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Encyclopedia > Bay of Pigs Invasion
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Part of Cold War
Image:Alerta.jpg
Cuban poster warning before invasion showing a soldier armed with an RPD Light machine gun.
Date April 1519, 1961
Location Bay of Pigs, southern Cuba
Result Decisive Communist victory
Belligerents
Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces Cuban exiles trained by the United States
Commanders
Fidel Castro
José Ramón Fernández
Ernesto "Che" Guevara
Francisco Ciutat de Miguel
John F. Kennedy
Grayston Lynch
Pepe San Roman
Erneido Oliva
Strength
15,000 1,511 Cuban exiles
2 CIA agents
Casualties and losses
176 killed[1] (Regular Army) 4,000- 5,000 killed, missing, or wounded (Militias)[2][3] 115 killed
1,189 captured

The 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion was an unsuccessful attempted invasion by armed Cuban exiles in southwest Cuba, planned and funded by the United States, in an attempt to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro. This action accelerated a rapid deterioration in Cuban-American relations, which was further worsened by the Cuban Missile Crisis the following year. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Cuban poster warning before invasion This is a copyrighted poster. ... The RPD is a belt-fed machine gun formerly manufactured in the Soviet Union and in China. ... The M249 Squad Automatic Weapon, one of the most popular modern 5. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map showing the location of the Bay of Pigs. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... The Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces consist of ground forces, naval forces, air and air defence forces, and other paramilitary bodies including the Territorial Troops Militia (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Cuba is 90 miles (145 kilometres) south of Florida in the US The term Cuban exile refers to the many Cubans who have sought alternative political or economic conditions outside the island, dating back to the Ten Years War and the struggle for Cuban independence during the 19th century. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... José Ramón Fernández Álvarez (born November 4, 1923) is a Cuban Communist leader who is a vice-president of the Council of Ministers. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Che Guevara Dr. Ernesto Rafael Guevara de la Serna ( June 14, 1928¹ – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary and Cuban guerrilla leader. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Second_Spanish_Republic. ... Francisco Ciutat de Miguel (? - November 30, 1986) (known as Angelito)[1] was a Spanish communist[2] Lieutenant of infantry and Commander. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Grayston Lynch was one of the two CIA agents who commanded the faction of the army that went to war in the Bay of Pigs Invasion. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Erneido Oliva is a Cuban-American who was a Deputy-Commander of Grayston Lynch during the Bay of Pigs Invasion. ... Cuba is 90 miles (145 kilometres) south of Florida in the US The term Cuban exile refers to the many Cubans who have sought alternative political or economic conditions outside the island, dating back to the Ten Years War and the struggle for Cuban independence during the 19th century. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... Cuba and the United States of America have had a mutual interest in one another since well before either of their independence movements. ... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ...


The invasion is named after the Bay of Pigs, where the landing took place. It is known in Cuba as Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Playa Girón. Map showing the location of the Bay of Pigs. ...

Contents

Background

On March 17, 1960, the Dwight D. Eisenhower Administration agreed to a recommendation from the Central Intelligence Agency, CIA, to equip and drill Cuban exiles for action against the new government of Fidel Castro.[4] Eisenhower stated it was the policy of the U.S. government to aid anti-Castro guerrilla forces.[citation needed] The CIA began to recruit and train anti-Castro forces in the Sierra Madre on the Pacific coast of Guatemala.[4] is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... CIA redirects here. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Sierra Madre (known in Mexico as Sierra Madre de Chiapas) is a mountain range (located at ) which runs northwest-southeast from the state of Chiapas in Mexico across Guatemala and into El Salvador and Honduras. ...


The CIA was initially confident it was capable of overthrowing Castro, having experience assisting in the overthrow of other foreign governments such as the government of Iranian Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh in 1953 and Guatemalan President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. Richard Mervin Bissell, Jr., one of Allen Dulles' three aides, was made director of Operation Zapata, the CIA's codename for the operation. Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Mohammed Mossadegh ( )(Persian: ‎ ​, also Mosaddegh or Mosaddeq) (19 May 1882 - 5 March 1967) was the democratically elected[1] prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Colonel Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán (September 14, 1913 – January 27, 1971) was the president of Guatemala from 1951 to 1954, when he was ousted in a coup détat organized by the US Central Intelligence Agency, known as Operation PBSUCCESS, and was replaced by a military junta, headed by Colonel... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Allen Welsh Dulles (April 23, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an influential director of the Central Intelligence Agency from 1953 to 1961 and a member of the Warren Commission. ...


The original plan called for landing the exile Brigade 2506 in the vicinity of the old colonial city of Trinidad, Cuba, in the central province of Sancti Spiritus approximately 250 miles (400 km) southeast of Havana, at the foothills of the Escambray Mountains. Brigade 2506 was the name given to a CIA-sponsored group made up of 1,511 Cuban exiles who fought in the Bay of Pigs Invasion at Playa Girón in Cuba. ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... Trinidad, pop. ... Sancti-Spiritus is a village in the province of Salamanca (province), in the autonomous community of Castile-Leon, Spain. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... The Escambray Mountains are off the coast of the western shore of Cuba. ...


The Trinidad site provided several options that the exile brigade could exploit during the invasion. The population of Trinidad was generally opposed to Castro, and the rugged mountains outside the city provided an area into which the invasion force could retreat and establish a guerrilla campaign if the landing faltered. Throughout 1960, the growing ranks of Brigade 2506 trained throughout southern Florida and in Guatemala for the beach landing and possible mountain retreat. Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


On February 17, 1961, U.S. President John F. Kennedy asked his advisors whether the toppling of Castro might be related to weapon shipments and if it was possible to claim the real targets were modern fighter aircraft and rockets that endangered America's security. At the time, Cuba's army possessed Soviet tanks, artillery and small arms, and its air force consisted of A-26 Invader medium bombers, Hawker Sea Furies and T-33 jets left over from the Batista Air Force.[5] is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Soviet redirects here. ... First flown in 1942, the American Douglas A-26 Invader (after 1948, the B-26, and after 1966, the A-26A) was a twin-engined light attack bomber aircraft built during World War II and seeing service during the Cold Wars major conflicts. ... The Sea Fury was a British fighter aircraft developed for the Fleet Air Arm by Hawker during the Second World War. ... The Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star is an American-built jet trainer. ...


As Kennedy's plans evolved, critical details were changed that were to hamper chances of a successful mission without overt U.S. military support. These revised details included changing the landing area for Brigade 2506 to two points in Matanzas Province, 202 km southeast of Havana on the eastern edge of the Zapata peninsula at the Bay of Pigs. The landings would take place on the Girón and Zapatos Larga beaches. This change effectively cut off contact with the rebels of the "War Against the Bandits" uprising in the Escambray Mountains. The Castro government also had been warned by senior KGB agents Osvaldo Sánchez Cabrera and "Aragon", who died violently before and after the invasion, respectively.[6]The U.S. government was aware that a high casualty rate was possible.[citation needed]. Matanzas is one of the provinces of Cuba. ... The War Against the Bandits was a rebellion against the Communist government of Fidel Castro, mainly by peasants, small farmers and former landowners in the central provinces of Cuba and the Escambray Mountains. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ...


Through their secret intelligence, as well as loose talk in Miami, the Cuban security apparatus knew the invasion was coming. More than 100,000 Cubans suspected to be security threats or "politically unreliable" were rounded up and arrested throughout the island by the political police in anticipation of the invasion. The arrests were facilitated by informants and the diligent work of the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution (CDRs) working in conjunction with the secret police, the G-2s. Nevertheless, days before the invasion, multiple acts of sabotage were carried out, such as the bombing of the El Encanto department store in Havana, desultory explosions, and arson. This article is about the city in Florida. ... The interior of a typical Macys department store. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ...

Potential enemies of the Revolution were neutralized, arrested, or shot while resisting arrest. Because of the lack of prison space (apparently Batista had not built enough jails), suspected counter-revolutionaries were unceremoniously rounded up and corralled in any facility available, be it sports stadium, school or schoolyard, etc., to prevent the people from aiding the expected invading force.
Dr. Miguel A. Faria Jr.[7]

Hispano-Soviet advisors to Cuban government forces

Soviet-trained advisors were brought to Cuba from East Bloc countries. These advisors had held high staff positions in the Soviet Armies during WWII and having resided in the Soviet Union for long periods are thus known as "Hispano-Soviets"; the most senior of these were the Spanish Communists veterans of the Spanish Civil War Francisco Ciutat de Miguel, Enrique Lister and Cuba born (1892) Alberto Bayo.[8] Ciutat de Miguel (Masonic name: Algazel; Russian name: Pavel Pavlovich Stepanov; Cuban alias: Ángel Martínez Riosola, commonly referred to as Angelito) is said to have arrived the same day as the La Coubre explosion; he was wounded in the foot during the War Against the Bandits. Date of wound is not given in references cited.[9] A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Francisco Ciutat de Miguel (? - November 30, 1986) (known as Angelito)[1] was a Spanish communist[2] Lieutenant of infantry and Commander. ... Enrique Líster (1907, Ameneiro (A Coruña) - 1994, Madrid) was a Spanish communist politician and army official. ... Alberto Bayo y Giroud (1892, Camagüey—1967, Havana) was a Cuban military leader of the defeated left-wing Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War. ... Smoke rises over Havana harbor following the explosion People near the docks run from the blast At 3:10 p. ... The War Against the Bandits was a rebellion against the Communist government of Fidel Castro, mainly by peasants, small farmers and former landowners in the central provinces of Cuba and the Escambray Mountains. ...


The role of other Soviet Agents at the time is not well known, although they were there and well established in Cuba at the time of the Bay of Pigs Invasion and can be presumed that in that emergency to have been actively involved in the Cuban government's defence. Some of these agents acquired far greater notoriety later. For instance, two KGB colonels, Vadim Kochergin and Victor Simanov were first sighted in Cuba about September 1959.[10][11]


Some personages involved

Cuban government order of battle

The Cuban government order of battle is unclear and subject to dispute. Fidel Castro is given credit for directing strategy by Cuban government sources. At least nominally, Juan Almeida[12] was replaced by Sergio del Valle Jimenez[13], head of the Cuban Armed Forces in 1961. Antonio Enrique Lusson Batlle, a Raul Castro loyalist is also placed there[14] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... General Sergio del Valle Jimenez (died November 15, 2007) was a Cuban physician, politician and army officer. ...


Orlando Rodriguez Puerta, previous commander of Castro's personal guard, was charged with direction of Cuban government forces in Matanzas Province directly north of combat area. El Gallego Fernández José Ramón Fernández is often said to have held a senior command. Hispano-Soviets Francisco Ciutat de Miguel, Enrique Lister, and Alberto Bayo were advisors/and or commanders to intelligence and militia forces. Ciutat de Miguel under the name Angel Martínez Riosola was a significant leader/advisor for Cuban forces coming from Central Provinces. Victor Emilo Dreke Cruz, although nominally in charge of Central Province forces is generally considered to have played subordinate role to Ciutate de Miguel. Victor Emilo Dreke Cruz describes his part in the action as first fighting with parachutists and then being wounded in an ambush[15] The documentary "Brothers in Arms"[16][17] covers the life of one South African, a Robert Herboldt who had a role as quartermaster. Jacques Lagas a fighter pilot from Chile had a major role in the air defense (see air action). Lagas disputes credit with Rafael del Pino for air actions. While his presence at the site of action is generally conceded, the exact role of Arnaldo Ochoa, later to be commander of Cuban forces in Angola, is obscure. José Ramón Fernández Álvarez (born November 4, 1923) is a Cuban Communist leader who is a vice-president of the Council of Ministers. ... Francisco Ciutat de Miguel (? - November 30, 1986) (known as Angelito)[1] was a Spanish communist[2] Lieutenant of infantry and Commander. ... Enrique Líster (1907, Ameneiro (A Coruña) - 1994, Madrid) was a Spanish communist politician and army official. ... Alberto Bayo y Giroud (1892, Camagüey—1967, Havana) was a Cuban military leader of the defeated left-wing Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War. ... Arnaldo Ochoa Sánchez (1930 – July 12, 1989) was a prominent Cuban general who was executed after being found guilty of treason by a Cuban Court. ...


Suppression of internal resistance

No quarter was given during the suppression of the resistance in the Escambray mountains, where former rebels from the War Against Batista took different sides.[18] Ramiro Valdes Menendez was Minister of the Interior in 1961.[19]


Between April and October 1961, hundreds of executions took place in response to the invasion. They took place at various prisons, particularly at the dreaded Fortaleza de la Cabana and El Morro Castle, 18th-century Spanish fortresses built to protect Havana Harbor. Castro had converted their dungeons into prisons, their walls into paredones de fusilamiento (firing squad walls). Infiltration team leaders Antonio Diaz Pou and Raimundo E. Lopez, as well as underground students Virgilio Campaneria, Alberto Tapia, and more than one hundred others died within these colonial prisons.[20]


Invasion

On the morning of April 15, 1961, three flights of B-26B Invader light bomber aircraft displaying Cuban Fuerza Armada Revolucionaria (FAR — Revolutionary Armed Force) markings bombed and strafed the Cuban airfields of San Antonio de Los Baños, Antonio Maceo International Airport, and the airfield at Ciudad Libertad. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... See A-26 Invader for the plane known as the B-26 from 1948 to 1962. ... San Antonio de los Baños AFB is located in the vecinity of a town of the same name in the middle of the Havana province It was called by the americans THE CAYUGA and was build during the Second War in order to provide a base for the B24... Antonio Maceo Airport (IATA: SCU, ICAO: MUCU) is an international airport located in Santiago, Cuba The airport has a drawing of Che Guevara on one of its outside walls. ...


Operation Puma, the code name given to the offensive counter air attacks against the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces, called for 48 hours of air strikes across the island to effectively eliminate the Cuban air force, ensuring Brigade 2506 complete air superiority over the island prior to the actual landing at the Bay of Pigs. This failed because the air strikes were not continued as was originally planned. Offensive Counterair [OCA] operations include attacks on air bases. ... Under Castro, Cuba became a highly militarized society. ...


The second wave of air strikes, designed to wipe out the remainder of Castro's air force, was canceled. President Kennedy wanted the operation to look as if the Cuban exiles could have planned it, so that his administration could claim "plausible deniability" and avoid responsibility for the invasion as a U.S. operation. This was the same reason for which the landing site had been moved from Trinidad, which was close to the Escambray Mountains, an anticommunist rebel stronghold, where the anti Castro forces would have been able to reach sanctuary in case of failure. Moreover, Trinidad not only had great port facilities for landing the invasion force, armaments and supplies, but more importantly, was a counterrevolutionary fervent of activity, where a rising of the population could have been possible. President Kennedy, despite the CIA's objections, moved the landing site to the Bay of Pigs area. CIA Chief of Operations, Richard Bissell, had chosen this site for the above reasons, but the President, upholding plausible deniability, insisted it be moved. The cancellation of the air strikes, the change of the landing site, and ultimately, the lack of U.S. air cover and support during the invasion, sealed the fate of the mission and the lives of many of the men of the invasion force.[21]


Adlai Stevenson, the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, had been embarrassed by revelations that the first wave of air strikes had been carried out by U.S. planes despite his repeated denials that this was so. He contacted McGeorge Bundy who, unaware of the critical importance to the mission of the second wave, canceled the air strike despite Kennedy's earlier approval for it. Although Castro had prior knowledge of the invasion, the Cuban air force planes were virtually a sitting duck force on the ground and could have been wiped out, if the second and third waves of attack had been launched as originally planned.[22][23] Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American politician, noted for intellectual demeanor and advocacy of liberal causes in the Democratic party. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... McGeorge Bundy (1967) McGeorge Mac Bundy (March 30, 1919–September 16, 1996) was United States National Security Advisor to Presidents Kennedy and Johnson from 1961–1966, and was president of the Ford Foundation from 1966–1979. ...

Map showing the location of the Bay of Pigs.
Map showing the location of the Bay of Pigs.

Of the Brigade 2506 aircraft that sortied on the morning of April 15, one was tasked with establishing the CIA cover story for the invasion. The slightly modified two-seat B-26B used for this mission was piloted by Captain Mario Zuniga. Prior to departure, the engine cowling from one of the aircraft's two engines was removed by maintenance personnel, fired upon, then re-installed to give the appearance that the aircraft had taken ground fire at some point during its flight.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1150x422, 91 KB) Map showing the Bay of Pigs based on public domain image File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bay of Pigs Invasion ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1150x422, 91 KB) Map showing the Bay of Pigs based on public domain image File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bay of Pigs Invasion ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ...


Captain Zuniga departed from the exile base in Nicaragua on a solo, low-flying mission that took him over the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, and then northeast toward Key West, Florida. Once across the island, Captain Zuniga climbed steeply away from the waves of the Florida Straits to an altitude where he would be detected by U.S. radar installations to the north of Cuba. Pinar del Río is a city in Cuba. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country United States State Florida County Monroe Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Morgan McPherson Area  - City  7. ... Categories: Stub | Straits ...


At altitude and a safe distance north of the island, Captain Zuniga feathered the engine with the pre-installed bullet holes in the engine cowling, radioed a mayday call and requested immediate permission to land at Boca Chica Naval Air Station a few kilometers northeast of Key West. This account differs from Cuban government reports that Sea Fury, B-26 fighter bombers and T-33 trainers flown by a few Cuban, notably Rafael del Pino, and some left-wing Chilean and Nicaraguan pilots[24][25], loyal to Castro attacked the older slower B-26s flown by the invading force.[26] Map of Key West Key West is a city located in Monroe County, Florida. ... Hawker Sea Furies in Canadian Navy livery. ... See A-26 Invader for the plane known as the B-26 from 1948 to 1962. ... Categories: Aircraft stubs | U.S. military trainer aircraft 1940-1949 ...


By the time of Captain Zuniga's announcement to the world mid-morning on April 15, all but one of the Brigade's Douglas bombers were back over the Caribbean on the three and a half hour return leg to their base in Nicaragua to re-arm and refuel. Upon landing, however, the flight crews were met with a cable from Washington ordering the indefinite stand-down of all further combat operations over Cuba. is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On April 17, four 2,400-ton chartered transports (named the Houston, Río Escondido, Caribe, and Atlántico) transported 1,511 Cuban exiles to the Bay of Pigs on the southern coast of Cuba. They were accompanied by two CIA-owned infantry landing crafts (LCI's), called the Blagar and Barbara J, containing supplies, ordnance, and equipment. The small army hoped to find support from the local population, intending to cross the island to Havana. The CIA assumed the invasion would spark a popular uprising against Castro. However, the Escambray rebels had been contained by Cuban militia directed by Francisco Ciutat de Miguel. By the time the invasion began, Castro had already executed some who were suspected of colluding with the American campaign (notably two former "Comandantes" Humberto Sorí Marin and William Alexander Morgan[27][28] Others executed included Alberto Tapia Ruano, a Catholic youth leader. April was a bloody month for the resistance. Several hundred thousand were imprisoned before, during and after the invasion.[29] is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Francisco Ciutat de Miguel (? - November 30, 1986) (known as Angelito)[1] was a Spanish communist[2] Lieutenant of infantry and Commander. ... William Alexander Morgan was born in Cleveland, Ohio, on April 19, 1928 [1]. His life origens are obscure and his death legendary (Abella, 2000). ...


After landing, it soon became evident that the exiles were not going to receive effective support at the site of the invasion and were likely to lose. Reports from both sides describe tank battles involving heavy USSR equipment.[30] Kennedy decided against giving the faltering invasion U.S. air support (though four U.S. pilots were killed in Cuba during the invasion) because of his opposition to overt intervention. Kennedy also canceled several sorties of bombings (only two took place) on the grounded Cuban air force, which might have crippled the Cuban air capabilities and given air superiority to the invaders. U.S. Marines were not sent in[31]. United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ...


Air action

Aviation is commonly considered the deciding factor during the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Cuban government navy forces had been destroyed early with much loss of life while still in port at Rio de Las Casas base.


Initially the CIA planned a surprise air attack using B-26Bs on the Cuban Air Force, the Fuerza Aerea Revolucionaria (FAR). This took place in the early morning of April 15 with eight B-26s attacking the Antonio Maceo airport and various air bases. The attack left Cuban forces with "two B-26s, two Sea Furies, and two T-33As at San Antonio de los Baños Airbase, and only one Sea Fury at the Antonio Maceo Airport" while two of the attacking bombers were damaged[32]. However, these surviving FAR aircraft, though few, were of good quality and, with a mix of fighter/bombers and ground attack aircraft, still a well-balanced force to use in defense against an amphibious invasion. By contrast, the CIA-provided aircraft mix lacked the flexibility necessary to achieve air superiority. However, the leadership of the air forces of the Cuban government was in disarray. The former driver for Raul Castro, "Maro" Guerra Bermejo, was replaced on the second day of action by Castro's Minister of Communication Raúl Curbelo Morales; at this time the Hispano-Soviet pilots had not yet arrived[33] is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... First flown in 1942, the American Douglas A-26 Invader (after 1948, the B-26, and after 1966, the A-26A) was a twin-engined light attack bomber aircraft built during World War II and seeing service during the Cold Wars major conflicts. ... Hawker Sea Furies in Canadian Navy livery. ... Categories: Aircraft stubs | U.S. military trainer aircraft 1940-1949 ... Antonio Maceo Airport (IATA: SCU, ICAO: MUCU) is an international airport located in Santiago, Cuba The airport has a drawing of Che Guevara on one of its outside walls. ...


After this initial success, the CIA/Exile air force suffered considerable reverses. When the invasion started, the remaining FAR Hawker Sea Furies were able to engage the Exile forces on the beaches within 15 minutes. When the FAR B-26s arrived to take over bombing the beaches, the Hawkers changed targets to the amphibious support ships, damaging the flagship "Marsopa" and sinking the "Houston", which was the main supply ship, for the loss of one aircraft.


In response the invaders ordered four B-26s to resume bombing and strafing missions using napalm, but two were quickly shot down and the other two retreated, one badly damaged. However, at least one of these attacks is believed to have caused at least nine hundred casualties to the Castro forces.[34] Thereafter, the FAR enjoyed almost total air superiority. The next day, the FAR shot down two opposing B-26s, and the day after that, ten were shot down. A simulated Napalm explosion during MCAS Air Show in 2003. ...


Land action

In the beginning, the militia on the beach surrendered, and the invaders moved to control the causeways. There the fighting became intense, and Cuban army casualities were high, both as a result of firepower from the invaders and the strafing B-26. A photo of a burned bus, presumably one of those used to transport militia, can be seen on page 154 of Wyden (1979) However, once their air support was eliminated and after expending all ammunition, the invaders were forced back to the beach[35]. The land action was very bloody. Carlos Franqui wrote:[36][35][37][38][39] Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... The Hindenburgdamm rail causeway across the Wadden Sea to the island of Sylt in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany In modern usage, a causeway is a road or railway elevated by a bank, usually across a broad body of water or wetland. ... Strafing (adaptation of German strafen, to punish, specifically from the World War I humorous adaptation of the German catchphrase Gott strafe England), is the practice of firing on a static target from a moving platform. ... See A-26 Invader for the plane known as the B-26 from 1948 to 1962. ...

“We lost a lot of men. This frontal attack of men against machines (the enemy tanks) had nothing to do with guerrilla war; in fact it was a Russian tactic, probably the idea of the two Soviet generals, both of Spanish origin (they fought for the Republic in the Spanish Civil War and fled to the Soviet Union to later fight in World War II. One of them was a veteran, a fox named Ciutah (sic). He (Ciutah) was sent by the Red Army and the Party as an advisor and was the father of the new Cuban army. He was the only person who could have taken charge of the Girón campaign. The other Hispano-Russian general was an expert in antiguerrilla war who ran the Escambray cleanup. But the real factor in our favor at Girón was the militias: Almejeira’s column embarked on a suicide mission, they were massacred but they reached the beach.”

Sea action

Naval action during the Bay of Pigs extended beyond the attacks on the invaders' supply vessels. The Cuban government lost at least one vessel, the P.C. Baire, with extensive but apparently not specifically reported loss of life.[40] The invader command ship Blagar successfully fought off attacking aircraft.[41]


Aftermath

In the air battle, ten Cuban exiles, four U.S. pilots, and six Cuban Air Force pilots were killed in action.


By the time fighting ended on April 21, 68 exiles were dead and the rest were captured. Estimates of Cuban forces killed vary with the source, but are believed to have been far higher. is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The 1,209 captured exiles were quickly put on trial. A few were executed and the rest sentenced to thirty years in prison for treason. After 20 months of negotiation with the United States, Cuba released the exiles in exchange for $53 million in food and medicine. For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ...


Cuba's losses during the Bay of Pigs Invasion are unknown, but most sources estimate them to be in the thousands. Triay[42] mentions 4,000 casualties; Lynch[43] states about 5,000. Other sources indicate over 2,200 casualties. Unofficial reports list that seven Cuban army infantry battalions suffered significant losses during the fighting.


In one air attack alone, Cuban forces suffered an estimated 1,800 casualties when a mixture of army troops, militia, and civilians were caught on an open causeway riding in civilian buses towards the battle scene in which several buses were hit by napalm.[44][45][46] A simulated Napalm explosion during MCAS Air Show in 2003. ...


The Cuban government initially reported its army losses to be 87 dead and many more wounded during the three days of fighting the invaders. The number of those killed in action in Cuba's army during the battle eventually ran to 140, and then finally to 161. However, these figures are for Cuban army losses only, not including milita or armed civilian loyalists. Thus in the most accepted calculations, a total of around 2,000 (perhaps as many as 5,000, see above) Cuban militia fighting for the Republic of Cuba may have been killed, wounded or missing in action.


The total casualties for the brigade were 104 members killed, and a few hundred more were wounded.


After the Bay of Pigs, Castro fearing the US might try to invade Cuba again, obtained nuclear warheads from the USSR - thus starting the Cuban Missile Crisis. For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ...


In 1979 the body of Alabama National Guard Captain Thomas Willard Ray, who was shot down flying a B-26, was returned to his family from Cuba. In the 1990s, the CIA admitted to his links to the agency and awarded him its highest award, the Intelligence Star.[47] The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Prisoners

In May 1961 Castro proposed an exchange of the surviving members of the assault for 500 bulldozers. The trade rose to US$28 million.[4] Negotiations were non-productive until after the Cuban missile crisis. On December 21, 1962, Castro and James B. Donovan, a U.S. lawyer signed an agreement to exchange the 1,113 prisoners for US$53 million in food and medicine; the money was raised by private donations.[48] On December 29, 1962, Kennedy met with the returning brigade at Palm Beach, Florida.[4] For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Palm Beach is the name of several places: Palm Beach, New South Wales is a suburb of Sydney, Australia. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


Reaction

Robert F. Kennedy's Statement on Cuba and Neutrality Laws, April 20, 1961.
Robert F. Kennedy's Statement on Cuba and Neutrality Laws, April 20, 1961.

The failed invasion severely embarrassed the Kennedy Administration and made Castro wary of future U.S. intervention in Cuba. As a result of the failure, CIA director Allen Dulles, deputy CIA director Charles Cabell, and Deputy Director of Operations Richard Bissell were all forced to resign. All three were held responsible for the planning of the operation at the CIA. Responsibility of the Kennedy administration and the U.S. State Department for modifications of the plans was not apparent until later. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 466 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (588 × 756 pixel, file size: 134 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Document for April 20th: Robert F. Kennedy Statement on Cuba and Neutrality Laws, April 20, 1961 File links The following pages on the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 466 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (588 × 756 pixel, file size: 134 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Document for April 20th: Robert F. Kennedy Statement on Cuba and Neutrality Laws, April 20, 1961 File links The following pages on the... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Office of Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was established on January 23rd 1946 with Adm. ... Allen Welsh Dulles (April 23, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an influential director of the Central Intelligence Agency from 1953 to 1961 and a member of the Warren Commission. ... Deputy Directors of Central Intelligence (1) There is a Deputy Director of Central Intelligence who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. ... Charles Pearre Cabell (b. ... // Early Years Richard Mervin Bissell, Jr. ...


In August 1961, during an economic conference of the Organization of American States in Punta del Este, Uruguay, Che Guevara sent a note to Kennedy through Richard N. Goodwin, a young secretary of the White House. It said: "Thanks for Playa Girón. Before the invasion, the revolution was weak. Now it's stronger than ever."[49] Grayston Lynch among others, also points to Castro's rounding up of hundreds of thousands of anti-Castro and potentially anti-Castro Cubans across the island prior to and during the invasion (e.g. Priestland, 2003), destroying any chances for a general uprising against the Castro regime. Thus the million voices that had cried "Cuba si, comunismo NO!" on November 28 1959,[50] were gone or silent. Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Spanish, Portuguese Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... Department Maldonado Department Altitude 0m Coordinates 34º 58S 54º 57W Founded 1907 Population 8,252 (2004) Demonym Puntaesteño Phone Code +042 Postal Code 20100 Skyline of Punta del Este looking from Punta Ballena Image:Sunrise punta ballena 2006 january. ... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna (June 14,[1] 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, El Che or just Che was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary, medical doctor , political figure, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ... Richard N. Goodwin was an advisor and speechwriter to Presidents Kennedy and Johnson and to Senator Robert Kennedy. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Grayston Lynch was one of the two CIA agents who commanded the faction of the army that went to war in the Bay of Pigs Invasion. ...


Many military leaders almost certainly expected the invasion to fail but thought that Kennedy would send in Marines to save the exiles. Kennedy, however, did not want a full scale war and abandoned the exiles. The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ...


Kennedy not informed

An April 29, 2000 Washington Post article, "Soviets Knew Date of Cuba Attack", reported that the CIA had information indicating that the Soviet Union knew the invasion was going to take place and did not inform Kennedy. Radio Moscow broadcast an English-language newscast on April 13, 1961 predicting the invasion "in a plot hatched by the CIA" using paid "criminals" within a week. The invasion took place four days later. is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... ... A 1969 Radio Moscow QSL card Voice of Russia is the Russian governments international radio broadcasting service. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


According to British minister David Ormsby-Gore, British intelligence estimates, which had been made available to the CIA, indicated that the Cuban people were predominantly behind Castro and that there was no likelihood of mass defections or insurrections following the invasion.[4] Apparently British Intelligence chose to ignore news reports of major fighting in the Escambray mountains, with artillery bombardment and civilian evacuations (e.g. AP report in Bennington Evening Banner, Jan 16, 1961, p. 3) which later turned out to be correct. William David Ormsby-Gore, 5th Baron Harlech (1918–1985) was a British Minister and politician. ...


More recent analysis suggests that, probably because of the Castro government's almost complete blackout of actions outside Havana, the sources such as those used in the Ormsby-Gore intelligence estimate were not aware of the following related material: On April 14, 1961, the guerrillas of Agapito Rivera fought Cuban government forces near Las Cruces, Montembo, Las Villas, where several government forces were killed and others wounded.[51] On April 16, Merardo Leon, Jose Leon, and 14 others staged armed rising at Las Delicias Estate in Las Villas, only four survived[52] Leonel Martinez and 12 others took to the country side (ibid). On April 17, 1961, Osvaldo Ramírez (then chief of the rural resistance to Castro) was captured in Aromas de Velázquez and immediately executed.[53] The ruthlessness with which this resistance was suppressed is well described in Franqui.[54] The War Against the Bandits was a rebellion against the Communist government of Fidel Castro, mainly by peasants, small farmers and former landowners in the central provinces of Cuba and the Escambray Mountains. ...


On April 3, 1961, a bomb attack on militia barracks in Bayamo killed four militia and wounded eight more; on April 6, the Hershey Sugar factory in Matanzas was destroyed by sabotage; on April 18, Directorio guerrilla Marcelino Magaňaz died in action in Sierra Maestra.[55] On April 19, at least seven Cubans plus two US citizens (Angus K. McNair and Howard F. Anderson) were executed in Pinar del Rio province.[56]. However, the general Cuban population was not well informed, except for CIA funded Radio Swan.[57] As of May of 1960, almost all means of public communication were in the government’s hands.[58][59] // 1960: Radio Swan commenced unlicensed transmissions in May as a commercial radio station (CIA Inspector General (1962) pp. ...


Effect of Invasion in Cuba

The invasion is often criticized as making Castro even more popular, adding nationalistic sentiments to the support for his economic policies. Following the initial B-26 bombings, he declared the revolution "Marxist-Leninist". After the invasion, he pursued closer relations with the Soviet Union, partly for protection, which helped pave the way for the Cuban Missile Crisis a year and a half later. Castro was now increasingly wary of further US intervention and more susceptible to Soviet suggestions of placing nuclear weapons on Cuba to ensure its security. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ...


Invasion force

Many who fought for the CIA in the Bay of Pigs remained loyal after the fiasco. Some Bay of Pigs veterans became officers in the US Army in Vietnam, including 6 colonels, 19 lieutenant colonels, 9 majors, and 29 captains[60]. By March 2007, about half of the Brigade had died.[61]


There are still yearly nationwide drills in Cuba during the 'Dia de la Defensa' (Defense Day) to prepare the population for an invasion.


Playa Giron today

Museum of the invasion.
Museum of the invasion.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Museo Giron

Little remains of the original village, which in the 1960s was small and remote. It is still remote, with just a single road to the village and out again, but it has grown markedly since the invasion. Few people there today were residents at the time. The road from the north is marked by frequent memorials to the Cuban dead. There are billboards marking where invaders were rounded up and showing pictures of their being led away. Another at the entrance to the village quotes Castro's comment that the Bay of Pigs was the "first defeat of Yankee imperialism." A two-room museum, with aircraft and other military equipment outside, shows pictures, arms and maps of the attack and photos of the Cuban soldiers who died. Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


Billboards and other material refer to "mercenaries".


See also

Cuba and the United States of America have had a mutual interest in one another since well before either of their independence movements. ... Map of Cuba with location of Guantánamo Bay indicated. ... The Swan Islands are a chain of three islands located in the northwestern Caribbean Sea, approximately ninety miles off the coastline of Honduras. ... Red Zone Cuba, also known as Night Train to Mundo Fine, is considered to be one of the worst films of all time. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... [1] first page of a meeting report on Operation Mongoose, October 4th 1962. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Triay p. 81
  2. ^ Triay p. 110
  3. ^ Lynch p. 148
  4. ^ a b c d e A Thousand days:John F Kennedy in the White House Arthur Schlesinger Jr 1965
  5. ^ Air Force, Bay Pigs. Latin American Studies.
  6. ^ Welch and Blight, p. 113.
  7. ^ Cuba in Revolution—Escape from a Lost Paradise (2002) pp. 93–4.
  8. ^ Paz-Sanchez, 2001, pp. 189–99.
  9. ^ Militares (es).
  10. ^ British Foreign Office. Chancery American Department, Foreign Office, London September 2, 1959 (2181/59) to British Embassy Havana classified as restricted Released 2000 by among British Foreign Office papers. Foreign Offices Files for Cuba Part 1: Revolution in Cuba “in our letter 1011/59 May 6 we mentioned that a Russian workers' delegation had been invited to participate in the May Day celebrations here, but had been delayed. The interpreter with the party, which arrived later and stayed in Cuba a few days, was called Vadim Kotchergin although he was at the time using what he subsequently claimed was his mother's name of Liston (?). He remained in the background, and did not attract any attention.” These two agents went on to train overseas personnel including Carlos the Jackal (Ilich Ramírez Sánchez) and subcomandante Marcos (Rafael Sebastián Guillén).
  11. ^ El campo de entrenamiento "Punto Cero" donde el Partido Comunista de Cuba (PCC) adiestra a terroristas nacionales e internacionales (es). Cuban American Foundation (2005-11-07). Retrieved on 2007-10-22. “Los coroneles soviéticos de la KGB Vadim Kochergin y Victor Simonov (ascendido a general en 1970) fueron entrenadores en "Punto Cero" desde finales de los años 60 del siglo pasado. Uno de los" graduados" por Simonov en este campo de entrenamiento es Ilich Ramírez Sánchez, más conocido como "Carlos El Chacal". Otro "alumno" de esta instalación del terror es el mexicano Rafael Sebastián Guillén, alias "subcomandante Marcos", quien se "graduó" en "Punto Cero" a principio de los años 80.”
  12. ^ Alfonso, Pablo 2001 Los Ultimos Castristas. Centro de Documentacion y Formacion, Caracas. ISBN 978-9800756577, pp. 18–9.
  13. ^ Cuban Gen. del Valle dies (circa 11-16-07, no birth date given). News. Yahoo!. Retrieved on 2007-11-16. “After Batista fled and the rebels took control of the island on Jan. 1, 1959, del Valle held various positions in Cuba's Revolutionary Armed Forces. He was army chief of staff when a U.S.-backed exile army tried unsuccessfully to invade the Bay of Pigs in 1961, as well as the following year when the U.S. discovery of Soviet missiles on the island pushed the world to the brink of nuclear war. The Soviets eventually removed the missiles. Del Valle was also interior minister in the late 1960s and health minister from 1979 to 1986”
  14. ^ LUSSON Batlle, Antonio Enrique. Cuadro Institucional del Pais (PDF). Cuba Transition Project. University of Miami. Retrieved on 2007-11-18. “He was second in command to Almeida in 1959 at Managua Garrison and for several months was the Chief of Logistics. He also distinguished himself at the Bay of Pigs.”
  15. ^ Dreke, Victor 2002 From the Escambray to the Congo. Pathfinder Press, New York. ISBN 0873489470 pp. 10.28, 90, 99–102.
  16. ^ Brothers in Arms Press Release. Idol.
  17. ^ News. Screen Africa.
  18. ^ Dreke, Victor 2002 From the Escambray to the Congo. Pathfinder Press, New York. ISBN 0873489470 pp. 40–117
  19. ^ Alfonso, Pablo 2001 Los Ultimos Castristas. Centro de Documentacion y Formacion, Caracas. ISBN 978-9800756577, pp. 125–6.
  20. ^ Faria pp. 94–5.
  21. ^ Faria, Miguel A (2002). Cuba in Revolution: Escape from a Lost Paradise, 93–8. 
  22. ^ LAZO, Mario, Dagger in the Heart: American Policy Failures in Cuba (1970), Twin Circle Publishing, New York, pp. 257–312.
  23. ^ WYDEN, Peter, Bay of Pigs: The untold story (1979), Simon and Schuster, New York, pp. 93–172.
  24. ^ Lagas, 1964
  25. ^ Somoza-Debayle and Jack Cox, 1980
  26. ^ Overall, Mario E; SHEPHERD Jake, HAGEDORN Dan (Feb 1998). The Rage of the Furies. The Latin American Aviation Historical Society.
  27. ^ "Morgan Buried In Cuban Crypt, Fugitive Wife Stays In Hiding", La Habana: Associated Press, 1961-03-13. Retrieved on 2007-12-24. 
  28. ^ Bay of Pigs, 40 Years After: Chronology. The National Security Archive. The George Washington University.
  29. ^ Priestland, 2003
  30. ^ Enrique Lister. Spartacus Educational. School Net.
  31. ^ Fontova, Humberto (2002-04-29). The Bay of Pigs: The Truth. News Max. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  32. ^ Klaus, Erich (2003-11-05). Cuba Air Force History. World Air Forces. Aeroflight. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  33. ^ del Pino, Rafael (2002-03-02). Como te Paga un Dictador (es). Network 54. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  34. ^ Clark, Leslie. "CIA to honor Bay of Pigs vets at its art gallery", Miami, FL: Miami Herald, 2007-10-18. "…an oil painting will be unveiled that depicts one of the successes of the covert operation: an April 1961 aerial attack on Castro's forces that took out an estimated 900 soldiers. …Titled Lobo Flight, the 40- by 30-inch painting shows a vintage B-26 twin engine bomber flown by Connie Seigrist — the lead pilot of a convoy of B-26s painted to look like Cuban aircraft — dropping bombs onto a column of Cuban troops heading to the beach, where a group of CIA-trained Cuban exiles had landed to attempt to overthrow Castro…" 
  35. ^ a b Lynch, Grayston L. 2000.
  36. ^ De Paz-Sánchez, 2001.
  37. ^ Johnson, 1964.
  38. ^ Franqui, 1984.
  39. ^ Vivés, 1984.
  40. ^ Fuentes, Norberto 1982 Posicion Uno. Ediciones Union. Havana pp. 30–2.
  41. ^ Lynch, paper edition 2000 p. 96.
  42. ^ Triay p. 110.
  43. ^ Lynch p. 148.
  44. ^ Morrissey, Michael D (Sep 2001). The Bay of Pigs Revisited.
  45. ^ English, Joe R (1984-03-16). The Bay of Pigs: A Struggle For Freedom. Marine Corps Command and Staff College.
  46. ^ De la Cova, Antonio Rafael (1999). "Bay of Pigs Invasion: April 17–19, 1961". Encyclopedia of North American History. Ed. SUPER, John C. New York, NY: Marshall Cavendish. Retrieved on 2007-12-24. 
  47. ^ Thomas, Eric. Local Man Forever Tied To Cuban Leader: Father Frozen, Displayed by Fidel Castro. KGO ABC7, KGO-TV/DT. Retrieved on 2007-02-22.
  48. ^ The Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba 1961. On War.
  49. ^ {{cite book | last = Anderson | first = Jon Lee | authorlink = Jon Lee Anderson | coauthors = | editor = | others = | title = Che Guevara. Una vida revolucionaria | origdate = | origyear = 1997 | origmonth = | url = | format = | accessdate = | accessyear = | accessmonth = | edition = | series = | date = | year = 2006 | month = | publisher = Anagrama | location = Barcelona | language = spanish | isbn = 84-339-2572-5 | oclc = | doi = | id = | pages = 482 | chapter = 24. Esos tiempos atómicos | chapterurl = | quote = Cuatro meses

    Later analysis

    CIA report

    The CIA wrote a detailed internal report that laid blame for the failure squarely on internal incompetence. Errors by the CIA and other American analysts contributed to the debacle: Arthur Meier Schlesinger, Jr. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

    • The administration believed that the troops could retreat to the mountains to lead a guerrilla war if they lost in open battle. The mountains were too far to reach on foot, and the troops were deployed in swamp land, where they were easily surrounded.
    • They believed that the involvement of the US in the incident could be denied.
    • They believed that Cubans would be grateful to be liberated from Fidel Castro and would quickly join the battle. This support failed to materialize; many hundreds of thousands of others were arrested, and some executed, prior to the landings. (see also Priestland 2003; Lynch, 2000).

    The CIA's near certainty that the Cuban people would rise up and join them was based on the agency's extremely weak presence on the ground in Cuba. Castro's counterintelligence, trained by Soviet Bloc specialists including Enrique Lister,<ref></ref> had infiltrated most resistance groups. Because of this, almost all the information that came from exiles and defectors was "contaminated." CIA operative E. Howard Hunt had interviewed Cubans in Havana prior to the invasion; in a future interview with CNN, he said, "…all I could find was a lot of enthusiasm for Fidel Castro."<ref>{{cite web Enrique Líster (1907, Ameneiro (A Coruña) - 1994, Madrid) was a Spanish communist politician and army official. ... Everette Howard Hunt, Jr. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...

     | url = http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/18/interviews/hunt | title = Backyeard | accessdate = 2007-12-24 | last = Hunt | first = Howard | year = 1998 | work = Cold War | publisher = CNN }}</li> 

    <li id="cite_note-49">'''[[#cite_ref-49|^]]''' {{cite web | publisher = Agua de Pasajeros | title = Congreso Catolico Cuba 1959 | language = es | url = http://aguadadepasajeros.bravepages.com/cubahistoria/congreso_catolico_cuba_1959.htm}}</li> <li id="cite_note-50">'''[[#cite_ref-50|^]]''' Corzo, 2003 p. 83</li> <li id="cite_note-51">'''[[#cite_ref-51|^]]''' Corzo, 2003 p. 85</li> <li id="cite_note-52">'''[[#cite_ref-52|^]]''' {{cite web | title = Nuevo Acción | language = es | url = http://www.nuevoaccion.com/}}</li> <li id="cite_note-53">'''[[#cite_ref-53|^]]''' Franqui 1984, pp. 111–5 </li> <li id="cite_note-54">'''[[#cite_ref-54|^]]''' Corzo, 2003 p. 79–89</li> <li id="cite_note-55">'''[[#cite_ref-55|^]]''' Corzo, 2003 p. 90</li> <li id="cite_note-56">'''[[#cite_ref-56|^]]''' {{cite web | url = http://www.firmaspress.com/viaje-al-corazon-de-cuba.pdf | format = PDF | title = Viaje al Corazón de Cuba | language = es | publisher = Plaza & Janés | year = 1999 | last = Montaner | first Carlos Alberto}}</li> <li id="cite_note-57">'''[[#cite_ref-57|^]]''' {{cite news | title = The New York Times | date = 1960-05-26 | page = 5}}</li> <li id="cite_note-58">'''[[#cite_ref-58|^]]''' {{cite web | url = http://www.cidh.oas.org/countryrep/Cuba83eng/chap.5.htm | title = The Situation of Human Rights in Cuba, Seventh Report — Chapter V | publisher = Organization of American States | date = 1983-10-04 | accessdate = 2004-12-24 | author = Inter-American Commission on Human Rights}}</li> <li id="cite_note-59">'''[[#cite_ref-59|^]]''' Enrique Ros pp. 287–98.</li>

    <li id="cite_note-60">'''[[#cite_ref-60|^]]''' {{cite news | last = Iuspa-Abbott | first = Paola | accessdate = 2007-03-27 | title = Palm Beach County Bay of Pigs veterans remember invasion of Cuba | publisher = South Florida Sun-Sentinel | url = http://archives.econ.utah.edu/archives/cubanews/2007w13/msg00006.htm}}</li></ol></ref>

References

  • Anderson, Jon L. 1998 Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. Grove/Atlantic ISBN 0-8021-3558-7
  • Corzo, Pedro 2003 Cuba Cronología de la lucha contra el totalitarismo. Ediciones Memorias, Miami. ISBN 1890829242
  • Faria, Miguel, A, Cuba in Revolution—Escape from a Lost Paradise (2002) Hacienda Publishing, pp. 93–102, notes# 16 and 24. ISBN 0-9641077-3-2.
  • Franqui, Carlos 1984 (foreword by G. Cabrera Infante and translated by Alfred MacAdam from Spanish 1981 version) Family portrait with Fidel. 1985 edition Random House First Vintage Books, New York. ISBN 0394726200 pp. 111–128
  • Lynch, Grayston L. 2000 Decision for Disaster: Betrayal at the Bay of Pigs. Potomac Books Dulles Virginia ISBN 1-57488-237-6
  • Hunt, E. Howard 1973 Give us this day. Arlington House, New Rochelle, N.Y. ISBN 978-0870002281
  • Johnson, Haynes 1964 The Bay of Pigs: The Leaders' Story of Brigade 2506. W. W. Norton & Co Inc. New York. 1974 edition ISBN 0-393-04263-4
  • Lagas, Jacques 1964 Memorias de un capitán rebelde. Editorial del Pácifico. Santiago, Chile.
  • Lazo, Mario 1968, 1970 Dagger in the heart: American policy failures in Cuba. Twin Circle. New York. I968 edition Library of Congress number 6831632, 1970 edition, ASIN B0007DPNJS
  • de Paz-Sánchez, Manuel 2001 Zona de Guerra, España y la revolución Cubana (1960–1962), Taller de Historia, Tenerife Gran Canaria ISBN 8479263644
  • Priestland, Jane (editor) 2003 British Archives on Cuba: Cuba under Castro 1959–1962. Archival Publications International Limited, 2003, London ISBN 1-903008-20-4
  • Jean Edward Smith, "Bay of Pigs: The Unanswered Questions," The Nation, (Apr. 13, 1964), p. 360–363.
  • Somoza-Debayle, Anastasio and Jack Cox 1980 Nicaragua Betrayed Western Islands Publishers, pp. 169–180 ISBN 088279235
  • Ros, Enrique 1994 (1998) Giron la verdadera historia. Ediciones Universales (Colección Cuba y sus jueces) third edition Miami ISBN 0-89729-738-5
  • Thomas, Hugh 1998 Cuba or The Pursuit of Freedom. Da Capo Press, New York Updated Ed. ISBN 0-306-80827-7
  • Triay, Victor 2001 Andres Bay of Pigs. University Press of Florida, Gainesville ISBN 0-8130-2090-5
  • Welch, David A and James G Blight (editors) 1998 Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Frank Cass Publishers, London and Portland Oregon ISBN 0-7146-4883-3 ISBN 0-7146-4435-8
  • Vivés, Juan (Pseudonym, of a former veteran and Castro Intelligence Official; Translated to Spanish from 1981 Les Maîtres de Cuba. Opera Mundi, Paris by Zoraida Valcarcel) 1982 Los Amos de Cuba. EMCÉ Editores, Buenos Aires. ISBN 9500400758
  • Wyden, Peter 1979 Bay of Pigs Simon. and Schuster New York ISBN 0-671-24006-40

Jean Edward Smith is an accomplished educator and biographer having authored such works as Grant, John Marshall: Definer of a Nation, and Presently he is the John Marshall Professor of Political Science at Marshall University. ...

External links

  • NY Times headline, April 18, 1961, Anti-Castro Units Land in Cuba; Report Fighting at Beachhead; Rusk Says U.S. Won't Intervene
  • Detail Information on the Bay of Pigs Invasion at the Internet Archive Wayback Machine — Includes maps of the Invasion and Documents.
  • History of Cuba — Bay of Pigs Invasion.
  • National Security Archive chronology
  • The Sea Fury aircraft at Bay of Pigs
  • Reference on Bay of Pigs Invasion at Encyclopedia.com
  • Bay of Pigs betrayal the betrayal of the Cuban people by the CIA, State Department, and staff members of the New York Times ranks as one of America's darkest foreign-policy moments
  • JFK Library site's entry on Kennedy and the bay of pigs invasion
For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: )) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, ushering in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... Belligerents 26th of July Movement Cuba Commanders Fidel Castro Che Guevara Raul Castro Fulgencio Batista The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Combatants MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began when Angola won its war for independence in 1975 with the... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan al-Qaeda supported by[1] United States United Kingdom Pakistan Saudi Arabia Commanders Soviet forces: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly referred to as the Tiananmen Square Massacre,[1] were a series of demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and labor activists in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) between April 15 and June 4, 1989. ... Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For other uses, see Space Race (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bush book: Introduction (6185 words)
Starting about the time of the Bay of Pigs invasion in the spring of 1961, we have the first hints that Bush, in addition to working for Zapata Offshore, may also have been a participant in certain covert operations of the US intelligence community.
According to reliable sources and published accounts, the CIA code name for the Bay of Pigs invasion was Operation Zapata, and the plan was so referred to by Richard Bissell of the CIA, one of the plan's promoters, in a briefing to President Kennedy in the Cabinet Room on March 29, 1961.
After the ignominious defeat of the Bay of Pigs invasion, there was great animosity against Kennedy among the survivors of Brigade 2506, some of whom eventually made their way back to Miami after being released from Castro's prisoner of war camps.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Bay of Pigs Invasion (874 words)
The 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion (also known in Cuba as the Playa Girón after the beach in the Bay of Pigs where the landing took place) was an unsuccessful attempted invasion by armed Cuban exiles in southwest Cuba, planned and funded by the United States.
Bay of Pigs Invasion, unsuccessful attempt in 1961 to overthrow the government of the Cuban premier Fidel Castro by United States-backed Cuban exiles.
A little-known tragedy of the Bay of Pigs invasion is revisited.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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