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Encyclopedia > Beaker culture
approximate extent of the Beaker culture
approximate extent of the Beaker culture

The Bell-Beaker culture (sometimes shortened to Beaker culture, Beaker people, or Beaker folk; German: Glockenbecherkultur), ca. 2800 – 1900 BC, is the term for a widely but spottily scattered archaeological culture of prehistoric western Europe starting in the late Neolithic (stone age) running into the early Bronze Age. The term was coined by John Abercromby, based on their distinctive pottery drinking vessels. Image File history File links Beaker_culture. ... Image File history File links Beaker_culture. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... John Abercromby, 5th Baron Abercromby (January 15, 1841 October 7, 1924) was the son of the 3rd Baron Abercromby and his wife, the former Louisa Forbes. ...

Contents

Pottery

Beaker culture is defined by the common use of a pottery style — a beaker with a distinctive inverted bell-shaped profile found across the western part of the Continent during the late 3rd millennium BC. The beakers seem to be associated with the consumption of mead or perhaps beer and are part of a larger cultural package that included a wide range of attributes. The pots seem to have developed from the protruding foot beaker corded ware ceramics, a type of late Neolithic (2850-2450 BC)[1] vessel found in the Netherlands and lower Rhine Valley, that were typically ornamented with cord impressed decoration mixed with comb impressions and herringbone-style incisions.[2] Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... A beaker is a small ceramic or metal drinking vessel shaped to be held in the hands. ... The inverted bell is a metaphorical name for geometric shape that resembles a bell upside down. ... The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Corded ware is pottery having an ornamental pattern created by a cord impressed in the unfired clay. ...


Origin

Many theories of the origins of the Bell Beakers have been put forward and have subsequently been seriously challenged.[3] At one time, the Iberian peninsula was seen as the most likely place of Beaker origin. However, the earliest Beaker vessels were found in the Netherlands and, since Lanting and Van der Waals put forward a chronology for the development of Bell Beakers from the earlier Corded Ware forms and Funnelbeaker culture (TRB) antecedents of that region[4], the Netherlands/Rhineland region became the most widely accepted site of origin, (J. P. Mallory,EIEC p. 53). As such, it is often suggested as a candidate for an early Indo-European culture or, more specifically, an ancestral proto-Celtic culture. Bodmer(1992)[5] suggested that the Celtic populations of Britain trace their origins to an early settlement of the British Isles by Paleolithic Europeans, rather than by a later migration associated with the spread of the Celtic culture from central Europe in the first millennium B.C. Corded ware is pottery having an ornamental pattern created by a cord impressed in the unfired clay. ... The Funnelbeaker culture is the archeological designation for a late Neolithic culture in what is now northern Germany, the Netherlands, southern Scandinavia and Poland. ... JP Mallory is the nom-de-plume of Irish-American archaeologist and Indo-Europeanist Prof. ... The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture or EIEC, edited by James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, was published in 1997 by Fitzroy Dearborn. ... For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ...

Beaker culture objects
Beaker culture objects

In contrast to this, Marija Gimbutas derived the Beakers from east central European cultures that became "Kurganized" by incursions of steppe tribes. Despite this, an eastern origin is not often sought, not even by supporters of the Kurgan hypothesis. This corresponds to the now widely accepted view that kurganisation never occurred[6] Image File history File links Beakerculture. ... Image File history File links Beakerculture. ... Marija Gimbutas by Kerbstone 52, at the back of Newgrange, Co. ... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... Map of Indo European migrations from ca. ...


This expansion from Northern Europe of new ways, primarily by people exposed to dairy products like the Beaker folks, coincides with the rapid spread of a new gene mutation against lactose intolerance traced back to Northern Europe and so far not attested by Europeans before 5000 BC.[7] This gene gave its carriers a survival advantage, and gives credit to a certain demographic advantage as well.


Extent and impact

As derived from the western extremity of the Corded Ware culture in the Netherlands, otherwise marginal groups of Corded Ware took advantage of their contacts by sea and rivers and started a diaspora of North West European culture from Ireland to the Carpatian Basin and south along the Atlantic coast and following the Rhone valley until Portugal, North Africa and Sicily, even penetrating northern and central Italy. [8] Its remains have been found in what is now Portugal, Spain, France (excluding the central massif), Great Britain and Ireland, the Low Countries, and Germany between the Elbe and Rhine, with an extension along the upper Danube into the Vienna basin (Austria) and Hungary (Czepel-Island), with Mediterranean outposts on Sardinia and Sicily; there is less certain evidence for direct penetration in the east. Beaker-type vessels remained in use longest in the British Isles, late beakers in other areas are classified as early Bronze age (barbed wire Beakers in the Netherlands, Giant Beakers (Riesenbecher)). The new international trade routes opened by the Beaker people where there to remain and the culture was succeeded by a number of Bronze Age cultures, among them the Unetice culture (Central Europe), ca. 2300 BC, and by the Nordic Bronze Age, a culture of Scandinavia and northernmost Germany-Poland, ca. 1800 BC. Corded ware is pottery having an ornamental pattern created by a cord impressed in the unfired clay. ... It has been suggested that Regents: Low Countries be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... The Viennese basin is a tectonic basin between the Alps and the Carpathian Mountains. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Unetice, or more properly ÚnÄ›tice, culture, (German: Aunjetitz) is the name given to an early Bronze Age culture, preceded by the Beaker culture and followed by the Tumulus culture. ... (Redirected from 2300 BC) (24th century BC - 23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2334 - 2279 BC (short chronology) Sargon of Akkads conquest of Mesopotamia 2217 - 2193 BC - Nomadic invasions of Akkad 2205 BC - Foundation of the Xia... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... (Redirected from 1800 BC) (19th century BC - 18th century BC - 17th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: End of Twelfth Dynasty, start of Thirteenth Dynasty, start of Fourteenth Dynasty 1766...


Sardinia

From the earliest period, Sardinia has been in contact with extra-insular communities in Corsica, Liguria, Lombardy and Provence. Towards the end of the fifth millennium BC an increased exportation of obsidian extended the cultural interaction to the Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean. From the third millennium BC on, comb-impressed Beaker ware, as well as other Beaker material in Ozieri or sub-Ozieri contexts, has been found, demonstrating continuing relationships with the western Mediterranean; it appears likely that Sardinia was the intermediary that brought Beaker materials to Tuscany and Sicily.[9] In some sites, material of the megalithic Monte Claro culture has been found in association with Bell Beaker materials; elsewhere, Beaker material has been found stratigraphically above Monte Claro and in association with the Bonnanaro culture at the end of the Chalcolithic period, for which C-14 dates calibrate to ca. 2250 BCE. There is virtually no evidence in Sardinia of external contacts in the late third and early second millennia, apart from late Beakers and close parallels between Bonnannaro pottery and that of the North Italian Polada culture. By the fifteenth century, international trade returned, making Sardinia an integral part of a commercial network that extended from the Near East to Northwestern Europe, the principal eastern component of this network being Cyprus. Also contacts with the Mycenaean world were established. Indigenous Sardinians appear in the Eastern Mediterranean as Sherden, one of the main tribes of the Sea Peoples, and are supposed to be the carriers of some of the eastern material found on the island. The Shardana or Sherden sea pirates are one of several groups of Sea Peoples who appear in fragmentary historical records (Egyptian inscriptions) for the Mediterranean region in the second millennium B.C.; little is known about them. ... The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ...


Religion expressed itself around sacred wells, often in association to the megalithic nuraghe, most of them of Beaker signature. The earliest attested water cult site is that at Abini-Teti, where votive offerings dateable to the early Bonnanaro period have been found; votive offerings at the spring of Sos Malavidos-Orani date to later Bonnanaro. This tradition showed local continuity to historic times, as it was at such centers that the Romans found attacking the natives most efficient (Strabo 5.2.7). Su Nuraxi, Barumini, Sardinia Central tower of the Nuraghe at Saint Antine of Torralba Su Nurraxi. ...


Central Europe

All over Central Europe, two great coexisting and separate Beaker cultures – the Corded Ware with its regional groups and the Eastern Group of the Bell Beaker Culture – form the background to the Late Copper Age and Early Bronze Age, characterized by a continuous development and a series of innovations whose diffusion and long range changes are determined by the great river systems. As a third component counts the indigeous Carpathian Makó/Kosihy-Caka culture.[10]


The Bell Beaker settlements are still little known, and have proved remarkably difficult for archaeologists to identify. This corresponds to contradictory results of anthropologic research[11] and to the modern view of Bell Beakers who, far from being the "warlike invaders" as once erroneously described by Gordon Childe (1940), added rather than replaced local late Neolithic traditions into a cultural package and as such didn't always and evenly abandon all local traditions.[12]


Bell Beaker domestic ware has no predecessors in Bohemia and Southern Germany, shows no genetic relation to the local Late Copper Age Corded Ware, nor to other cultures in the area, and is considered something completely new. The Bell Beaker domestic ware of Southern Germany are not as closely related to the Corded Ware as would be indicated by their burial rites. Settlements link the Southern German Bell Beaker culture to the seven regional provinces of the Eastern Group, represented by many settlement traces, especially from Moravia and the Hungarian Bell Beaker-Csepel group being the most important. The relationship to the western Bell Beakers groups, and the contemporary cultures of the Carpathian basin to the south east, is much less.[13] Research in Northern Poland shifted the north-eastern frontier of this complex to the western parts of the Baltic with the adjacent Northern European plain. Typical Bell Beaker fragments from the site of Ostrikovac-Djura at the Serbian river Morava were presented at the Riva del Garda conference in 1998, some hundred km south-east of the Hungarian Csepel-group. Bell Beaker related material has now been uncovered in a line from the Baltic Sea down to the Adriatic and the Ionian Sea, including countries such as Bielo-Russia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Croatia, Albania and even Greece.[14]


The Bell Beaker culture settlements in Southern Germany and in the East-Group show evidence of mixed farming and animal husbandry, and indicators such as millstones and spindle whorls prove the sedentary character of the Bell Beaker people, and the durability of their settlements.[13] Especially some well-equipped child-burials seem to indicate s ense of predestined social position, indicating a socially complex society. However, analysis of grave furnishing, size and deepness of grave pits, position within the cemetery, did not lead to any strong conclusions on the social divisions.


The Late Copper Age is regarded as a continuous culture system connecting the Upper Rhine valley to the western edge of the Carpathian Basin. Late Copper Age 1 was defined in Southern Germany by the connection of the late Cham Culture, Globular Amphora Culture and the older Corded Ware Culture of "beaker group 1" that is also referred to as Horizon A or Step A. Early Bell Beaker Culture intruded[15] into the region at the end of the Late Copper Age 1, at about 2600–2550 BC. Middle Bell Beaker corresponds to Late Copper Age 2 and here an east-west Bell Beaker cultural gradient became visible through the difference in the distribution of the groups of beakers with and without handles, cups and bowls, in the three regions Austria-Western Hungary, the Danube catchment area of Southern Germany, and the Upper Rhine/lake Constance/Eastern Switzerland area for all subsequent Bell Beaker periods.[16] This middle Bell Beaker Culture is the main period when almost all the cemeteries in Southern Germany begin. Younger Bell Beaker Culture of Early Bronze Age shows analogies to the Proto-Unétice Culture in Moravia and the Early Nagyrév Culture of the Carpathian Basin.


During the Bell Beaker period a border runs through southern Germany, which divides culturally a northern from a southern area. The northern area focuses on the Rhine area that belongs to the Bell Beaker West Group, while the southern area occupies the Danube river system and belongs to the homogeous East Group which overlaps with the Corded Ware Culture and other groups of the Late Neolithic and of the earliest Bronze Age. Nevertheless, southern Germany shows some independent developments of itself.[15] Although a broadly parallel evolution with early, middle and younger Bell Beaker Culture was detected, the Southern Germany middle Bell Beaker development of metope decorations and stamp and furrow engraving techniques do not appear on beakers in Austria-Western Hungary, and handled beakers are completely absent. It is contemporary to Corded Ware in the vicinity, that has been attested by associated finds of middle Corded Ware (chronologically referred to as "beaker group 2" or Step B) and younger Geiselgasteig Corded Ware beakers ("beaker group 3" or Step C). Bell Beaker Culture in Bavaria used a specific type of copper, which is characterized by combinations of trace elements. This same type of copper was spread over the area of the Bell Beaker East-Group.


Previously archeology considered the Bell-beaker people to have lived only within a limited territory of the Carpathian Basin and for a short time, without mixing with the local population. Although there are very few evaluable anthropological finds, the appearance of the characteristic planoccipital Taurid type in the populations of some later cultures (e.g. Kisapostag and Gáta-Wieselburg cultures) suggested a mixture with the local population contradicting such archaeological theories. According to archaeology, the populational groups of the Bell-beakers also took part in the formation of the Gáta-Wieselburg culture on the western fringes of the Carpathian Basin, which could be confirmed with the anthropological Bell Beaker series in Moravia and Germany.[11]


In accordance with anthropological evidence, it has been concluded the Bell Beakers intruded in an already established form the southern part of Germany as much as the East Group area.[15]


Balearic Islands

Radiocarbon dating currently indicates a 1200 year duration for the use of the Beaker pottery on the Balearic Islands, between circa 2475 BC and 1300 BC (Waldren and Van Strydonck 1996). There has been some evidence of all-corded pottery in Mallorca, generally considered the most ancient Bell Beaker pottery, possibly indicating an even earlier Beaker settlement about 2700 BC.[17] However, in several regions this type of pottery persisted long enough to permit other possibilities. Suárez Otero (1997) postulated this corded Beakers entered the mediterranean by routes both through the Atlantic coast and through eastern France. Bell Beaker pottery has been found in Mallorca and Formentera but has not been observed in Menorca or Ibiza. Collective burials in dolmen structures in Ibiza could be contrasted against the individual burials in Mallorca. In its latest phase (circa 1750-1300 cal BC) the local Beaker context became associated with the distintive ornamented Boquique pottery[18] demonstrating clear maritime links with the (megalithic) coastal regions of Catalonia, also assessed to be directly related to the late Cogotas complex. In most of the areas of the mainland Boquique pottery falls into the latter stages of the Bell Beaker Complex as well. Along with other evidence during the earlier Beaker period in the Balearics, circa 2400-2000 BC, as shown by the local presence of elephant ivory objects together with significant Beaker pottery and other finds (Waldren 1979 and Waldren 1998), this maritime interaction can be shown to have a long tradition. The abundance of different cultural elements that persisted towards the end of the Bronze Age, show a clear continuity of different regional and intrusive traditions. Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ...


The presence of perforated Beaker pottery, traditionally considered to be used for making cheese, at Son Ferrandell-Oleza (Waldren 1998: 95) and at Coval Simó (Coll 2000), confirms the introduction of production and conservation of dairy. Also, the presence of spindles at sites like Son Ferrandell-Oleza (Waldren 1998: 94) or Es Velar d’Aprop (Carreras y Covas 1984) point to knowledge of making thread and textiles from wool. However, more details on the strategies for tending and slaughtering the domestic animals involved are forthcoming.


Being traditionally associated to the introduction of metallurgy, the first traces of copper working on the Baleares was here indeed also clearly associated to the Bell Beakers.


Ireland[19]

Some traces of deliberate destruction of smaller satelite tombs at Knowth and collapses of the great cairn at Newgrange, mark the end the Neolithic culture of megalithic passage tombs, and the advent of the Early Bronze Age Beaker People in Ireland. The technical innovation of using pottery that are ring-built is considered a strong indication the makers were also present. The flexed skeleton of a man 1.88 tall in a cist in a slightly oval round cairn with "food vessel" at Cornaclery, County Derry, was described as 'typifying the race of Beaker Folk.' Classification of pottery in Ireland and Britain has distinguished a total of seven intrusive beaker groups originating from the continent and three groups of purely insular character having evolved from them. Five out of seven of the intrusive Beaker groups also appear in Ireland: the European bell group, the All-over cord beakers, the Northern British/North Rhine beakers, the Northern British/Middle Rhine beakers and the Wessex/Middle Rhine beakers. However, many of the features or innovations of Beaker society in Britain never reached Ireland. Instead of round barrows with crouched, unburnt burials, in the Irish record predominated quite different customs that were apparently influenced by the previous traditions of the magalithic autochtons. Some features that are found elsewhere in association to later types of Earlier Bronze Age Beaker pottery, indeed spread to Ireland, however, without being incorporated into the same close and specific association of Irish Beaker context. The Wessex/Middle Rhine gold discs bearing "wheel and cross" motifs that were probably sewn to garments, presumably to indicate status and reminiscent to racquet headed pins found in Bulgaria, enjoy a general distribution throughout the country, however, never in direct association with beakers. Flint arrow-heads and tanged copper daggers, found in association with Beaker pottery in many other parts of Europe, have a 'post-Beaker'date in Ireland, that is, a date later than the initial phase of Beaker People activity. Also the typical Beaker wristguards seem to have entered Ireland only after the Irish Beaker Folk had already settled there, and the assumed association with Beaker culture can not be proven. The same applies to the about thirty found stone batte axes. A gold ornament found in County Down that closely resemble a pair of ear-rings from Ermegeira, Portugal, has a composition of the gold that points to import. Incidental finds suggest links to non-British Beaker territories, like a fragment of a bronze blade in County Derry that has been likened to the "palmella" points of Iberia, even though the relative scarcity of beakers, and Beaker-compatible material of any kind, in the south-west are regarded an obstacle to any colonisation directly from Iberia, or even from France. Even their greater concentration in the northern part of the country, which traditionally is regarde as the part of Ireland least blessed with sources of copper, has led many authorities to question the role of Beaker People in the introduction of metallurgy to Ireland. Even though indications of their use of stream sediment copper instead, low in traces of lead and arsenic, and Beaker finds connected to mining and metalworking at Ross Island, County Kerry, provide an escape to such doubts, in general, the early Irish Beaker immigrants appear to be ignorant of the overall "Beaker package" of innovations that, already fully developed, swept Europe elsewhere. This Irish peculiarity could be due to the ancientness of Irish Beaker immigrations, to isolation and to influences and surviving traditions of autochthons. Knowth is the site of a neolithic passage grave, one of the ancient monuments of the Brú na Bóinne complex in the valley of the River Boyne in Ireland. ... Newgrange, which is located at , is one of the passage tombs of the Brú na Bóinne complex in County Meath, and the most famous of all Irish prehistoric sites. ...


Beaker culture introduces the pracice of burial in single graves, suggesting an Early Bronze Age social organisation of family groups. Towards the Later Bronze Age the sites move to potentially fortifiable hilltops, suggesting a more "clan"-type structure. Although the typical Bell Beaker practice of crouched burial has been observed, cremation was readily adopted in accordance with the previous tradition of the autochthons. In a tumulus the find of the extended skeleton of a woman accompanied by the remains of a red deer and a small seven-year-old stallion is noteworthy, including the hint to a Diana like religion. A few burials seem to indicate social status, though in other contexts an emphasis to special skills is more likely. Boats capable of transporting cattle by sea must have been available, possibly skin-covered, wood-framed vessels that so far have not been unearthed yet. Cattle was presumingly imported in significant numbers from Britain. The most abundant remains of cattle come from the Beaker settlement at Newgrange. Pigs were the second most important animal in the stock list. Sheep and goats were poorly represented. Medium sized dogs often survived to a fairly advanced age, suggesting their use as pets. The introduction of the horse by the same people using beakers must have facilitated land transport, in particular in the Later Bronze Age when appear a number of timber-built trackways. Agriculture of wheat and emmer was already praciced by the magalithic autochthons and maybe extended by the Beaker people, as indicated by the introduction on new varieties of cereal. The first mill-stones are attested in the Later Bronze Age.


The Bronze Age Beaker period is noteworthy, since archeological finds seem to indicate a strong continuity with native Bronze Age traditions in Ireland as much as Britain. No evidence of other large scale immigrations took place and many scholars deny Celtic speech originated solely from La Tene culture, whose migrations started at about 400 BC. Instead, those scholars propose Celtic languages evolved gradually and simultaneously over a large area by way of a common heritage and close social, political and religious links. Although controversal, the theory fits according to its proponents the archeological evidence that provides little support for westward migrations of Celtic people matching the historically known movements south and west.[20] This article or section should include material from La Tene The La Tène culture is a late Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tene on the north side of Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland, where a rich trove of artifacts were discovered by Hansli Kopp in...


Interpretation

Given the unusual form and fabric of Beaker pottery, and its abrupt appearance in the archaeological record, the traditional explanation for the Beaker culture has been to interpret it as a diffusion of one group of people across Europe. During the early twentieth century, Beaker pottery was seen as one element of a people who, through repeated waves of invasion, brought with them metal-working, crouched burials and round barrows, replacing an earlier Neolithic race of Europeans. Vere Gordon Childe described the Beaker people as "[w]arlike invaders imbued with domineering habits and an appreciation of metal weapons and ornaments which inspired them to impose sufficient political unity on their new domain for some economic unification to follow." The archaeological record is a term used in archaeology to denote the physical remains of past human activities which archaeologists seek out and record in an attempt to analyise and reconstruct the past. ... Diffusionism is the theory about the development of cultures and technologies, particularly in ancient history. ... Round barrows are one of the most common types of archaeological monuments. ... Vere Gordon Childe (April 14, 1892, Sydney, New South Wales–October 19, 1957, Mt. ...


There is no necessary correlation between an archaeological culture and an ethnic group however, as there is no one-to-one correlation between the material culture excavated by archaeologists and an ethnicity or society. Additionally, material culture and technological innovations can spread independently of population movement that is, through cultural diffusion rather than demic diffusion. Childe's view is now seen as being incorrect, its connections erroneous and based on limited knowledge, whilst its assumption of a Beaker invasion is considered an attempt to attribute numerous different cultural changes to one cause. In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Diffusionism. ... An archaeological term that refers to population diffusion into and across an area previously uninhabited by that group, possibly displacing, replacing, or intermixing with a pre-existing population (e. ...


Other archaeologists, noting the distribution of Beakers was highest in areas of transport routes, including fording sites, river valleys and mountain passes, suggested that the pan-European style of Beaker 'folk' were originally bronze traders, who subsequently settled within local Neolithic or early chalcolithic cultures creating local styles. Close analysis of the bronze tools associated with beaker use suggests an early Iberian source for the copper, followed subsequently by Central European and Bohemian ores. This would support a "two-wave" thesis for the spread of Beaker culture, initially coming from the South West, and subsequently spreading from Central or even Western Europe. Lanting (1976)[4] suggests, from a compilation context, that Bell Beaker culture emerged on the Rhine delta from a Corded Ware culture context. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... Approximate extent of the Corded Ware horizon with adjacent 3rd millennium cultures (after EIEC). ...


A recent Strontium isotope analysis of 86 people from Bell Beaker graves in Bavaria suggests that between 18-25% of all graves were occupied by people who came from a considerable distance outside the area. This was true of children as well as adults, indicative of some significant migration wave. Given the similarities with readings from people living on loess soils, the general direction of the movement according to Price et al, is from the northeast to the southwest.[21] Archaeological science (also known as Archaeometry) is the application of scientific techniques and methodologies to archaeology. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Many archaeologists now believe that the Beaker 'people' did not exist as a group, and that the beakers and other new artefacts and practices found across Europe at the time that are attributed to the Beaker people are indicative of the development of particular manufacturing skills. This new knowledge may have come about through the influence of neighbouring peoples, rather than as a result of mass migrations, knowledge that could spread independently of any population movement. An example might be as part of a prestige cult related to the production and consumption of beer, or trading links such as those demonstrated by finds made along the sea-ways of Atlantic Europe. Palynological studies of pollen analysis conducted, associated with the spread of beakers certainly suggests increased growing of barley, which may be associated with beer brewing. In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Atlantic Europe is a geographical and anthropological term for the western portion of Europe which borders the Atlantic Ocean At its widest definition, it comprises Spain, France and the British Isles. ... Pollen under microscope Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter (POM) and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. ...


This non-invasionist theory was first proposed by Colin Burgess and Steve Shennan in the mid 1970s and it is now common to see the Beaker culture as a 'package' of knowledge (including religious beliefs and copper, bronze and gold working) and artefacts (including copper daggers, v-perforated buttons and stone wrist-guards) adopted and adapted by the indigenous peoples of Europe to varying degrees. Colin Burgess (born November 16, 1946) was the first drummer with rock band AC/DC. From 1968-1972 he played in the successful Australian rock group The Masters Apprentices, and was recruited at the time of AC/DCs formation in 1973, joining Malcolm Young (Rhythm Guitar), Angus Young (Lead... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Replica of slate stone wrist-guard as it might have been worn. ...


See also

Prehistoric Britain was a period in the human occupation of Great Britain that extended throughout prehistory, ending with the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43. ... This article describes the prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula from the appearance of the first human populations until the arrival of the Phoenicians and the first recorded contacts with other European cultures. ... The Mount Pleasant Period is a phase of the later Neolithic in Britain dating to between c. ... The Nebra sky disk The Nebra sky disk is a bronze disk of around 30cm diameter, patinated blue-green and inlaid with gold symbols. ... // Linear pottery. ... The Funnelbeaker culture is the archeological designation for a late Neolithic culture in what is now northern Germany, the Netherlands, southern Scandinavia and Poland. ... Chasséen culture is the name given to the early pre-Bell beaker archaeological culture of prehistoric France of the late Neolithic (stone age), roughly between 4500 BC and 2500 BC. The name Chasséen derives from the type site near Chassey-le-Camp (Saône-et-Loire; archeological evidence... Unetice, or more properly ÚnÄ›tice, culture, (German: Aunjetitz) is the name given to an early Bronze Age culture, preceded by the Beaker culture and followed by the Tumulus culture. ... The Tumulus culture which followed the Únêtice, and from which they descended, dominated central Europe during much of the second part of the second millenium B.C.E.. As the name implies, the Tumulus culture is distinguished by the practice of burying the dead beneath burial mounds. ... The Urnfield culture of central European culture is dated roughly between 1300 BC and 750 BC. The name describes the custom of cremating the dead and placing them in cemeteries. ... Development of the European Megalithic Culture The European Megalithic Culture was a prehistoric (and preliterate) civilisation based primarily in Western Europe, that has left a legacy of large stone monuments, or megaliths, scattered widely across the continent. ... The table gives a rough picture of the relationships between the various principal cultures of Prehistory outside the Americas, Antarctica, Australia and Oceania. ... Amesbury Archer (dubbed the King of Stonehenge in the British press though there is no specific connection to the famous site) is an early Bronze Age man dating to around 2300 BC, with about a 200-year margin of error, whose grave was discovered in May 2002, at Amesbury near...

References

Notes

  1. ^ According to the Dutch "Het Archeologisch Basisregister (ABR), versie 1.0 november 1992" [1], the protruding foot beaker or "Standvoetbeker" is dated NEOLA (late Neolithic A), standardized by "De Rijksdienst voor Archeologie, Cultuurlandschap en Monumenten (RACM)" to a period starting at 2850 BC and ending at 2450 BC.
  2. ^ The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology. Copyright © 2002, 2003 by Oxford University Press, on "Protruding foot beaker" [2]
  3. ^ A Test of Non-metrical Analysis as Applied to the 'Beaker Problem' - Natasha Grace Bartels,University of Albeda, Department of Anthropology, 1998 [3]
  4. ^ a b Lanting, J.N. & J.D. van der Waals, (1976), "Beaker culture relations in the Lower Rhine Basin" in Lanting et al (Eds) "Glockenbechersimposion Oberried l974". Bussum-Haarlem: Uniehoek n.v.
  5. ^ Bodmer, W. F. (1992) Proc. Br. Acad. 82, 37-57; Wells, RS; Yuldasheva N, Ruzibakiev R, Underhill PA, Evseeva I, Blue-Smith J, Jin L, Su B, Pitchappan R, Shanmugalakshmi S, Balakrishnan K, Read M, Pearson NM, Zerjal T, Webster MT, Zholoshvili I, Jamarjashvili E, Gambarov S, Nikbin B, Dostiev A, Aknazarov O, Zalloua P, Tsoy I, Kitaev M, Mirrakhimov M, Chariev A, Bodmer WF (2001). "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98 (18): 10244–9. PMID 11526236. 
  6. ^ The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology - Oxford University Press, 2004 [4]
  7. ^ Milk allergy "caused by Stone Age gene" - Telegraph Media Group Limited, 27/02/2007 [5]
  8. ^ The Oxford Illustrated Prehistory of Europe - Barry Cunliffe, Oxford University Press, p250-254, 1994
  9. ^ The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces - ERP, 2007, PREHISTORY: NEOLITHIC [6]
  10. ^ The transition from the Copper Age to the Early Bronze Age at the north-western edge of the Carpathian basin - Volker Heyd & Francois Bertemes, 2002 [7]
  11. ^ a b Anthropological sketch of the prehistoric population of the Carpathian Basin - Zsuzsanna K. Zoffmann, Acta Biol Szeged 44(1-4):75-79,2000 [8]
  12. ^ The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology. Copyright © 2002, 2003 by Oxford University Press [9]
  13. ^ a b Bell Beaker settlements in South Germany and Central Europe, Volker Heyd, Ludwig Husty & Ludwig Kreiner, 2004 [10]
  14. ^ The Eastern Border of the Bell Beaker-Phenomenon - Volker Heyd, 2004 [www.bris.ac.uk/archanth/staff/heyd/Krakow1.pdf]
  15. ^ a b c Bell Beaker Culture in Southern Germany, State of research for a regional province along the Danube - Volker Heyd, 1998 [11]
  16. ^ The Late Copper Age in Southern Germany - Volker Heyd, 2000 [12]
  17. ^ LOS ORÍGENES DEL POBLAMIENTO BALEAR, UNA DISCUSIÓN NO ACABADA - Manuel Calvo Trias, Víctor M. Guerrero Ayuso, Bartomeu Salvà Simonet, Complutum, 13, 2002: 159-191 I.S.S.N.: 1131-6993 [13]
  18. ^ [14]
  19. ^ Ancient Ireland, Life before the Celts - Laurence Flanagan,Gil & MacMillan, 1998, ISBN 0-7171-2433-9
  20. ^ Exploring the World of the Celts - Simon James, Thames & Hudson ltd London, 1993, ISBN-13 978-0-500-27998-4
  21. ^ Price, T. Douglas; Grupe, Gisela and Schröter, Peter "Migration in the Bell Beaker period of Central Europe

Spencer Wells (born April 6, 1969 in Georgia, USA) is a geneticist and anthropologist, and an Explorer-in-Residence at the National Geographic Society. ...

Bibliography

  • Darvill, T., Oxford Concise Dictionary of Archaeology, OUP 2003.
  • J. P. Mallory, "Beaker Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn 1997.
  • Marc Vander Linden, Le phénomène campaniforme dans l'Europe du 3ème millénaire avant notre ère : synthèse et nouvelles perspectives. Oxford: Archaeopress 2006, BAR international series 1470.

JP Mallory is the nom-de-plume of Irish-American archaeologist and Indo-Europeanist Prof. ... The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture or EIEC, edited by James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, was published in 1997 by Fitzroy Dearborn. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Beaker culture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (864 words)
Beaker culture is defined by the common use of a pottery style — a beaker with a distinctive inverted bell-shaped profile found across the western part of the Continent during the late 3rd millennium BC.
The beakers seem to be associated with the consumption of mead or perhaps beer and are likely part of a larger prestige-oriented cultural package.
In contrast to this, Marija Gimbutas derived the Beakers from east central European cultures that became "Kurganized" by incursions of steppe tribes.
Ancient Britain - MSN Encarta (1717 words)
One possibility is that the Beaker paraphernalia was the equipment of a religious cult, perhaps associated with the consumption of alcohol.
The change was more than material: Beaker society seems to have been increasingly concerned with the individual, and perhaps with the appearance of an elite group, and contrasts with the impression of communal identity that much of the earlier Neolithic material gives.
Though there is little evidence of actual conflict, it is certainly true that much Beaker equipment—the archery gear, the daggers and the stone battleaxes, and the fittings of what appear to have been military belts—seems to indicate an emphasis on warlike virtues.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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