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Encyclopedia > Beauty
The image of the young woman is a symbol of human beauty in the West, and a dominant theme in western art.
The image of the young woman is a symbol of human beauty in the West, and a dominant theme in western art.

Beauty is a characteristic of a person, place, object or idea that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure, meaning or satisfaction. Beauty is studied as part of aesthetics, sociology, social psychology and culture. As a cultural creation, beauty has been extremely commercialized. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Features such as a symmetrical face, full lips, and low waist-hip ratio, are commonly considered physically attractive when part of a female, because they are thought to indicate physical health and high fertility to a potential mate. ... Beauty can refer to a pleasant phenomenon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (453x650, 86 KB) Description: Title: en: Nymph with morning glory flowers Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand en: Oil on canvas Dimensions: en: Country of origin: en: France Current location (city): en: Current location (gallery): en: Private collection Other notes: Source: Art... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (453x650, 86 KB) Description: Title: en: Nymph with morning glory flowers Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand en: Oil on canvas Dimensions: en: Country of origin: en: France Current location (city): en: Current location (gallery): en: Private collection Other notes: Source: Art... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... In geography, Location is a position or point in physical space expressed relative to the position of another point or thing. ... In philosophy, an object is a thing, an entity, or a being. ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Look up Pleasure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Value redirects here. ... The term satisfaction can refer to: (I Cant Get No) Satisfaction, a Rolling Stones song, which has also been covered by several artists, including: The Residents, released as a single (Satiafaction b/w Loser=Weed) in 1976 and 1978. ... Aesthetics is commonly perceived as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... The scope of social psychological research. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Commercialism, in its original meaning, is the practices, methods, aims, and spirit of commerce or business. ...


An "ideal beauty" is a person who is admired, or possesses features widely attributed to beauty in a particular culture. A number of historical individuals have become icons of beauty - for example, women like Cleopatra VII, Helen of Troy and Marilyn Monroe. Cleopatra redirects here. ... Helen was the wife of Menelaus and reputed to be the most beautiful woman in the world, and her abduction by Paris brought about the Trojan War. ... Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortensen;[1] June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962), was a Golden Globe award winning[2] American actress, singer, model, Hollywood icon,[3] Cultural icon, beauty ideal,[4] fashion icon,[5] pop icon and sex symbol. ...


The subjective experience of "beauty" often involves the interpretation of some entity as being in balance and harmony with nature, which may lead to feelings of attraction and emotional well-being. "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder" is a common phrase that expresses this concept.[1] This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... This article is about the physical universe. ...


In its most profound sense, beauty may engender a salient experience of positive reflection about the meaning of one's own existence. An "object of beauty" is anything that reveals or resonates with personal meaning. The salience (also called saliency) of an item is its state or quality of standing out relative to other items. ... In ontology, a being is anything that can be said to be, either transcendantly or immanently. ... In philosophy, an object is a thing, an entity, or a being. ...

Contents

Aesthetics

Images of beauty from Hasht-Behesht palace in Iran.
Images of beauty from Hasht-Behesht palace in Iran.

Understanding the nature and meaning of beauty is one of the key themes in the philosophical discipline known as aesthetics. The composer and critic Robert Schumann distinguished between two kinds of beauty, natural and poetic. The former is found in the contemplation of nature, whereas the latter lies in man's conscious, creative intervention into nature. Schumann indicated that in music, or other art, both kinds of beauty appear, but natural beauty is merely sensual delight. Poetic beauty begins where the natural beauty leaves off. Download high resolution version (700x683, 484 KB)Picture of painting from Hasht-Behesht Palace (Palace of the 8 heavens) , Isfahan, Iran, dated 1669. ... Download high resolution version (700x683, 484 KB)Picture of painting from Hasht-Behesht Palace (Palace of the 8 heavens) , Isfahan, Iran, dated 1669. ... Aesthetics is commonly perceived as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ...


The philosopher Immanuel Kant, whose aesthetic theory has been influential, noted that beauty seems to possess both subjective and objective qualities.[2] Arguing for the subjective nature of beauty, he wrote, "The judgment of taste, therefore, is not a cognitive judgment, and so not logical, but is aesthetic – which means that it is one whose determining ground cannot be other than subjective."[3] Kant also noted, however, that when someone calls an object beautiful, "he judges not merely for himself, but for all men, and then speaks of beauty as if it were a property of things."[3] Kant redirects here. ... This article is in need of attention. ... For other uses of objectivity, see objectivity (disambiguation). ...


A common idea suggests that beauty exists in the appearance of things and people that are good. A good apple will be perceived as more beautiful than a bruised one. Also, most people judge physically attractive human beings to be good, both physically and on a deeper level. Specifically, they are believed to possess a variety of positive traits and personality characteristics.[4] Variation in the physical appearance of humans is believed by anthropologists to be an important factor in the development of personality and social relations in particular physical attractiveness. ... For the philosophical concept of goodness see Goodness and value theory. ... Features such as a symmetrical face, full lips, and low waist-hip ratio, are commonly considered physically attractive when part of a female, because they are thought to indicate physical health and high fertility to a potential mate. ...


Further, people's skills can develop and change their sense of beauty. Carpenters may view an out-of-true building as ugly, and many master carpenters can see out-of-true angles as small as half a degree.[citation needed] Many musicians can likewise hear as dissonant a tone that's high or low by as little as two percent of the distance to the next note.[citation needed] Most people have similar aesthetics about the work or hobbies they have mastered.


History of beauty

A famous depiction of male beauty in Michelangelo's David.
A famous depiction of male beauty in Michelangelo's David.

The earliest theory of beauty can be found in the works of early Greek philosophers from the pre-Socratic period, such as Pythagoras. The Pythagorean school saw a strong connection between mathematics and beauty. In particular, they noted that objects proportioned according to the golden ratio seemed more attractive. Ancient Greek architecture is based on this view of symmetry and proportion. Modern research also suggests that people whose facial features are symmetric and proportioned according to the golden ratio are considered more attractive than those whose faces are not. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1071x2046, 363 KB) Description: Michelangelos David (original statue) Source: private photo Date: created 24. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1071x2046, 363 KB) Description: Michelangelos David (original statue) Source: private photo Date: created 24. ... This article is about the sculpture by Michelangelo. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Golden mean (philosophy), the felicitous middle between two extremes, Golden numbers, an indicator of years in astronomy and calendar studies, or the Golden Rule. ...

The Taj Mahal, considered by many to be one of the most beautiful buildings in the world, is an example of symmetry in architecture.
The Taj Mahal, considered by many to be one of the most beautiful buildings in the world, is an example of symmetry in architecture.

Symmetry is also important because it suggests the absence of genetic or acquired defects. Although style and fashion vary widely, cross-cultural research has found a variety of commonalities in people's perception of beauty. Large eyes and a clear complexion, for example, are considered beautiful in both men and women in all cultures. Neonatal features are inherently attractive and youthfulness in general is associated with beauty. For other uses, see Taj Mahal (disambiguation). ... This article is about building architecture. ... In evolutionary psychology, symmetry especially facial symmetry is one of a number of traits, including averageness and youthfulness, associated with health, physical attractiveness and beauty of a person or animal. ... A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... Morphed Hot or Not images showing the different levels of physical “attractiveness” of each age category. ...


There is evidence that a preference for beautiful faces emerges early in child development, and that the standards of attractiveness are similar across different genders and cultures. [5] These preferences may be important in helping us identify a healthy mate or they may simply be by-products of the way our brains process information.[citation needed]


The foundations laid by Greek and Roman artists have also supplied the standard for male beauty in western civilization. The ideal Roman was defined as tall, muscular, long-legged, with a full head of thick hair, a high and wide forehead – a sign of intelligence – wide-set eyes, a strong browline, a strong perfect nose and profile, a smaller mouth, and a strong jaw line. This combination of factors would, as it does today, produce an impressive "grand" look of handsome masculinity.


Beauty ideals may contribute to racial oppression. For example, a prevailing idea in American culture, has been that that black features are less attractive or desirable than white features. The idea that blackness was ugly was highly damaging to the psyche of African Americans, manifesting itself as internalized racism.[6] The Black is beautiful cultural movement sought to dispel this notion.[7] Conversely, beauty ideals may also promote racial unity. Mixed race children are often more attractive than their parents because their genetic diversity protects them from the inherited errors of their individual parents. [8] This article very generally discusses the customs and culture of the United States; for the culture of the United States, see arts and entertainment in the United States. ... In sociology and psychology, internalized oppression is the manner in which an oppressed group comes to use against itself the methods of the oppressor. ... ‹The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...


Human beauty

Brazilian Gisele Bündchen, the richest model in the world according The Guinness Book of World Records, is an example of the western world's idea of beauty.
Brazilian Gisele Bündchen, the richest model in the world according The Guinness Book of World Records, is an example of the western world's idea of beauty.

The characterization of a person as “beautiful”, whether on an individual basis or by community consensus, is often based on some combination of inner beauty, which includes psychological factors such as personality, intelligence, grace, charm and elegance, and outer beauty, which includes physical factors, such as health, youthfulness, symmetry, averageness, and complexion. Features such as a symmetrical face, full lips, and low waist-hip ratio, are commonly considered physically attractive when part of a female, because they are thought to indicate physical health and high fertility to a potential mate. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (683x1024, 449 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gisele Bündchen ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (683x1024, 449 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gisele Bündchen ... Gisele Caroline Nonnenmacher Bündchen (born July 20, 1980) is a Brazilian supermodel. ... The Guinness Book of Records (or in recent editions Guinness World Records, and in previous US editions Guinness Book of World Records) is a book published annually, containing an internationally recognized collection of superlatives: both in terms of human achievement and the extrema of the natural world. ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... Look up grace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Charisma (disambiguation). ... Elegance is the attribute of being unusually effective and simple. ... Morphed Hot or Not images showing the different levels of physical “attractiveness” of each age category. ... In evolutionary psychology, symmetry especially facial symmetry is one of a number of traits, including averageness and youthfulness, associated with health, physical attractiveness and beauty of a person or animal. ... Composite images of female faces, grouped by differing 1-10 hotness levels, showing that the averaged morph face is deemed as more attractive than any other face, composite or individual. ... Complexion describes ones physical appearance. ...


A common way to measure outer beauty, as based on community consensus, or general opinion, is to stage a beauty pageant, such as Miss Universe. Inner beauty, however, is more difficult to quantify, though beauty pageants often claim to take this into consideration as well. A beauty contest, or beauty pageant, is a competition between people, based largely, though not always entirely, on the beauty of their physical appearance. ... Miss Universe is an annual international female beauty contest, and the title for the winner of the contest, founded in 1952 by California clothing company Pacific Mills. ...


A strong indicator of physical beauty is "averageness", or "koinophilia". When images of human faces are averaged together to form a composite image, they become progressively closer to the "ideal" image and are perceived as more attractive. This was first noticed in 1883, when Francis Galton, cousin of Charles Darwin, overlayed photographic composite images of the faces of vegetarians and criminals to see if there was a typical facial appearance for each. When doing this, he noticed that the composite images were more attractive compared to any of the individual images. Researchers have replicated the result under more controlled conditions and found that the computer generated, mathematical average of a series of faces is rated more favorably than individual faces.[9] Evolutionarily it makes sense that sexual creatures should be attracted to mates sporting predominantly common or average features.[10] Natural selection results, over the course of generations, in beneficial (or "fit") features replacing their disadvantageous counterparts. This is the fundamental force which drives evolution, and is the major insight into Biology which immortalized Charles Darwin. Thus, natural selection causes beneficial features to become increasingly more common with each generation, while the disadvantageous features become increasingly rare. A sexual creature, therefore, wishing to mate with a fit partner, would be expected to avoid individuals sporting unusual features, while being especially attracted to those individuals displaying a predominance of common or average features. This is termed "koinophilia". Composite images of female faces, grouped by differing 1-10 hotness levels, showing that the averaged morph face is deemed as more attractive than any other face, composite or individual. ... Koinophilia is a term used in biology, meaning that when sexual creatures seek a mate, they prefer that mate not to have any unusual, peculiar or deviant features. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Composite images of female faces, grouped by differing 1-10 hotness levels, showing that the averaged morph face is deemed as more attractive than any other face, composite or individual. ... Koinophilia is a term used in biology, meaning that when sexual creatures seek a mate, they prefer that mate not to have any unusual, peculiar or deviant features. ...


Another feature of beautiful women that has been explored by researchers is a waist-to-hip ratio of approximately 0.70 for women. The concept of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was developed by psychologist Devendra Singh of the University of Texas at Austin. Physiologists have shown that this ratio accurately indicates most women's fertility. Traditionally, in premodern ages when food was more scarce, overweight people were judged more attractive than slender. Beauty is not solely limited to the female gender. More often defined as 'bishounen,' the concept of beauty in men has been particularly established throughout history in East Asia, and most notably, in Japan. This is distinct from the idea of being metrosexual, which focuses mainly on the behavior of men in traditionally feminine ways. Bishounen refers to males with distinctly feminine features, physical characteristics establishing the standard of beauty in Japan and typically exhibited in their pop culture idols. The origin of such a preference is uncertain but it clearly exists even today. The waist-hip ratio in women is often considered a key feature in physical attractiveness. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... Bishōnen (美少年. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... For other uses, see Metrosexual (disambiguation). ... Look up feminine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... The term idol (from Latin idolum: image, form) is used in various contexts: In religion, man-made worshipped articles are idols; their worship is called idolatry. ... Look up origin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Inner beauty

Inner beauty is a concept used to describe the positive aspects of something that is not physically observable.


While most species use physical traits and pheromones to attract mates, humans claim to rely on the inner beauty of their choices. Qualities including kindness, sensitivity, tenderness or compassion, creativity and intelligence have been said to be desirable since antiquity. However new research comparing what humans claim to find attractive to their actual mating habits underlines the superficiality of "inner beauty," underlining the fact that the human animal relies on physical traits and pheromones just like every other animal to find a mate. That said, whether "inner beauty" does or does not measurably affect humans' mating habits, some traits classified as "inner beauty" do give an evolutionary survival advantage to either the individual or mating couple or group or all three.


Effects on society

Chinese Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), Shanghai Museum.
Chinese Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), Shanghai Museum.

Beauty presents a standard of comparison, and it can cause resentment and dissatisfaction when not achieved. People who do not fit the "beauty ideal" may be ostracized within their communities. The television sitcom Ugly Betty documents the life of a girl faced with hardships due to society's unwelcoming attitudes toward those they deem unattractive. However, a person may also be targeted for harassment because of their beauty. In Malèna, a strikingly beautiful Italian woman is forced into poverty by the women of the community who refuse to give her work in fear that she may "woo" their husbands. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 660 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Jade ornament of flowers with grape design, Jin Dynasty, By Mountain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 660 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Jade ornament of flowers with grape design, Jin Dynasty, By Mountain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Chinese: 金朝; Pinyin: ; 1115-1234), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... Events Clairvaux Abbey is founded by St. ... This article is about the year 1234. ... Shanghai Museum The Shanghai Museum (Chinese:上海博物館) is a museum of ancient Chinese art, situated on the Peoples Square in the Huangpu District of Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China. ... Social comparison theory (Festinger 1954) is the idea that individuals learn about and assess themselves by comparison with other people. ... Ugly Betty is a Emmy-winning[1] American television comedy-drama series starring America Ferrera, Eric Mabius, Rebecca Romijn and Vanessa Williams. ... Malèna is a 2000 Italian drama/romance film starring Monica Bellucci and Giuseppe Sulfaro. ...


Nevertheless, beauty has inspired humans throughout history, but the quest for beauty via thinness has also led to eating disorders such as bulimia or anorexia. Bulimia nervosa, commonly known as bulimia, is an eating disorder and psychological condition in which the subject engages in recurrent binge eating followed by feelings of guilt, depression, and self-condemnation and intentional purging to compensate for the excessive eating, usually to prevent weight gain (see anorexia nervosa). ... For other uses, see Anorexia. ...


Researchers have found that good looking students get higher grades from their teachers than students with an ordinary appearance. Furthermore, attractive patients receive more personalized care from their doctors. Studies have even shown that handsome criminals receive lighter sentences than less attractive convicts. How much money a person earns may also be influenced by physical beauty. One study found that people low in physical attractiveness earn 5 to 10 percent less than ordinary looking people, who in turn earn 3 to 8 percent less than those who are considered good looking.[11] Discrimination against others based on their appearance is known as lookism.[citation needed] Lookism is discrimination against or prejudice towards others based on their appearance. ...


In a different context, the term "beautiful people" is used to refer to those who closely follow trends in fashion, physical appearance, food, wine, automobiles, and real estate, often at a considerable financial cost. Such people often mirror in appearance and consumer choices the characteristics and purchases of wealthy actors and actresses, models, or other celebrities. The term "beautiful people" originally referred to the musicians, actors and celebrities of the California "Flower Power" generation of the 1960s. The Beatles reference the original "beautiful people" in their 1967 song "Baby You're a Rich Man" on the Magical Mystery Tour album. With the close of the 1960s, the concept of beautiful people gradually came to encompass fashionistas and the "hip" people of New York City, expanding to its modern definition. Beautiful people usually enjoy an image-based and/or financially-based prestige which enhances their aura of success, power, and beauty.[citation needed] --76. ... A model is a person who poses or displays for purposes of art, fashion, or other products and advertising. ... A musician is a person who plays or composes music. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the British TV show, see Hippies (TV series). ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... “Magical Mystery Tour” redirects here. ... Look up Fashionista in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hip is a slang term, an adjective meaning fashionably current, referring to someone who is conversant with or deeply involved in a particular trend or subject. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Aesthetics is commonly perceived as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... Mrs. ... Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a mental disorder that involves a distorted body image. ... Knut, a young polar bear at the Berlin Zoo, has been referred to in news media as cute.[1] Cuteness (in the American English form of the word, the British English form of cute meaning clever, shrewd, or sly - stemming from the word acute) is a kind of attractive beauty... Erotic capital (Green 2005) is a term that builds on Pierre Bourdieus (1980) concept of capital, and is one among other species of capital, including social capital, symbolic capital, and cultural capital. ... Variation in the physical appearance of humans is believed by anthropologists to be an important factor in the development of personality and social relations in particular physical attractiveness. ... This view of the Earth taken in 1972 is the first and only photograph to date showing an entire hemisphere lit by sunlight. ... An example of beauty in method - a simple and elegant proof of the Pythagorean theorem. ... Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (Gefühl des Schönen und Erhabenen) is a 1764 book by Immanuel Kant. ... Features such as a symmetrical face, full lips, and low waist-hip ratio, are commonly considered physically attractive when part of a female, because they are thought to indicate physical health and high fertility to a potential mate. ... For the album by The Huntingtons, see Plastic Surgery (album). ... In a species that reproduces sexually, sexual attraction is an attraction to other members of the same species for sexual or erotic activity. ... Sexual conflict is a form of evolutionary conflict where males and females share different interests. ... A Japanese tea house which reflects the Wabi-Sabi aesthetic Wabi-sabi (in Kanji: 侘寂) represents a comprehensive Japanese world view or aesthetic centred on the acceptance of transience. ...

References

  1. ^ Gary Martin (2007). Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. The Phrase Finder. Retrieved on December 4, 2007.
  2. ^ Neill, Alex; Aaron Ridley (1995). The Philosphy of Art: Readings Ancient and Modern. McGraw Hill, 269 pages. 
  3. ^ a b Kant, Immanuel (1963). Analytic of the Beautiful, from the Critique of Judgment. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 141 pages. 
  4. ^ Dion, K. K., Berscheid, E., & Walster, E. (1972). What is beautiful is good. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24, 285-290.
  5. ^ Rhodes, G. (2006). The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 199-226.
  6. ^ Chris Weedon, Cardiff University. Key Issues in Postcolonial Feminism: A Western Perspective. Gender Forum Electronic Journal. Retrieved on December 4, 2007.
  7. ^ Dr. DoCarmo (2007). Dr. DoCarmo's Notes on the Black Cultural Movement. Bucks County Community College. Retrieved on December 4, 2007.
  8. ^ Leroi, A. (2003). Mutants: On Genetic Variety and the Human Body. Viking books
  9. ^ Langlois, J. H., Roggman, L. A., & Musselman, L. (1994). What is average and what is not average about attractive faces? Psychological Science, 5, 214-220.
  10. ^ KOESLAG, J.H. (1990). Koinophilia groups sexual creatures into species, promotes stasis, and stabilizes social behaviour. J. theor. Biol. 144, 15-35
  11. ^ Lorenz, K. (2005). "Do pretty people earn more?" CNN News, Time Warner.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links

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Beauty
Look up beauty, pretty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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Beauty (1465 words)
Beauty involves the cognition of objects as having a balance and harmony with nature, which elicits in the viewer a sense and experience of attraction, affection, and pleasure.
The usage of beauty for purposes of commercialism is a controversial aspect of the "culture wars," wherin feminism typically claims such usage promotes a dogmatic (ie.
Understanding the nature and meaning of beauty is one of the key themes in the philosophical discipline known as aesthetics.
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