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Bees
Osmia ribifloris
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Suborder: Apocrita
Superfamily: Apoidea
(unranked) Anthophila
Families

Andrenidae
Apidae
Colletidae
Dasypodaidae
Halictidae
Megachilidae
Meganomiidae
Melittidae
Stenotritidae Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies North-west of Europe South-west of Europe Middle East Africa Synonyms Apis mellifica Linnaeus, 1761 The Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. ... Bee may refer to: Bee, a monophyletic group in the insect superfamily Apoidea Honeybee which is kept for Honey Bees figure more prominently in myth than any other insect: see Bee (mythology). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies North-west of Europe South-west of Europe Middle East Africa Synonyms Apis mellifica Linnaeus, 1761 The Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. ... Honey bees entering a beehive. ... Download high resolution version (640x946, 180 KB)This bee, Osmia ribifloris (on a barberry flower), is an effective pollinator of commercial blueberries and is one of several relatives of the blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria. ... Blueberry bee Blueberry bee (Osmia ribifloris) is native to the coastal mountains of southern California. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... Superfamilies Apoidea Ceraphronoidea Chalcidoidea Chrysidoidea Cynipoidea Evanioidea Ichneumonoidea Megalyroidea Proctotrupoidea Sphecoidea Stephanoidea Triganalyoidea Vespoidea Many families, see article Apocrita is a suborder of insects in the order Hymenoptera. ... Series Spheciformes Anthophila The superfamily Apoidea is a major group within the Hymenoptera, which includes two traditionally-recognized lineages, the sphecoid wasps, and the bees, who appear to be their descendants. ... Subfamilies Alocandreninae Andreninae Oxaeinae Panurginae The family Andrenidae is a large cosmopolitan bee family, with most of the diversity in temperate and/or arid areas, including some truly enormous genera (e. ... Subfamilies Apinae - Honeybees Bombinae - Bumblebees Euglossinae - Orchid bees Meliponinae - Stingless bees Nomadinae Xylocopinae - Carpenter bees The Apidae are a large family of bees, comprising the common honeybees, stingless bees (which are also cultured for honey), carpenter bees, and bumblebees. ... Subfamilies Colletinae Diphaglossinae Euryglossinae Hylaeinae Xeromelissinae Colletidae is a family of bees. ... Subfamilies Dasypodainae Promelittinae Sambinae The family Dasypodaidae is a small bee family, with some 70-80 species in 7 genera, found in Africa and the northern temperate zone, primarily in xeric habitats. ... Subfamilies Halictinae Nomiinae Nomioidinae Rophitinae Halictidae is a cosmopolitan family of the order Hymenoptera consisting of small to midsize bees which are usually dark-colored and often metallic in appearance. ... Subfamilies Fideliinae Megachilinae Some of the genera Anthidium Coelioxys Heriades Hoplitis Megachile Osmia Stelis The Megachilidae are a cosmopolitan family of (mostly) solitary bees whose pollen-carrying structures (called scopae) are restricted to the ventral surface of the abdomen (rather than on the hind legs like in all other bee... Genera Ceratomonia Meganomia Pseudophilanthus Uromonia The family Meganomiidae is a very small bee family, with 10 species in 4 genera, found primarily in Africa, primarily in xeric habitats, with the distributional limits in Yemen and Madagascar. ... Subfamilies Dasypodainae Meganomiinae Melittinae The family Melittidae is a small bee family, with some 110 species in 14 genera, mostly restricted to Africa and the northern temperate zone. ... Genera Ctenocolletes Stenotritus The family Stenotritidae is the smallest of all formally-recognized bee families, with only 21 species in 2 genera, all of them restricted to Australia. ...

Synonyms

Apiformes In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ...

Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants. Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea, presently classified by the unranked taxon name Anthophila. There are nearly 20,000 known species of bee, in nine recognized families,[1] though many are undescribed and the actual number is probably higher. They are found on every continent except Antarctica, in every habitat on the planet that contains flowering dicotyledons. Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ... Series Spheciformes Anthophila The superfamily Apoidea is a major group within the Hymenoptera, which includes two traditionally-recognized lineages, the sphecoid wasps, and the bees, who appear to be their descendants. ... Orders see text Dicotyledons or dicots are flowering plants whose seed contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ...

Contents

Introduction

'Morphology of a female honey bee.'
'Morphology of a female honey bee.'
Honey Bee, on tufted vetch (Vicia cracca) (Quebec, Canada)
Honey Bee, on tufted vetch (Vicia cracca) (Quebec, Canada)

Bees are adapted for feeding on nectar and pollen, the former primarily as an energy source, and the latter primarily for protein and other nutrients. Most pollen is used as food for larvae. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 666 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2000 × 1800 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 666 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2000 × 1800 pixel, file size: 1. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 565 pixelsFull resolution (1104 × 780 pixel, file size: 845 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 565 pixelsFull resolution (1104 × 780 pixel, file size: 845 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies North-west of Europe South-west of Europe Middle East Africa Synonyms Apis mellifica Linnaeus, 1761 The Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. ... Binomial name Vicia cracca Linnaeus Cow Vetch (Vicia cracca), also known as Tufted Vetch in the United Kingdom or Bird Vetch, is a common species of vetch native to Eurasia. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Nectar of camellia Nectar, in botany, is a sugar-rich liquid produced by the flowers of plants in order to attract pollinating animals. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ...


Bees have a long proboscis (a complex "tongue") that enables them to obtain the nectar from flowers. They have antennae almost universally made up of thirteen segments in males and twelve in females, as is typical for the superfamily. Bees all have two pairs of wings, the hind pair being the smaller of the two; in a very few species, one sex or caste has relatively short wings that make flight difficult or impossible, but none are wingless. Closeup image of the Cairns Birdwing, showing its large proboscis A syrphid fly using its proboscis to reach the nectar of a flower In general, a proboscis (from Greek pro before and boskein to feed) is an elongated appendage from the head of an animal. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ... Wing structure of a dragonfly (family Gomphidae) Insect wings are outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly. ...


The smallest bee is the dwarf bee (Trigona minima), about 2.1 mm (5/64") long. The largest bee in the world is Megachile pluto, which can grow to a size of 39 mm (1.5"). Member of the family Halictidae, or sweat bees, are the most common type of bee in the Northern Hemisphere, though they are small and often mistaken for wasps or flies. Binomial name Megachile pluto B. Smith ex Wallace, 1869 Megachile pluto is a very large Indonesian resin bee (a leafcutter bee that uses resin to make compartments in its nest). ... Subfamilies Halictinae Nomiinae Nomioidinae Rophitinae Halictidae is a cosmopolitan family of the order Hymenoptera consisting of small to midsize bees which are usually dark-colored and often metallic in appearance. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ...


The best-known bee species is the Western honey bee, which, as its name suggests, produces honey, as do a few other types of bee. Human management of this species is known as beekeeping or apiculture. Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies North-west of Europe South-west of Europe Middle East Africa Synonyms Apis mellifica Linnaeus, 1761 The Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... Beekeeping, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (14th century) Honey seeker depicted on 6000 year old cave painting near Valencia, Spain Beekeeping (or apiculture, from Latin apis, a bee) is the practice of intentional maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. ...


Bees are the favorite meal of Merops apiaster, the bee-eater bird. Other common predators are kingbirds, mockingbirds, bee wolves, and dragonflies. Genera Nyctyornis Meropogon Merops The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. ... Tyrannus. ... For other uses, see Mockingbird (disambiguation). ... The genus Philanthus of the subfamilly Philanthinae is in the family Crabronidae. ... This article is about the insect. ...


Pollination

Two honey bees are collecting pollen from Nightblooming cereus
Two honey bees are collecting pollen from Nightblooming cereus
Honey Bee collecting pollen
Honey Bee collecting pollen

Bees play an important role in pollinating flowering plants, and are the major type of pollinator in ecosystems that contain flowering plants. Bees either focus on gathering nectar or on gathering pollen depending on demand, especially in social species. Bees gathering nectar may accomplish pollination, but bees that are deliberately gathering pollen are more efficient pollinators. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 404 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1743 × 2585 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 404 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1743 × 2585 pixel, file size: 2. ... Nightblooming cereus (night-blooming cereus, night blooming cereus), Reina de la noche or Queen of the night are names of many cacti - among others: Selenicereus grandiflorus (genuine queen of the night) Arizona queen of the night Epiphyllum oxypetalum See also nightblooming cactus. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 142 KB) http://pdphoto. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 142 KB) http://pdphoto. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies North-west of Europe South-west of Europe Middle East Africa Synonyms Apis mellifica Linnaeus, 1761 The Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ...


It is estimated that one third of the human food supply depends on insect pollination, most of which is accomplished by bees, especially the domesticated Western honey bee. Contract pollination has overtaken the role of honey production for beekeepers in many countries. Monoculture and pollinator decline (of many bee species) have increasingly caused honey bee keepers to become migratory so that bees can be concentrated in seasonally-varying high-demand areas of pollination. Recently, many such migratory beekeepers have experienced substantial losses, prompting the announcement of investigation into the phenomenon, dubbed "Colony Collapse Disorder," amidst great concern over the nature and extent of the losses. Many other species of bees such as mason bees are increasingly cultured and used to meet the agricultural pollination need. Most native pollinators are solitary bees, which often survive in refuge in wild areas away from agricultural spraying, but may still be poisoned in massive spray programs for mosquitoes, gypsy moths, or other insect pests. Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies North-west of Europe South-west of Europe Middle East Africa Synonyms Apis mellifica Linnaeus, 1761 The Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. ... Pollination Management is the label for horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality, by understanding of the particular crops pollination needs, and by knowledgeable management of pollenizers, pollinators, and pollination conditions. ... A commercial beekeeper working in an apiary. ... Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... Pollinator decline is based on observations made at the end of the twentieth century of the reduction in abundance of pollinators in many ecosystems worldwide. ... Seasonal human migration is very common in agricultural cycles. ... Honey bees entering a beehive. ... Red Mason Bee (Osmia rufa) Mason bee is a general term for species of bees such as the orchard mason bee (Osmia lignaria) and the hornfaced bee (Osmia cornifrons). ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Lymantria dispar Linnaeus, 1758 The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a moth in the family Lymantriidae of Eurasian origin. ... Larval form of some beetle is damaging specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in entomogical collection. ...

Honey bee near a flower.
Honey bee near a flower.

Most bees are fuzzy and carry an electrostatic charge, which aids in the adherence of pollen. Female bees periodically stop foraging and groom themselves to pack the pollen into the scopa, which is on the legs in most bees, and on the ventral abdomen on others, and modified into specialized pollen baskets on the legs of honey bees and their relatives. Many bees are opportunistic foragers, and will gather pollen from a variety of plants, while others are oligolectic, gathering pollen from only one or a few types of plant. A small number of plants produce nutritious floral oils rather than pollen, which are gathered and used by oligolectic bees. One small subgroup of stingless bees (called "vulture bees") is specialized to feed on carrion, and these are the only bees that do not use plant products as food. Pollen and nectar are usually combined together to form a "provision mass", which is often soupy, but can be firm. It is formed into various shapes (typically spheroid), and stored in a small chamber (a "cell"), with the egg deposited on the mass. The cell is typically sealed after the egg is laid, and the adult and larva never interact directly (a system called "mass provisioning"). Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies North-west of Europe South-west of Europe Middle East Africa Synonyms Apis mellifica Linnaeus, 1761 The Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Electrostatics is the branch of physics that deals with the force exerted by a static (i. ... Abdominal scopa of a Megachilid bee The term scopa is used to refer to any of a number of different modifications on the body of a bee that form a pollen-carrying apparatus. ... The abdomen in a human and an ant. ... honeybee pollen basket The pollen basket or corbicula is part of the hind tibia of the back (posterior) legs of the honeybee. ... The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... The term oligolecty is used in pollination ecology to refer to bees that exhibit a narrow, specialized preference for pollen sources, typically to a single genus of flowering plants. ... Genera Lestrimelitta Melipona Trigona, sensu lato: (21 genera) The stingless bees belong to the tribe Meliponini (usually called the stingless honeybee) in the family Apidae, which also comprise the common honeybees, carpenter bees, orchid bees and bumblebees. ... The vulture bee, Trigona hypogea, is a stingless bee which feeds on rotting meat rather than pollen or nectar. ... An American Black Vulture feeding on squirrel carrion For other uses, see Carrion (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, a spheroid is a quadric surface in three dimensions obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes. ...


Visiting flowers can be a dangerous occupation. Many assassin bugs and crab spiders hide in flowers to capture unwary bees. Other bees are lost to birds in flight. Insecticides used on blooming plants kill many bees, both by direct poisoning and by contamination of their food supply. A honey bee queen may lay 2000 eggs per day during spring buildup, but she also must lay 1000 to 1500 eggs per day during the foraging season, mostly to replace daily casualties, most of which are workers dying of old age. Among solitary and primitively social bees, however, lifetime reproduction is among the lowest of all insects, as it is common for females of such species to produce fewer than 25 offspring. Subfamilies Harpactorinae Peiratinae Tegeinae Triatominae etc. ... Genera Misumena Misumenops Misumenoides Thomisius Xysticus Tmarus The true Crab spiders are a group of spiders constituting the family Thomisidae or thomisids. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ... Queen bee with attendants on a honeycomb. ...


The population value of bees depends partly on the individual efficiency of the bees, but also on the population itself. Thus, while bumblebees have been found to be about ten times more efficient pollinators on cucurbits, the total efficiency of a colony of honey bees is much greater, due to greater numbers. Likewise, during early spring orchard blossoms, bumblebee populations are limited to only a few queens, and thus are not significant pollinators of early fruit. This article is about the flying insect. ... Genera Abobra Acanthosicyos Actinostemma Alsomitra Ampelosycios Anacaona Apatzingania Apodanthera Bambekea Benincasa Biswarea Bolbostemma Brandegea Bryonia Calycophysum Cayaponia Cephalopentandra Ceratosanthes Chalema Cionosicyos Citrullus Coccinia Cogniauxia Corallocarpus Cremastopus Ctenolepis Cucumella Cucumeropsis Cucumis Cucurbita Cucurbitella Cyclanthera Dactyliandra Dendrosicyos Dicoelospermum Dieterlea Diplocyclos Doyerea Ecballium Echinocystis Echinopepon Edgaria Elateriopsis Eureiandra Fevillea Gerrardanthus Gomphogyne Gurania Guraniopsis...


See also List of crop plants pollinated by bees


Evolution

Bees vary tremendously in size. Here a tiny halictid bee is gathering pollen, while a bumblebee behind her gathers nectar from a lily.
Bees vary tremendously in size. Here a tiny halictid bee is gathering pollen, while a bumblebee behind her gathers nectar from a lily.

Bees, like ants, are a specialized form of wasp. The ancestors of bees were wasps in the family Crabronidae, and therefore predators of other insects. The switch from insect prey to pollen may have resulted from the consumption of prey insects that were flower visitors and were partially covered with pollen when they were fed to the wasp larvae. This same evolutionary scenario has also occurred within the vespoid wasps, where the group known as "pollen wasps" also evolved from predatory ancestors. Up until recently the oldest non-compression bee fossil had been Cretotrigona prisca in New Jersey amber and of Cretaceous age, a meliponine. A recently reported bee fossil, of the genus Melittosphex, is considered "an extinct lineage of pollen-collecting Apoidea sister to the modern bees", and dates from the early Cretaceous (~100 mya).[2] Derived features of its morphology ("apomorphies") place it clearly within the bees, but it retains two unmodified ancestral traits ("plesiomorphies") of the legs (two mid-tibial spurs, and a slender hind basitarsus), indicative of its transitional status. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1800x1427, 2737 KB) Summary Tiny halictid bee gathering pollen, while giant bumblebee gathers nectar from a lily Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1800x1427, 2737 KB) Summary Tiny halictid bee gathering pollen, while giant bumblebee gathers nectar from a lily Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the... Subfamilies Halictinae Nomiinae Nomioidinae Rophitinae Halictidae is a cosmopolitan family of the order Hymenoptera consisting of small to midsize bees which are usually dark-colored and often metallic in appearance. ... lily is the best name in the whole wide world. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ... Genera Many, see text Crabronidae (Latreille, 1802) is a family of wasps. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Vespoidea is a Superfamily of Order Hymenoptera of Class Insecta, although other taxonomic schemes may vary in this categorization. ... Genera Celonites Ceramius Quartinia Pseudomasaris >10 others Pollen wasps are unusual wasps that are typically treated as a subfamily of Vespidae, but have in the past sometimes been recognized as a separate family, Masaridae. ... Genera Lestrimelitta Melipona Trigona, sensu lato: (21 genera) Stingless bees are a large group of bees, comprising the tribe Meliponini (sometimes called stingless honey bees) in the family Apidae, and closely-related to the common honey bees, carpenter bees, orchid bees and bumblebees. ... Melittosphex burmensis, preserved in amber Melittosphex burmensis is the name of the oldest known bee, as found in an approximately 100 million year old piece of amber. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ...


The earliest animal-pollinated flowers were pollinated by insects such as beetles, so the syndrome of insect pollination was well established before bees first appeared. The novelty is that bees are specialized as pollination agents, with behavioral and physical modifications that specifically enhance pollination, and are much more efficient at the task than beetles, flies, butterflies, pollen wasps, or any other pollinating insect. The appearance of such floral specialists is believed to have driven the adaptive radiation of the angiosperms, and, in turn, the bees themselves. For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fly (disambiguation) and Flies (disambiguation). ... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptera. ... Four of the 13 finch species found on the Galápagos Archipelago, and thought to have evolved by an adaptive radiation that diversified their beak shapes to adapt them to different food sources. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ...


Among living bee groups, the Dasypodaidae are now considered to be the most "primitive", and sister taxon to the remainder of the bees, contrary to earlier hypotheses that the "short-tongued" bee family Colletidae was the basal group of bees; the short, wasp-like mouthparts of colletids are the result of convergent evolution, rather than indicative of a plesiomorphic condition.[1] Subfamilies Dasypodainae Promelittinae Sambinae The family Dasypodaidae is a small bee family, with some 70-80 species in 7 genera, found in Africa and the northern temperate zone, primarily in xeric habitats. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... Subfamilies Colletinae Diphaglossinae Euryglossinae Hylaeinae Xeromelissinae Colletidae is a family of bees. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ...


Eusocial and semisocial bees

A honey bee swarm
A honey bee swarm
Bumblebee
Bumblebee
A Western honey bee extracts nectar from an Aster flower
A Western honey bee extracts nectar from an Aster flower

Bees may be solitary or may live in various types of communities. The most advanced of these are eusocial colonies found among the honey bees, bumblebees, and stingless bees. Sociality, of several different types, is believed to have evolved separately many times within the bees. A large colony of bees can be referred to as a XERD Cluster. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1067x1600, 1320 KB) A large bee swarm on a fallen tree If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1067x1600, 1320 KB) A large bee swarm on a fallen tree If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or... Download high resolution version (517x640, 66 KB)Close up photograph of a bumblebee taken by Mark Burnett File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (517x640, 66 KB)Close up photograph of a bumblebee taken by Mark Burnett File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1620x1280, 489 KB) Photo by John Severns. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1620x1280, 489 KB) Photo by John Severns. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies North-west of Europe South-west of Europe Middle East Africa Synonyms Apis mellifica Linnaeus, 1761 The Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. ... Species Many, see text. ... Eusociality is the phenomenon of reproductive specialisation found in some species of animal, whereby a specialised caste carries out reproduction in a colony of non-reproductive animals. ...



In some species, groups of cohabiting females may be sisters, and if there is a division of labor within the group, then they are considered semisocial.


If, in addition to a division of labor, the group consists of a mother and her daughters, then the group is called eusocial. The mother is considered the "queen" and the daughters are "workers". These castes may be purely behavioral alternatives, in which case the system is considered "primitively eusocial" (similar to many paper wasps), and if the castes are morphologically discrete, then the system is "highly eusocial". In this image of a female Polistes wasp tending to a nest, a long, black petiole, by which the nest is attached to the branch, is quite apparent. ...


There are many more species of primitively eusocial bees than highly eusocial bees, but they have rarely been studied. The biology of most such species is almost completely unknown. The vast majority are in the family Halictidae, or "sweat bees". Colonies are typically small, with a dozen or fewer workers, on average. The only physical difference between queens and workers is average size, if they differ at all. Most species have a single season colony cycle, even in the tropics, and only mated females (future queens, or "gynes") hibernate (called diapause). A few species have long active seasons and attain colony sizes in the hundreds. The orchid bees include a number of primitively eusocial species with similar biology. Certain species of allodapine bees (relatives of carpenter bees) also have primitively eusocial colonies, with unusual levels of interaction between the adult bees and the developing brood. This is "progressive provisioning"; a larva's food is supplied gradually as it develops. This system is also seen in honey bees and some bumblebees. Subfamilies Halictinae Nomiinae Nomioidinae Rophitinae Halictidae is a cosmopolitan family of the order Hymenoptera consisting of small to midsize bees which are usually dark-colored and often metallic in appearance. ... Diapause is a physiological state of dormancy with very specific triggering and releasing conditions; there are various definitions and contexts in which the term is used, but its most common application is in arthropods, especially insects. ... Genera Aglae Euglossa Eulaema Eufriesea Exaerete Euglossine bees, also called orchid bees, are the only group of corbiculate bees which do not all possess eusocial behavior. ... Genera Xylocopa (31 subgenera) Carpenter bees (the genus Xylocopa in the subfamily Xylocopinae) are large, hairy bees distributed worldwide. ...


Highly eusocial bees live in colonies. Each colony has a single queen, many workers and, at certain stages in the colony cycle, drones. When humans provide the nest, it is called a hive. A honey bee hive can contain up to 40,000 bees at their annual peak, which occurs in the spring, but usually have fewer. For the Queen bee in clique & social groups, see Clique Peanut-like queen brood cells extend outward and downward from the broodcomb. ... A worker bee is a female honeybee which performs certain tasks in support of a bee hive. ... Drone Drones are male honey bees. ... Domesticated Western honey bees are kept in beehives. ...


Bumblebees

Main article: Bumblebee

Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris, B. pratorum, et al.) are eusocial in a manner quite similar to the eusocial Vespidae such as hornets. The queen initiates a nest on her own (unlike queens of honey bees and stingless bees which start nests via swarms in the company of a large worker force). Bumblebee colonies typically have from 50 to 200 bees at peak population, which occurs in mid to late summer. Nest architecture is simple, limited by the size of the nest cavity (pre-existing), and colonies are rarely perennial. Bumblebee queens sometimes seek winter safety in honey bee hives, where they are sometimes found dead in the spring by beekeepers, presumably stung to death by the honey bees. It is unknown whether any survive winter in such an environment. This article is about the flying insect. ... This article is about the flying insect. ... Genera The vespids are a family of wasps, including all social wasps and some solitary wasps. ... This article refers collectively to all true hornets. ... School of juvenile herring - many fish have the opercula wide open for ram feeding and you can see the red gills The term swarm (schooling or swarming) is applied to fish, birds and insects and describes a behavior of an aggregation (school) of animals of similar size and body orientation... A commercial beekeeper working in an apiary. ...


Stingless bees

Main article: Stingless bee

Stingless bees are very diverse in behavior, but all are highly eusocial. They practice mass provisioning, complex nest architecture, and perennial colonies. Genera Lestrimelitta Melipona Trigona, sensu lato: (21 genera) The stingless bees belong to the tribe Meliponini (usually called the stingless honeybee) in the family Apidae, which also comprise the common honeybees, carpenter bees, orchid bees and bumblebees. ... Genera Lestrimelitta Melipona Trigona, sensu lato: (21 genera) The stingless bees belong to the tribe Meliponini (usually called the stingless honeybee) in the family Apidae, which also comprise the common honeybees, carpenter bees, orchid bees and bumblebees. ... Eusociality is the phenomenon of reproductive specialisation found in some species of animal, whereby a specialised caste carries out reproduction in a colony of non-reproductive animals. ...


Honey bees

Main article: Honey bee

The true honey bees (genus Apis) have arguably the most complex social behavior among the bees. The Western (or European) honey bee, Apis mellifera, is the best known bee species and one of the best known of all insects. The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... Apis can refer to the following: Apis — An Egyptian god Apis — A Bee genus Apis — In Greek mythology a prophet. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies North-west of Europe South-west of Europe Middle East Africa Synonyms Apis mellifica Linnaeus, 1761 The Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. ...


Africanized honey bee

Main article: Africanized bee

Africanized bees, also called killer bees, are a hybrid strain of Apis mellifera derived from experiments to cross European and African honey bees by Warwick Estevam Kerr. Several queen bees escaped his laboratory in South America and have spread throughout the Americas. Africanized honey bees are more defensive than European honey bees. Species HYBRID (see text) Africanized honey bees (AHB), known colloquially as killer bees, are hybrids of the African honey bee, Apis mellifera scutellata (not ; see Collet , 2006), with various European honey bees such as the Italian bee A. m. ... Binomial name Apis mellifera The species called Western honeybees (Apis mellifera) are honeybees comprised of several subspecies or races. ... Warwick Estevam Kerr. ...


Solitary and communal bees

Most other bees, including familiar species of bee such as the Eastern carpenter bee (Xylocopa virginica), alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile rotundata), orchard mason bee (Osmia lignaria) and the hornfaced bee (Osmia cornifrons) are solitary in the sense that every female is fertile, and typically inhabits a nest she constructs herself. There are no worker bees for these species. Solitary bees typically produce neither honey nor beeswax. They are immune from acarine and Varroa mites (see diseases of the honey bee), but have their own unique parasites, pests and diseases. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Megachile rotundata Fabricius, 1787 The Alfalfa Leafcutter Bee (megachile rotundata) is a species of bee cultured solely for pollination purposes. ... Orchard Mason bee Bee that makes nests from mud and wax (to distinguis it from carpenter bees that make nest by drilling in wood and parisitic species that hibernate in other bees hives ) ... Osmia cornifrons Used commercially for several decades in Japan to pollinate apples, its now in the U.S. A single hornfaced bee can visit 15 flowers in a minute. ... For the rock song by Nirvana, see Beeswax (song). ... Acarina or acari is an order of arachnids that consists of mites and ticks. ... Binomial name Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, 2000 Varroa destructor is an external parasitic mite that attacks honey bees Apis cerana and Apis mellifera, the bumblebee Bombus pennsylvanicus, the scarab beetle Palpada vinetorum and the flower-fly Phanaeus vindex. ... Mites, along with ticks, belong to the subclass Acarina (also known as Acari) and the class Arachnida. ... Common diseases, parasites, pests, and ailments of the honey bee include: // Varroa mite on a honey bee larva Main articles: Varroa destructor Varroa destructor and Varroa jacobsoni are parasitic mites that feed off the bodily fluids of adult, pupal and larval bees. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... This article is about the medical term. ...

A solitary bee, Anthidium florentinum (family Megachilidae), visiting Lantana
A solitary bee, Anthidium florentinum (family Megachilidae), visiting Lantana

Solitary bees are important pollinators, and pollen is gathered for provisioning the nest with food for their brood. Often it is mixed with nectar to form a paste-like consistency. Some solitary bees have very advanced types of pollen carrying structures on their bodies. A very few species of solitary bees are being increasingly cultured for commercial pollination. Subfamilies Fideliinae Megachilinae Some of the genera Anthidium Coelioxys Heriades Hoplitis Megachile Osmia Stelis The Megachilidae are a cosmopolitan family of (mostly) solitary bees whose pollen-carrying structures (called scopae) are restricted to the ventral surface of the abdomen (rather than on the hind legs like in all other bee... For other uses, see Lantana (disambiguation). ...


Solitary bees are often oligoleges, in that they only gather pollen from one or a few species/genera of plants (unlike honey bees and bumblebees which are generalists). No known bees are nectar specialists; many oligolectic bees will visit multiple plants for nectar, but there are no bees which visit only one plant for nectar while also gathering pollen from many different sources. Specialist pollinators also include bee species that gather floral oils instead of pollen, and male orchid bees, which gather aromatic compounds from orchids (one of the only cases where male bees are effective pollinators). In a very few cases only one species of bee can effectively pollinate a plant species, and some plants are endangered at least in part because their pollinator is dying off. There is, however, a pronounced tendency for oligolectic bees to be associated with common, widespread plants which are visited by multiple pollinators (e.g., there are some 40 oligoleges associated with creosotebush in the US desert southwest[3], and a similar pattern is seen in sunflowers, asters, mesquite, etc.) The term oligolecty is used in pollination ecology to refer to bees that exhibit a narrow, specialized preference for pollen sources, typically to a single genus of flowering plants. ... Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Creosote bush in foreground, Kilbourne hole NM in background, and more creosote bushes stretching to the horizon The Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata, formerly Larrea divaricata) is an evergreen shrub of the Zygophyllaceae family. ... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ... ASTER image ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) is one of five remote sensory devices on board the Terra satellite launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999. ... Species Many; see text. ...


Solitary bees create nests in hollow reeds or twigs, holes in wood, or, most commonly, in tunnels in the ground. The female typically creates a compartment (a "cell") with an egg and some provisions for the resulting larva, then seals it off. A nest may consist of numerous cells. When the nest is in wood, usually the last (those closer to the entrance) contain eggs that will become males. The adult does not provide care for the brood once the egg is laid, and usually dies after making one or more nests. The males typically emerge first and are ready for mating when the females emerge. Providing nest boxes for solitary bees is increasingly popular for gardeners. Solitary bees are either stingless or very unlikely to sting (only in self defense, if ever). This article is about common reed. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... A gardener is any person involved in the growing and maintenance of plants, notably in a garden. ...

A bee on a cornel
A bee on a cornel

While solitary females each make individual nests, some species are gregarious, preferring to make nests near others of the same species, giving the appearance to the casual observer that they are social. Large groups of solitary bee nests are called aggregations, to distinguish them from colonies. This is a biological article: For a territory administered by another territory see: Colony For a group attempting to affiliate with a Fraternity or Sorority see: Colony (fraternity) In biology, a colony (from Latin colonia) refers to several individual organisms of the same species living closely together, usually for mutual...


In some species, multiple females share a common nest, but each makes and provisions her own cells independently. This type of group is called "communal" and is not uncommon. The primary advantage appears to be that a nest entrance is easier to defend from predators and parasites when there are multiple females using that same entrance on a regular basis.


Cleptoparasitic bees

Cleptoparasitic bees, commonly called "cuckoo bees" because their behavior is similar to cuckoo birds, occur in several bee families, though the name is technically best applied to the apid subfamily Nomadinae. Females of these bees lack pollen collecting structures (the scopa) and do not construct their own nests. They typically enter the nests of pollen collecting species, and lay their eggs in cells provisioned by the host bee. When the cuckoo bee larva hatches it consumes the host larva's pollen ball, and if the female cleptoparasite has not already done so, kills and eats the host larva. In a few cases where the hosts are social species, the cleptoparasite remains in the host nest and lays many eggs, sometimes even killing the host queen and replacing her. Kleptoparasitism or cleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding where one animal takes prey from another that has caught, killed, or otherwise prepared it, including stored food provisions, as in the case of cuckoo bees, which lay their eggs on the pollen masses made by other bees. ... The term cuckoo bee is used for a variety of different bee lineages which have evolved the cleptoparasitic habit of laying their eggs in the nests of other bees, reminiscent of the behavior of cuckoo birds. ... Genera See text. ... Subfamilies Apinae - Honeybees Bombinae - Bumblebees Euglossinae - Orchid bees Meliponinae - Stingless bees Nomadinae Xylocopinae - Carpenter bees The Apidae are a large family of bees, comprising the common honeybees, stingless bees (which are also cultured for honey), carpenter bees, and bumblebees. ... Genera Many The subfamily Nomadinae is the largest and most diverse group of cleptoparasitic cuckoo bees; they occur worldwide, and utilize many different types of bees as hosts. ... Abdominal scopa of a Megachilid bee The term scopa is used to refer to any of a number of different modifications on the body of a bee that form a pollen-carrying apparatus. ...


Many cleptoparasitic bees are closely related to, and resemble, their hosts in looks and size, (i.e., the Bombus subgenus Psithyrus, which are parasitic bumblebees that infiltrate nests of species in other subgenera of Bombus). This common pattern gave rise to the ecological principle known as "Emery's Rule". Others parasitize bees in different families, like Townsendiella, a nomadine apid, one species of which is a cleptoparasite of the dasypodaid genus Hesperapis, while the other species in the same genus attack halictid bees. Species see text A bumblebee in flight The bumblebee is a flying insect of the genus Bombus in the family Apidae. ... Species see text A bumblebee in flight The bumblebee is a flying insect of the genus Bombus in the family Apidae. ... In 1909, the entomologist C. Emery noted that social parasites among insects (e. ... Genera Many The subfamily Nomadinae is the largest and most diverse group of cleptoparasitic cuckoo bees; they occur worldwide, and utilize many different types of bees as hosts. ... Subfamilies Apinae - Honeybees Bombinae - Bumblebees Euglossinae - Orchid bees Meliponinae - Stingless bees Nomadinae Xylocopinae - Carpenter bees The Apidae are a large family of bees, comprising the common honeybees, stingless bees (which are also cultured for honey), carpenter bees, and bumblebees. ... Subfamilies Dasypodainae Promelittinae Sambinae The family Dasypodaidae is a small bee family, with some 70-80 species in 7 genera, found in Africa and the northern temperate zone, primarily in xeric habitats. ... Subfamilies Halictinae Nomiinae Nomioidinae Rophitinae Halictidae is a cosmopolitan family of the order Hymenoptera consisting of small to midsize bees which are usually dark-colored and often metallic in appearance. ...


Nocturnal bees

Four bee families (Andrenidae, Colletidae, Halictidae, and Apidae) contain some species that are crepuscular (these may be either the vespertine or matinal type). These bees have greatly enlarged ocelli, which are extremely sensitive to light and dark, though incapable of forming images. Many are pollinators of flowers that themselves are crepuscular, such as evening primroses, and some live in desert habitats where daytime temperatures are extremely high. Subfamilies Alocandreninae Andreninae Oxaeinae Panurginae The family Andrenidae is a large cosmopolitan bee family, with most of the diversity in temperate and/or arid areas, including some truly enormous genera (e. ... Subfamilies Colletinae Diphaglossinae Euryglossinae Hylaeinae Xeromelissinae Colletidae is a family of bees. ... Subfamilies Halictinae Nomiinae Nomioidinae Rophitinae Halictidae is a cosmopolitan family of the order Hymenoptera consisting of small to midsize bees which are usually dark-colored and often metallic in appearance. ... Subfamilies Apinae - Honeybees Bombinae - Bumblebees Euglossinae - Orchid bees Meliponinae - Stingless bees Nomadinae Xylocopinae - Carpenter bees The Apidae are a large family of bees, comprising the common honeybees, stingless bees (which are also cultured for honey), carpenter bees, and bumblebees. ... Adult Firefly or Lightning Bug – a Crepuscular Beetle Photuris lucicrescens Crepuscular is a term used to describe animals that are primarily active during the twilight. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Matinal is a term used in the life sciences, apparently only in entomology, where it describes an insect that is only or primarily active in the pre-dawn hours or early morning, and is most often used in literature on the natural history and ecology of bees. ... An ocellus (plural: ocelli) is a type of photoreceptor organ in animals. ... Adult Firefly or Lightning Bug – a Crepuscular Beetle Photuris lucicrescens Crepuscular is a term used to describe animals that are primarily active during the twilight. ... Evening Primrose was a television musical written in 1966 by Stephen Sondheim and James Goldman for ABC Televisions Stage 67. ...


Bee flight

In his 1934 French book Le vol des insectes, M. Magnan wrote that he and a Mr. Saint-Lague had applied the equations of air resistance to bumblebees and found that their flight was impossible, but that "One shouldn't be surprised that the results of the calculations don't square with reality".[4] André Sainte-Laguë (April 20, 1882 – January 18, 1950) was a French mathematician who was a pioneer in the area of graph theory. ... For a solid object moving through a fluid or gas, drag is the sum of all the aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces in the direction of the external fluid flow. ... This article is about the flying insect. ...


In 1996 Charlie Ellington at Cambridge University showed that vortices created by many insects’ wings and non-linear effects were a vital source of lift;[5] vortices and non-linear phenomena are notoriously difficult areas of hydrodynamics, which has made for slow progress in theoretical understanding of insect flight. The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... Vortex created by the passage of an aircraft wing, revealed by coloured smoke A vortex (pl. ... Hydrodynamics is fluid dynamics applied to liquids, such as water, alcohol, oil, and blood. ...


In 2005 Michael Dickinson and his Caltech colleagues studied honey bee flight with the assistance of high-speed cinematography[6] and a giant robotic mock-up of a bee wing[7]. Their analysis revealed sufficient lift was generated by "the unconventional combination of short, choppy wing strokes, a rapid rotation of the wing as it flops over and reverses direction, and a very fast wing-beat frequency". Wing beat frequency normally increases as size decreases, but as the bee's wing beat covers such a small arc, it flaps approximately 230 times per second, faster than a fruitfly (200 times per second) which is 80 times smaller.[8] California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (commonly known as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies North-west of Europe South-west of Europe Middle East Africa Synonyms Apis mellifica Linnaeus, 1761 The Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. ... Cinematography (from Greek: kinesis (movement) and grapho (to record)), is the discipline of making lighting and camera choices when recording photographic images for the cinema. ... In Euclidean geometry, an arc is a closed segment of a differentiable curve in the two-dimensional plane; for example, a circular arc is a segment of a circle. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Bees and humans

Bees figure prominently in mythology (See Bee (mythology)) and have been used by political theorists as a model for human society. Journalist Bee Wilson states that the image of a community of honey bees "occurs from ancient to modern times, in Aristotle and Plato; in Virgil and Seneca; in Erasmus and Shakespeare; Tolstoy, as well as by social theorists Bernard Mandeville and Karl Marx."[9] Gold plaques embossed with the winged bee goddesses, perhaps the Thriai, found at Camiros Rhodes, 7th century BCE (British Museum) The Bee, found in Ancient Near East and Aegean cultures, is believed to be the sacred insect that bridged the natural world to the underworld. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Seneca may refer to: Roman figures (any links to Seneca in Roman pages should be relinked to one of these two) Marcus (or Lucius) Annaeus Seneca also called rhetor, Roman orator and father of Seneca the philosopher and dramatist. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Coat of arms of the Tolstoy family Tolstoy, or Tolstoi (Russian: ) is a prominent family of Russian nobility, descending from one Andrey Kharitonovich Tolstoy (i. ... Bernard de Mandeville (1670- January 19 or 21, 1733?), was a philosopher and satirist. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ...


Despite the honey bee's painful sting and the stereotype of insects as pests, bees are generally held in high regard. This is most likely due to their usefulness as pollinators and as producers of honey, their social nature and their reputation for diligence. Bees are one of the few insects used on advertisements, being used to illustrate honey and foods made with honey (e.g. Honey Nut Cheerios), and appearing in the 2007 Bee Movie. Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... Honey Nut Cheerios from Canada Honey Nut Cheerios is a variation of Cheerios breakfast cereal, introduced in 1979 by General Mills. ... For the video game based on the film, see Bee Movie Game. ...


In North America, yellowjackets and hornets, especially when encountered as flying pests, are often misidentified as bees, despite numerous differences between them. Although a bee sting can be deadly to those with allergies, virtually all bee species are non-aggressive if undisturbed and many cannot sting at all. In fact humans will often be a greater danger to the bees, as bees are often affected or even harmed by encounters with toxic chemicals in the environment (see Bees and toxic chemicals). North American redirects here. ... Yellowjacket or yellow-jacket is the common name in North America for wasps of the genera Vespula and Dolichovespula. ... This article refers collectively to all true hornets. ... While easily confusable at a distance or without close observation, there are many different characteristics of bees and wasps which can be used to identify them. ... An Eastern carpenter bee gathering pollen. ...


Gallery

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Apoidea

While easily confusable at a distance or without close observation, there are many different characteristics of bees and wasps which can be used to identify them. ... The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... The honey bee life cycle, here referring exclusively to the domesticated Western honey bee, depends greatly on their social structure. ... Genera Nyctyornis Meropogon Merops The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. ... Schmidt Sting Pain Index or The Justin O. Schmidt Pain Index was created by Justin O. Schmidt, an entomologist. ... The mouthparts of arthropods have evolved into a number of forms, each adapted to a different style of feeding. ... Domesticated Western honey bees are kept in beehives. ... Apiology (from Greek: api, bee; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the scientific study of honey bees, a subdiscipline of Melittology, which is itself a branch of entomology. ... Honey bees entering a beehive. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Danforth, B.N., Sipes, S., Fang, J., Brady, S.G. (2006) The history of early bee diversification based on five genes plus morphology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103: 15118-15123.
  2. ^ Poinar, G.O. Jr., Danforth, B.N. 2006. A fossil bee from early Cretaceous Burmese amber. Science 314: 614.
  3. ^ Hurd, P.D. Jr., Linsley, E.G. 1975. The principal Larrea bees of the southwestern United States. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 193: 1-74.
  4. ^ Ingram, Jay The Barmaid's Brain, Aurum Press, 2001, pp.91-92.
  5. ^ Secrets of bee flight revealed, Phillips, Helen. 28 November 2005. Retrieved 2007-12-28
  6. ^ http://www.newscientist.com/data/images/ns/av/dn8382.avi
  7. ^ Deciphering the Mystery of Bee Flight Caltech Media Relations. Nov. 29, 2005. Retrieved 2007, 4-7.
  8. ^ Douglas L. Altshuler, William B. Dickson, Jason T. Vance, Stephen P. Roberts, and Michael H. Dickinson (2005). "Short-amplitude high-frequency wing strokes determine the aerodynamics of honeybee flight". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 102: 18213–18218. doi:10.1073/pnas.0506590102. PMID 16330767. 
  9. ^ Wilson, Bee (2004). The Hive: The Story Of The Honeybee. London, Great Britain: John Murray (publisher). ISBN 0 7195 6598 7. 

// The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Species Larrea ameghinoi Larrea cuneifolia Larrea divaricata Larrea nitida Larrea tridentata Larrea is a genus of five species of New World evergreen shrubs that includes the Creosote bush Larrea tridentata of North America and the Jarillas of South America. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... John Murray is a British publishing house, renowned for the roster of authors it has published in its history, including Jane Austen, Lord Byron and Charles Darwin. ...

External links

In heraldry, a charge is an image occupying the field on an escutcheon (or shield). ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... The winged lion of Mark the Evangelist for centuries has been the national emblem and landmark of Venice (detail from a painting by Vittore Carpaccio, 1516) The lion is a common charge in heraldry. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Rooster (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... The Polish coat of arms has an eagle as the main subject. ... For other uses, see Pelican (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rook. ... For other uses, see Griffin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Basilisk (disambiguation). ... The biscione as a symbol of Milan, seen here at the Central Station The biscione, together with the Imperial eagle, on the coat of arms of the Duchy of Milan The Biscione (‘large grass snake’), also known as the Vipera (‘viper’ or in Milanese as the Bissa), is a heraldic... Cockatrice A cockatrice is a legendary creature, an ornament in the drama and poetry of the Elizabethans (Breiner). ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... The Enfield is a beast sometimes used in heraldry, said to have the head of a fox, the chest of a greyhound, the body of a lion, the hindquarters and tail of a wolf, and forelegs like an eagles talons. ... For other uses, see Griffin (disambiguation). ... Roman griffon, Turkey The griffin (also spelled gryphon, griffon or gryphin) is a legendary creature with the body of a lion, the head of an eagle and the ears of a horse or a donkey. ... Manticore illustration from The History of Four-footed Beasts (1607) For other uses, see Manticore (disambiguation). ... A martlet is a type of heraldic bird similar to the swallow, but having no feet. ... For other uses, see Griffin (disambiguation). ... For other mythic firebirds, see Fire bird (mythology). ... A 16th-century image of a salamander from M. M. Pattison Muirs The Story of Alchemy and the Beginnings of Chemistry The salamander an amphibian of the order Urodela. ... The gentle and pensive maiden has the power to tame the unicorn, fresco, Palazzo Farnese, Rome, probably by Domenico Zampieri, ca 1602 For other uses, see Unicorn (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wyvern (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758 The Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), also known as dolphin fish or dorado, are a species of surface-dwelling fish found in tropical and subtropical waters. ... Species  E. americanus –       grass and redfin pickerels  E. lucius – northern pike  E. masquinongy – muskellunge  E. niger – chain pickerel   – Amur pike Esox Linnaeus, 1758, is a genus of freshwater fish, the only member of the pike family (family Esocidae) of order Esociformes. ... Species  E. americanus –       grass and redfin pickerels  E. lucius – northern pike  E. masquinongy – muskellunge  E. niger – chain pickerel   – Amur pike Esox Linnaeus, 1758, is a genus of freshwater fish, the only member of the pike family (family Esocidae) of order Esociformes. ... Genera See text. ... For other uses, see Toad (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ...

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Bees may be fl, brown, or banded with white, yellow, or orange stripes.
Native bees are bees that have always lived in an area and are able to survive without help from humans.
Bees have a special tongue that sucks up the sweet nectar and a crop in their throat for storing it until they get back to the hive.
Insecta Inspecta World - Killer Bees (1056 words)
The bee is aggressive, easily agitated, and generally a bee with a bad attitude.
The Africanized bee is expected to spread across the southern part of the country, where the winters aren't so harsh.
The Africanized bee is a dangerous hybrid, passing down the trait of defensiveness to each offspring.
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