not a true hornet at all. ... This article refers collectively to all true hornets. ... Binomial name Vespa crabro L., 1761 For main article see hornet. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary...


In people who are allergic to bee stings, a sting may trigger a dangerous anaphylactic reaction that is potentially deadly. Anaphylaxis is a severe and rapid systemic allergic reaction to a trigger substance, called an allergen. ...

Contents

Honeybee stings

the stinger of a black honeybee torn from the bee's body and attached to a protecting dress
the stinger of a black honeybee torn from the bee's body and attached to a protecting dress
A bee sting 1 day after.
A bee sting 1 day after.

A honeybee that is away from the hive foraging for nectar or pollen will rarely sting, except when stepped on or roughly handled. Honeybees will actively seek out and sting when they perceive the hive to be threatened, often being alerted to this by the release of attack pheromones (below). Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Stinger (disambiguation). ... Species Apis andreniformis Apis cerana, or eastern honey bee Apis dorsata, or giant honey bee Apis florea Apis koschevnikovi Apis laboriosa Apis mellifera, or western honey bee Apis nigrocincta Apis nuluensis Honey bees are a subset of bees which represent a far smaller fraction of bee diversity than most people... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 650 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2108 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 650 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2108 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Domesticated Western honey bees are kept in beehives. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is a chemical that triggers an innate behavioural response in another member of the same species. ...


Although it is widely believed that a worker honeybee can sting only once, this is a misconception: although the stinger is in fact barbed so that it lodges in the victim's skin, tearing loose from the bee's abdomen and leading to its death in minutes, this only happens if the victim is a mammal (or bird). The bee's stinger evolved originally for inter-bee combat between members of different hives, and the barbs evolved later as an anti-mammal defense: a barbed stinger can still penetrate the chitinous plates of another bee's exoskeleton and retract safely. Honeybees are the only hymenoptera with a barbed stinger. A worker bee is a female honeybee which performs certain tasks in support of a bee hive. ... Species Apis andreniformis Apis cerana, or eastern honey bee Apis dorsata, or giant honey bee Apis florea Apis koschevnikovi Apis laboriosa Apis mellifera, or western honey bee Apis nigrocincta Apis nuluensis Honey bees are a subset of bees which represent a far smaller fraction of bee diversity than most people... It has been suggested that sting (biology) be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... For the human abdomen, see human abdomen. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body, in contrast to the internal endoskeleton of, for example, a human. ... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ...


The stinger's injection of apitoxin into the victim is accompanied by the release of alarm pheromones, a process which is accelerated if the bee is fatally injured. Release of alarm pheromones near a hive or swarm may attract other bees to the location, where they will likewise exhibit defensive behaviors until there is no longer a threat (typically because the victim has either fled or been killed). These pheromones do not dissipate nor wash off quickly, and if their target enters water, bees will resume their attack as soon as the target leaves the water. Apitoxin, or honey bee venom, is a bitter colorless liquid. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is a chemical that triggers an innate behavioural response in another member of the same species. ... School of juvenile herring - many fish have the opercula wide open for ram feeding and you can see the red gills The term swarm (schooling or swarming) is applied to fish, birds and insects and describes a behavior of an aggregation (school) of animals of similar size and body orientation...


(Alarm pheromones have been characterized as having a "dirty socks" smell, which is why amateur beekeepers will often bathe and change into clean clothes before working a hive.) [citation needed]


The larger drone bees do not have stingers. In worker bees, the stinger is a modified ovipositor. The queen bee has a smooth stinger and can, if need be, sting skin-bearing creatures multiple times, but the queen does not leave the hive under normal conditions. Her stinger is not for defense of the hive; she only uses it for dispatching rival queens, ideally before they can finish pupating. Queen breeders who handle multiple queens and have the queen odor on their hands are sometimes stung by a queen. Drone Drones are male honey bees. ... A worker bee is a female honeybee which performs certain tasks in support of a bee hive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Queen bee with attendants on a honeycomb. ... Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa A pupa (Latin pupa for doll, pl: pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. ...


The main component of bee venom responsible for pain in vertebrates is the toxin melittin; histamine and other biogenic amines may also contribute to pain and itching.[1] In one of the medical uses of honeybee products, apitherapy, bee venom has been used to treat arthritis and other painful conditions.[2] Apitoxin, or honey bee venom, is a bitter colorless liquid. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Melittin is the principal active component of bee venom, and is a powerful anti-inflammatory substance said to be 100 times more potent than hydrocortisone. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Species Apis andreniformis Apis cerana, or eastern honey bee Apis dorsata, or giant honey bee Apis florea Apis koschevnikovi Apis laboriosa Apis mellifera, or western honey bee Apis nigrocincta Apis nuluensis Honey bees are a subset of bees which represent a far smaller fraction of bee diversity than most people... Apitherapy is the medical use of honeybee products. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ...

Treatment

Following a honeybee sting the first step in treatment is removal of the barbed stinger. The stinger should be removed as fast as possible without regard to method: studies have shown the amount of venom delivered does not differ if the stinger is pinched or scraped off and even a delay of a few seconds leads to more venom being injected.[3] Once the stinger is removed, reduce pain and swelling with a cold compress.[4] Species Apis andreniformis Apis cerana, or eastern honey bee Apis dorsata, or giant honey bee Apis florea Apis koschevnikovi Apis laboriosa Apis mellifera, or western honey bee Apis nigrocincta Apis nuluensis Honey bees are a subset of bees which represent a far smaller fraction of bee diversity than most people...


Many traditional remedies have been suggested for bee stings including damp pastes of tobacco, salt, baking soda, meat tenderizer, toothpaste, clay, aspirin or even application of copper coins.[5][6] Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Edible salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). ... Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or sodium hydrogen carbonate, also known as baking soda and bicarbonate of soda, is a soluble white anhydrous or crystalline compound, with a slight alkaline taste resembling that of sodium carbonate. ... Modern toothpaste gel Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used to clean and improve the aesthetic appearance and health of teeth. ... This article is about the drug. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ...


The most famous of the traditional remedies is derived from ancient Greek Times. Where it is believed that when the victim was stung, a stream of urine from the victim or urine from another person was used to combat the venom. The acidic stream of urine was passed over the sting therefore neutralizing the alkaline found in the venom. This allowed the venom to pass through the blood stream and into the bowels where it was disposed of.


Bee venom is acidic and these interventions are often recommended to neutralize the venom; however, neutralizing a sting is unlikely to be effective as the venom is injected under the skin and deep into the tissues, where a topically applied alkali is unable to reach, so neutralization is unlikely to occur.[5] In any case, the amount of venom injected is typically very small (between 5 and 50 micrograms of fluid) and placing large amounts of alkali near the sting site is unlikely to produce a perfectly neutral pH to stop the sting hurting.[5] Many people do claim benefit from these home remedies but it is doubtful they have any real physical effect on how much a sting hurts or continues hurting, the effect is probably related to rubbing the area or the mind perceiving benefit.[5] Furthermore, none of these interventions have been proven to be effective in scientific studies and a randomized trial of aspirin paste and topical ice packs showed that aspirin was not effective in reducing the duration of swelling or pain in bee and wasp stings, and significantly increased the duration of redness.[4] The study concluded that ice alone is better treatment for bee and wasp stings than aspirin.[4]


The sting may be painful for a few hours. Swelling and itching may persist for a week. Do not scratch the area as that will only increase the itching and swelling. If a reaction persists for over a week or covers an area greater than 3 or 4 inches, seek medical attention. Also, doctors may recommend a tetanus immunization. For about 2 percent of people, anaphylactic shock from certain proteins in the venom can be life-threatening and requires emergency treatment by a physician.[7] If the victim is allergic to bee stings, the victim must be treated to prevent shock. People known to be highly allergic may carry around epinephrine in the form of a self-injectable Epipen for the treatment of an anaphylactic shock. Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ... A child being immunized against polio. ... Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic (multi-system) and severe Type I Hypersensitivity allergic reaction in humans and other mammals. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... A 0. ... Anaphylaxis is a severe and rapid systemic allergic reaction to a trigger substance, called an allergen. ...


For patients who experience severe or life threatening reactions to insect stings, researchers at Johns Hopkins have developed a series of allergy injections composed of increasing concentrations of naturally occurring venom which provide excellent and usually life-long protections against future insect stings. [8] The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ...


See also

Bee venom therapy is a therapeutical use of bee stings. ... Apitoxin, or honey bee venom, is a bitter colorless liquid. ... For other uses, see Stinger (disambiguation). ... This article refers collectively to all true hornets. ... While easily confusable at a distance or without close observation, there are many different characteristics of bees and wasps which can be used to identify them. ... Schmidt Sting Pain Index or The Justin O. Schmidt Pain Index was created by Justin O. Schmidt, an entomologist. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Meier J, White J. (1995). Clinical toxicology of animal venoms and poisons. CRC Press, Inc. ISBN 0-8493-4489-1. 
  2. ^ Phillip Terc "Report about a Peculiar Connection Between the Beestings and Rheumatism", 1888.
  3. ^ Visscher P, Vetter R, Camazine S (1996). "Removing bee stings.". Lancet 348 (9023): 301-2. PMID 8709689. 
  4. ^ a b c Balit C, Isbister G, Buckley N (2003). "Randomized controlled trial of topical aspirin in the treatment of bee and wasp stings". J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 41 (6): 801-8. PMID 14677790. 
  5. ^ a b c d Glaser, David. Are wasp and bee stings alkali or acid and does neutralising their ph them give sting relief?. www.insectstings.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  6. ^ Beverly Sparks, "Stinging and Biting Pests of People" Extension Entomologist of the University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences Cooperative Extension Service.
  7. ^ Thor Lehnert, "Hymenopterous Insect Stings" Beekeeping in the United States - USDA - Agricultural HandBook Number 335.
  8. ^ Resiman, R (Aug 1994). "Insect Stings". New England Journal of Medicine 26: 523-7. 

A bee A bee sting strictly means a sting from a bee (honeybee, bumblebee, sweat bee etc). ... Rheumatism or Rheumatic disorder is a non-specific term for medical problems affecting the heart, bones, joints, kidney, skin and lung. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Thinkquest, Poisonous plants and animals accessed June 2006
  • The Biology of the Honeybee, Apis Mellifera accessed June 2006
  • Darkfield image gallery: Honeybee stinger accessed June 2006
  • Removing Bee Stings - Vischer Vetter Camazine accessed January 2007

External links

  • Helpful medical information "About Bee and Wasp Stings" West Viriginia University
  • Bee Venom May Take the Sting Out of Arthritis (WebMD, 4 November 2004)
  • Prognosis for bees stings
  • Bee boxes & bee tweezers for apitherapy

  Results from FactBites:
 
Entomology - Removing bee stings (1644 words)
There was not a significant effect of the location of the sting, but the response at 2 seconds was lower, though not significantly so, in the time series than in the removal method (t-test, t28 = 0.909, P = 0.12), possibly due to the the presence of multiple stings at once in the time series.
Advice on bee sting treatment should not overlook that the most important response to stings from bees defending their nests should be to get away from the vicinity of the nest.
Snodgrass, R.E. The anatomy of the honey bee.
Bee and Wasp Stings, HYG-2076-96 (1923 words)
Sting site is more painful, swelling and itching may be present both at the sting site and in surrounding areas.
Beginning beekeepers use bee gloves, a head veil, long sleeves and coveralls with the pant legs tucked into boots or tied at the ankles to prevent unnecessary multiple stings.
Bees are more angry on cloudy, dark rainy days in early spring of the year.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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