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Encyclopedia > Beat (music)
See also: Break (music), metronome, and Rhythm

A beat is the basic time unit of a piece of music; for example, each tick sounded by a metronome would correspond to a beat. More technically, "the beat is the pulse of the mensural level"[1], also known as the beat level[2], the metric level at which pulses are heard as the basic unit--"the denominator of the meter signature," admitting compound meters. Depending on the context, beat may denote either Look up beat, beating in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Break. ... A mechanical wind-up metronome in motion A digital metronome set to pulse at four beats per measure at a tempo of 130 BPM A metronome is any device that produces a regulated audible and/or visual pulse, usually used to establish a steady beat, or tempo, measured in beats... For other uses, see Rhythm (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of time. ... Look up unit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A musical piece is a composed work of music that is intended for performance or reproduction (for recorded works) and has a creator. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... A mechanical wind-up metronome in motion A digital metronome set to pulse at four beats per measure at a tempo of 130 BPM A metronome is any device that produces a regulated audible and/or visual pulse, usually used to establish a steady beat, or tempo, measured in beats... In music, a pulse is a series of identical, yet distinct periodic short-duration stimuli perceived as points in time (DeLone et. ... For other uses, see Meter (disambiguation). ... The time signature (also known as meter signature) is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats are in each measure and what note value constitutes one beat. ...

  • the onset of the corresponding time unit, a point in time, the very moment when the metronome ticks, or
  • the complete time interval between two consecutive taps, so to say, or
  • in popular music, the whole sequence of individual beats (in the sense of meter, rhythm, groove, or riddim). In hip hop music, the term 'beat' has come to be defined as the entire instrumental, non-vocal portion of the song.

Much music is characterised by a sequence of stressed and unstressed beats (often called "strong" and "weak") organised into a meter and partially indicated by a time signature, the speed of which is determined by a tempo. In the context of a time signature, the term "beat" most often refers to the bottom number — so in 3/4, most people would consider the beat to be the 4; that is, a quarter-note, or crotchet. However, in 6/8 the dotted quarter note gets the beat rather than the eighth, for example. Musicians typically find that mentally counting a regular series of beats enables them to keep synchronised even if the music is not characterised by regular rhythm. For the music genre, see Pop music. ... For other uses, see Meter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rhythm (disambiguation). ... Groove is a popular music term, used in the sense of rhythm, for meter_(music) and its embellishment by a rhythm section. ... A riddim is an instrumental version of a song, which applies to Jamaican music (mostly dancehall and reggae) or other forms of Caribbean music. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... An instrumental is, in contrast to a song, a musical composition or recording without lyrics or any other sort of vocal music; all of the music is produced by musical instruments. ... For other uses of the same name, see Syncopation (disambiguation). ... The time signature (also known as meter signature) is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats are in each measure and what note value constitutes one beat. ... For other uses, see Tempo (disambiguation). ... In music, a quarter note (American) or crotchet is a note played for one-quarter the duration of a whole note, hence the name. ... For the popular-music magazine, see Musician (magazine). ... Synchronization is coordination with respect to time. ... For other uses, see Rhythm (disambiguation). ...


Metric levels faster than the beat level are division levels, and slower levels are multiple levels. Metre is the measurement of a musical line into measures of stressed and unstressed beats, indicated in Western notation by a symbol called a time signature. ... Metre is the measurement of a musical line into measures of stressed and unstressed beats, indicated in Western notation by a symbol called a time signature. ...


A hyperbeat is one unit of hypermeter, generally a measure, as is to a hypermeasure what a beat is to a measure.[3] Metre is the measurement of a musical line into measures of stressed and unstressed beats, indicated in Western notation by a symbol called a time signature. ... In musical notation, a bar or measure is a segment of time defined as a given number of beats of a given duration. ... In musical notation, a bar or measure is a segment of time defined as a given number of beats of a given duration. ...


The following types of beats may create more or less syncopation. For other uses of the same name, see Syncopation (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Downbeat

Main article: Downbeat

The impulse that occurs at the beginning of a bar in measured music.[4] In music performance and music theory, the "downbeat" is the first beat of a measure in music. It is named after the downward stroke of the director or conductor's baton at the start of each measure. This differentiates it from the back beat on the even beats. Downbeat can have several meanings: // In Music Theory In music performance and music theory, the downbeat is also the first beat of a measure in music. ... In musical notation, a bar or measure is a segment of time defined as a given number of beats of a given duration. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Music theory is a field of study that investigates the nature or mechanics of music. ... In musical notation, a bar or measure is a segment of time defined as a given number of beats of a given duration. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... A modern wooden conducting baton A baton is a stick that is used by conductors primarily to indicate the musical beat of a piece through horizontal and vertical movements. ... In music a back beat (also called the, or a, backbeat) is a term applied to the beats 2 and 4 in a 4/4 bar or a 12/8 bar [1] as opposed to the odd downbeat, (quarter beat 1). ...


Upbeat

Main article: Upbeat

An Upbeat is an unaccented beat or beats that occur before the first beat of a following measure. This is also called anacrusis. In other words, this is an impulse in a measured rhythm that immediately precedes, and hence anticipates, the downbeat, which is the strongest of such impulses. It is also not only this, but also can be the last beat in a normal 4/4 bar where that bar precedes a new bar of music.[5] Anacrusis in poetry is the lead-in syllables that precede the first full measure, while, similarly, in music, it is the note or notes (even a phrase) which precede the first downbeat in a group. ... In musical notation, a bar or measure is a segment of time defined as a given number of beats of a given duration. ... In poetry, anacrusis is the lead-in syllables that precede the first full measure, while, similarly, in music, it is the note or notes (even a phrase) which precede the first downbeat in a group. ... For other uses, see Rhythm (disambiguation). ... Downbeat can have several meanings: // In Music Theory In music performance and music theory, the downbeat is also the first beat of a measure in music. ...


Image:anacrusis-bwv736.png
Beginning of BWV736, with anacrusis in red. Image File history File links Anacrusis-bwv736. ... Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (Bach Works Catalogue) is the numbering system used to identify musical works by Johann Sebastian Bach. ...


It is also an anticipatory note or succession of notes occurring before the first barline of a piece, sometimes referred to as an ‘upbeat figure’, section or phrase. An alternative expression for "upbeat figure" is "anacrusis" (from Greek. ana: "up towards" and krousis: "to strike"; Fr. anacrouse). This term was borrowed from poetry where it refers to one or more unstressed extrametrical syllables at the beginning of a line.[5] In poetry, anacrusis is the lead-in syllables that precede the first full measure, while, similarly, in music, it is the note or notes (even a phrase) which precede the first downbeat in a group. ... This article is about the art form. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ...


Back beat

Main article: Backbeat

In music a back beat (also called the backbeat) is a term applied to the beats 2 and 4 in a 4/4 bar or a 12/8 bar [6] as opposed to the odd downbeat, (quarter beat 1). [4] That is, counting out a simple 4/4 rhythm, 1 2 3 4, the 1 beat is the down beat. If beat 4 immediately precedes a new bar it is also called an upbeat [5](see upbeat article for more information on what an upbeat is). The up and down refer to movements of the conductor's baton. Backbeat can mean one of two things: Backbeat or Back beat is a style of rock music percussion Backbeat is a 1994 bio-pic of the early career of The Beatles, starring Stephen Dorff, Sheryl Lee, and Ian Hart Categories: Disambiguation ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Downbeat can have several meanings: // In Music Theory In music performance and music theory, the downbeat is also the first beat of a measure in music. ... Anacrusis in poetry is the lead-in syllables that precede the first full measure, while, similarly, in music, it is the note or notes (even a phrase) which precede the first downbeat in a group. ...


Afterbeat refers to a percussion style where a strong accent is sounded on the second, third and fourth beats of the bar, following the downbeat.[7] Percussion redirects here. ...


The effect can be easily simulated by repeatedly counting to four while alternating strong and weak beats:

  • 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 -- backbeat emphasis (and in 4/4 if beat 4 immediately precedes a new musical bar then beat 4 is also an upbeat[5])
  • 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 -- downbeat emphasis (and in 4/4 if beat 4 immediately precedes a new musical bar then beat 4 is also an upbeat[5])
  • 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 -- Afterbeat emphasis (and in 4/4 if beat 4 immediately precedes a new musical bar then beat 4 is also an upbeat[5])

The style emerged in the late 1940s in rhythm and blues recordings, and is one of the defining characteristics of rock and roll and is used in virtually all contemporary popular music, bossa nova being a notable exception. Drummer Earl Palmer states the first record with nothing but back beat was "The Fat Man" by Fats Domino in 1949, which he played on. Palmer says he adopted it from the final shout or out chorus common in Dixieland jazz. The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... R&B redirects here. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ... For other uses, see Bossa nova (disambiguation). ... Earl Palmer (October 25, 1924) is a legendary drummer and member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. ... The Fat Man was a rhythm and blues song by Fats Domino, considered to be one of the first rock and roll records. ... Antoine Dominique Fats Domino (born February 26, 1928) is a classic R&B and rock and roll singer, songwriter and pianist. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dixieland music is a style of jazz which developed in New Orleans at the start of the 20th century, and was spread to Chicago and New York City by New Orleans bands in the 1910s. ...


While "The Fat Man" may have been the first Top 40 song with a back beat all the way through, urban contemporary gospel was stressing the back beat much earlier with hand-clapping and tambourine. Other earlier examples of back beat include the final verse of "Grand Slam" by Benny Goodman in 1942. There is a hand-clapping back beat on "Roll 'Em Pete" by Pete Johnson and Big Joe Turner, recorded in 1938. Top 40 is a radio format based on frequent repetition of songs from a constantly-updated list of the forty best-selling singles. ... Urban contemporary gospel (sometimes marketed as Black gospel to help potential buyers distinguish it from other forms of Christian music, such as contemporary Christian music or Christian rock and Southern gospel) is a subgenre of Gospel music. ... “Buben” redirects here. ... Benny Goodman, born Benjamin David Goodman[1] , (May 30, 1909 – June 13, 1986) was an American jazz musician and virtuoso clarinetist, known as King of Swing, Patriarch of the Clarinet, The Professor, and Swings Senior Statesman. // Goodman was born in Chicago, the ninth of twelve children of poor Jewish... Roll Em Pete is a rhythm and blues song originally recorded in 1938 by Big Joe Turner and pianist Pete Johnson. ... Peter (Pete) Johnson (March 24/25, 1904 - March 23, 1967) was an American jazz pianist best known as a leading boogie-woogie player. ... Big Joe Turner (born Joseph Vernon Turner Jr. ...


In Reggae music, the term One Drop reflects the complete de-emphasis (to the point of silence) of the first beat in the cycle. Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ...


Off-beat

The Off-beat is a musical term commonly applied to rhythms that emphasize the weak beats of a bar. According to Grove Music, the “Offbeat” is [often] where the downbeat is replaced by a rest or is tied over from the preceding bar".[7] The downbeat can never be the off-beat because it is the strongest beat in 4/4 time.[8] Downbeat can have several meanings: // In Music Theory In music performance and music theory, the downbeat is also the first beat of a measure in music. ...


In music that progresses regularly in 4/4 time, the first beat of the bar is the strongest, the third is the next strongest, and the second and fourth are weaker; subdivisions (like eighth notes) of any of the beats are weaker than the main beats and if used frequently in a rhythm can make it off-beat.[7]


Certain genres in particular tend to emphasize the off-beat. This emphasis is a defining characteristic of Ska music and its successors. This article is about the genre. ...


In terms of dancing games (such as Dance Dance Revolution and In the Groove), offbeat notes are said to be off-sync, meaning that they do not fit in with the music. However, some offbeat notes are needed, such as in the songs "Ska A Go Go" and "Incognito". These help follow the rhythm of the song, but can be difficult to step at times. This article is about the Dance Dance Revolution series. ... In the Groove (abbreviated ITG) was a series of music video games that use a four-panel dance pad. ...


External links

  • YouBeats.com The first social network for beats, which provides examples.
  • BeatCreators.com The first user-submitted news site for music producers
  • DJ Xtermination's VVWL Records a New Mexico based rap label.

References

  1. ^ Berry, Wallace (1976/1986). Structural Functions in Music, p.349. ISBN 0-486-25384-8.
  2. ^ DeLone et al. (Eds.) (1975). Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music, p.213. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-049346-5.
  3. ^ (2005) "Glossary.", in in Deborah Stein (ed.),: Engaging Music: Essays in Music Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517010-5. 
  4. ^ a b [www.grovemusic.com Downbeat] (English). Grove Music Online (2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  5. ^ a b c d e f DOGANTAN, MINE (2007). [www.grovemusic.com Upbeat] (English). Grove Music Online. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  6. ^ [www.grovemusic.com Backbeat] (English). Grove Music Online (2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  7. ^ a b c [www.grovemusic.com Beat: Accentuation. (i) Strong and weak beats.] (English). Grove Music Online (2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  8. ^ [www.grovemusic.com Off-beat] (English). Grove Music Online (2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Musical development is the transformation and restatement of initial material, often contrasted with musical variation, with which it may be difficult to distinguish as a general process. ... In musical notation, the staff or stave is a set of five horizontal lines on which note symbols are placed to indicate pitch and rhythm. ... In musical notation, a bar or measure is a segment of time defined as a given number of beats of a given duration. ... For other senses of this word, see clef (disambiguation). ... Look up coda in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Da Capo is a musical term in Italian, meaning from the beginning, often abbreviated D.C.. It is a composer or publishers directive to repeat the previous part of music. ... Segno In music notation, Dal Segno (pronounced [ˈdalˌ ˈseˌɲo] or [ˈdalˌ ˈseˌnjo] but commonly mispronounced as [ˈdælˌ ˈsɛgˌno]) (often abbreviated D.S.) is used as a navigation marker. ... This key signature – A major or F# minor – consists of three sharps placed after the clef In musical notation, a key signature is a series of sharp symbols or flat symbols placed on the staff, designating notes that are to be consistently played one semitone higher or lower than the... Ledger lines above the staff, using eighth notes. ... This article is about modes as used in music. ... In music, a scale is a group of musical notes that provides material for part or all of a musical work. ... A rehearsal letter is a boldface letter of the alphabet in an orchestral score, and its corresponding parts, that provides a convenient spot from which to resume rehearsal after a break. ... The time signature (also known as meter signature) is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats are in each measure and what note value constitutes one beat. ... In music transposition refers to the process of moving a collection of notes (pitches) up or down in pitch by a constant interval. ... A transposing instrument is a musical instrument whose music is written at a pitch different from concert pitch. ... Image File history File links Syncopation_example. ... An accidental is a musical notation symbol used to raise or lower the pitch of a note from that indicated by the key signature. ... Figure 1. ... In musical notation, a natural sign is a sign used to cancel a flat or sharp from either a preceding note or the key signature. ... Figure 1. ... Example 1. ... A grace note is a kind of music notation used to denote several kinds of musical ornaments. ... Parts of a note In music notation, a note value indicates the relative duration of a note, using the color or shape of the note head, the presence or absence of a stem, and the presence or absence of flags. ... A beam in musical notation is constructed as one or more lines used to connect multiple consecutive eighth notes (quavers), sixteenth notes (semiquavers), or smaller note values. ... The oval that is seen at the top or bottom of a note. ... Stems can refer to two things in music, relating to music notation and production. ... For other uses, see Octave (disambiguation). ... Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... A rest is an interval of silence in a piece of music, marked by a sign indicating the length of the pause. ... A semitone (also known in the USA as a half step) is a musical interval. ... Music notation is a system of writing for music. ... In music an articulation is a sign, direction, or performance technique which indicates or affects the transition or continuity between notes or sounds. ... “Fortissimo” redirects here. ... In music, ornaments are musical flourishes that are not necessary to the overall melodic (or harmonic) line, but serve to decorate or ornament that line. ... Ossia is a musical term for an alternate passage which may be played instead of the original passage. ... In music, an accent is an emphasis on a particular note created by length, as in an agogic accent, pitch, as in a pitch accent, and dynamics, such as dynamic accents. ... In musical notation legato indicates that musical notes are played smoothly. ... A tenuto marking on an individual note Tenuto (Italian, past participle of tenere to hold) is a direction used in musical notation. ... Marcato in the context of bowed string instruments is an arco technique for playing such a stringed instrument, such as violin, viola, cello, and the double bass, also called contrabass, bass viol, or upright bass. ... In musical notation, the Italian word staccato (literally detached, plural staccatos or staccati) indicates that notes are sounded in a detached and distinctly separate manner, with silence making up the latter part of the time allocated to each note. ... In musical notation, staccatissimo (plural: staccatissimos or staccatissimi) indicates that the notes are to be played extremely separated and distinct, a superlative staccato. ... In music, a tie is when multiple notes of the same pitch are to be played as one note with a duration equal to the sum of the individual notes durations. ... A slur is a symbol in Western musical notation indicating that the notes it embraces are to be played without separation. ... Musical development is the transformation and restatement of initial material, often contrasted with musical variation, with which it may be difficult to distinguish as a general process. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In music, a motif is a perceivable or salient reoccurring fragment or succession of notes that may used to construct the entirety or parts of complete melodies, themes. ... In music theory, the recapitulation is the third major section of a movement written in sonata form. ... For other uses, see Rhythm (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Meter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tempo (disambiguation). ... In music, a theme is the initial or primary melody. ... A chord chart is a simplified text document that typically represents lyrics with ASCII chord (music) placed above the appropriate syllables of the lyrics to associate the relative timing of the chord changes to the words of a song. ... Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervals, chords, and nonchord tones, in relation to a bass note. ... Musical graphic notation is a form of music notation which refers to the use of non-traditional symbols and text to convey information about the performance of a piece of music. ... A lead sheet is form of music notation the describes the melody, lyrics and harmony of a popular song. ... Modern Musical Symbols are the marks and symbols that are widely used in musical scores of all styles and instruments today. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Example of numeric vihuela tablature from the book Orphenica Lyra by Miguel de Fuenllana (1554). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Beat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (406 words)
In physics and sound, a beat is the oscillation between zero intensity and full intensity that occurs when two frequencies (which are not harmonically related) are added together, caused by alternating constructive and destructive interference of the pressure waves.
beat in music is a pulse of sound that marks the rhythm.
Beat is also then the meter, rhythm, riddim, or groove of a piece and may indicate solely the bass and snare drum rhythm parts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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