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Encyclopedia > Bay of Fundy
The Bay of Fundy, shown on the east coast of North America
The Bay of Fundy, shown on the east coast of North America

The Bay of Fundy (French: Baie de Fundy) is a bay located on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine. The Bay of Fundy is known for having the greatest difference in water level between its high and low tides in the world. The name "Fundy" is thought to date back to the 16th century when the Portuguese referred to the bay as "Rio Fundo" or "deep river". Bay of Fundy © 2004 Matthew Trump based on NASA image in public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Bay of Fundy © 2004 Matthew Trump based on NASA image in public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The bay at San Sebastián, Spain A headland is an area of land adjacent to water on three sides. ... “Atlantic” redirects here. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Gulf of Maine The Gulf of Maine is a large gulf of the Atlantic Ocean on the northeastern coast of North America. ... Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 10 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Party State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) None (English de facto; French is also an administrative language) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... It has been suggested that Earth tide be merged into this article or section. ...


The bay was also named Baie François by explorer/cartographer Samuel de Champlain during a 1604 expedition led by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts which resulted in a failed settlement attempt on St. Croix Island. Samuel de Champlain by Théophile Hamel (1870) Samuel de Champlain, the father of New France, was born around 1567 in the town of Brouage, a seaport on Frances west coast. ... Events January 14 – Hampton Court conference with James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of Puritans September 20 – Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three year siege. ... Pierre Dugua, the Sieur de Monts, (c. ... See also Saint Croix an island in the United States Virgin Islands Saint Croix Island, or Dochet Island as it is called today, is a small uninhabited island in Maine located at 45º 07 42 N latitude, 067º 08 02 W longitude, near the mouth of the Saint Croix River...

Contents

Tides

The Bay of Fundy at high tide
The Bay of Fundy at high tide
The same location at low tide
The same location at low tide

Folklore in the Mi'kmaq First Nation claims that the tides in the Bay of Fundy are caused by a giant whale splashing in the water. Oceanographers attribute it to tidal resonance resulting from a coincidence of timing: the time it takes a large wave to go from the mouth of the bay to the opposite end and back is the same as the time from one high tide to the next. In other words, the 12.4 hour period of the lunar tides is close to the natural sloshing period of the bay, so the moon sloshes it as if it were a bathtub. The bay of Fundy at high tide This picture was taken in about 1972 by me. ... The bay of Fundy at high tide This picture was taken in about 1972 by me. ... The Bay of Fundy at low tide taken in 1972 File links The following pages link to this file: Tide Bay of Fundy Categories: GFDL images ... The Bay of Fundy at low tide taken in 1972 File links The following pages link to this file: Tide Bay of Fundy Categories: GFDL images ... The Mikmaq The Mikmaq (; also spelled Míkmaq, Migmaq, Micmac or MicMac) are a First Nations people, indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Atlantic Provinces, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. ... First Nations is the current title used by Canada to describe the various societies of the indigenous peoples, called Native Americans in the U.S. They have also been known as Indians, Native Canadians, Aboriginal Americans, Amer-Indians, or Aboriginals, and are officially called Indians in the Indian Act, which... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... In oceanography, tidal resonance is a phenomenon perhaps best exemplified in the Bay of Fundy. ...


The quest for world tidal dominance has also led to a pseudo-rivalry between the Minas Basin in the Bay of Fundy and the Leaf Basin in Ungava Bay over which water body lays claim to the highest tides in the world, with supporters in each region claiming the record. Minas Basin is the eastern arm of the Bay of Fundy. ... Ungava Bay. ...


The Canadian Hydrographic Service finally declared it a statistical tie, with measurements of a 16.8 metre tidal range in Leaf Basin for Ungava Bay and 17 metres at Burntcoat Head, Nova Scotia for the Bay of Fundy.[1] The highest water level ever recorded in the Bay of Fundy system occurred at the head of the Minas Basin on the night of October 45, 1869 during a tropical cyclone named the “Saxby Gale”. The water level of 21.6 metres resulted from the combination of high winds, abnormally low atmospheric pressure, and a spring tide. Canadian Hydrographic Service logo or crest The Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) is Canadas hydrographic office, with responsibility for performing hydrographic surveys and publishing paper and electronic nautical charts. ... The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (279th in leap years). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... Lowest pressure 972 mbar (hPa; 28. ... Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. ... The tide is the regular rising and falling of the oceans surface caused by changes in gravitational forces external to the Earth. ...


Leaf Basin has only been measured in recent years, whereas the Fundy system has been measured for many decades. Tidal experts note that Leaf Basin is consistently higher on average tides than Minas Basin, however the highest recorded tidal ranges ever measured are at Burntcoat Head, and result from spring tides measured at the peak of the tidal cycle every 18 years.


Tidal electrical power generation

Several proposals to build tidal harnesses for electrical power generation have been put forward in recent decades. Such proposals have mainly involved building barrages which effectively dam off a smaller arm of the bay and extract power from water flowing through them. Tidal-power is the power achieved by capturing the energy contained in moving water mass due to tides. ... Electricity generation is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ...


One such facility exists, the Annapolis Royal Generating Station consists of a dam and 18-MW power house on the Annapolis River at Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, but larger proposals have been held back by a number of factors, including environmental concerns. The Annapolis Royal Generating Station has been studied for its various effects, including an accelerated shoreline erosion problem on the historic waterfront of the town of Annapolis Royal, as well as increased siltation and heavy metal and pesticide contamination upstream due to lack of regular river/tidal flushing. There have also been instances where large marine mammals such as whales have become trapped in the head pond after transiting the sluice gates during slack tide. The Annapolis Royal Generating Station is an 18-MW tidal power plant located on the Annapolis River immediately upstream from the town of Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, Canada. ... The Annapolis River is a Canadian river located in Nova Scotias Annapolis Valley. ... Annapolis Royal [[1]] , population 548 (Nova Scotia Statistical Review 2004 [[2]] ) was founded 1610, down the Annapolis River from the site of Port Royal, which was the first permanent European settlement in North America north of Florida. ... Whales are the largest species of exclusively aquatic placental mammals, members of the order Cetacea, which also includes dolphins and porpoises. ...


Damming a large arm of the Bay of Fundy would have significant and not well-understood effects both within the dammed bay itself and in the surrounding regions. Intertidal habitats would be drastically affected and a facility would bring the bay closer to resonance, increasing tidal range over a very large area. One effect could be an increase in tidal range of 0.2 m (from approximately 1 m) for certain coastal sites in Maine, possibly leading to flooding. Official language(s) None (English de facto; French is also an administrative language) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...


There have been proposals in recent years for installing aquanators, the underwater equivalent to wind turbines, which would not require any damming or blockading of parts of the bay but would instead generate electricity solely by being placed in areas of high water flow, such as at choke points or merely along the floor of any part of the bay which sees significant water movement. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Geography

Sub-basins

The upper part of the bay bifurcates, splitting into Chignecto Bay in the northeast and the Minas Basin in the east. Chignecto Bay is further subdivided into Cumberland Basin and Shepody Bay and the extreme eastern portion of Minas Basin is called Cobequid Bay. Some of these upper reaches exhibit exposed red bay muds, for which the Bay of Fundy is noted (for their appearance and biological productivity). Chignecto Bay is an inlet of the Bay of Fundy located between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and separated from the waters of the Northumberland Strait by the Isthmus of Chignecto. ... Minas Basin is the eastern arm of the Bay of Fundy. ... Cumberland Basin is an inlet and northeasternmost part of the Bay of Fundy, located on the border between the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. ... Cobequid Bay is an inlet of the Bay of Fundy and the easternmost part of the Minas Basin, located in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... Richardson Bay mudflats of are exposed layers of bay mud Bay mud consists of thick deposits of soft, unconsolidated silty clay, which is saturated with water; these soil layers are situated at the bottom of certain estuaries, which are normally in temperate regions that have experienced cyclical glacial cycles. ...


Cape Chignecto, Nova Scotia defines Chignecto Bay whereas Cape Split, Nova Scotia defines the Minas Channel, leading to the Minas Basin. Cape Split is a dramatic 7 km (4 mi) long headland extending Nova Scotias North Mountain range into the Bay of Fundy. ...


The lower part of the bay is also home to four important sub-basins: Passamaquoddy Bay and Back Bay on the New Brunswick shore, Cobscook Bay on the Maine shore, and the Annapolis Basin on the Nova Scotia shore. Passamaquoddy Bay is an inlet of the Bay of Fundy, between the U.S. state of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick, at the mouth of the St. ... Cobscook Bay is located in Washington County in the state of Maine. ... The Annapolis Basin is a sub-basin of the Bay of Fundy, located on the southwestern shores of the bay, along the northwestern shore of Nova Scotia and at the western end of the Annapolis Valley. ...


The bay is home to several islands, the largest of which is Grand Manan Island at the boundary with the Gulf of Maine. Other important islands on the north side of the bay include Campobello Island, Moose Island, and Deer Island in the Passamaquoddy Bay area. Brier Island and Long Island can be found on the south side of the bay while Isle Haut is located in the upper bay off Cape Chignecto. Smaller islands and islets also exist in Passamaquoddy Bay, Back Bay, and Annapolis Basin. The Five Islands, in the Minas Basin, are particularly scenic. This lighthouse greets visitors as they arrive by ferry Grand Manan Island (also simply Grand Manan) is a Canadian island, and the largest in the Bay of Fundy. ... Gulf of Maine The Gulf of Maine is a large gulf of the Atlantic Ocean on the northeastern coast of North America. ... Campobello Island is a Canadian island located in the Bay of Fundy near the entrances to Passamaquoddy Bay and Cobscook Bay. ... Deer Island is a Canadian island located in the Bay of Fundy at the entrance to Passamaquoddy Bay. ... Brier Island is an island in the Bay of Fundy in Digby County, Nova Scotia. ... Bay of Fundy Long Island, Nova Scotia Ferry leaving from Tiverton, Nova Scotia going to Digby Neck Long Island located between the Bay of Fundy and St. ... The islands are named Moose, Diamond, Long, Egg and Pinnacle. ...


Rivers

The bay receives the waters of several rivers, including:


New Brunswick

Nova Scotia Magaguadavic (pronounced mack-uh-day-vick or mack-uh-day-vee) is a Maliseet (Maliseet-Passamaquoddy) Native word meaning River of Eels. The Magaguadavic River is the sixth largest river in the Canadian province of New Brunswick, measuring approximately 129 kilometers (80 miles) in length. ... The Petitcodiac River is located in southeastern New Brunswick,Canada, originating in the Caledonia Highlands and eventually courses through the city of Moncton before emptying into Shepody Bay on the Bay of Fundy. ... The Saint John River is a river, approximately 418 mi (673 km) long, located in the U.S. state of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ... The St. ...

The bay's extreme tidal range causes several interesting phenomena in the various rivers which empty into it. The Annapolis River is a Canadian river located in Nova Scotias Annapolis Valley. ... The Avon River is a river in Canada. ... The Salmon River is a Canadian river in central Nova Scotias Colchester County. ... The Shubenacadie River is the longest river in Nova Scotia Canada. ...


The Saint John River sees its flow reversed at high tide, causing a series of rapids at the famous Reversing Falls where the river empties into the bay, located in a gorge in the middle of the city of Saint John. The Reversing Falls Rapids (also referred to as Reversing Falls) are located in Saint John, New Brunswick in a narrow gorge where the Saint John River empties into the Bay of Fundy. ... Saint John[3] is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick and the oldest incorporated city in Canada. ...


Rivers in the upper Bay of Fundy have a smaller flow-rate than the Saint John, and a shallower slope. As a result, extensive mud flats are deposited throughout the tidal range of the rivers.

Tidal bore
Tidal bore

Another phenomenon which occurs in these rivers of the upper bay is a "tidal bore", whereby the river flow is completely reversed by the rising tide. One of the better examples of a tidal bore can be seen on the Shubenacadie River near the town of Truro and the village of Maitland, where local ecotourism operators offer the chance to experience rafting the bore upriver. Another good example of a tidal bore may be viewed on the Salmon River in the town of Truro. The once-famous tidal bores on the Petitcodiac and Avon rivers have been severely disrupted as a result of causeway construction in the 1960s-1970s which have caused excessive siltation. Tidal bore at Moncton. ... Tidal bore at Moncton. ... The tidal bore in Upper Cook Inlet, Alaska A tidal bore (or just bore, or eagre) is a tidal phenomenon in which the leading edge of the incoming tide forms a wave (or waves) of water that travel up a river or narrow bay against the direction of the current. ... One of Truros tree sculptures Truro (2001 population 11,457; area population 44,276) is a town in central Nova Scotia, Canada. ... Ecotourism means ecological tourism, where ecological has both environmental and social connotations. ... One of Truros tree sculptures Truro (2001 population 11,457; area population 44,276) is a town in central Nova Scotia, Canada. ... The Hindenburgdamm rail causeway across the Wadden Sea to the island of Sylt in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany In modern usage, a causeway is a road or railway elevated by a bank, usually across a broad body of water or wetland. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Template:A year The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ...


Communities

The largest population centres on the bay are the New Brunswick cities of Saint John and Moncton. Saint John[3] is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick and the oldest incorporated city in Canada. ... Moncton (46°6′ N 64°46′ W) is the second largest city in the Canadian province of New Brunswick and is at the heart of the fastest growing urban area in the province. ...


The New Brunswick towns of St. Andrews, Blacks Harbour, and Sackville as well as the Nova Scotia towns of Amherst, Truro, Windsor, Wolfville, Annapolis Royal, and Digby are also located on the bay. For the parish in New Brunswick with the same name see St. ... Blacks Harbour (or Blacks as it is referred to by locals) is a town in Charlotte County, New Brunswick, Canada, on the Bay of Fundy. ... Sackville Waterfowl Park Sackville (, AST) is a town in Westmorland County, located in South-Eastern New Brunswick, Canada, only eight km from the Nova Scotia border and 45 km from the regional city of Moncton. ... The Nova Scotia Visitor Information Centre, located in Fort Lawrence, 3 kilometres west of Amherst. ... One of Truros tree sculptures Truro (2001 population 11,457; area population 44,276) is a town in central Nova Scotia, Canada. ... St. ... Wolfville streetscape, spring 2006. ... Annapolis Royal [[1]] , population 548 (Nova Scotia Statistical Review 2004 [[2]] ) was founded 1610, down the Annapolis River from the site of Port Royal, which was the first permanent European settlement in North America north of Florida. ... Digby, Nova Scotia in 1906 Digby, Nova Scotia in 2005 For other meanings of Digby, see Digby Digby is a town in western Nova Scotia which lies on the Annapolis Basin of the Bay of Fundy. ...


Ports and shipping

The port of Saint John is one of the busiest ports in North America, owing to its concentration of pulp and paper industry and the largest oil refinery in Canada. Hantsport, Nova Scotia on the Avon River is also home to a pulp and paper mill and is the shipment point for raw gypsum exports to the United States. The ports of Bayside, New Brunswick (near St. Andrews) and Eastport, Maine are important local ports. Pulp and Paper is the name of the largest United States-based trade magazine for the pulp and paper industry. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Hantsport, Nova Scotia is a small town located on the Kings-Hants county line. ... Gypsum is a very soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. // Heating gypsum to between 100°C and 150°C (302°F) partially dehydrates the mineral by driving off exactly 75% of the water contained in its chemical structure. ... Eastport is a city in Washington County, Maine, United States. ...


A result of heavy shipping traffic has been the potential for increased collisions between ships and the North Atlantic Right Whale. In 2003 the Canadian Coast Guard adjusted shipping lanes crossing prime whale feeding areas at the entrance to the Bay of Fundy to lessen the risk of collision. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Canadian Coast Guard or CCG (Fr. ...


The bay is also traversed by several passenger and automobile ferry services: The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, ca. ...

Saint John[3] is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick and the oldest incorporated city in Canada. ... Digby, Nova Scotia in 1906 Digby, Nova Scotia in 2005 For other meanings of Digby, see Digby Digby is a town in western Nova Scotia which lies on the Annapolis Basin of the Bay of Fundy. ... Bay Ferries Limited, referred to simply as Bay Ferries, is a ferry company operating in eastern Canada and the United States and is headquartered in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. ... Cliffs at Southwest Head The Swallow Tail lighthouse greets visitors as they arrive by ferry. ... Blacks Harbour (or Blacks as it is referred to by locals) is a town in Charlotte County, New Brunswick, Canada, on the Bay of Fundy. ... White Head is an island of 180 people off the coast of Grand Manan in New Brunswick, Canada. ... Coastal Transport Limited (Coastal Transport) is a ferry company operating in eastern Canada and headquartered in Saint John, New Brunswick. ... Deer Island is a Canadian island located in the Bay of Fundy at the entrance to Passamaquoddy Bay. ... Campobello Island is a Canadian island located in the Bay of Fundy near the entrances to Passamaquoddy Bay and Cobscook Bay. ... Eastport is a city in Washington County, Maine, United States. ... The village of Westport, Nova Scotia in Digby County, Nova Scotia is located on Brier Island in the Bay of Fundy. ... Brier Island is an island in the Bay of Fundy in Digby County, Nova Scotia. ... The village of Freeport, Nova Scotia in Digby County, Nova Scotia is located on Long Island in the Bay of Fundy. ... Bay of Fundy Long Island, Nova Scotia Ferry leaving from Tiverton, Nova Scotia going to Digby Neck Long Island located between the Bay of Fundy and St. ... Boars Head Lighthouse, Tiverton, Nova Scotia Tiverton is a small village located on the northeast tip of Long Island, Nova Scotia. ...

See Also

The Central Nova Tourist Association (CNTA) is one of seven provincially recognized tourist associations that work directly with Nova Scotia Department of Tourism Culture and Heritage. ...

External links

References

Coordinates: 45°00′N, 65°48′W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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  Results from FactBites:
 
Bay of Fundy - Tides Bay of Fundy (572 words)
The Bay of Fundy is known for having the greatest difference in water level between its high and low tides in the world.
The Bay of Fundy is 170-mile-long (270 km).
The Bay of Fundy is one of these ancient rifts which were formed due to a split in the continental plates forming deep rift valleys which got filled with sediments washed in from the land.
Undersea Landscapes | Bay of Fundy (835 words)
The Bay of Fundy is a 170-mile-long (270km), straight-sided, somewhat funnel-shaped bay which splits at its northeastern head into two narrow bays, Chignecto Bay and the Minas Basin.
The great tides of the Bay of Fundy are due to two unique characteristics of this finger of the Gulf.
Drawn by the rich waters flowing from the Bay of Fundy and the resulting abundance of phytoplankton and fish in the area, the whales —; such as humpback, minke, sei, and the rare right whale —; come to feed and court.
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