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Encyclopedia > Beaux Arts architecture

Beaux-Arts architecture[1] denotes the academic classical architectural style that was taught at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. The style "Beaux-Arts" is above all the cumulative product of two and a half centuries of instruction under the authority, first of the Académie royale d'architecture, then, following the Revolution, of the Architecture section of the Académie des Beaux-Arts. The organization under the Ancien Régime of the competition for the Grand Prix de Rome in architecture, offering a chance to study in Rome, imprinted its codes and esthetic on the course of instruction, which culminated during the Second Empire (1850-1870) and the Third Republic that followed. The style of instruction that produced Beaux-Arts architecture continued without a major renovation until 1968.[2] Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture largely by morphological characteristics - in terms of form, techniques, materials, etc. ... École des Beaux Arts refers to several art schools in France. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


The Beaux-arts style influenced US architecture in the period 18851920. Other European architects of the period 1860-1914 tended to gravitate towards their own national academic centers rather than flocking to Paris. British architects of Imperial classicism, in a development culminating in Sir Edwin Lutyens's New Delhi government buildings, followed a somewhat more independent course, owing to the cultural politics of the late 19th century. 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Edwin Lutyens Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, OM, KCIE (29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was a leading 20th century English architect who is known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. ... New Delhi   (Hindi: , Punjabi: , Urdu: ‎) is an urban area within the metropolis of Delhi, and the capital city of the Republic of India, as well as the seat of the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Palais Garnier is a cornerpiece of Beaux-Arts architecture characterized by Émile Zola as "the opulent bastard of all styles".
Palais Garnier is a cornerpiece of Beaux-Arts architecture characterized by Émile Zola as "the opulent bastard of all styles".

Contents

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (802x602, 150 KB) Photo of the outside of the Paris Opera. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (802x602, 150 KB) Photo of the outside of the Paris Opera. ... The Palais Garnier, Paris The Palais Garnier, also known as the Opéra de Paris as well as the Opéra Garnier, is a 2,200 seat opera house at the northern end of the Avenue de lOpéra in the IXe arrondissement of Paris. ... Émile Zola Émile Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ...

Beaux-Arts training

The Beaux-Arts training emphasized the mainstream examples of Imperial Roman architecture between Augustus and the Severan emperors, Italian Renaissance and French and Italian Baroque models especially, but the training could then be applied to a broader range of models: Quattrocento Florentine palace fronts or French late Gothic. American architects of the Beaux-Arts generation often returned to Greek models, which had a strong local history in the American Greek Revival of the early 19th century. For the first time, repertories of photographs supplemented meticulous scale drawings and on-the-site renderings of details. The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... Personal residence of Catherine the Great Greek Revival was a style of classical architecture which became fashionable in Europe in the 18th century, and in the United Kingdom and United States in the early 19th century. ...

The last major American building constructed in the Beaux-Arts style, the San Francisco War Memorial Opera House, completed 1932
The last major American building constructed in the Beaux-Arts style, the San Francisco War Memorial Opera House, completed 1932

Beaux-Arts architecture depended on sculptural decoration along conservative modern lines, employing French and Italian Baroque and Rococo formulas combined with an impressionistic finish and realism. In the facade below, Diana grasps the cornice she sits on in a natural action that is typical of Beaux-Arts integration of sculpture with architecture. Slightly overscaled details, bold scuptural supporting consoles, rich deep cornices, swags and sculptural enrichments in the most bravura finish the client could afford gave employment to several generations of architectural modellers and carvers of Italian and Central European backgrounds. A sense of appropriate idiom at the craftsman level supported the design teams of the first truly modern architectural offices. Some aspects of Beaux-Arts approach could degenerate into mannerisms. Beaux-Arts training made great use of agrafes, clasps that links one architectural detail to another; to interpenetration of forms, a Baroque habit; to "speaking architecture" (architecture parlante) in which supposed appropriateness of symbolism could be taken to literal-minded extremes. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (824x475, 152 KB)San Franciscos War Memorial Opera House, morning October 31, 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (824x475, 152 KB)San Franciscos War Memorial Opera House, morning October 31, 2005. ... War Memorial Opera House, San Francisco The War Memorial Opera House in San Francisco, California is located on the western side of Van Ness Avenue across from the back face of City Hall. ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... The phrase architecture parlante (“speaking architecture”) refers to the concept of buildings that explain their own function or identity. ...

Beaux-Arts building decoration presenting images of the Roman goddesses Pomona and Diana. Note the naturalism of the postures and the rustication of the stonework.
Beaux-Arts building decoration presenting images of the Roman goddesses Pomona and Diana. Note the naturalism of the postures and the rustication of the stonework.

Beaux-Arts training emphasized the production of quick conceptual sketches, highly-finished perspective presentation drawings, close attention to the program, and knowledgeable detailing. Site considerations tended towards social and urbane contexts.[3] Images of the Goddesses Pomona (left) and Diana (right) together decorate the entrance to The Peninsula Hotel, occupying a Beaux-Arts building (orginally The Gotham hotel, Hiss and Weekes, architects) at Fifth Ave. ... Images of the Goddesses Pomona (left) and Diana (right) together decorate the entrance to The Peninsula Hotel, occupying a Beaux-Arts building (orginally The Gotham hotel, Hiss and Weekes, architects) at Fifth Ave. ... Statue of Ceres, the Roman goddess of the agriculture A goddess is a female deity, in contrast with a male deity known as a god. Many cultures have goddesses, sometimes alone, but more often as part of a larger pantheon that includes both the conventional genders and in some cases... Pomona, Nicolas Fouché, c. ... Diana was the equivalent in Roman mythology of the Greek Artemis (see Roman/Greek equivalency in mythology for more details). ...


Characteristics of Beaux-Arts style

Though Beaux-Arts style embodies an approach to a regenerated spirit within the grand traditions rather than a set of motifs, the principal characteristics of Beaux-Arts architecture may be summarized:

  • Symmetry.
  • Hierarchy of spaces, from "noble spaces"—grand entrances and staircases— to utilitarian ones
  • More or less explicit references to a synthesis of historicist styles and a tendency to eclecticism. An architect was expected to work fluently in a number of "manners", following the requirements of the client and the architectural program.
  • Precision in design and execution of a profusion of architectural details: balustrades, pilasters, panels of bas-relief, figure sculpture, garlands, cartouches, with a prominent display of richly detailed clasps (agrafes) brackets and supporting consoles.
  • Subtle use of polychromy.

At the eve of World War I, the style began to find major competitors among the architects of Modernism and the nascent International Style (architecture). The prestige of the École gave the style "Beaux-Arts" a second wind in compromising the new manner with the traditional training. All architects-in-training passed through the obligatory stages, studying antique models, constructing analos, analyses reproducing Greek or Roman models, "pocket" studies and other conventional steps in the long competition for the few desirable places at the Académie de France à Rome (housed in the Villa Medici) with traditional requirements of sending at intervals the presentation drawings called envois de Rome. Eclecticism is an approach to thought that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions or conclusions, but instead draws upon multiple theories to gain complementary insights into phenomena, or applies only certain theories in particular cases. ... Polychrome Victorian-era architectural detail in Kendallville, Indiana. ... Le Corbusiers Villa Savoye, a well known example of modern architecture Modern architecture is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament, that first arose around 1900. ... The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1927) The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1930) The International style was a major architectural trend of the 1920s and 1930s. ... The Villa Medici is a villa in Rome, founded by Ferdinando I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, housing the French Academy in Rome. ...


French Beaux-Arts architecture

Paris : Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x700, 251 KB) Author : -- Eric Pouhier Date : May 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Franco-Russian Alliance Pont Alexandre III ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x700, 251 KB) Author : -- Eric Pouhier Date : May 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Franco-Russian Alliance Pont Alexandre III ... Pont Alexandre III in Paris, the eiffel tower can be seen in the background Pont Alexandre III is an arch bridge that spans the Seine, connecting the Champs-Élysées quarter and the Invalides and Eiffel Tower Quarter, regarded by many as one of the prettiest in Paris. ... A detail of the Grand Palais . ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...

École des Beaux-Arts (IPA ) refers to several art schools in France. ... This article is about the museum: for building history, see Palais du Louvre. ... Exterior of the Palais Garnier. ... The Trocadéro is an area of Paris, in the 16th arrondissement, across the Seine from the Eiffel Tower. ... Gare dOrsay site seen from The Louvre in March 2006. ... A detail of the Grand Palais . ... The Façade of the Petit Palais The Petit Palais is a museum in Paris, France. ... Pont Alexandre III in Paris, the eiffel tower can be seen in the background Pont Alexandre III is an arch bridge that spans the Seine, connecting the Champs-Élysées quarter and the Invalides and Eiffel Tower Quarter, regarded by many as one of the prettiest in Paris. ... In the 16th century, Catherine de Medici built herself a house in the country here on Chaillot hill, later occupied by the Marshall of Bassompière. ...

Beaux-Arts architecture in the US

The first American architect to attend the École des Beaux-Arts was Richard Morris Hunt, followed by Charles Follen McKim. They were followed by an entire generation. Henry Hobson Richardson absorbed Beaux-Arts lessons in massing and spatial planning, then applied them to Romanesque architectural models that were not characteristic of the Beaux-Arts repertory. His Beaux-Arts training taught him to transcend slavish copying and recreate in the essential, fully digested and idiomatic manner of his models. Richardson evolved a highly personal style (Richardsonian Romanesque) freed of historicism that was influential in early Modernism.[4] Statue of Liberty, Pedestal by Richard Morris Hunt Richard Morris Hunt (October 31, 1827, Brattleboro, Vermont - 1895) preeminent figure in the history of American architecture. ... Charles Follen McKim, portrait by Frances Benjamin Johnston. ... Henry Hobson Richardson, portrait by Sir Hubert von Herkomer Trinity Church in Boston is one of Richardsons most famous works. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Richardsonian Romanesque has both French and Spanish Romanesque characteristics, like the First Presbyterian Church in Detroit, Michigan by architechs George D. Mason and Zachariah Rice in 1891 Richardsonian Romanesque is a style of American architecture named after architect Henry Hobson Richardson, whose masterpiece is Trinity Church, Boston in Massachusetts. ... Modernism is a trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct and reshape their built and designed environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation, thus in its essence both progressive and optimistic. ...


The "White City" of the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago was a triumph of the movement and a major impetus for the short-lived City Beautiful movement in the United States. Beaux-Arts city planning, with its Baroque insistence on vistas punctuated by symmetry, eye-catching monuments, axial avenues, uniform cornice heights, a harmonious "ensemble" and a somewhat theatrical nobility and accessible charm, embraced ideals that the ensuing Modernist movement decried or just dismissed.[5] The first US university to institute a Beaux-Arts curriculum was MIT in 1893, when the French architect, Constant-Désiré Despradelles was brought to MIT to teach. Subsequently the Beaux-Arts curriculum was begun at Columbia University and elsewhere.[6] The best known architectural firm specializing in Beaux-Arts style was McKim, Mead, and White[7] One-third scale replica of Daniel Chester Frenchs Republic, which stood in the great basin at the exposition, Chicago, 2004 The Worlds Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago Worlds Fair), a Worlds Fair, was held in the U.S. city of Chicago in 1893, to celebrate... The City Beautiful movement was a Progressive reform movement in North American architecture and urban planning that flourished in the 1890s and 1900s with the intent of using beautification and monumental grandeur in cities to counteract the perceived moral decay of poverty-stricken urban environments. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Columbia University is a private research university whose main campus lies in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of the Borough of Manhattan in New York City. ... From left to right: Will Mead, Charles McKim and Stan White McKim, Mead, and White was the premier architectural firm in the eastern United States at the turn of the twentieth century. ...

Marks Scout Resource Center, Philadelphia, designed in 1929 by Charles Klauder
Marks Scout Resource Center, Philadelphia, designed in 1929 by Charles Klauder

Though Beaux-Arts architecture of the twentieth century might on its surface appear out of touch with the modern age, steel-frame construction and other modern innovations in engineering techniques and materials were often embraced, as in the 1914-1916 construction of the Carolands Chateau south of San Francisco (which was built with a consciousness of the devastating 1906 earthquake). The noted Spanish structural engineer, Rafael Guastavino (1842–1908), famous for his vaultings, known as Guastavino tile work, designed vaults in dozens of Beaux-Arts buildings in the Boston, New York and elsewhere. Beaux-Arts architecture also brought a civic face to the railroad. (Chicago's Union Station is a famous American example of this style.) Two of the best American examples of the Beaux-Arts tradition stand within a few blocks of each other: Grand Central Terminal and the New York Public Library. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1228x740, 2320 KB) Photo used by the en:Philadelphia Inquirer on July 22, 2006 City poised to evict Boy Scouts council http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1228x740, 2320 KB) Photo used by the en:Philadelphia Inquirer on July 22, 2006 City poised to evict Boy Scouts council http://www. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Cradle of Liberty, the City That Loves You Back, the Quaker City, The Birthplace of America Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701  - Mayor... West elevation of Carolands Chateau The Carolands Chateau , a 65,000 square foot mansion in Hillsborough, California enclosing a 75-foot-high atrium, holds the record as the largest enclosed space in an American private residence. ... Guastavino tile work in NYC City Hall subway station Guastavino tile refers to the Tile Arch System patented in the US in 1885 by Catalan architect and builder Rafael Guastavino (1842–1908). ... Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town, City of the Big Shoulders, The 312, The City that Works Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837  - Mayor... Union Station is a Chicago train station that opened in 1925, replacing an earlier 1881 station, and is now the only intercity rail terminal in Chicago. ... The main concourse Grand Central Terminal (GCT, often unofficially called Grand Central Station) is a terminal rail station at 15 Vanderbilt Avenue (42nd Street and Park Avenue) in Midtown Manhattan in New York City. ... The New York Public Library - logo New York Public Library, central block, built 1897–1911, Carrère and Hastings, architects (June 2003) The New York Public Library (NYPL), one of three public library systems serving New York City, is one of the leading libraries in the United States. ...


US architects working in the Beaux-Arts style

The following individuals were seminal in the assimilation of the Beaux-Arts style in the US:

Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Daniel H. Burnham. ... Woolworth Building (New York City), was the worlds tallest building at the time it was built, in 1909. ... New York Public Library, central block, built 1897–1911, Carrère and Hastings, architects (June, 2003) Carrere and Hastings, the firm of John Mervin Carrère (November 9, 1858 - March 1, 1911) and Thomas Hastings (1860 - 1929), sited in New York City, was one of the outstanding Beaux-Arts architectural... Paul Philippe Cret (October 24, 1876, Lyon, France – September 8, 1945, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was a French-American architect and industrial designer. ... Thomas Hastings (11 March 1860 – 22 October 1929) was an American architect. ... Raymond M. Hood (March 29, 1881 - August 14, 1934) was an early-mid twentieth century architect who worked in the Art Deco style. ... Statue of Liberty, Pedestal by Richard Morris Hunt Richard Morris Hunt (October 31, 1827, Brattleboro, Vermont - 1895) preeminent figure in the history of American architecture. ... Charles Follen McKim, portrait by Frances Benjamin Johnston. ... The Jefferson Memorial, built 1939 — 1943 John Russell Pope (April 24, 1874 – August 27, 1937) was an architect most known for his designs of the Jefferson Memorial (completed in 1943) and the West Building of the National Gallery of Art (completed in 1941) in Washington, DC. Pope was born in... Henry Hobson Richardson, portrait by Sir Hubert von Herkomer Trinity Church in Boston is one of Richardsons most famous works. ... Stanford White (1853-1906) Washington Square Arch New York American on June 25, 1906 Stanford White (November 9, 1853 – June 25, 1906) was an American architect and partner in the architectural firm of McKim, Mead, and White, the frontrunner among Beaux-Arts firms. ...

Canadian architects working in the Beaux-Arts style

Download high resolution version (1024x701, 154 KB)Taken by SimonP in December 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1024x701, 154 KB)Taken by SimonP in December 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Location of the City of Ottawa in the Province of Ontario Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Established 1850 as Town of Bytown Incorporated 1855 as City of Ottawa Amalgamated January 1, 2001 Mayor Larry OBrien Local government Ottawa City Council (21 councillors) MPs... John M. Lyle (1872-1945) was a Canadian architect in the late 19th Century and early 20th Century Toronto. ... Ross and Macdonald was one of Canadas most notable architecture firms in the early 20th century. ...

Canadian architecture in the Beaux-Arts style

Commemorative Arch

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x2592, 3913 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Royal Military College of Canada Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x2592, 3913 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Royal Military College of Canada Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... The Royal Military College of Canada (RMC), is the military academy of the Canadian Forces and is a full degree-granting university. ... Murney Tower, Kingston. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... The Government Conference Centre was originally built as the citys railway station. ... Ross and Macdonald was one of Canadas most notable architecture firms in the early 20th century. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street Station in 1865. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Notes

  1. ^ The phrase Beaux Arts is usually translated as "Fine Arts" in non-architectural English contexts.
  2. ^ Robin Middleton, Editor. The Beaux-Arts and Nineteenth-century French Architecture. (London: Thames and Hudson, 1982).
  3. ^ Arthur Drexler, Editor, The Architecture of the École des beaux-arts. (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1977).
  4. ^ James Philip Noffsinger. The Influence of the École des Beaux-arts on the Architects of the United States (Washington DC., Catholic University of America Press, 1955).
  5. ^ Chafee, Richard. The Architecture of the École des Beaux-Arts. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1977.
  6. ^ Mark Jarzombek. Designing MIT: Bosworth’s New Tech. Northeastern University Press, 2004.
  7. ^ Richard Guy Wilson. McKim, Mead & White, Architects (New York: Rizzoli, 1983)

Fine art is a term used to refer to fields traditionally considered to be artistic. ... Mark Jarzombek is a US-born author and architectural historian, and (since 1995) Director of the History Theory Criticism Section of the Department of Architecture at MIT, Cambridge MA, USA. Jarzombek received his architectural training at the ETH Zurich, where he graduated in 1980. ...

External links

  • Photo gallery

Further reading

  • Reed, Henry Hope and Edmund V. Gillon Jr. 1988. Beaux-Arts Architecture in New York: A Photographic Guide (Dover Publications: Mineola NY)
Revival styles in 19th-century architecture
Neo-Classicism: Directoire and EmpireRegencyEgyptian RevivalGreek Revival and Neo-Grec
Neo-Romanesque and Byzantine Revival: Richardsonian RomanesqueRusso-ByzantineMuscovite Revival
Gothic Revival: Scottish BaronialTudorbethanMoorish Revival • Indo-Saracenic
Neo-Renaissance: ItalianateSecond Empire • Châteauesque • Jacobethan
Neo-Baroque and 18th century: Beaux-ArtsWrenaissanceQueen Anne • Georgian Revival • Colonial Revival

 
 

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