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Encyclopedia > Bear
Bear
Fossil range: Early Miocene - Recent
Kodiak Brown Bear
Kodiak Brown Bear
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Caniformia
Superfamily: Ursoidea
Family: Ursidae
G. Fischer de Waldheim, 1817
Genera

Ailuropoda
Helarctos
Melursus
Ursus
Tremarctos
Agriarctos (extinct)
Amphicticeps (extinct)
Amphicynodon (extinct)
Arctodus (extinct)
Cephalogale (extinct)
Indarctos (extinct)
Parictis (extinct)
Plionarctos (extinct)
Ursavus (extinct)
Kolponomos (extinct)
Bear may refer to: Look up bear in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1050x681, 137 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Johann Fischer von Waldheim Johann Gotthelf Fischer von Waldheim (Grigorij Ivanovitsch Fischer von Waldheim in Russian) (October 13, 1771 – October 18, 1853) was a German anatomist, entomologist and paleontologist. ... Binomial name Ailuropoda melanoleuca The Giant Panda (Chinese: 熊貓; pinyin: xióng māo), Ailuropoda melanoleuca (black-and-white cat-foot), is a mammal now usually classified in the bear family, Ursidae, that is native to central China. ... Binomial name Ursus (Helarctos) malayanus Raffles, 1821 The sun bear, Ursus malayanus, is found primarily in the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia. ... Binomial name Melursus ursinus (Shaw, 1791) The Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus) is a nocturnal bear with shaggy fur which inhabits the lowland forests of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. ... Species Ursus is a genus in the family Ursidae (bears) that includes the widely distributed brown bears and black bears (including the Polar Bear). ... Binomial name Tremarctos ornatus (Cuvier, 1825) The Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), also known as Andean Bear, has black fur with a distinctive beige-coloured marking across its face and upper chest. ... Arctodus, also known as the Short-Faced Bear, is a genus of extinct bear. ... Cephalogale was a small mammal the size of dog, or cat. ... Parictis is the earliest genus of Ursidae known. ... Species Kolponomos clallamensis (Stirton, 1960) Kolponomos newportensis (Tedford et al. ...

Bears (family Ursidae) are large mammals in the order Carnivora. Bears are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, with the pinnipeds being their closest living relatives. Although there are only eight living species of bear, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere and partially in the Southern Hemisphere. The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Families and clades Amphicyonidae (bear-dogs, extinct) Canidae (dogs and foxes) Mephitidae (skunks and stink badgers) Mustelidae (weasels, otters, badgers) Procyonidae (raccoons, coatimundis) Ursidae (bears) Ailuridae (Red Panda Pinnipedia (seals and walruses) Odobenidae (walrus) Otariidae (eared seals) Phocidae (earless seals) The Caniformia, or Canoidea (dog-like carnivores) are a suborder... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Look up habitat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ...


Common characteristics of modern bears include a large body with stocky legs, a long snout, shaggy hair, plantigrade paws with five nonretractile claws, and a short tail. While the polar bear is mostly carnivorous and the giant panda feeds almost entirely on bamboo, the remaining six species are omnivorous, with largely varied diets including both plants and animals. REDIRECT [[]] Human skeleton, showing plantigrade habit In mammals, plantigrade locomotion means walking with the podials and metatarsals flat on the ground. ... This article is about the animal. ... Panda Bear redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ...


With the exceptions of courting individuals and mothers with their young, bears are typically solitary animals. They are sometimes diurnal, but are usually active during the night (nocturnal) or twilight (crepuscular). Bears are aided by an excellent sense of smell, and despite their heavy build and awkward gait, they can run quickly and are adept climbers and swimmers. Bears use shelters such as caves and burrows as their dens, which are occupied by most species during the winter for a long period of sleep similar to hibernation. IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ... Diurnal may mean: in biology, a diurnal animal is an animal that is active in the daytime. ... A nocturnal animal is one that sleeps during the day and is active at night - the opposite of the human (diurnal) schedule. ... Adult Firefly or Lightning Bug – a Crepuscular Beetle Photuris lucicrescens Crepuscular is a term used to describe animals that are primarily active during the twilight. ... Olfaction (also known as olfactics) refers to the sense of smell. ... This article refers to the process of hibernation in biology. ...


Bears have been hunted since prehistoric times for their meat and fur. To this day, they play a prominent role in the arts, mythology, and other cultural aspects of various human societies. In modern times, the bear's existence has been pressured through the encroachment of their habitats and the illegal trade of bears and bear parts, including the Asian bile bear market. The IUCN lists six bear species as vulnerable or endangered, and even "least concern" species such as the brown bear are at risk of extirpation in certain countries. The poaching and international trade of these most threatened populations is prohibited, but still ongoing. This article is about Arts as a group of disciplines. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A bile bear in Huizhou Farm, Vietnam. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... Extirpation is the localized extinction of a species. ...

Contents

Biology

Bear in a river waiting for a Salmon to jump which is their food
Bear in a river waiting for a Salmon to jump which is their food

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 683 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 683 pixels, file size: 1. ...

Behavior

Bears are generally solitary creatures and will not stay close together for long periods of time. Exceptions have been regularly observed; siblings recently on their own and sub-adult bears of similar age and status will spend a significant amount of time in informal social groups.


Reproduction

The bear's courtship period is very brief. Bears in northern climes reproduce seasonally, usually after a period of inactivity similar to hibernation, although tropical species breed all year round. Cubs are born toothless, blind, and bald. The cubs of brown bears, usually born in litters of 1–3, will typically stay with the mother for two full seasons. They feed on their mother's milk through the duration of their relationship with their mother, although as the cubs continue to grow, nursing becomes less frequent and learn to begin hunting with the mother. They will remain with the mother for approximately three years, until she enters the next cycle of estrus and drives the cubs off. Bears will reach sexual maturity in five to seven years.


Dentition

Unlike most other members of the Carnivora, bears have relatively undeveloped carnassial teeth, and their teeth are adapted for a diet that includes a significant amount of vegetable matter. The canine teeth are large, and the molar teeth flat and crushing. There is considerable variation in dental formula even within a given species. It has been suggested that this indicates bears are still in the process of evolving from a carnivorous to a predominantly herbivorous diet. Polar bears appear to have secondarily re-evolved fully functional carnassials, as their diet has switched back towards carnivory.[1] The dental formula for living bears is: Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Carnassials are large teeth found in carnivorous mammals, designed for shearing flesh and bone in a scissor-like way. ... In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dogteeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth. ... Molar may refer to: Molar (tooth), the fourth kind of tooth in mammals. ... Dentition is the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth. ...

3.1.2-4.2
3.1.2-4.3

Winter dormancy

Many bears of northern regions are assumed to hibernate in the winter. While many bear species do go into a physiological state called hibernation or winter sleep, it is not true hibernation. In true hibernators, body temperatures drop to near ambient and heart rate slows drastically, but the animals periodically rouse themselves to urinate or defecate and to eat from stored food. The body temperature of bears, on the other hand, drops only a few degrees from normal and heart rate slows only slightly. They normally do not wake during this "hibernation", and therefore do not eat, drink, urinate or defecate the entire period. Higher body heat and being easily roused may be adaptations, because females give birth to their cubs during this winter sleep. It can therefore be considered a more efficient form of hibernation because they need not awake through the entire period, but they are more quickly and easily awakened at the end of their hibernation. They have to stay in a den for the whole hibernation. This article refers to the process of hibernation in biology. ...


Relationship with humans

Hunter with a bear's head strapped to his back on the Kodiak Archipelago.
Hunter with a bear's head strapped to his back on the Kodiak Archipelago.

Some of the larger species, such as the polar bear and the grizzly bear, are dangerous to humans, especially in areas where they have become used to people. For the most part, bears are shy and are easily frightened of humans. They will, however, defend their cubs ferociously if a situation calls for it. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 477 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (835 × 1050 pixel, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: Fish and Wildlife Services image library Summary: Close view of man with huge bear head strapped to his back on the Kodiak Archipelago. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 477 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (835 × 1050 pixel, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: Fish and Wildlife Services image library Summary: Close view of man with huge bear head strapped to his back on the Kodiak Archipelago. ... The Kodiak Archipelago is an archipelago, or group of islands, south of the mainland of the United States state of Alaska, about 405 km (252 miles) by air south of Anchorage in the Gulf of Alaska. ... This article is about the animal. ... For the Brooklyn-based indie rock band, see Grizzly Bear (band). ...


Laws have been passed in many areas of the world to protect bears from hunters or habitat destruction. Bears in captivity have been trained to dance, box, or ride bicycles; however, this use of the animals became controversial in the late 20th century. Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with another habitat-type. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ...


Bears as food and medicine

Many people enjoy hunting bears and eating them. Their meat is dark and stringy, like a tough cut of beef. In Cantonese cuisine, bear paws are considered a delicacy. The peoples of China, Japan, and Korea use bears' body parts and secretions (notably their gallbladders and bile) as part of traditional Chinese medicine. It is believed more than 12,000 bile bears are kept on farms, farmed for their bile, in China, Vietnam and South Korea.[2] Bear meat must be cooked thoroughly as it can often be infected with trichinellosis. [3] [4] [5] A bile bear in Huizhou Farm, Vietnam. ...


Classification

A Syrian (Brown) Bear in the Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
A Syrian (Brown) Bear in the Jerusalem Biblical Zoo

The genera Melursus and Helarctos are sometimes also included in Ursus. The Asiatic black bear and the polar bear used to be placed in their own genera, Selenarctos and Thalarctos which are now placed at subgenus rank. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 544 KB) A Brown Bear in the biblical zoo in Jerusalem File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bear Jerusalem Biblical Zoo Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 544 KB) A Brown Bear in the biblical zoo in Jerusalem File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bear Jerusalem Biblical Zoo Metadata This file contains additional... The zoos logo The Tisch Family Zoological Gardens in Jerusalem - The Biblical Zoo, (‎, Arabic: ) popularly known as the Biblical Zoo, is located in the Manahat neighbourhood of Jerusalem. ... Panda Bear redirects here. ... Besides the Giant Panda, fossils also show a second extinct panda species. ... Binomial name (Cuvier, 1825) Synonyms Ursus ornatus Cuvier, 1825 The Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), also known as the Andean Bear and locally as ukuko, jukumari or ucumari, is the last of the lineage of short-faced bears of the Middle Pleistocene to Late Pleistocene age. ... Arctodus, also known as the Short-Faced Bear, is a genus of extinct bear. ... Arctodus, also known as the Short-Faced Bear, is a genus of extinct bear. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... The Syrian Brown Bear is the most smallest subespecies osf brown bear. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... For the Brooklyn-based indie rock band, see Grizzly Bear (band). ... This article is about the zoological term. ... Trinomial name Ursus arctos middendorffi (Ord, 1815) Kodiak bear distribution map The Kodiak bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi) is a unique subspecies of the brown bear. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... Trinomial name Ursus arctos isabellinus The Himalayan Brown Bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus) is a subspecies of the Brown Bear. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... Trinomial name Ursus arctos piscator (Bergman, 1920) The Bergmans Bear (Ursus arctos piscator) is an extinct subspecies of the Brown Bear that lived in the Kamchatka Peninsula. ... Trinomial name Ursus arctos crowtheri Schinz, 1844 The Atlas Bear (Ursus arctos crowtheri) was a subspecies of the Brown Bear, but sometimes considered a distinct species. ... Black Bear redirects here. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... This page is about the animal. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... Trinomial name Ursus americanus kermodei The Kermode bear is a genetically-unique subspecies of bear found in the central coast of British Columbia. ... This article is about the animal. ... Binomial name (G. Cuvier, 1823) Thibetanus bear range Synonyms Selenarctos thibetanus The Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus or Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the Tibetan black bear, the Himalayan black bear, or the moon bear, is a medium sized, sharp-clawed, black-coloured bear with a distinctive white or cream... Trinomial name Ursus thibetanus formosanus Swinhoe, 1864 The Formosan Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus formosanus), also known as the white-throated bear, is a wild black bear and a subspecies of the Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus). ... Binomial name Melursus ursinus (Shaw, 1791) The Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus) is a nocturnal bear, inhabiting the lowland forests of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... srilanken sloth bear is a sub spices of sloth bear. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... ... Binomial name (Raffles, 1821) Synonyms Ursus malayanus Raffles, 1821 Helarctos euryspilus Horsfield, 1825 Helarctos malayanus Horsfield, 1825 Helarctos anmamiticus Heude, 1901 The Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) is a bear found primarily in the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... Binomial name Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller, 1794 The Cave Bear (Ursus spelaeus) was a species of bear which lived in Europe during the Pleistocene and became extinct at the end of the last ice age about 10,000 years ago. ... Binomial name Ursus (Vetularctos) inopinatus (Merriam, 1918) The MacFarlanes Bear is an extinct species of bear that was found in Canadas Northwest Territories. ... Cryptids are creatures presumed extinct, hypothetical species, or creatures known from anecdotal evidence and/or other evidence insufficient to prove their existence with scientific certainty. ... Binomial name Melursus ursinus (Shaw, 1791) The Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus) is a nocturnal bear with shaggy fur which inhabits the lowland forests of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. ... Binomial name Ursus (Helarctos) malayanus Raffles, 1821 The sun bear, Ursus malayanus, is found primarily in the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia. ... In biology, a subgenus is a taxonomic grade intermediate between genus and species. ...


A number of hybrids have been bred between American black, brown, and polar bears (see Ursid hybrids). An ursid hybrid is an animal with parents from two different species or subspecies of the Ursidae (bear) family. ...


Evolutionary relationships

 
 Ursidae 

Ursinae


Brown Bear Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ...



Polar Bear This article is about the animal. ...




American Black Bear Black Bear redirects here. ...



Asiatic Black Bear Binomial name (G. Cuvier, 1823) Thibetanus bear range Synonyms Selenarctos thibetanus The Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus or Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the Tibetan black bear, the Himalayan black bear, or the moon bear, is a medium sized, sharp-clawed, black-coloured bear with a distinctive white or cream...



Sun Bear Binomial name (Raffles, 1821) Synonyms Ursus malayanus Raffles, 1821 Helarctos euryspilus Horsfield, 1825 Helarctos malayanus Horsfield, 1825 Helarctos anmamiticus Heude, 1901 The Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) is a bear found primarily in the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia. ...



Sloth Bear Binomial name Melursus ursinus (Shaw, 1791) The Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus) is a nocturnal bear, inhabiting the lowland forests of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. ...



  Tremarctinae  

Spectacled Bear Binomial name (Cuvier, 1825) Synonyms Ursus ornatus Cuvier, 1825 The Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), also known as the Andean Bear and locally as ukuko, jukumari or ucumari, is the last of the lineage of short-faced bears of the Middle Pleistocene to Late Pleistocene age. ...



  Ailuropodinae  

Giant Panda Panda Bear redirects here. ...



Phylogeny of extant bears. Ursinae is represented as a polytomy, including a well-supported grouping of the brown and polar bears. MtDNA testing suggests the sloth bear as most basal within its subfamily, but the remaining hierarchy is uncertain.[6] A polytomy (also called a polychotomy) is a section of a phylogeny in which the evolutionary relationships can not be fully resolved to dichotomies. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ...

The Ursidae family belongs to the order Carnivora and is one of nine families in the suborder Caniformia, or "doglike" carnivorans. Bears' closest living relatives are the pinnipeds, a clade of three families: Odobenidae (the walrus), Otariidae (fur seals and sea lions), and Phocidae (true or earless seals). Bears comprise eight species in three subfamilies: Ailuropodinae (monotypic with the giant panda), Tremarctinae (monotypic with the Spectacled Bear), and Ursinae (containing six species usually divided into three genera). Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... Binomial name Odobenus rosmarus (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies Walruses are large semi-aquatic mammals that live in the cold Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. ... Genera Monachus (Monk Seals) Mirounga (Elephant Seal) Lobodon (Crabeater Seals) Leptonychotes Hydrurga (Leopard Seals) Ommatophoca Erignathus (Bearded Seals) Phoca Halichoerus (Gray Seals) Cystophora (Hooded Seals) The true seals or earless seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal suborder, Pinnipedia. ... Panda Bear redirects here. ... Binomial name (Cuvier, 1825) Synonyms Ursus ornatus Cuvier, 1825 The Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), also known as the Andean Bear and locally as ukuko, jukumari or ucumari, is the last of the lineage of short-faced bears of the Middle Pleistocene to Late Pleistocene age. ...


The origins of Ursidae can be traced back to the very small and graceful Parictis that had a skull only 7 cm (3 in) long. Parictis first occur in North America in the Late Eocene (ca. 38 million years ago), but this genus did not appear in Eurasia and Africa until the Miocene.[7] The raccoon-sized, dog-like Cephalogale, however, is widely regarded as the most primitive ursid and is ideally suited as a representative basal taxon for the family. Cephalogale first appeared during the middle Oligocene and early Miocene (approximately 20-30 million years ago) in Europe. Cephalogale gave rise to a lineage of early bears of the genus Ursavus. This genus radiated in Asia and ultimately gave rise to the first true bears (genus Ursus) in Europe, 5 million years ago. Even among its primitive species, such as C. minor, it exhibits typical ursid synapomorphic dentition such as posteriorly oriented M2 postprotocrista molars, elongated m2 molars, and a reduction of the premolars. Living members of the ursids are morphologically well defined by their hypocarnivorous (non-strictly meat-eating) dentitions, but fossil ursids include hypercarnivorous (strictly meat-eating) taxa, although they never achieved the extreme hypercarnivory seen in mustelids. Cephalogale was a mesocarnivore (intermediate meat-eater).[8] Other extinct bear genera include Arctodus, Agriarctos, Plionarctos and Indarctos. Parictis is the earliest genus of Ursidae known. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Cephalogale was a small mammal the size of dog, or cat. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... Shared characteristics that define a cladistic grouping. ... Dentition is the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth. ... Molar may refer to: Molar (tooth), the fourth kind of tooth in mammals. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... A hypercarnivore, as opposed to a hypocarnivore, is an animal that exclusively eats meat and nothing else. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Arctodus, also known as the Short-Faced Bear, is a genus of extinct bear. ...


It is uncertain whether ursids were in Asia during the late Eocene, although there is some suggestion that a limited immigration from Asia may have produced Parictis in North America due to the major sea level lowstand at ca. 37 Ma, but no Parictis fossils have yet to be found in East Asia. Ursids did, however, become very diversified in Asia later during the Oligocene. Four genera representing two subfamilies (Amphicynodontinae and Hemicyoninae) have been discovered in the Oligocene of Asia: Amphicticeps, Amphicynodon, Pachycynodon, and Cephalogale. Amphicticeps is endemic from Asia and the other three genera are common to both Asia and Europe. This indicates migration of ursids between Asia and Europe during the Oligocene and migration of several taxa from Asia to North America likely occurred later during the late Oligocene or early Miocene. Although Amphicticeps is morphologically closely related to Allocyon, and also to Kolponomos of North America, no single genus of the Ursidae is known to be common to both Eurasia and North America. Cephalogale, however, do appear in North America in the early Miocene. It is interesting to note that rodents, such as Haplomys and Pseudotheridomys (late Oligocene) and Plesiosminthus and Palaeocastor (early Miocene), are common to both Asia and North America and this indicates that faunal exchange did occur between Asia and North America during the late Oligocene to early Miocene. Ursid migration from Asia to North America would therefore have also been very likely to occur during this time.[9] Three major carnivoran migrations between Eurasia and North America are recognized in the late Neogene that definitely included ursids. The first around 20 Ma (probably 21–18 Ma) were waves of intermittent dispersals that included Amphicynodon, Cephalogale and Ursavus. The second migration occurred at about 7–8 Ma and included Agriotherium. And the last wave took place in the early Pliocene 4 Ma with Ursus.[10] Species See Text Palaeocastor (prehistoric beaver) is an extinct genus of beaver that lived in the North American Badlands during the late Oligocene period. ... Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... Species  ?  ? Agriotherium is an extinct genus of bear. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ...


The giant panda's taxonomy has long been debated. Its original classification by Armand David in 1869 was within the bear genus Ursus, but in 1870 it was reclassified by Alphonse Milne-Edwards to the raccoon family.[11] In recent studies, the majority of DNA analyses suggest that the giant panda has a much closer relationship to other bears and should be considered a member of the family Ursidae.[12] The status of the red panda remains uncertain, but many experts, including Wilson and Reeder, classify it as a member of the bear family. Others place it with the raccoons in Procyonidae or in its own family, the Ailuridae. The many similarities between the two pandas are thought to represent convergent evolution for feeding primarily on bamboo. Panda Bear redirects here. ... The standard author abbreviation David may be used to indicate this person in citing a botanical name. ... Ursus is Latin for bear. It could refer to: Ursus (biology), a genus of bears. ... Alphonse Milne-Edwards (October 13, 1835 _ April 21, 1900) was a French ornithologist. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Raccoon native range in red, feral range in blue. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ... For the Canadian Superhero, see Decoder Ring Theatre Binomial name F. Cuvier, 1825 Red Panda range subspecies The Red Panda, Ailurus fulgens (shining cat, from a Latinized form of the Greek αίλουρος, ailouros, cat, and the participial form of the Latin fulgere, to shine) [1] is a mostly herbivorous mammal, slightly... Genera Procyon Nasua Cyonasua - extinct Chapalmalania - extinct Nasuella Bassariscus Bassaricyon Potos Procyonidae is a family of carnivores which includes the raccoons, coatis and others. ... Binomial name Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 The Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens Latin fire colored cat) Chinese: 小熊貓; (pinyin: xiǎo xióng māo) or lesser panda, is a mostly vegetarian cat-sized (60 cm long) mammal. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ...


There is also evidence that, unlike their neighbors elsewhere, the brown bears of Alaska's ABC islands are more closely related to polar bears than they are to other brown bears in the world. Researchers Gerald Shields and Sandra Talbot of the University of Alaska Fairbanks Institute of Arctic Biology studied the DNA of several samples of the species and found that their DNA is different from that of other brown bears. The researchers discovered that their DNA was unique compared to brown bears anywhere else in the world. The discovery has shown that while all other brown bears share a brown bear as their closest relative, those of Alaska's ABC Islands differ and share their closest relation with the polar bear.[13] There is also supposed to be a very rare large bear in China called the blue bear, which presumably is a type of black bear. This animal has never been photographed. Binomial name Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758 The Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) is a species of bear that can reach weights of 130-700 kg (300 to 1500 pounds). ... The ABC Islands is the colloquial name for the Alaskan islands of Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof in the Alexander Archipelago. ... The name Polar Bear is also a tradename for a type of scuba divers warm undersuit to be worn under a drysuit. ... The University of Alaska is a Land-Grant, Sea-Grant, and Space Grant university founded in 1922 in Fairbanks, Alaska. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


Culture

Myth and legend

"En uheldig bjørnejakt" (An Unfortunate Bear Hunt) by Theodor Kittelsen.

Some evidence has been brought to light on prehistoric bear worship, see Arctic, Arcturus, Great Bear, Berserker, Kalevala. Anthropologists such as Joseph Campbell have regarded this as a common feature in most of the fishing and hunting-tribes. The prehistoric Finns, along with most Finno-Ugric peoples, considered the bear as the spirit of one's forefathers. This is why the bear was a greatly respected animal, with several euphemistic names. Image File history File links Theodor_Kittelsen-En_uheldig_bjørnejakt. ... Image File history File links Theodor_Kittelsen-En_uheldig_bjørnejakt. ... Kittelsen is known for his drawings of trolls. ... Bear worship is the religious practice of the worshiping of bears. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... For other uses, see Arcturus (disambiguation). ... The term Great Bear can refer to: Ursa Major, the constellation, whose name is the Latin for Great Bear. The Great Bear, an artwork by Simon Patterson based on the London Tube map. ... Berserkers in the kings hall, illustration by Louis Moe, 1898 Berserkers (or Berserks) were Norse warriors who were commonly understood to have fought in an uncontrollable rage or trance of fury; the berserkergang. ... The Kalevala is an epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian folklore in the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Joseph Campbell (disambiguation). ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... http://www. ... Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ...


This kind of attitude is reflected in the traditional Russian fairy tale "Morozko", whose arrogant protagonist Ivan tries to kill a mother bear and her cubs - and is punished and humbled by having his own head turned magically into a bear's head and being subsequently shunned by human society. A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... DVD cover Jack Frost (also known as Morozko) is a Russo-Finnish production (Gorky Film Studio) that was released in 1964, 1966 in the U.S. It was directed by Aleksandr Rou, and starred Eduard Izotov as Ivan, Natalya Sedykh as Nastenka, and Aleksandr Khvylya as Father Frost. ...


There has been evidence about early bear worship in China and among the Ainu culture as well. In the Korean mythology, Korean people identifies bear as their ancestor and symbolic animal. Ainu ) IPA: (also called Ezo in historical texts) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, northern Honshū, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


In addition, the Proto-Indo-European word for bear, *hr̥ktos (ancestral to the Greek arktos, Latin ursus, Welsh arth (cf. Arthur), Sanskrit *ṛkṣa, Hittite hartagga) seems to have been subject to taboo deformation or replacement (as was the word for wolf, wlkwos), resulting in the use of numerous unrelated words with meanings like "brown one" (English bruin) and "honey-eater" (Slavic medved). Thus four separate Indo-European language groups do not share the same PIE root. The theory of the bear taboo is taught to almost all beginning students of Indo-European and historical linguistics; the putative original PIE word for bear is itself descriptive, because a cognate word in Sanskrit is rakshas, meaning "harm, injury".[14] The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Look up Arthur in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A euphemism is a word or phrase used in place of a term that originally could not be spoken aloud (see taboo) or, by extension, terms which they consider to be disagreeable or offensive. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call...

The saddled "bear of St Corbinian" the emblem of Freising, here incorporated in the arms of Pope Benedict XVI
The saddled "bear of St Corbinian" the emblem of Freising, here incorporated in the arms of Pope Benedict XVI

In the arms of the bishopric of Freising (illustration, right) the bear is the dangerous totem animal tamed by Saint Corbinian and made to carry his civilized baggage over the mountains: the allegory of the civilizing influence of Christianity is inescapable. A bear also features prominently in the legend of Saint Romedius, who is also said to have tamed one of these animals and had the same bear carry him from his hermitage in the mountains to the city of Trento. Image File history File links BXVI_CoA_like_gfx_PioM.svg Summary Author: Piotr MichaÅ‚ Jaworski; PioM EN DE PL Place: POLAND/PoznaÅ„; Date: 07 V 2005 updated 18:26, 1 June 2006 (UTC) Description: Benedict XVI coat of arms like graphic. ... Image File history File links BXVI_CoA_like_gfx_PioM.svg Summary Author: Piotr MichaÅ‚ Jaworski; PioM EN DE PL Place: POLAND/PoznaÅ„; Date: 07 V 2005 updated 18:26, 1 June 2006 (UTC) Description: Benedict XVI coat of arms like graphic. ... Arms of Pope Benedict XVI, with Corbinians Bear. ... Freising is a city in Bavaria, Germany, capital of the district Freising. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Arms of Pope Benedict XVI, with Corbinians Bear. ... St. ... Trento (Italian: Trento; German: Trient; Latin: Tridentum; Note that many of the regions Italian languages/dialects use Trent or Trènt) is an Italian city located in the Adige River valley in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. ...


Imaginary bears are a popular feature of many children's stories including Goldilocks and the Three Bears, the Berenstein Bears, and Winnie the Pooh. Someones been eating my porridge, and theyve eaten it all up! Goldilocks and the Three Bears is a popular childrens fairy tale. ... The Berenstain Bears are a family of fictional bear characters appearing in a series of childrens books written by Stan and Jan Berenstain. ... Pooh redirects here. ...


The constellations Ursa Major and Ursa Minor represent bears. This article is about the star grouping. ... This article is about the constellation. ... Ursa Minor (IPA: ) is a constellation in the northern sky, the name of which means Smaller Bear in Latin. ...


Heraldry and other symbolic use

The bear is a common charge in heraldry. Numerous cities around the world have adopted the bear in their arms, notably the Swiss capital Bern, which takes its name from the German for bear, Bär. The bear is also the name-emblem of Berlin Bärlein meaning small bear. Bears are a common symbol of heraldry (e.g. Rawa Coat of Arms, Bernhardt coat of arms). Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Location within Switzerland The city of Bern, English traditionally Berne (Bernese German Bärn , German Bern , French Berne , Italian Berna , Romansh Berna ), is the Bundesstadt (administrative capital) of Switzerland, and is the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... Rawa - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ...

The bear is a common National personification for Russia (as well as the Soviet Union) and even Germany. The brown bear is Finland's national animal. In the United States, the black bear is the state animal of Louisiana, New Mexico, and West Virginia; the grizzly bear is the state animal of both Montana and California. Image File history File links Berne-coat_of_arms. ... Location within Switzerland The city of Bern, English traditionally Berne (Bernese German Bärn , German Bern , French Berne , Italian Berna , Romansh Berna ), is the Bundesstadt (administrative capital) of Switzerland, and is the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Berlin. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Rawicz Clan This work is copyrighted. ... Rawa - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dietingen is a town in the district of Rottweil, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Portein is a municipality in Grisons, Switzerland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Zollikofen is a municipality in the canton of Berne, Switzerland, situated in the district of Obersimmental. ... Image File history File links Greenland_coat_of_arms. ... This article is about the animal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_California. ... The modern Bear Flag of California The flag of California was first flown during the Bear Flag Revolt as the flag of the California Republic, and a modified version was then adopted by the California state legislature in 1911 as the state flag. ... The Bear Flag Capital Sonoma, California Language(s) English and Spanish (de facto) Government Republic President William B. Ide History  - Independence from Mexico June 14, 1846  - Annexation by the United States of America July 9, 1846 The California Republic, also called the Bear Flag Republic, was the result of a... For the Brooklyn-based indie rock band, see Grizzly Bear (band). ... Britannia arm-in-arm with Uncle Sam symbolizes the British-American alliance in World War I. Germania representing Germany, from 1848. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... Black Bear redirects here. ... A state animal is the official or representative animal of a U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... For the Brooklyn-based indie rock band, see Grizzly Bear (band). ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44° 21′ N to 49° N  - Longitude 104° 2′ W to 116° 3′ W Population  Ranked... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Also, "bear", "bruin", or specific types of bears are popular nicknames or mascots, e.g. for sports teams (Chicago Bears, Boston Bruins); and a bear cub was mascot of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Russia. Look up bruin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... EXAMPLE:Laughbox,Blondie,BamBam,Pinkie,etc. ... Millie, once mascot of the City of Brampton, is now the Brampton Arts Councils representative. ... City Chicago, Illinois Other nicknames Da Bears, The Monsters of the Midway Team colors Navy Blue and Orange Head Coach Lovie Smith Owner Virginia Halas McCaskey Chairman Michael McCaskey General manager Jerry Angelo Fight song Bear Down, Chicago Bears Mascot Staley Da Bear League/Conference affiliations Independent (1919) National Football... The Boston Bruins are a professional ice hockey team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Millie, once mascot of the City of Brampton, is now the Brampton Arts Councils representative. ... Badge, released in the USSR The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, were held in Moscow in the Soviet Union. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


Smokey Bear has become a part of American culture since his introduction in 1944. Known to almost all Americans, he and his message, "Only You Can Prevent Forest Fires" (updated in 2001 to "Only You Can Prevent Wildfires") has been a symbol of preserving woodlands.[15] Smokey wears a hat similar to one worn by many U.S. state police officers, giving rise to the CB slang "bear" or "Smokey" for the highway patrol. Smokey Bear. ... A USMC drill instructor wearing a campaign hat A Canadian Mountie wearing the familiar Stetson and Red Serge tunic at Expo 67 in Montreal. ... CB slang (commonly called CB Talk) are terms that those operating CB radio used mainly during the CB craze of the 1970s and 1980s. ... A highway patrol is either a police agency created primarily for the purpose of overseeing and enforcing traffic safety compliance on roads and highways, such as the California Highway Patrol, or a detail within an existing local or regional police agency that is primarily concerned with such duties, such as...

Figures of speech

The physical attributes and behaviors of bears are commonly used in figures of speech in English. In the stock market, a bear market is a period of declining prices. Pessimistic forecasting or negative activity is said to be bearish (due to the stereotypical posture of bears looking downwards), and one who expresses bearish sentiment is a bear. Its opposite is a bull market, and bullish sentiment from bulls. In gay slang, the term "bear" refers to male individuals who possess physical attributes much like a bear, such as a heavy build, abundant body hair, and commonly facial hair. To "try like a bear" means to try your hardest to catch the attention of a certain lady. The harder you try, the better the bear you are. A bear hug is typically a tight hug that involves wrapping one's arms around another person, often leaving that person's arms immobile. It was used in the Ronald Reagan political ad "Bear in the woods."
A stock market is a market for the trading of company stock, and derivatives of same; both of these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ... A bear market is a prolonged period of time when prices are falling in a financial market. ... Gay slang or LGBT slang in linguistics refers to a form of English slang used predominantly among LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) people. ... The Bear community is a subculture in the gay community. ... One wrestler has a bear hug on the other, and uses it for a takedown attempt, if the person being hugged is taken down from behind in an attempt to escape from the referee position, the move is known as a mat return. In wrestling, the bear hug (also known... This article is about affection. ... Reagan redirects here. ...

"Bear tracking"

In the old west and to this day in the former Dakota Territory, the expression, "You ain't just a bear trackin'.", is used to mean "You ain't lying." or "That's for sure." or "You're not just blowing smoke." This expression evolved as an outgrowth of the experience pioneer hunters and mountain men had when tracking bear. Bear often lay down false tracks and are notorious for doubling back on anything tracking them. If you are not following bear tracks, you are not following false trails or leads in your thoughts, words or deeds. Dakota Territory was the name of the northernmost part of the Louisiana Purchase of the United States. ...


Teddy bears

Main article: Teddy Bear

Around the world many children have stuffed animals in the form of bears. For other uses, see Teddy bear (disambiguation). ... For preserved dead animals, see taxidermy. ...


Tame bears

Street performers exhibiting a chained bear and a monkey.
Street performers exhibiting a chained bear and a monkey.

Tame bears have been usually carried by troupes of Gypsy musicians or performer. They can be made to stand and move like "dancing bear". In Romanian popular medicine, some illnesses were cured by a massage in which the patient was treaded on by a tame bear[16]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Massage in Tarifa, Spain. ...


Names

In Scandinavia (in Sweden in particular) the word for bear, "Björn" (pronounced Bee-uhh-rn) or "Bjorn", is a relatively common first name for males. The use of this name most likely stems from prehistoric times and has been found mentioned in several runestone inscriptions.[17] The name was also used by J.R.R. Tolkien in his book "The Hobbit", where a bear-like character is named Beorn.


The female first name "Ursula", originally derived from a Christian saint's name and common in English- and German-speaking countries, means "Little she-bear" (dimunitive of Latin "ursa"). Ursula (small female bear in Latin) is a Christian saint. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


In East European Jewish communities, the name "Ber" (בער) - Yiddish cognate of "Bear" - has been attested as a common male first name, at least since the 18th century, and was among others the name of several prominent Rabbis. The Yiddish "Ber" is still in use among Orthodox Jewish communities in Israel, the US and other countries. Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Orthodox Judaism is one of the three major branches of Judaism. ...


With the transition from Yiddish to Hebrew under the influence of Zionism, the Hebrew word for "bear", "Dov" (דב), was taken up in contemporary Israel and is at present among the commonly used male first names in that country. The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...


References

  1. ^ Bunnell, Fred (1984). in Macdonald, D.: The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File, 87. ISBN 0-87196-871-1. 
  2. ^ BBC Test kit targets cruel bear trade.
  3. ^ Trichinellosis Associated with Bear Meat. Retrieved on 2006-10-04.
  4. ^ BBC News - Bear meat poisoning in Siberia<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Lupin/navpop.css&action=raw&ctype=text/css&dontcountme=s">. Retrieved on 2006-10-04.
  5. ^ Finnish Food Safety Authority: Bear meat must be inspected before serving in restaurants. Retrieved on 2006-10-04.
  6. ^ Waits, L., Paetkau, D. and C. Strobeck. (1999). "Genetics of the Bears of the World". In C. Servheen, S. Herrero, and B. Peyton (Eds.), Bears: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 25-32. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN
  7. ^ Kemp, T.S. (2005). The Origin and Evolution of Mammals. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198507607. 
  8. ^ Wang, Xiaoming, Malcolm C. McKennna, and Demberelyin Dashzeveg (2005). "Amphicticeps and Amphicynodon (Arctoidea, Carnivora) from Hsanda Gol Formation, Central Mongolia and Phylogeny of Basal Arctoids with Comments on Zoogeography". American Museum Novitates (3483): 57. 
  9. ^ Wang Banyue and Qiu Zhanxiang (2005). "Notes on Early Oligocene Ursids (Carnivora, Mammalia) from Saint Jacques, Nei Mongol, China". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History (279): 116-124. 
  10. ^ Qiu Zhanxiang (2003). "Dispersals of Neogene Carnivorans between Asia and North America". Bulletin American Museum of Natural History (279): 18-31. 
  11. ^ Lindburg, Donald G. (2004). Giant Pandas: Biology and Conservation, pp. 7-9. University of California Press
  12. ^ Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds. "Phylogenetic Position of the Giant Panda". In Lindburg, Donald G. (2004) Giant Pandas: Biology and Conservation, pp. 11-35. University of California Press
  13. ^ http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF13/1314.html
  14. ^ http://www.cloudline.org/LinguisticArchaeology.html
  15. ^ http://www.adcouncil.org/default.aspx?id=129
  16. ^ călcá in the Dicţionarul etimologic român, Alexandru Ciorănescu, Universidad de la Laguna, Tenerife, 1958-1966
  17. ^ http://hildebrand.raa.se/arkeologi/uppland.asp

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ...

Further reading

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  • Bears of the World, Terry Domico, Photographs by Terry Domico and Mark Newman, Facts on File, Inc, 1988, hardcover, ISBN 0-8160-1536-8
  • The Bear by William Faulkner
  • Brunner, Bernd: Bears - A Brief History. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2007

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American novelist and poet whose works feature his native state of Mississippi. ...

See also

For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Celebrity bears have played a leading role in modern popular culture. ... The International Association for Bear Research and Management (IBA), also known as the International Bear Association, is a non-profit tax-exempt organization open to professional biologists, wildlife managers and others dedicated to the conservation of the world’s eight bear species. ... This is a list of known fatal bear attacks that occurred in North America by decade in reverse chronological order. ... Bears are very common fictionalized and personified animals, and can be found in almost every single kind of fiction. ... This is a list of actual bears that have been documented in history. ... The class Mammalia (the Mammals) is divided into two subclasses based on reproductive techniques: egg laying mammals (the Monotremes); and mammals which give live birth. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Mammalia is a class of animal within the Phylum Chordata. ... There is a bear in the woods was the opening line of an effective political campaign television commercial formally titled Bear (or If There is a Bear). The ad was part of the 1984 U.S. presidential campaign of Republican Party candidate Ronald Reagan. ... ManBearPig is episode 145 of Comedy Centrals South Park and originally aired on April 26, 2006. ... A reproduction of Kesagake Compare it with the size of the helmet! The Sankebetsu Higuma jiken (三毛別羆事件) or Rokusensawa yūgai jiken (六線沢熊害事件) was the most significant case of bear aggression in the Japanese history. ... Illustration by Arthur Rackham from a 1918 English Fairy Tales, by Flora Annie Steel. ...

External links

  • The Bears Project Information, reports and images of European brown bears and other living species
  • Grizzly Bear Outreach Project Information on the history, biology, and conservation of North American Grizzly Bears
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