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Encyclopedia > Bay mud
Richardson Bay mudflats of are exposed layers of bay mud
Richardson Bay mudflats of are exposed layers of bay mud

Bay mud consists of thick deposits of soft, unconsolidated silty clay, which is saturated with water; these soil layers are situated at the bottom of certain estuaries, which are normally in temperate regions that have experienced cyclical glacial cycles. Example locations are Cape Cod Bay, Chongming Dongtan Reserve in Shanghai, China, Banc d'Arguinpreserve in Mauritania, The Bristol Channel in the United Kingdom, Mandø Island in the Wadden Sea in Denmark, Florida Bay, San Francisco Bay, Bay of Fundy, Casco Bay and Morro Bay. Bay mud manifests low shear strength, high compressibility and low permeability, making it hazardous to build upon in seismically active regions like the San Francisco Bay Area. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2804x1896, 609 KB) Summary I, M Hogan took this photo and release all rights to wikipedia Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2804x1896, 609 KB) Summary I, M Hogan took this photo and release all rights to wikipedia Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Pickleweed Creek, the upper arm of Richardson Bay. ... Silt is soil or rock derived granular material of a specific grain size. ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Rio de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... Cape Cod Bay is a large bay of the Atlantic Ocean adjacent to the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... The Banc dArguin National Park (French: Parc National du Banc dArguin) lies on the coast of Mauritania between Nouakchott and Nouadhibou. ... Satellite view of the Bristol Channel Map of the Bristol Channel The Bristol Channel (Welsh: ) is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from the West Country and extending from the lower estuary of the River Severn (Afon Hafren) to that part of the North... Location Tidal marsh at periphery of Mandø Mandø is one of the Danish Wadden Sea islands off the southwest coast of Jutland, Denmark in the Wadden Sea, part of the North Sea. ... Satellite image of the southwestern part of the Wadden Sea. ... Florida Bay is the shallow bay located between the southern end of the Florida mainland (the Florida Everglades) and the Florida Keys. ... San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and the Golden Gate San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean. ... The Bay of Fundy (French: ) is a bay located on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine. ... Casco Bay is an inlet of the Gulf of Maine on the southern coast of Maine, USA. Its easternmost approach is Cape Small and its westernmost approach is Two Lights in Cape Elizabeth. ... Morro Bay Docks with Morro Rock in the background. ... Shear strength in reference to soil is a term used to describe the maximum strength of soil at which point significant plastic deformation or yielding occurs due to an applied shear stress. ... Fluid Dynamics Compressibility (physics) is a measure of the relative volume change of fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change: . For a gas the magnitude of the compressibility depends strongly on whether the process is adiabatic or isothermal, while this difference is small in... In the earth sciences, permeability (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a material (typically, a rock or unconsolidated material) to transmit fluids. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ... USGS satellite photo of the San Francisco Bay Area. ...


Typical bulk density of bay mud is approximately 1.3 grams per cubic centimeter. Bay muds often have a high organic content, consisting of decayed organisms at lower depths, but may also contain living creatures when they occur at the upper soil layer and become exposed by low tides; then, they are called mudflats, an important ecological zone for shorebirds and many types of marine organisms. Great attention was not given to the incidence of deeper bay muds until the 1960s and 1970s when development encroachment on certain North American bays intensified, requiring geotechnical design of foundations.[1] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mudflats in Brewster, Massachusetts extending hundreds of yards offshore at the low tide. ... Ecology is the branch of science that studies the distribution and abundance of living organisms, and the interactions between organisms and their environment. ... Families Charadridae Jacanidae Rostratulidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Scolopacidae Dromadidae Burhinidae Glareolidae Thinocoridae Waders, called Shorebirds in North America (where wader is used to refer to long-legged wading birds such as storks and herons), are members of the order Charadriiformes, excluding the more marine web-footed seabird groups. ...


Bay mud has its own official geological abbreviation.[2] The designation for Quarternary older bay mud is Qobm and the acronym for Quarternary younger bay mud is Qybm. An alluvial layer is often found overlying the older bay mud. The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1. ... Alluvium is soil land deposited by a river or other running water. ...


In relation to shipping channels, it is often necessary to dredge bay bottoms and barge the excavated material to an alternate location. In this case chemical analyses are usually performed on the bay mud to determine whether there are elevated levels of heavy metals, PCBs or other toxic substances known to accumulate in a benthic environment. It is not uncommon to dredge the same channel repeatedly (over a span of ten to thirty years) since further settling sediments are prone to redeposit on an open estuarine valley floor. A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... A heavy metal is any of a number of higher atomic weight elements, which has the properties of a metallic substance at room temperature. ... PCB may refer to: Brazilian Communist Party (in Portuguese, Partido Comunista Brasileiro) Communist Party of Bolivia (in Spanish, Partido Comunista de Bolivia) Pakistan Cricket Board PCB Piezotronics PCBoard, a bulletin board system software Police Complaints Board, which oversaw the system for handling complaints made against police forces in England and... In marine geology and biology, benthos are the organisms and habitats of the sea floor; in freshwater biology they are the organisms and habitats of the bottoms of lakes, rivers, and creeks. ... Look up Channel on Wiktionary, the free dictionary In general, channel refers to the path between two endpoints. ...

Contents

Depositional scenarios

Decomposed diatoms are one component of bay mud
Decomposed diatoms are one component of bay mud

Bay muds originate from two generalized sources. First alluvial deposits of clays, silts and sand occur from streams tributary to a given bay. The extent of these unconsolidated interglacial deposits typically ranges throughout a given bay to the extent of the historical perimeter marshlands. Second, in periods of high glaciation, deposits of silts, sands and organic plus inorganic detritus {e.g. decomposition of estuarine diatoms) may form a separate distinct layer. Thus bay muds are important time records of glacial activity and streamflow throughout the Pleistocene, Holocene and Eemian periods. Image File history File links Beautiful marine diatoms as seen through a microscope. ... Image File history File links Beautiful marine diatoms as seen through a microscope. ... Orders Centrales Pennales Diatoms (Greek: (dia) = through + (temnein) = to cut, i. ... Alluvium is soil land deposited by a river or other running water. ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... Detritus may refer to: In geology, detritus is the name for loose fragments of rock that have been worn away by erosion. ... Orders Centrales Pennales Diatoms (Greek: (dia) = through + (temnein) = to cut, i. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period that extends from the present day back to about 10,000 radiocarbon years, approximately 11,430 ± 130 calendar years BP (between 9560 and 9300 BC). ... Two ice core temperature records; the Eemian is at a depth of about 1500-1800 meters in the lower graph The Eemian interglacial era (known as the Sangamon era in North America, the Ipswichian interglacial in the UK, and the Riss-Würm interglacial in the Alps) is the second...


Some depositional formation is quite recent, such as in the case of Florida Bay, where much of the bay mud has accumulated since 2000 BC, and consists of primarily decayed organic material[3] In the case of Florida Bay these bay muds can accrete as much as 0.5 to 2.0 centimeters per annum, although the dynamic equilibrium of erosion, wave action redistribution and deposition complicate the net rate of layer growth. In the case of Bristol Bay in the United Kingdom bay mud formation has been occurring at least since the Eemian interglacial era (known as the Sangamon interglacial era in North America, or about 130,000 years ago.[4] In other cases such as with San Francisco Bay, deposition has been interrupted by sea-level changes, and strata of vastly different vintages are found. In the San Francisco Bay Area, these are called Young bay mud and Older bay mud by geologists. Human activities can also affect deposition; close to half of the Young Bay Mud in San Francisco Bay was placed in the period 1855-1865, as a result of placer mining in the Sierra Nevada foothills. Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as an operation of Mathematical morphology, see Erosion (morphology) Erosion is displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of ocean currents, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement... ... Shore of Bristol Bay near Naknek. ... The Eemian interglacial era (Sangamon era in North America) is the second-to-latest interglacial era of the Ice age. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and the Golden Gate San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean. ... The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... Miners operate a hydraulic sluice in San Francisquito Canyon, Los Angeles County. ... This article is about the mountain range in the Western United States. ...


Geotechnical factors

Dakin Building, a national headquarters use, built on driven piles over bay mud

Construction on bay mud sites is difficult because of the soil's low strength and high compressibility. Very lightweight buildings can be constructed on bay mud sites if there is a thick enough layer of non-bay-mud soil above the bay mud, but buildings which impose significant loads must be supported on deep foundations bearing on stiffer layers below the bay mud, or obtaining support from friction in the bay mud. Even with deep foundations, difficulties arise because the surrounding ground will likely settle over time,potentially damaging utility connections to the building and causing the entryway to rise above the street level. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1800, 729 KB) Photograher took this photo in April 2006 and releases all rights I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1800, 729 KB) Photograher took this photo in April 2006 and releases all rights I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Dakin Building The Dakin Building is an architectural award winning class A office building on the San Francisco Bay in Brisbane, California. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Pile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A number of notable buildings have been constructed over bay muds, typically employing special mitigation designs to withstand seismic risks and settlement issues. Complicating design issues, fill (beginning about 1850 AD) is sometimes found deposited on the surface level. For example, the Dakin Building in Brisbane, California was designed in 1985[5] to sit on piles 150 feet deep, anchoring to the Franciscan formation, below the bay muds and through an upper fill layer. Furthermore the structure’s entrance ramp has been set on a giant hinge to allow the surrounding land to settle, while the building absolute height remains constant. The Crowne Plaza high-rise hotel in Burlingame, California[6] was also designed to sit over bay muds, as was the Westin Hotel in Millbrae, California and Trinity Church in Boston's Copley Square. Indeed, Boston's entire Back Bay district is named for the tidal bay that it now covers. Logan International Airport and the San Francisco International Airport are also constructed over bay mud. Dakin Building The Dakin Building is an architectural award winning class A office building on the San Francisco Bay in Brisbane, California. ... Brisbane is a small city located in the northern part of San Mateo County, California. ... High-rise is a 1975 novel by J. G. Ballard. ... For other uses, see Hotel (disambiguation). ... Location in San Mateo County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County San Mateo Incorporated June 6, 1908 Government  - Mayor Terry Nagel  - City Manager Jim Nantell Area  - City  6. ... General view of Millbrae Millbrae is a city in San Mateo County, California, United States. ... Trinity Church in Boston. ... Back Bay is the name of several places and neighborhoods in the world, including: Back Bay, Boston Back Bay, New Brunswick This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the Logan airport in Billings, Montana, see Billings Logan International Airport. ... FAA diagram of SFO “SFO” redirects here. ...

Black-necked Stilts foraging on Pickleweed Creek mudflats
Black-necked Stilts foraging on Pickleweed Creek mudflats

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2252x1660, 392 KB) Summary author of picture releases rights of use to wikipedia Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2252x1660, 392 KB) Summary author of picture releases rights of use to wikipedia Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Himantopus mexicanus Müller, 1776 The Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) is a locally abundant resident of American wetlands and coastlines, from the coastal areas of California, much of the interior western United States and along the Gulf of Mexico as far east as Florida,[1] then south... Looking north across Pickleweed Creek at its mouth with the upper arm of Richardson Bay. ...

Mudflats

When the mud layer is exposed at the tidal fringe, mudflats result affording a unique ecotone that affords numerous shorebird species a safe feeding and resting habitat. Because the muds function much like quicksand, heavier mammalian predators not only cannot gain traction for pursuit, but would actually become trapped in the sinking muds. The muds are also an important substrate for primary marsh productivity including eelgrass, cordgrass and pickleweed. Furthermore they are home to a large variety of molluscs and estuarine arthropods. Richardson Bay, for example, exposes one third of its areal extent as mudflat at low tide, which hosts a productive eelgrass expanse and also a large shorebird community. An ecotone is a transition area between two adjacent ecological communities (ecosystems). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... Eelgrass can refer to two different plants: Marine eelgrass - Zostera marina Freshwater eelgrass - Vallisneria americana This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Species See text. ... Pickleweed is a common name used for two unrelated genera of flowering plants: Batis, family Bataceae. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ...


Mammals such as the Harbor seal may use mudflats to haul out of estuary waters; however, larger mammals such as humpback whales may become accidentally stranded at low tides. Note that normally humpback whales do not frequent estuaries containing mudflats, but at least one errant whale, publicized by the media as Humphrey the humpback whale, became stuck on a mudflat in San Francisco Bay at Sierra Point in Brisbane, California. Binomial name Phoca vitulina Linnaeus, 1758 The Harbor Seal or Common seal (Phoca vitulina) is a true seal of the Northern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Megaptera novaeangliae Borowski, 1781 Humpback Whale range The Humpback Whale, Megaptera novaeangliae, is a baleen whale. ... Humpback whales live in the open ocean. ...


Worldwide occurrences

Bay muds occur in bays and estuaries throughout the temperate regions of the world. In North America, prominent instances are: (a) the Stellwagen Bank formed 9000 to 16,000 BC by glaciation of Cape Cod Bay in Massachusetts, (b) Florida Bay and (c) in California Morro Bay and San Francisco Bay. In the United Kingdom large bay mud occurrences are found at Morecambe Bay, Bridgwater Bay and Bristol Bay. Straddling Denmark, the Netherlands and Germany is the Wadden Sea, a major formation underlain by bay muds. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Cape Cod Bay is a large bay of the Atlantic Ocean adjacent to the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Morecambe Bay at low tide from Hest Bank, looking towards Grange-over-Sands. ... Bridgwater Bay is on the estuary of the River Severn, near Bridgwater in Somerset, United Kingdom at the mouth of the River Parrett. ... Satellite image of the southwestern part of the Wadden Sea. ...


In Asia the Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve in Shanghai, China is an example of a large scale bay mud formation. The Atlantic coast of Africa holds the Banc d'Arguin, a World Heritage nature preserve in the country of Mauritania. Banc d'Arguin is a vast area underlain by bay mud. For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... “Atlantic” redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Banc dArguin National Park (French: Parc National du Banc dArguin) lies on the coast of Mauritania between Nouakchott and Nouadhibou. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...


Regulatory issues

When building on top of bay mud layers or when dredging estuary bottoms, a variety of regulatory frameworks may arise. Normally in the United States, an Environmental Impact Report as well as a geotechnical investigation are conducted precedent to any major construction over bay mud. Combined, these reports have developed much of the data base extant on bay mud characteristics, frequently yielding original field data from soil borings. These data have demonstrated that in many locations the shallower bay muds contain concentrations of mercury, lead, chromium, petroleum hydrocarbons, PCBs, pesticides and other chemicals which exceed toxic limits: a geological record of human activities of the last century. These data are particularly important to consider when dredging of bay muds is contemplated as part of a development project. Such dredging can have impacts to receiving lands as soil contamination, but also water column impacts from sediment disturbance. In the context of government and public services regulation (as a process) is the control of something by rules, as opposed to its prohibition. ... An Environmental Impact Report (EIR) is a document required under the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is a cleaning solution consisting only of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil contamination is the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration of the natural soil environment. ... A water column is a conceptual column of water from surface to bottom sediments. ...


In the case of dredging within the United States, a permit is almost always required from the United States Army Corps of Engineers, after submittal of extensive data on the project limits, chemical properties of the bay muds to be disturbed, a dredge disposal plan and often a complete Environmental Impact Statement pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. Further review by the United States Coast Guard would normally be required. Within individual state jurisdictions, such as California, an Environmental Impact Report must be filed for dredging of any significance; furthermore, agency reviews by the California Coastal Commission and the Regional Water Quality Control Board would normally be mandated. . The USACE gold castle insignia, worn by officers of the Corps The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... According to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) whenever the U.S. Federal Government takes a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment it must first consider the environmental impact in a document called an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). ... The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the United States armed forces a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... The California Coastal Commission is a state agency in the U.S. state of California with quasi-judicial regulatory influence over land use and public access in the California coastal zone. ...


For buildings proposed over bay mud layers, typically the municipality involved will, in addition to the usual engineering and design review issues common to all building projects (which are more complicated because of the site conditions), require an Environmental Impact Report[1]. This process would include reviews by that city’s building department, as well as applicable regional and state agencies such as those cited above for dredging projects, except that Coast Guard agencies would not typically be concerned.


See also

For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Rio de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... Liquefaction may refer to: Soil liquefaction, the process by which sediments are converted into suspension, as in earthquake liquefaction, quicksand, quick clay, and turbidity currents. ... The USACE gold castle insignia, worn by officers of the Corps The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ...

References

  1. ^ Farzad Naeim, The Seismic Design Handbook, Kluwer Academic Publishers, (2003) ISBN 0-7923-7301-4
  2. ^ Floyd Fusselman, Environmental Concerns: Learn the Acronyms, Trafford Publishing, Victoria, B.C. (2002) ISBN 1-55369-461-9
  3. ^ R.B. Halley, E.J. Prager, R.P. Stumpf, K.K. Yates, and C.H. Holmes, Sea-Level Rise and the Future of Florida Bay in the Next Century, U.S.Geological Survey, (2001)
  4. ^ R.Kirby and W.R.Parker, Settled mud deposits in Bridgewater Bay Bristol Channel, Report no. 107, Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Surrey, UK (1980)
  5. ^ Judges praise innovative ideas, San Francisco Examiner, Page F-6, January 12, 1992
  6. ^ C.M.Hogan, Kay Wilson, Ballard George, Marc Papineau et al., Environmental Impact Report for the Crowne Plaza Hotel, prepared by Earth Metrics Inc and. published by the city of Burlingame, California, circulated by the State of California Clearinghouse, (1985)

External links

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service article on bay mud and environmental features for part of the San Francisco Bay perimeter.
  • Student project: bay mud food web

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bay mud - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1623 words)
Richardson Bay mudflats of are exposed layers of bay mud
Bay mud consists of thick deposits of soft, unconsolidated silty clay, which is saturated with water; these soil layers are situated at the bottom of certain estuaries, which are normally in temperate regions that have experienced cyclical glacial cycles.
Bay muds often have a high organic content, consisting of decayed organisms at lower depths, but may also contain living creatures when they occur at the upper soil layer and become exposed by low tides; then, they are called mudflats, an important ecological zone for shorebirds and many types of marine organisms.
Mud Bay - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (123 words)
Mud Bay is a retailer of pet food and supplies based in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.
It is named for the location of the first store, which was originally on a hill above Mud Bay, on the southern tip of Puget Sound.
The company's primary focus is on healthy, natural foods for dogs and cats, and on supplying information about common nutrition-related problems in dogs and cats.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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