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Encyclopedia > Bean
Green beans
Green beans

Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. They are also known as legumes in the US and pulses in the UK. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 487 KB) Beans File links The following pages link to this file: Bean User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery/20D/Plants ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 487 KB) Beans File links The following pages link to this file: Bean User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery/20D/Plants ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) defines pulses as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to 12 grains or seeds of variable size, shape and colour within a pod. ...

Contents

Name

The term Bean originally referred to the seed of the broad bean, but was later broadened to include members of the genus Phaseolus such as the common bean or haricot and the runner bean and the related genus Vigna. The term is now applied in a general way to many other related plants such as soybeans, peas, lentils, kidney beans, vetches and lupins. Navy Bean redirects here. ...


Bean can be used as a near synonym of pulse, an edible legume, though the term "pulses" is usually reserved for leguminous crops harvested for their dry grain. Pulses usually excludes crops mainly used for oil extraction (like soybean and peanut) or those used exclusively for sowing purposes (clover and alfalfa). Leguminous crops harvested green for food, such as snap beans, green peas etc, are classified as vegetable crops. Pulses are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to twelve grains or seeds of variable size, shape and color within a pod. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Binomial name L. This article is about the legume. ... For other uses, see Clover (disambiguation). ... For the Our Gang (Little Rascals) character, see Carl Switzer. ...


In English usage 'beans' sometimes also refer to seeds or other organs of non leguminosae which bear a resemblance to the vegetable, for example coffee beans, castor beans and cocoa beans (which resemble bean seeds), and vanilla beans (which resemble the pods). Coffee beans and a cup of coffee Coffee as a drink, usually served hot, is prepared from the roasted seeds (beans) of the coffee plant. ... Binomial name Ricinus communis The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is not a true bean, but a member of the Euphorbiaceae or spurge family. ... For other uses, see Cocoa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see vanilla (disambiguation). ...


History

Beans are one of the longest-cultivated plants, broad beans having been grown at least since ancient Egypt, the common bean for six thousand years in the Americas. Binomial name Vicia faba The fava bean, Vicia faba, is also known as the broad bean in the United Kingdom, horse bean or field bean. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Navy Bean redirects here. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Many modern dry beans come from old-world varieties of broad beans, but most of the kinds commonly eaten fresh come from the Americas, being first seen by Christopher Columbus during his conquest of a region of what may have been the Bahamas, where they were grown in fields. Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ...


One especially famous use of beans by pre-Columbian people is the Three Sisters method of companion plant cultivation: The Three Sisters are the three main agricultural crops of some Native American groups in North America: squash, maize, and climbing beans (typically tepary beans or common beans). ... Companion planting in gardening and agriculture is planting of different crops in close physical proximity. ...

On the east coast of what would come to be called the United States, some tribes would grow corn (maize), beans, and squash intermingled together, a system which had originated in Mexico. The corn would not be planted in rows as it is today, but in a checkerboard/hex fashion across a field, separate patches of one to four stalks each.
Beans would be planted around the base of the developing stalks, and would vine their way up as the stalks grew. All American beans at that time were vine plants, "bush beans" having only been bred more recently. The cornstalks would work as a trellis for the beans, and the beans would provide much-needed nitrogen for the corn.
Squash would then be planted in the spaces between the patches of corn in the field. They would be provided slight shelter from the sun by the corn, and would deter many animals from attacking the corn and beans, because their coarse, hairy vines and broad, stiff leaves are difficult or uncomfortable for animals like deer and racooons to walk through, crows to land on, et cetera.

Beans were an important alternative source of protein throughout old and new world history, and still are today. There are over 4,000 cultivars of bean on record in the United States, alone. However beans, like most plants, do not have a complete set of amino acids, and are therefore dangerous to depend upon as a sole source of protein. This article is about the maize plant. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... A trellis is a frame-like structure on which vined plants can grow. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...


An interesting modern example of the diversity of bean use is 15 bean soup, which, as the name implies, contains literally fifteen different varieties of bean. 15 bean soup is a soup, or the bagged mix purchased in the store to make it, that is comprised (as the name implies) of fifteen kinds of bean, plus some common seasonings. ...


Types of beans

Species About 140 species, including: Vicia bithynica (Bithynian Vetch) Vicia canescens Vicia cassubica (Danzig Vetch) Vicia cracca (Tufted Vetch) Vicia dumetorum Vicia faba (Broad Bean) Vicia hirsuta (Hairy Vetch) Vicia lathyroides (Spring Vetch) Vicia lutea (Yellow Vetch) Vicia narbonensis Vicia onobrychioides Vicia oroboides Vicia orobus (Upright Vetch) Vicia pannonica Vicia... Binomial name L. Vicia faba, the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, horse bean, field bean, tic bean, or foul is a species of bean (Fabaceae) native to north Africa and southwest Asia, and extensively cultivated elsewhere. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (922x765, 104 KB)Broad beans in the pod. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (922x765, 104 KB)Broad beans in the pod. ... Species see text The genus Vigna is in the plant family Fabaceae. ... Binomial name Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq. ... Binomial name (Willd. ... Binomial name Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper White lentils Urad, also referred to as the urd bean, urd, urid, black gram, black lentil or white lentil (Vigna mungo) is a bean grown in southern Asia. ... Binomial name (L.) R. Wilczek Synonyms Phaeolus aureus Roxb. ... Binomial name Vigna umbellata (Thunb. ... Binomial name Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ... Trinomial name Vigna unguiculata unguiculata The black-eyed pea, also called black-eyed bean, blackeye, lobiya, rongi, feijão-frade, Alasandee (Kannada name) or chawli/chawle, is a subspecies of the cowpea, grown for its medium-sized edible bean, which mutates easily giving rise to a number of varieties, the... Trinomial name Vigna unguiculata sesquipedalis (L.) Verdc. ... Species Cicer acanthophyllum Cicer anatolicum Cicer arietinum-chickpea Cicer atlanticum Cicer bijugum Cicer canariense Cicer chorassanicum Cicer cuneatum Cicer echinospermum Cicer fedtschenkoi Cicer flexuosum Cicer graecum Cicer incisum Cicer judaicum Cicer kermanense Cicer macracanthum Cicer microphyllum Cicer mogolatvicum Cicer montbretii Cicer multijugum Cicer oxyodon Cicer pinnatifidum Cicer pungens Cicer rechingeri... Binomial name Cicer arietinum L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Species See text Pisum is a genus of the family Fabaceae, native to southwest Asia and northeast Africa. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Lathyrus sativus Lathyrus sativus, is a legume (family Fabaceae) commonly grown for human consumption and livestock feed in Asia and Africa. ... Binomial name Lathyrus tuberosus L. Lathyrus tuberosus, also known as the aardaker, tuberous pea, or earthnut pea, is a small, climbing perennial plant grown as a root vegetable for its edible tuber. ... Species Lens culinaris - Lentils Lens ervoides Lens lamottei Lens nigricans Ref: ILDIS Version 6. ... Lens culinaris. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3840x2160, 4114 KB) Description: red, green and puy lentils Photographer: User:Justinc File links The following pages link to this file: Lentil ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3840x2160, 4114 KB) Description: red, green and puy lentils Photographer: User:Justinc File links The following pages link to this file: Lentil ... Binomial name Lablab purpureus L. Sweet Hyacinth bean or Lablab (Lablab purpureus) is a cultivated species from the family Fabaceae. ... Binomial name Lablab purpureus L. Sweet Hyacinth bean or Lablab (Lablab purpureus) is a cultivated species from the family Fabaceae. ... Species Phaseolus acutifoliusTepary bean Phaseolus amblyosepalus Phaseolus angustissimus Phaseolus anisotrichos Phaseolus augustii Phaseolus brevicalyx Phaseolus chacoensis Phaseolus cibellii Phaseolus coccineus- Runner bean Phaseolus filiformis Phaseolus galactoides Phaseolus glabellus Phaseolus grayanus Phaseolus latidenticulatus Phaseolus leucanthus Phaseolus lunatus- Lima bean Phaseolus massaiensis Phaseolus micranthus Phaseolus microcarpus Phaseolus nelsonii Phaseolus oaxacanus Phaseolus pachyrrhizoides... Binomial name Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray The Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius, Fabaceae) is native to the southwestern US and Mexico and has been grown there by the native peoples since pre-Columbian times. ... Binomial name Phaseolus coccineus L. The runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus, Fabaceae) is often called the scarlet runner bean since most varieties have red flowers and multicolored seeds, though some have white flowers and white seeds. ... Binomial name Phaseolus lunatus L. The lima bean or butter bean, (Phaseolus lunatus, Fabaceae) is grown as a vegetable for its mature and immature beans. ... Navy Bean redirects here. ... Species See text Glycine Willd. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Binomial name Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) D.C. bean The Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), also known as the Goa bean (kacang botol in Malaysia), is a tropical legume plant native to Papua New Guinea. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 385 KB) Summary Vleugelboon, gekocht in Chinese supermarkt in Rotterdam Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bean Winged bean Metadata This file contains additional information... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 385 KB) Summary Vleugelboon, gekocht in Chinese supermarkt in Rotterdam Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bean Winged bean Metadata This file contains additional information... Species Cajanus acutifolius Cajanus albicans Cajanus aromaticus Cajanus cajan Cajanus cinereus Cajanus confertiflorus Cajanus crassicaulis Cajanus kerstingii Cajanus lanceolatus Cajanus lanuginosus Cajanus latisepalus Cajanus mareebensis Cajanus marmoratus Cajanus pubescens Cajanus reticulatus Cajanus scarabaeoides Cajanus viscidus Ref: ILDIS Version 6. ... Binomial name (L.) Millsp. ... Binomial name Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. The tropical legume Mucuna pruriens (syn. ... Species Cyamopsis dentata Cyamopsis psoraloides Cyamopsis senegalensis Cyamopsis serrata Cyamopsis tetragonoloba- Guar Ref: ILDIS Version 6. ... Binomial name (L.) Taub. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Binomial name Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam. ... For other uses of the word see: Lupin (disambiguation) Species over 150 recognised species, including: Lupinus albus Lupinus angustifolius Lupinus arboreus Lupinus luteus Lupinus nootkatensis Lupinus polyphyllus Lupinus x regalis Lupinus texensis Lupin, often spelled lupine in the US, is the common name for members of the genus Lupinus in... Binomial name Lupinus mutabilis Sweet Lupinus mutabilis, also called tarwi, tarhui, Andean lupin, South American lupin, or pearl lupin, is a species of lupin grown in the Andes for its edible bean. ... Species Over 100, see text Erythrina is a genus of tropical and subtropical flowering trees in the Family Fabaceae and distributed in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. ... Binomial name Erythrina herbacea L. The Coral bean (Erythrina herbacea) also known as the Cherokee bean, Red cardinal or Cardinal spear, is a flowering tree found throughout the south-eastern United States and north-eastern Mexico; it has also been reported from parts of Central America and, as an introduced...

Cultural aspects

The following traditional uses of beans refer to the broad bean. Binomial name L. Vicia faba, the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, horse bean, field bean, tic bean, or foul is a species of bean (Fabaceae) native to north Africa and southwest Asia, and extensively cultivated elsewhere. ...

  • In some folk legends, such as in Estonia and the common Jack and the Beanstalk story, magical beans grow tall enough to bring the hero to the clouds. The Grimm Brothers collected a story in which a bean splits its sides laughing at the failure of others.
  • Dreaming of a bean is sometimes said to be a sign of impending conflict, though others said they caused bad dreams.[citation needed]
An array of tomatoes and beans
An array of tomatoes and beans
  • Pliny the Elder claimed that beans act as a laxative. He may have been referring to the seeds of the castor oil plant, which contain oils used as laxatives in ancient India.
  • European folklore claims that planting beans on Good Friday or during the night-time is good luck.
  • "Beans, Beans, the Musical Fruit" is a children's song about the flatulence often experienced after eating beans. The song is noteworthy for correctly identifying the bean as a fruit, not a vegetable.
  • In Japanese, "mame" (豆, マメ = "bean") may also mean something small. "Mame Chishiki", a Japanese phrase, which literally means "bean knowledge" (not "knowledge of beans"), is used to indicate any random trivia or miscellaneous knowledge displayed. The Japanese name for the Japanese beetle is "mamekogane" (マメコガネ), meaning "small beetle".
  • In New Orleans, serving a meal of black-eyed peas on New Year's Day is thought to bring good luck in the upcoming year.

Illustration by Arthur Rackham from a 1918 English Fairy Tales, by Flora Annie Steel Jack and the Beanstalk is an English fairy tale, closely associated with the tale of Jack the Giant Killer. ... Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm The Brothers Grimm (Brüder Grimm) are Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3264x2448, 3175 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): South Central Farm Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3264x2448, 3175 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): South Central Farm Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Laxatives (or purgatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ... Binomial name Ricinus communis The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is not a true bean, but a member of the Euphorbiaceae or spurge family. ... Good Friday is the Friday before Easter (Easter always falls on a Sunday). ... Beans, Beans, the Musical Fruit is a childrens song about the capacity for beans to contribute to flatulence. ... Binomial name Newman, 1841 Wikispecies has information related to: Japanese beetle The Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) is a beetle about 1. ...

Toxins

Some kinds of raw beans and especially red and kidney beans, contain a harmful toxin (Phytohaemagglutinin) that must be removed, usually by soaking and cooking. The soaking water from kidney beans should be discarded before boiling, and they should be boiled for at least ten minutes. Undercooked beans may be more toxic than raw beans.[1] Cooking beans in a slow cooker, because of the lower temperatures often used, may not destroy toxins even though the beans do not smell or taste 'bad'[2] (though this should not be a problem if the food reaches boiling and stays there for some time). Binomial name Phaseolus vulgaris L. The common bean is an herbaceous annual plant domesticated independently in ancient Mesoamerica and the Andes, and now grown worldwide for its edible bean, popular both dry and as a green bean. ... Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA, or phytohemagglutinin) is a lectin found in plants, especially beans, in the highest concentrations in the red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). ... A slow cooker. ...


Flatulence

Many edible beans, including broad beans and soybeans, contain oligosaccharides (particularly Raffinose and Stachyose), a type of sugar molecule also found in cabbage. An anti-oligosaccharide enzyme is necessary to properly digest these sugar molecules. As a normal human digestive tract does not contain any anti-oligosaccharide enzymes, consumed oligosaccharides are typically digested by bacteria in the large intestine. This digestion process produces flatulence-causing gases as a byproduct. This aspect of bean digestion is the basis for the children's rhyme "Beans, Beans, the Musical Fruit." The term “oligosaccharide” refers to a short chain of sugar molecules (“oligo” means “few” and “saccharide” means “sugar. ... Raffinose is a complex carbohydrate, a trisaccharide composed of galactose, fructose and glucose. ... Stachyose is an oligosaccharide (tetra-saccharide) consisting of two D-galactose units and one sucrose sequentially linked. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Flatulence is the presence of a mixture of gases known as flatus in the digestive tract of mammals expelled from the rectum. ... Beans, Beans, the Musical Fruit is a childrens song about the capacity for beans to contribute to flatulence. ...


Some species of mold produce alpha-galactosidase, an anti-oligosaccharide enzyme, which humans can take to facilitate digestion of oligosaccharides in the small intestine. This enzyme, currently sold in the U.S. under the brand-name Beano, can be added to food or consumed separately. In many cuisines beans are cooked along with natural carminatives such as anise seeds, coriander seeds and cumin. This article is about the fungi known as molds. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Beano is an enzyme-based dietary supplement that is alleged by its manufacturer to reduce gas in the digestive tract, thereby preventing flatulence. ... A carminative, also known as carminativum ( plural: carminativa), is a medicinal drug with antispasmodic activity that is used against cramps of the digestive tract in combination with flatulence. ... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Geerah redirects here. ...


Other strategies include soaking beans in water for several hours before mixing them with other ingredients to remove the offending sugars. Sometimes vinegar is added, but only after the beans are cooked as vinegar interferes with the beans' softening. Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ...


Fermented beans will not produce most of the intestinal problems that unfermented beans will, since bacteria can consume the offending sugars.


See also

Navy Bean redirects here. ... Pulses are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to twelve grains or seeds of variable size, shape and color within a pod. ... A variety of species can provide edible seeds: Almonds Amaranthus Beans/Legumes, including Chickpeas Broad beans Lentils Peas Peanuts Phaseolus beans Soybeans Sweet peas (Lathyrus) Cocoa Carob tree Cereals, including Barley Buckwheat Kamut Maize Oats Rice Rye Sorghum Spelt Triticale Teff Wild rice Wheat Coconuts Common Hazel Coriander Ginkgo Monkey... Baked beans and scrambled egg on toast. ... Fassoulada There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ [url=http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~mow/chap43.html Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook:Phytohaemagglutinin]. United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved on 2007-11-06.
  2. ^ Phytohaemagglutinin, US FDA's Bad Bug Book or Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook. Notes that toxicity may be five-fold greater if heated to 80 °C than if consumed raw.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Beans
  • Everett H. Bickley Collection, 1919-1980 Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
  • Discovery Online: The Skinny On Why Beans Give You Gas
  • Bulgarian Guide: Bean Soup Recipe

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bean - Glossary - Hormel Foods (427 words)
Beans at this stage are referred to as fresh-shelled beans.
The third stage is the point at which the pod and bean have dried on the stalk and the bean moves freely within the enclosed pod.
The bean is then taken out of the pod that is to be discarded, and the bean can then be stored for future use in a variety of food dishes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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