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Encyclopedia > Becquerel

The becquerel (symbol Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity, defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second. It is therefore equivalent to s-1. The older unit of radioactivity was the curie (Ci), defined as 3.7×1010 becquerels or 37 GBq. The becquerel is named for Henri Becquerel, who shared a Nobel Prize with Pierre and Marie Curie for their work in discovering radioactivity. Becquerel may refer to: Becquerel (unit of radioactivity) Becquerel (lunar crater) Becquerel (Martian crater) A. E. Becquerel Antoine César Becquerel Henri Becquerel Jean Becquerel Category: ... SI derived units are part of the SI system of measurement units and are derived from the seven SI base units. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... Look up Activity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Activity may refer to— in chemistry, the effective concentration of an ion or other solute for the purposes of chemical reactions and other mass action. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... This article is about the unit of time. ... This article is about the unit of time. ... The curie (symbol Ci) is a former unit of radioactivity, defined as 3. ... Antoine Henri Becquerel (December 15, 1852 – August 25, 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and one of the discoverers of radioactivity. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Pierre Curie (May 15, 1859 – died April 19, 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. ... Maria Skłodowska-Curie. ...


In a fixed mass of radioactive material, the number of becquerels changes with time. Sometimes, amounts of radioactive material are given after adjustment for some period of time. For example, one might quote a ten-day adjusted figure, that is, the amount of radioactivity that will still be present after ten days. This de-emphasizes short-lived isotopes.


SI uses the becquerel rather than the second for the unit of activity measure to avoid dangerous mistakes: a measurement in becquerels is proportional to activity, and thus a more dangerous source of radiation gives a higher reading. A measurement in seconds is inversely proportional. As any SI unit, Bq can be prefixed; commonly used multiples are kBq (kilobecquerel, 103 Bq), MBq (megabecquerel, 106 Bq), and GBq (gigabecquerel, 109 Bq). “SI” redirects here. ... An SI prefix (also known as a metric prefix) is a name or associated symbol that precedes a unit of measure (or its symbol) to form a decimal multiple or submultiple. ...


When measuring radioactivity of a sample with a detector, a unit of "counts per second" (cps) is often used. Counts per second can be converted to the absolute activity of the sample in Bq if one applies a number of significant conversions, e.g., for the radiation background, for the detector efficiency, for the counting geometry, for self-absorption of the radiation in the sample.


The becquerel can be used for the frequency of aperiodic events; for periodic events, the hertz, which is also defined as s–1, is used as unit. This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ...


Definition

1 Bq = 1 s–1

This SI unit is named after Henri Becquerel. As for all SI units whose names are derived from the proper name of a person, the first letter of its symbol is uppercase (Bq). But when an SI unit is spelled out, it should always be written in lowercase (becquerel), unless it begins a sentence or is the name "degree Celsius".
— Based on The International System of Units, section 5.2.

Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Antoine Henri Becquerel (December 15, 1852 – August 25, 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and one of the discoverers of radioactivity. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... Minuscule, or lower case, is the smaller form (case) of letters (in the Roman alphabet: a, b, c, ...). Originally alphabets were written entirely in majuscule (capital) letters which were spaced between well-defined upper and lower bounds. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...

External links

  • Derived units on the BIPM web site

  Results from FactBites:
 
Becquerel - LoveToKnow 1911 (445 words)
Antoine Cesar Becquerel (1788-1878), was born at Chatillon sur Loing on the 8th of March 1788.
Edmond Becquerel was associated with his father in much of his work, but he himself paid special attention to the study of light, investigating the photochemical effects and spectroscopic characters of solar radiation and the electric light, and the phenomena of phosphorescence, particularly as displayed by the sulphides and by compounds of uranium.
It was in connexion with these latter inquiries that he devised his phosphoroscope, an apparatus which enabled the interval between exposure to the source of light and observation of the resulting effects to be varied at will and accurately measured.
Henri Becquerel - Biography (564 words)
His father, Alexander Edmond Becquerel, was a Professor of Applied Physics and had done research on solar radiation and on phosphorescence, while his grandfather, Antoine César, had been a Fellow of the Royal Society and the inventor of an electrolytic method for extracting metals from their ores.
Becquerel's earliest work was concerned with the plane polarization of light, with the phenomenon of phosphorescence and with the absorption of light by crystals (his doctorate thesis).
Later, Becquerel showed that the rays emitted by uranium, which for a long time were named after their discoverer, caused gases to ionize and that they differed from X-rays in that they could be deflected by electric or magnetic fields.
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