FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Bedoyo

The bedhaya (also written as bedoyo, beḍaya, and various other transliterations) is a sacred ritualized dance of Java, Indonesia, associated with the royal palaces of Yogyakarta and Surakarta. Along with the serimpi, the bedhaya epitomized the elegant (alus) character of the royal court, and the dance became an important symbol of the ruler's power. Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Yogyakarta (also Jogjakarta in pre-1972 spelling or Jogja) is a city and province of Indonesia on the island of Java. ... Surakarta (its formal name; locally it is referred to as Solo) is an Indonesian city of approximately 500,000 people located in Central Java. ...


The bedhaya has different forms in the two court cities, the bedhaya Ketawang in Surakarta (Solo), and the bedhaya Semang in Yogyakarta, the latter of which is no longer performed. The Solonese dance continues to be performed once per year, on the second day of the Javanese month of Ruwah (during May in the Gregorian calendar), to commemorate the ascension of the current Susuhunan (prince) of Surakarta. Nine females, relatives or wives of the Susuhunan, perform the dance before a private audience. An invitation to anyone outside of the inner circle of the court is a considerable honor.[1] The Gregorian calendar is the calendar that is used nearly everywhere in the world. ... Susuhunan A title use for the rulers of Surakarta, Indonesia in joint usage with Pakubuwono Specifically used by rulers of Surakarta; the rulers of Yogyakarta have the title Sultan. ...

Contents

[edit]

History

Some kind of female dance known as bedhaya existed on Java at least as early as the Majapahit Empire.[2] Indeed, some of the steps of the modern dance are said to be as old as the third century.[3] However, the modern form is traditionally dated to the court of Sultan Agung of Mataram (reigned 1613–1645). Unfortunately there is almost no historical evidence to back up the claims made about the advances in the arts in Sultan Agung's courts, and the existence of the dance is not clearly documented until the late 18th century.[4] The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. ... Sultan Agung of Mataram Ruler of Mataram, 1613-1645. ...


There are many myths which explain the origin of the dance, which generally have either an account of a meeting with an Indic dieity (Shiva, Brahma, Vishnu, Indra, or the Buddha), or the meeting of Kangjeng Ratu Kidul, the Goddess of the South Sea, meeting with a founder of the Mataram dynasty, either Sultan Ageng or his grandfather, Senapati. In the former, the nine dancers were the creation of a deity, who were brought to life, and offered the dance to their maker in gratitude. In the latter, the dance was created when Kangjeng Ratu Kidul fell in love with the sultan, and danced the bedhaya for him; the nine dancers in the modern dance represent the spirit of the goddess.[5] // The word mythology (Greek: μυθολογία, from μυθος mythos, a story or legend, and λογος logos, an account or speech) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use supernatural events or characters to explain the nature of the universe and humanity. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव; Hindi: शिव; Malayalam ശിവന്‍ (when used to distinguish lordly status), also known as Siva and written Śiva in the official IAST transliteration, pronounced as ) is a form of Ishvara or God in the later Vedic scriptures of Hinduism. ... Brahma (written Brahmā in IAST) (Devanagari ब्रह्मा, pronounced as ) is the Hindu God of Creation, and one of the Hindu Trinity - Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari , with honorific Shri Vishnu; , ), is a form of god or idol, in Hinduism and its mythology. ... Indra is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ... A stone image of the Buddha. ... Mataram was the last major independent Javanese empire on Java before the island was colonized by the Dutch. ...


Since the decline in the power of the royal courts, other, more accessible forms of bedhaya have become popular, not as religious ritual, but as artistic performance. These do not require the royal presence, and may be performed on stage for an admission fee. They frequently recount stories used in wayang.[6] Wayang is an Indonesian word for theater. ...

[edit]

Dance

The dance is held in a pendhapa, a pillared audience hall with a peaked roof, with the Susuhunan on a throne in the middle of the room. The dance is performed in three large sections. In each section, the dancers emerge from a room behind the audience hall, approach the throne single file, dance in front of the throne, and then retreat, again single file. They approach and retreat on opposite sides of the throne, thus circumambulating the throne in a clockwise direction, the appropriate direction for veneration in Buddhist and Shaivist traditions. Circumambulation is the act of walking around something. ... Clockwise can refer to: Clockwise and counterclockwise Clockwise (movie) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found from Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


A name and number is given to each of the nine dancers, which designate a specific position in the changing choreographic pattern. There are slight variations between different sources in the names and numbers of the dancers, but there is consensus on the general forms. They are: a human being, representing taṇhā (the word for desire or craving in Buddhism), four chakras (the top three of which are used as note names; see slendro), and the four limbs:[7] In Hinduism and in some related Asian cultures, a chakra is thought to be a nexus of metaphysical and/or biophysical energy residing in the human body. ... Slendro (called salendro by the Sundanese) is a pentatonic (five tone) scale, one of the two most common scales used in Indonesian gamelan music. ...

  1. èndhèl/èndhèl ajeg, "desire," "constant/fixed desire," "attachment"
  2. pembatak/batak, "head," "mind"
  3. gulu/jangga, "neck"
  4. dhadha, "chest"
  5. buncit/bunthil, "tail," "genitals," "lower end of spinal column"
  6. apit ngajeng/apit ngarep, "right arm," "right flank," "front flank"
  7. apit wingking/apit mburi, "left arm," "rear flank"
  8. èndhèl weton/èndhèl wedalan ngajeng/èndhèl jawi, "right leg," "emergent desire," "front emergent desire," "outside desire"
  9. apit meneng/èndhèl wedalan wingking, "left leg," "quiet flank," "rear emergent desire"

The first two sections of the dance each have three positions, with slight variations, while the last adds a final, fourth position. The first position is in the shape of a human being, with the first five dancers in a line down the middle, and those representing the right and left sides in front and behind (from the perspective of the Susuhunan), respectively. In the second position, the dancers divide into two facing groups, the arms and desire to one side, and the chakras and legs on the other. In the third section of the dance, there is an added section of an encounter between the desire and head dancers in the second position, while the other dancers squat. The third position places the dancers either in a row (Surakarta) or with the arms to one side (Yogyakarta), with desire in the middle. The final position is in a 3x3 grid (rakit tiga-tiga), with the three upper chakra centers in the middle column.[8]

[edit]

Music and text

The dance is accompanied with the singing of men and women together; the choir is called a sindhen. The style is known as sindhenan lampah sekar. Formerly only women sang; however since at least the 1940s men have also sung these parts. In Surakarta, instead of a full gamelan, the only instruments used are the colotomic instruments (kethuk, kenong, and gong), the kemanak, and drums (kendhang ketipung and gendhing); there are no balungan instruments and only sometimes other melodic instruments (such as gambang and gendér). In the Yogyakarta kraton, where the dance is no longer performed as ritual, the complete gamelan was used as accompaniment, sometimes even featuring cornets.[9] A sindhen (or, more properly, pesindhen) is a female solo singer who sings with a gamelan. ... Gamelan - Indonesian Embassy in Canberra A gamelan is a kind of musical ensemble of Indonesian origin typically featuring metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs. ... The kenong is one of the instruments used in the Indonesian gamelan. ... Two gong rails; the two sets (on unconnected stands) are pélog and sléndro. ... Kemanak is a banana-shaped idiophone used in Javanese gamelan, made of bronze. ... Kendang of Java Kendang (Javanese: Kendhang) is the primary drum used in gamelan. ... The balungan (Javanese: skeleton, frame) is sometimes called the core melody of a gamelan composition. ... A gambang is a metallophone-like percussive instrument of Indonesian origin, with wooden bars as opposed to the metallic ones in a Western metallophone; it forms part of a gamelan ensemble. ... A Gendér is a type of metallophone which is used a lot in Balinese and Javanese Gamelan music. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Gamelan - Indonesian Embassy in Canberra A gamelan is a kind of musical ensemble of Indonesian origin typically featuring metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs. ... Bâ™­ cornet The cornet is a brass instrument that closely resembles the trumpet. ...


The pieces used to accompany the dances are traditionally gendhing with long structures (originally designated at least kethuk 4 arang; see gendhing for an explanation); however, shorter gendhings were also used later (such as kethuk 4 kerep or kethuk 2). The most ancient and sacred song is the Bedhaya Ketawang. When the bedhaya dancers appear on stage, in Yogyakarta it was accompanied by an ayak-ayakan; in Surakarta, it is only accompanied by a pathetan known as pathetan bedhaya, which has lost much of the rhythmic freedom associated with pathetans to fit better the stride of the dancers.[10]


The literary renaissance of Java in the 18th and 19th centuries, which greatly changed Javanese music, had as one of its first effects the creation of genres of gendhing to accompany bedhaya and serimpi, known as gendhing kemanak and gendhing bedhaya-serimpi. The former were based on a newly-composed choral melody, while the latter fitted a new choral part into a pre-existing gendhing melody played by the gamelan. Hundreds of stanzas of text were written for these parts, and a particular gendhing uses at least a dozen. The texts are mainly in the form of a wangsalan (poetic riddle), and deal with a wide variety of subjects.[11] Much of the text is erotic love poetry, describing the attraction of Kengjang Ratu Kidul to Sultan Agung.[12]

[edit]

Taboos

There are many taboos regarding the performance and rehearsal of the Bedhaya ketawang, both the song and the dance associated with it. It is only allowed to be rehearsed every 35 days (when Thursday of the seven-day week coincides with Kliwon, the fifth day of the five-day week of the Javanese calendar), and performed on the anniversaries of the Susuhunan's accession to the throne. All rehearsals, and especially the performance, must be accompanied by offerings (many of which correspond to those specified in the Gandavyuha Sutra). The dancers must fast and undergo ritual purification, they must be in bridal dress and cover the upper part of their bodies in turmeric (borèh). When the text is copied, a few intentional mistakes are inserted to avoid copying a sacred text literally. This is all because during any performance or rehearsal, the deputies of Ratu Kidul are said to be present.[13] A taboo is a strong social prohibition (or ban) relating to any area of human activity or social custom declared as sacred and forbidden; breaking of the taboo is usually considered objectionable or abhorrent by society. ... Susuhunan A title use for the rulers of Surakarta, Indonesia in joint usage with Pakubuwono Specifically used by rulers of Surakarta; the rulers of Yogyakarta have the title Sultan. ... Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus Turmeric (Curcuma longa, also known as tumeric) is a spice commonly used in curries and other South Asian cooking. ...

[edit]

Interpretation

The dance can be interpreted in a number of ways, including as an abstract sequence of positions, and a reenactment of the love between the goddess and a royal ancestor. Another common interpretation is that they symbolize military formations, which may explain why the dancers are given names of flanks. Furthermore, the dancers were brought onto battlefields with the Yogyakartan ruler.[14] Some of the choreographic positions are vaguely similar to those that were believed to have been used in the Kurukshetra war, the war in the Mahabharata, and some of the texts tell of military victories. A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... Flank is a word which might mean any of several different things: A flank is the side of either a horse or a military unit. ... Combatants Pandavas led by Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma Commanders Arjuna Bhima Yudhishthira Nakula Sahadeva Bhishma Duryodhana Karna The Kurukshetra war forms an essential component of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ), is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ...


Judith Becker provides a tantric interpretation. The first position shows desire plus the body; the second shows opposition between desire and the chakras (there is some evidence that the legs were considered a fifth chakra), and in the final section, interaction between the head and desire. Afterwards, desire is absorbed into the body, and then the dancers are arranged in the same arrangement as offerings in the Majapahit palace. Three is a number rich in Hindu symbolism, like the three pramanas, the Trilokya or the Trimurti, so a threefold set of three symbolizes completion and perfection.[15] Tantra (Sanskrit: loom), tantric yoga or tantrism is any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit: , , also known as , ) is a set of religious traditions that originated mainly in the Indian subcontinent. ... Pramana (IAST ) (sources of knowledge, Sanskrit) is an epitemological term in Hindu philosophy. ... In Hinduism, the Trimurti (also called the Hindu trinity) are three aspects of God, or Parabrahman, in Gods personae as Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. ... For the numeral, see 3 (number). ...


In the 19th century, pistols held and shot off by the dancers in the performance of the bedhaya.[16] Sumarsam considered the meaning of the use of pistols an aristocratic attempt to adopt a foreign element to show enhance royal power, or the secularization and infomalization of the court ritual when in the presence of European guests.[17]


During some period in the nineteenth century, the dancers in Yogyakarta were young men dressed as women. The combination of characteristics of both sexes was thought to have a special spiritual power.[18]

[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Becker, 143.
  2. ^ Becker, 116.
  3. ^ Knutsson, accessed on June 29, 2006.
  4. ^ Sumarsam, 20 and 54.
  5. ^ Becker, 119–124.
  6. ^ Becker, 141–142.
  7. ^ Becker, 132, citing K.G.P.H. Hadiwidjojo, Bedhaya Ketawang: Tarian Sakral di Candi-candi, Jakarta: Balai Pustaka, 1981, p. 20; Soedarsono, Wayang Wong in the Yogyakarta Kraton: History, Ritual Aspects, Literary Aspects, and Characterization, Ph.D. dissertation, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1983, p. 148; and N. Tirtaamidjaja, "A Bedaja Ketawang Performance at the Court of Surakarta," Indonesia Vol. 1, 1967, p. 48.
  8. ^ Becker, 131-136.
  9. ^ Kunst, 128, 279-281
  10. ^ Kunst, 330.
  11. ^ Sumarsam, 96.
  12. ^ Becker, 128.
  13. ^ Kunst, 151-152, 280; Becker 115-116.
  14. ^ Sumarsam, 7; Becker, 141.
  15. ^ Becker, 136-141.
  16. ^ R. Atmadikrama, Babad Krama Dalem Ingkang Sinuhun Kangjeng Susuhunan Paku Buwana Kaping Sanga ing Nagari Surakarta Adniningrat (The chronicle of the marriage of his highness Susuhunan Paku Buwana IX of Surakarta), ms SMP KS 104/4, inscribed Surakarta, mid-late 19th c., p.59; cited in Sumarsam, 77.
  17. ^ Sumarsam, 78.
  18. ^ Becker, 143.
[edit]

June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Becker, Judith. Gamelan Stories: Tantrism, Islam, and Aesthetics in Central Java. Arizona State University Program for Southeast Asian Studies, 1993. ISBN 1-881044-06-8
  • Knutsson, Gunilla K. "The Wedding of Solo's King." The New York Times, September 11, 1983, accessed on June 30, 2006
  • Kunst, Jaap. Music in Java. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1949
  • Sumarsam. Gamelan: Cultural Interaction and Musical Develoment in Central Java. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. ISBN 0-226-78011-2
[edit]

September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jaap Kunst (or Jakob) (b. ...

External links

  • The Badhaya Katawang: A Translation of the Song of Kangjeng Ratu Kidul by Nancy Florida

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Javanese Dance and Drama (Different Bali Indonesia Encyclopedia) (565 words)
There are many kinds of dances and drama (such as Serimpi, bedoyo, wayang kulit, golek, gombang) in Java, the most densely populated island of Indonesia, particularly in Jogjakarta and Surakarta (well known as Solo), where the culture of the aristocracy has the most developed.
The Bedoyo dancers form part of the royal retinue and represent the female component or kingly power as Ratu Kidul., the mythic goddess of the South Sea.
The Bedoyo tradition is steeped in ritual and mysticism.
indahnesia.com - Jawa - Ultimate grace and refinement - Discover Indonesia Online (1415 words)
The bedoyo, which is seen as the highest ideal of refinement, is the sacred dance, dedicated to the royal highness.
The bedoyo tradition is soaked with rituals and symbolism.
People say that during the yearly returning event of the show of the sacred Bedoyo Ketawang at the royal house or Solo, Ratu Kidul appears as a bearlky visible 10th dancer, which goes to a private place with the royal ruler after the show.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m