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Encyclopedia > Bavaria
Freistaat Bayern
Free State of Bavaria
Flag Coat of arms
Coat of arms of Bavaria
Details
Location
Map of Germany, location of Bavaria highlighted
Coordinates 48°56′″N 11°30′″E / Expression error: Unexpected / operator, Expression error: Unexpected / operatorCoordinates: 48°56′″N 11°30′″E / Expression error: Unexpected / operator, Expression error: Unexpected / operator
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Administration
Country Germany
NUTS Region DE2
Capital Munich
Minister-President Günther Beckstein (CSU)
Governing party CSU
Votes in Bundesrat 6 (of 69)
Basic statistics
Area  70,549 km² (27,239 sq mi)
Population 12,495,000 (04/2007)[1]
 - Density 177 /km² (459 /sq mi)
Other information
GDP/ Nominal € 404 billion (2005)
Website bayern.de

The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern ), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and almost 12.5 million inhabitants, forms the southernmost and geographically largest state of Germany. Its capital is Munich. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Bavaria is the name of: Bavaria, one of the 16 states of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bavaria_(lozengy). ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Bavaria. ... Greater Coat of arms of Bavaria Small Coat of arms of Bavaria The coat of arms of the German state of Bavaria was introduced by law on 5 June 1950. ... Image File history File links Deutschland_Lage_von_Bayern. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the administrative division of countries for statistical purposes. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... A minister-president (Ministerpräsident) is the head of government of a German federal state; the office corresponds to the governorship of a state in the United States. ... Günther Beckstein is a Bavarian politician from the CSU party. ... The Christian Social Union of Bavaria ( ) is a Christian democratic political party in Germany. ... Political Parties redirects here. ... The Christian Social Union of Bavaria ( ) is a Christian democratic political party in Germany. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Länder) of Germany at the federal level. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article is about GDP in the context of economics. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Free state is a term occasionally used in the official titles of some states. ... Image File history File links Freistaat_Bayern. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Bavaria

The Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps, originally inhabited by the Celts, which had been part of the Roman provinces of Rhaetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German but, unlike other Germanic groups, did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century AD. These peoples may have included Marcomanni, Thuringians, Goths, Rugians, Heruli, and some remaining Romans. The name "Bavarian" ("Baiuvari") means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Bavaria was, for the most part, unaffected by the Protestant Reformation, and even today, most of it is strongly Roman Catholic. It has been suggested that Bavaria#Historical_Buildings be merged into this article or section. ... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), is widely used to refer to the members of any of the peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages or descended from those who did. ... The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ... The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Suebi or Suevi. ... The Thuringii was a tribe which appeared later than most in the highlands of central Germany, a region which still bears their name to this day -- Thuringia. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... The Rugians (Latin rugii) were an East Germanic tribe whose ultimate origins have been traced to Rogaland in Norway, whose population probably was the Rugii that Jordanes mentioned as a tribe that still remained in Scandza. ... The Heruli (spelled variously in Latin and Greek) were a nomadic Germanic people, who were subjugated by the Ostrogoths, Huns, and Byzantines in the 3rd to 5th centuries. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Events February 20 - Epiphanius elected Patriarch of Constantinople. ... For the Roman general of this name, see Bonifacius. ... Reformation redirects here. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


From about 550 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III who was deposed by Charlemagne. Events By Place Byzantine Empire Silk reaches Constantinople (approximate date). ... Events Charlemagne conquers Bavaria. ... The Agilolfings were a family of Frankish or Bavarian nobility that ruled the historical teritory of Bavaria on behalf of their Frankish overlords from about 550 until 788. ... The following is a list of rulers of Bavaria: Dukes of Bavaria, 889-1623 Liutpolding Dynasty Liutpold 889-907 Arnulf the Bad 907-937 Eberhard 937 Berthold 938-947 Liudolfing ( Ottonian) Dynasty Henry I 947-955 Henry II the Quarrelsome 955-976 Otto I 976-982 Liutpolding Dynasty Henry III... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ...


Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555. Their daughter, Theodelinde, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616. Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... Garibald I (also Garivald) (b. ... For other uses, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Look up Lombard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see number 555. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... Garibald II (585 – 625) was Duke of Bavaria from 610 until his death. ... Events October 4 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. ... Events Eadbald succeeds Ethelbert as king of Kent. ...


After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy (it is unclear what Bavarian religious life consisted of before this time). His son, Theudebert, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, and married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was divided among his sons, but reunited under his grandson Hucbert. Theodo (before 665 – 11 December c. ... Theodbert (also Theodebert, Theudebert, Theotpert, and Theodo) (c. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ...


At Hucbert's death (735) the duchy passed to a distant relative named Odilo, from neighboring Alemannia (modern Southwest Germany and northern Switzerland). Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface (739), and tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo. He was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748. Duke Odilo (d. ... The following list of Frankish Kings is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Grifo was the illegitimate son of Charles Martel, an important leader of the Franks. ... For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ...


Tassilo III (b. 741 - d. after 794) succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria. He initially ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was particularly noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the Danube and colonizing these lands. After 781, however, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and finally deposed him in 788. The deposition was not entirely legitimate; Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pippin the Hunchback, and the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources and he probably died a monk. As all of his family were also forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. Tassilo III was duke of Bavaria from 748 to 787, the last of the house of the Agilolfings. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ... Pepin (Pippin) the Hunchback (b. ...


For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy, rarely for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and south east. The last, and one of the most important, of these dukes was Henry the Lion of the house of Welf, founder of Munich. When Henry the Lion was deposed as duke of Saxony and Bavaria by his cousin, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1180, Bavaria was awarded as fief to the Wittelsbach family, which ruled from 1180 to 1918. Also the Electoral Palatinate was acquired by the Wittelsbach in 1214. Henry II the Wrangler Henry II (951–995), called the Wrangler or the Quarrelsome, in German Heinrich der Zänker, was the son of Henry I and Judith of Bavaria. ... Henry the Lion (statue on his tomb in Brunswick Cathedral). ... The House of Welf (or House of Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th century until the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... The Wittelsbach family is an European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ...


The first of several divisions of the duchy of Bavaria occurred in 1255. With the extinction of the Hohenstaufen in 1268 also Swabian territories were acquired by the Wittelsbach dukes. Emperor Louis the Bavarian acquired Brandenburg, Tyrol, Holland and Hainaut for his House but released the Upper Palatinate for the Palatinate branch of the Wittelsbach in 1329. In 1506 with the Landshut War of Succession the other parts of Bavaria were reunited and Munich became the sole capital. Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... Germany, showing modern borders. ... Emperor Louis IV Louis IV of Bavaria (also known as Ludwig the Bavarian) of the House of Wittelsbach (1282 – October 11, 1347) was duke of Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his brother Rudolf I, also count of the Palatinate until 1329 and, German king since 1314 and crowned as... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... Coat of arms of the Counts of Tyrol Austria-Hungary in 1914, showing Tirol–Vorarlberg as the left-most province, coloured cream Capital Meran (Merano), until 1848 Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Created County 1140  - Bequeathed to Habsburgs 1363 or 1369  - Joined Council of Princes 1582  - Trent, Tyrol and... This article is about a region in the Netherlands. ... The virtually independent county of Hainaut emerged from chaotic conditions at the end of the 9th century as a semi-independent state, at first a vassal of the crown of Lotharingia. ... The Upper Palatinate (Oberpfalz) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria. ... Combatants Bavaria-Munich Bavaria-Landshut Palatine of the Rhine The Landshut war of succesion resulted from a agreement between the duchies of Bavaria-Munich (Bayern-München) and Bavaria-Landshut (Bayern-Landshut), both being lines of the House of Wittelsbach about succession when one of the lines should have no...


In 1623 the Bavarian duke replaced his relative, the Count Palatine of the Rhine in the early days of the Thirty Years' War and acquired the powerful prince-electoral dignity in the Holy Roman Empire, determining its Emperor thence forward, as well as special legal status under the empire's laws. Also the Upper Palatinate was reunited with Bavaria. The ambitions of the Bavarian prince electors led to several wars with Austria during the early 18th century. From 1777 onwards Bavaria and the Electoral Palatinate were governed in personal union again. A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway (Until 1643) Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire ( Catholic League) Spain Austria Bavaria Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I of... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


When Napoleon abolished the Holy Roman Empire, Bavaria became a kingdom in 1806, and its area reduplicated. Tyrol and Salzburg were temporarily reunited with Bavaria but finally ceded to Austria. In return the Rhenish Palatinate and Franconia were annexed to Bavaria in 1815. Between 1799 and 1817 the leading minister count Montgelas followed a strict policy of modernisation and laid the foundations of administrative structures that survived even the monarchy and are (in their core) valid until today. In 1818 a modern constitution (by the standards of the time) was passed, that established a bicameral Parliament with a House of Lords ("Kammer der Reichsräte") and a House of Commons ("Kammer der Abgeordneten"). The constitution was valid until the collapse of the monarchy at the end of the First World War. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Anthem Königsstrophe Kingdom of Bavaria within the German Empire. ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Tyrol Austria-Hungary in 1914, showing Tirol–Vorarlberg as the left-most province, coloured cream Capital Meran (Merano), until 1848 Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Created County 1140  - Bequeathed to Habsburgs 1363 or 1369  - Joined Council of Princes 1582  - Trent, Tyrol and... This article is about the capital of the Austrian state of Salzburg. ... The Palatinate (German: Pfalz), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (German: Rheinpfalz), is a region in south-western Germany. ... For other uses, see Franconia (disambiguation). ... Maximilian Josef Garnerin, Count von Montgelas (1759–1838), was a Bavarian statesman, from a noble family in Savoy. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


After the rise of Prussia to prominence Bavaria managed to preserve its independence by playing off the rivalries of Prussia and Austria, but defeat in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War led to its incorporation into the German Empire in 1871. In the early 20th century Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Henrik Ibsen, and other notable artists were drawn to Bavaria, notably to the Schwabing district of Munich, later devastated by World War II. For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name pronounced as [vassi:li]) (December 16 [O.S. December 4] 1866 – December 13, 1944) was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. ... “Klee” redirects here. ... Ibsen redirects here. ... Schwabing is a neighborhood in the northern part of Munich, the capital of the German state of Bavaria. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Wieskirche
Wieskirche

Socialist premier Kurt Eisner, who deposed King Ludwig III, was assassinated in 1919 leading to a violently suppressed communist revolt. Extremist activity on the right also increased, notably the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch, and Munich and Nuremberg became Nazi strongholds under the Third Reich. As a manufacturing center, Munich was heavily bombed during World War II and occupied by U.S. troops. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (896x600, 56 KB) Summary The Wieskirche Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (896x600, 56 KB) Summary The Wieskirche Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Monument to Kurt Eisner on the sidewalk where he fell when he was assassinated in Munich. ... Ludwig III (Ludwig Leopold Joseph Maria Aloys Alfred), King of Bavaria, (January 7, 1845 – October 18, 1921) was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918. ... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys leader Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund... Nürnberg redirects here. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ...


Since World War II, Bavaria has been rehabilitated into a prosperous industrial hub. A massive reconstruction effort restored much of Munich's historic core, and the city played host to the 1972 Summer Olympics. More recently, state minister-president Edmund Stoiber was the CDU/CSU candidate for chancellor in the 2002 federal election, and native son Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was elected Pope Benedict XVI in 2005. Claus Graf Schenk von Stauffenberg (a German-Army officer who was the central figure in the July 20 plot to kill Adolf Hitler in 1944) was born in Jettingen, Bavaria. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ... Edmund Stoiber in Würzburg Edmund Stoiber [IPA: ˈɛtmʊnt ˈʃtɔʏbɐ] (born September 28, 1941) is a German politician, currently minister-president of the state of Bavaria and chairman of the Christian Social Union (CSU). ... The 15th German federal election, 2002 was conducted on September 22, 2002, to elect members to the Bundestag (lower house) of Germany. ... Cardinal Bishops, or Cardinals of the Episcopal Order, are among the most important persons in the Roman Catholic Church. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


Geography

The Bavarian Alps
The Bavarian Alps

Bavaria shares international borders with Austria and the Czech Republic as well as with Switzerland (across Lake Constance). Neighbouring states within Germany are Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, Thuringia and Saxony. Two major rivers flow through the state, the Danube (Donau) and the Main, while the upper Rhine forms part of the southwest border of the state. The Bavarian Alps define the border with Austria, and within the range is the highest peak in Germany, the Zugspitze. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (896x600, 78 KB) Summary The Bavarian countryside and Alps as seen from the Romantic road. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (896x600, 78 KB) Summary The Bavarian countryside and Alps as seen from the Romantic road. ... For other uses, see Lake Constance, New Zealand. ... Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Minister-President Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 5 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,077,000 (08/2006)[1]  - Density... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... This article is about the Danube River. ... For other uses, see Main (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... The Zugspitze is the highest mountain in Germany. ...


The major cities in Bavaria are Munich (München), Nuremberg (Nürnberg), Augsburg, Würzburg, Regensburg, Ingolstadt, Fürth and Erlangen. For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Nürnberg redirects here. ... For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... Würzburg Residenz. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ... Ingolstadt (Austro-Bavarian: InglstÃ¥dt) is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, Germany. ... South part of the city, seen from the Alte Veste (Zirndorf), 2004 The city of Fürth is located in northern Bavaria, Germany in the district of Middle Franconia. ... Erlangen around 1915 Erlangen is a German city in Middle Franconia. ...


See also: List of places in Bavaria This is a list of geographical features in the state of Bavaria, Germany. ...


Politics

Bavaria has a unicameral Landtag, or state parliament, elected by universal suffrage. Until December 1999, there was also a Senat, or Senate, whose members were chosen by social and economic groups in Bavaria, but following a referendum in 1998, this institution was abolished. The head of government is the Minister-President. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The Landtag of Bavaria is Bavarias unicameral legislature. ... For the band, see Senate (band). ... A minister-president (Ministerpräsident) is the head of government of a German federal state; the office corresponds to the governorship of a state in the United States. ...


Bavaria has long been a bastion of conservative politics in Germany, with the Christian Social Union having almost a monopoly on power since its inception in 1946. Every Minister-President since 1957 has been a member of this party. The Christian Social Union of Bavaria ( ) is a Christian democratic political party in Germany. ...


In 1995 the Bavarians decided to introduce direct democracy on the local level in a referendum. This was initiated bottom-up by an association called Mehr Demokratie (More Democracy). This is a grass-roots organization which campaigns for the right to citizen-initiated referendums. In 1997 the Bavarian Supreme Court aggravated the regulations considerably (e.g. by introducing a turn-out quorum). Nevertheless, Bavaria has the most advanced regulations on local direct democracy in Germany. This has led to a spirited citizens’ participation in communal and municipal affairs – 835 referendums took place from 1995 through 2005. Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


In the 2003 elections the CSU won more than two thirds of the seats in Landtag. No party in post-war German history had achieved this before (not counting the rigged election wins of the SED in communist East Germany). On the other hand the bigger and more liberal, or rather social democratic, cities, especially Munich, have been governed for decades by the SPD (Social Democrats). From the historical point of view, older Bavaria was one of the most liberal, even though predominantly Roman Catholic, states until the rather rural areas of Swabia and Franconia were added in 1814/15 at the Congress of Vienna. The Kingdom of Bavaria and the Duchy of Baden were the first German States to have a constitution early in the 19th Century. The party emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946 The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


2003 election result

See also: Bavaria state election, 2003

At the last state election on 21 September 2003, the CSU achieved a two-thirds majority of seats, the first ever gained by a party in a German state parliament. Edmund Stoiber remained Minister-President, with the CSU forming a government without a coalition. The Bavaria state election, 2003, was conducted on September 21, 2003, to elect members to the Landtag (state legislature) of Bavaria. ... Edmund Stoiber in Würzburg Edmund Stoiber [IPA: ˈɛtmʊnt ˈʃtɔʏbɐ] (born September 28, 1941) is a German politician, currently minister-president of the state of Bavaria and chairman of the Christian Social Union (CSU). ...

Party Party List votes Vote percentage (change) Total Seats (change) Seat percentage
Christian Social Union (CSU) 6,217,864 60.7% +7.8% 124 +1 68.9%
Social Democratic Party (SPD) 2,012,065 19.6% −9.1% 41 −26 22.8%
Alliance '90/The Greens 793,050 7.7% +2.0% 15 +1 8.3%
Free Democratic Party (FDP) 263,731 2.6% +0.9% 0 +0 0.0%
The Republicans (REP) 229,464 2.2% −1.4% 0 +0 0.0%
Free Voters of Bavaria (FW) 411,306 4.0% +0.3% 0 +0 0.0%
Ecological Democratic Party (ÖDP) 200,103 2.0% +0.2% 0 +0 0.0%
All Others 120,952 1.2% −0.7% 0 +0 0.0%
Totals 10,248,735 100.0%   180 −24 100.0%
Seat results – SPD in red, Greens in green, CSU in black


The Christian Social Union of Bavaria ( ) is a Christian democratic political party in Germany. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Alliance 90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), the German Green party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ... The Free Democratic Party (German: Freie Demokratische Partei; FDP) is a liberal political party in Germany. ... There is open debate on rather facism is rightwing or not. ... The Ecological Democratic Party (German: Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei, ÖDP) is an environmentalist political party in Germany. ... Image File history File links Results of the 2003 Landtag election in Bavaria SDP in red, CDU in black, Greens in green Created by Willhsmit. ... Image File history File links Results of the 2003 Landtag election in Bavaria SDP in red, CDU in black, Greens in green Created by Willhsmit. ...


Economy

Bavaria has long had one the largest and healthiest economies of any region in Germany, or Europe for that matter. Its GDP in 2004 exceeded 385 billion Euros. [1] This makes Bavaria itself one of the largest economies in Europe. Some large companies headquarted in Bavaria include BMW, Audi, Siemens, Allianz, Infineon, the European Aerospace and Defense Company, Puma AG and Adidas AG. For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, and has been an almost wholly owned (99. ... Siemens redirects here. ...   SE[1], (ISIN: DE0008404005; IPA pronunciation: [alliˈanʦ], and formerly AG) is a large financial service provider headquartered in Munich, Germany. ... Infineon Technologies is a German manufacturer of integrated circuits and related products. ... The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS N.V. (EADS) is a large European aerospace corporation, formed by the merger on July 10, 2000 of Aérospatiale-Matra of France, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain, and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) of Germany. ... For other uses, see Puma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the company. ...


Culture

Bavarian church with Alps in the background
Bavarian church with Alps in the background
Though only a very small part belongs to the Alps, the perception of Bavaria as an alpine region endures.
Though only a very small part belongs to the Alps, the perception of Bavaria as an alpine region endures.

Due to their long independence (until 1871), Bavarians have always maintained a strong national identity. Some features of the Bavarian culture and mentality are remarkably distinct from the rest of Germany. A prevalent perception among other Germans is that Bavarians see Bavaria as the most important part of Germany.[citation needed] A common play on words "It's nice to be a Preiss, but it's higher to be a Bayer" [attribution needed] lambasts the Bavarian sense of superiority. Its name in German, "Freistaat Bayern" means simply "the free state of Bavaria." However, many Germans sarcastically refer to Bavaria as "Frei statt Bayern" which literally means "Free instead of Bavaria," implying that Bavarians view themselves as a separate country, or at least culturally superior to the rest of Germany. Noteworthy differences (especially in rural areas, less significant in the major cities) can be found with respect to: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (806x652, 184 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bavaria ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (806x652, 184 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bavaria ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (900x675, 380 KB) Summary I am the author, Michel May, 07. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (900x675, 380 KB) Summary I am the author, Michel May, 07. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Religion

The predominant faith is Catholicism, particularly in the southern parts of Bavaria and Lower Franconia. As per the most recent available Kirchliche Statistik Eckdaten from the Deutsche Bischofskonferenz, Bavaria is one of two Bundesländer with a population that is in majority Catholic. As per this source, in 2005 57.8 % of the Bavarian population was Catholic. Meanwhile, Lutheranism has a significant presence in large parts of Franconia. Religion remains important to many in the region, as expressed by the typical Bavarian and Austrian greeting: "Grüß Gott!" (God bless you). The current pope, Benedict XVI (Joseph Alois Ratzinger), was born in Marktl am Inn in Upper Bavaria. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      As a... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Grüß Gott (God bless you, literally Great God) is a greeting, less often a farewell, in the Upper German Sprachraum, particularly in Catholic states. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Marktl am Inn Marktl am Inn (Little Market on the Inn River), or simply Marktl, is a village and historic market municipality in the state of Bavaria, Germany, near the Austrian border, in the Altötting district of Upper Bavaria. ... Oberbayern (Upper Bavaria) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the south of Bavaria, around the city Munich. ...


Attitude towards traditions

Bavarians commonly emphasize pride in their traditions. Traditional costumes collectively known as Tracht are worn on special occasions and include Lederhosen for males and Dirndl for females. Century-old folk music is practiced and dialect songs and poems are taught in nursery schools. The Maibaum, or Maypole (which in the Middle Ages served as the community's yellow pages, as figurettes on the pole represent the trades of the village), and the bagpipes in the Upper Palatinate region bear witness to the ancient Celtic and Germanic remnants of cultural heritage of the region. An Austria folkloric group There has been a renewed interest in Germanic traditional costumes, or Tracht. ... Men in lederhosen Lederhosen (leather trousers in German; singular: Lederhose) are knee-breeches (knickerbockers or shorts) made of leather. ... a Dirndl A dirndl is a type of traditional dress worn in southern Germany and Austria, based on the historical costume of the Alpine peasants. ... Dancing around the maypole, in Ã…mmeberg, Sweden The maypole is a tall wooden pole (traditionally of hawthorn or birch), sometimes erected with several long coloured ribbons suspended from the top, festooned with flowers, draped in greenery and strapped with large circular wreaths, depending on local and regional variances. ... Procession in Klagenfurt The eastern and central Alpine region is rich in traditions dating back to pagan times, the pre-Christian Germanic (1st millennium), or even the Celtic (1st millennium BC) period. ...


Food and drink

Bavarians tend to place a great value on food and drink. Bavarians also consume many items of food and drink which are unusual elsewhere in Germany, for example Weißwurst (white sausage). Beer in particular has always been regarded as a basic nutrient (Grundnahrungsmittel, or 'the base foodstuff'). . At folk festivals, beer is traditionally served by the litre (the so-called Maß). Bavarians are particularly proud of the traditional purity law, initially established by the Duke of Bavaria in 1516. According to this law, only three ingredients were allowed in beer: water, barley, and hops. In 1906 the Reinheitsgebot made its way to German law and it had been a law in Germany until the EU struck it down recently as incompatible with the European common market. Bavarians are also known as some of the world's most beer-loving people with an average annual consumption of 170 litres per person. Weißwurst (literally white sausage) is a traditional Bavarian sausage made from very finely minced veal and fresh pork bacon. ... A Löwenbräu Stoneware Maß and a tourist shown for scale The Maß (measure) is an old Austro-Bavarian unit of volume, now typically used for measuring beer. ... The Reinheitsgebot (literally purity requirement) is a regulation that originated in the city of Ingolstadt in the duchy of Bavaria in 1516, concerning standards for the sale and composition of beer. ...

A village chapel in Franconia.
A village chapel in Franconia.

Download high resolution version (1260x1659, 253 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1260x1659, 253 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ... For other uses, see Franconia (disambiguation). ...

Language and dialects

Bavarian (blue), Franconian (green) and Alemannic German (red colour)
Bavarian (blue), Franconian (green) and Alemannic German (red colour)

These three German dialects are spoken in Bavaria: Austro-Bavarian in Old Bavaria (South East and East), Swabian German (an Alemannic German dialect) in the Bavarian part of Swabia (South West) and East Franconian German in Franconia (North). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (653x652, 35 KB) Beschreibung: Darstellungskarte mit den oberdeutschen Mundarten seit 1945 Zeichner: de:Benutzer:Postmann Michael (erstellt auf de. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (653x652, 35 KB) Beschreibung: Darstellungskarte mit den oberdeutschen Mundarten seit 1945 Zeichner: de:Benutzer:Postmann Michael (erstellt auf de. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Austro-Bavarian or Bavarian is a major group of Upper German varieties. ... Swabian (Schwäbisch) is one of the Alemannic dialects of High German, spoken in the region of Swabia. ... Alemannic German (Alemannisch) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. ... Germany, showing modern borders. ... East Franconian (Ostfränkisch) is a dialect which is spoken in Bavaria and other areas in Germany around Bamberg, Würzburg and Bayreuth. ... For other uses, see Franconia (disambiguation). ...


Bavarians are very proud of their marked dialects, and most of them speak with their Bavarian, Franconian or Swabian accent. As with traditions in general, cultivation of dialect and regional accent is not associated with backwardness, but is considered a strengthening of regional identity. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... Legend:  Dutch. ... Swabian (Schwäbisch) is one of the Alemannic dialects of High German, spoken in the region of Swabia. ...


Politics

The Christian Social Union, which has ruled in Bavaria uninterruptedly since 1957, does not seek election in any other state of Germany. The CSU, arguably the most inward looking of the major German political parties, combines socially conservative positions with advocacy for extensive involvement of the state in the economy. The Christian Social Union of Bavaria ( ) is a Christian democratic political party in Germany. ...


Ethnography

In comparison to the sometimes elaborate formality in other parts of Germany, Bavarians are known to be more egalitarian and folksy. Their sociability can be experienced at the annual Oktoberfest, the world's largest beer festival welcoming around 6 million visitors every year, or in the famous beer gardens. Genuine traditional Bavarian beer gardens work on a BYO basis, i.e. patrons bring their own food and only buy beer from the brewery that runs the beer garden. [citation needed] For the beer, see Pale lager#Oktoberfestbier. ... A typical beer garden in Munich A beer garden is an open-air area where alcohol is legally served. ...


In the United States, particularly among German Americans, Bavarian culture is viewed somewhat nostalgically, with several "Bavarian villages", most notably Leavenworth, Washington. Since 1962, the town has been styled with a Bavarian theme; it is also home to "one of the world's largest collections of nutcrackers" and an Oktoberfest celebration it claims is among the most attended in the world outside of Munich.[2] German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ... Leavenworths main street reflects its modelling on a Bavarian village Leavenworth is a city in Chelan County, Washington, United States. ... A variety of nutcrackers A nutcracker consists of a mechanical device for cracking nuts. ... For the beer, see Pale lager#Oktoberfestbier. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...


Administrative divisions

Regierungsbezirke (administrative regions)

Administrative Regions of Bavaria
Administrative Regions of Bavaria

Bavaria is divided into 7 administrative regions called Regierungsbezirke (singular Regierungsbezirk). Made by Self, Baverian Admin Districts File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Made by Self, Baverian Admin Districts File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

  1. Upper Franconia (German: Oberfranken)
  2. Middle Franconia (Mittelfranken)
  3. Lower Franconia (Unterfranken)
  4. Swabia (Schwaben)
  5. Upper Palatinate (Oberpfalz)
  6. Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern)
  7. Lower Bavaria (Niederbayern)

These administrative regions consist of 71 administrative districts (called Landkreise, singular Landkreis) and 25 independent cities (kreisfreie Städte, singular kreisfreie Stadt). Oberfranken (Upper Franconia) is one of the three administrative regions of Franconia in Bavaria, Germany. ... Mittelfranken (Middle Franconia) is one of the three administrative regions of Franconia in Bavaria, Germany. ... Unterfranken (Lower Franconia) is one of the three administrative regions of Franconia in Bavaria (seven regions), Germany (32 regions). ... Swabia (German: Schwaben) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the south-west of Bavaria. ... The Upper Palatinate (Oberpfalz) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria. ... Oberbayern (Upper Bavaria) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the south of Bavaria, around the city Munich. ... Lower Bavaria (German Niederbayern) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria. ...


Landkreise/kreisfreie Städte (rural districts/urban districts)

Administrative districts of Bavaria
Administrative districts of Bavaria

Rural districts: Image File history File links Karte-Bayern-Landkreise. ... Image File history File links Karte-Bayern-Landkreise. ...

  1. Aichach-Friedberg
  2. Altötting
  3. Amberg-Sulzbach
  4. Ansbach
  5. Aschaffenburg
  6. Augsburg
  7. Bad Kissingen
  8. Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen
  9. Bamberg
  10. Bayreuth
  11. Berchtesgadener Land
  12. Cham
  13. Coburg
  14. Dachau
  15. Deggendorf
  16. Dillingen
  17. Dingolfing-Landau
  18. Donau-Ries
  19. Ebersberg
  20. Eichstätt
  21. Erding
  22. Erlangen-Höchstadt
  23. Forchheim
  24. Freising
  1. Freyung-Grafenau
  2. Fürstenfeldbruck
  3. Fürth
  4. Garmisch-Partenkirchen
  5. Günzburg
  6. Haßberge
  7. Hof
  8. Kelheim
  9. Kitzingen
  10. Kronach
  11. Kulmbach
  12. Landsberg
  13. Landshut
  14. Lichtenfels
  15. Lindau
  16. Main-Spessart
  17. Miesbach
  18. Miltenberg
  19. Mühldorf
  20. Munich-County (Landkreis München)
  21. Neuburg-Schrobenhausen
  22. Neumarkt
  23. Neustadt (Aisch)-Bad Windsheim
  24. Neustadt (Waldnaab)
  1. Neu-Ulm
  2. Nürnberger Land
  3. Oberallgäu
  4. Ostallgäu
  5. Passau
  6. Pfaffenhofen
  7. Regen
  8. Regensburg
  9. Rhön-Grabfeld
  10. Rosenheim
  11. Roth
  12. Rottal-Inn
  13. Schwandorf
  14. Schweinfurt
  15. Starnberg
  16. Straubing-Bogen
  17. Tirschenreuth
  18. Traunstein
  19. Unterallgäu
  20. Weilheim-Schongau
  21. Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen
  22. Wunsiedel
  23. Würzburg

Urban districts: Aichach-Friedberg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Altötting is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Amberg_Sulzbach is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Ansbach is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Aschaffenburg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Augsburg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Bad Kissingen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Bamberg Land is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Bayreuth is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Berchtesgadener Land is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Cham is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Coburg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Dachau is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Deggendorf is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Dillingen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Dingolfing-Landau is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Donau-Ries is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Ebersberg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Eichstätt is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Erding is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Erlangen-Höchstadt is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Forchheim is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Freising is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Freyung-Grafenau is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Fürstenfeldbruck is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Fürth is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Günzburg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Haßberge is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Hof is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Kelheim is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Kitzingen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Kronach is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Kulmbach is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Landsberg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Landshut is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Lichtenfels is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Lindau is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Main-Spessart is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Miesbach is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Miltenberg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Mühldorf is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Munich (German München) is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Neuburg-Schrobenhausen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Neumarkt is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Neustadt (Aisch)-Bad Windsheim is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Neustadt (Waldnaab) is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Neu-Ulm is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Nürnberger Land is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Oberallgäu is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Ostallgäu is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Passau is a district (Kreis) in the southeast of Bavaria. ... Pfaffenhofen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Regen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Regensburg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Rhön-Grabfeld is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Rosenheim is a Kreis (district) in the south of Bavaria, Germany. ... Roth is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Rottal-Inn is a Kreis (district) in the southeastern part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Schwandorf is a Kreis (district) in the east part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Schweinfurt is a Kreis (district) in the northwestern part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Starnberg is a Kreis (district) in the southern part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Straubing-Bogen is a Kreis (district) in the eastern part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Tirschenreuth is a Kreis (district) in the northeastern part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Traunstein is a Kreis (district) in the southeastern part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Unterallgäu is a Kreis (district) in the southwestern part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Weilheim-Schongau is a Kreis (district) in the south of Bavaria, Germany. ... Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen is a Kreis (district) in the west of Bavaria, Germany. ... Wunsiedel is a Kreis (district) in the northeastern part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Würzburg is a Kreis (district) in the northwestern part of Bavaria, Germany. ...

  1. Amberg
  2. Ansbach
  3. Aschaffenburg
  4. Augsburg
  5. Bamberg
  6. Bayreuth
  7. Coburg
  8. Erlangen
  9. Fürth
  1. Hof
  2. Ingolstadt
  3. Kaufbeuren
  4. Kempten
  5. Landshut
  6. Memmingen
  7. Munich (München)
  8. Nuremberg (Nürnberg)
  9. Passau
  1. Regensburg
  2. Rosenheim
  3. Schwabach
  4. Schweinfurt
  5. Straubing
  6. Weiden
  7. Würzburg

Map of Germany showing Amberg (currently incorrect) Amberg is a city in Bavaria, Germany. ... Ansbach, or Anspach, originally Onolzbach, is a town in Bavaria, Germany. ... Aschaffenburg (IPA: ; dialect: [ˈaʒəˌbɜːʃ]) is a large town in north west Bavaria, Germany. ... For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... For other uses, see Bamberg (disambiguation). ... Bayreuth [pronounced by-royt] is a town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Frankish Alb and the Fichtelgebirge. ... Coburg is a city located on the Itz River in Bavaria, Central-West Germany. ... Erlangen around 1915 Erlangen is a German city in Middle Franconia. ... South part of the city, seen from the Alte Veste (Zirndorf), 2004 The city of Fürth is located in northern Bavaria, Germany in the district of Middle Franconia. ... Hof is a city located on the banks of the Saale in the northeastern corner of the German state of Bavaria, in the Franconia region, hard by the Czech border and the forested Fichtelgebirge and Frankenwald upland regions. ... Ingolstadt (Austro-Bavarian: InglstÃ¥dt) is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, Germany. ... Kaufbeuren is an independent city in the Regierungsbezirk of Schwaben, southern Bavaria. ... Kempten is the capital of Allgäu, a region in the south-west of Bavaria, Germany. ... Landshut is a city in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany both belonging to Eastern and Southern Bavaria. ... Memmingen is a town in the Bavarian administrative region Swabia in Germany. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Nürnberg redirects here. ... Passau (Latin: Batavis or Batavia, also Passavium; Italian: Passavia; Czech: Pasov) is a town in Niederbayern, Eastern Bavaria, Germany, known also as the Dreiflüssestadt (City of Three Rivers), because the Danube River is joined there by the Inn River from the South, and the Ilz River coming out of... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ... Rosenheim is a town in Bavaria (Germany) on the river Inn, at 47°51′ N 12°8′ E. It is seat of administration of the district of Rosenheim, but is not a part of it. ... Schwabach is a German city of about 40,000 inhabitants near Nuremberg in the middle of the Franconia district of Bavaria. ... Schweinfurt is a city in the Unterfranken region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the canalized Main, which is here spanned by several bridges, 27 km North-East of Würzburg. ... Straubing is an independent city in Niederbayern. ... Weiden in der Oberpfalz (official name: Weiden i. ... Würzburg Residenz. ...

Gemeinden (municipalities)

The 71 administrative districts are on the lowest level divided into 2031 municipalities (called Gemeinden, singular Gemeinde). Together with the 25 independent cities (which are in effect municipalities independent of Landkreis administrations), there are a total of 2056 municipalities in Bavaria. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ...


In 44 of the 71 administrative districts, there are a total of 215 unincorporated areas (as of January 1, 2005, called gemeindefreie Gebiete, singular gemeindefreies Gebiet), not belonging to any municipality, all uninhabited, mostly forested areas, but also four lakes (Chiemsee -without islands, Starnberger See -without island Roseninsel, Ammersee, which are the three largest lakes of Bavaria, and Waginger See). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Chiemsee is a freshwater lake in Bavaria, Germany, between the towns of Rosenheim and Salzburg. ... Lake Starnberg (German: Starnberger See) in southern Bavaria is one of Germanys largest lakes and a popular recreation area for the nearby city of Munich. ... Ammersee with German Alps Ammersee (Lake Ammer) is a lake in upper Bavaria, Germany located in the southwest of Munich between the towns of Herrsching and Diessen. ...


Historical buildings

Miscellaneous

Famous people

There are many famous people who were born or lived in present-day Bavaria:

Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Damasus II (died August 9, 1048), born Poppo, Pope from July 17, 1048 to August 9, 1048, was the second of the German pontiffs nominated by Emperor Henry III (1039–56). ... Victor II (c. ... Self portrait Hans Holbein (c. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... The Battle of Alexander (1529) Wood, 158,4 x 120,3 cm Alte Pinakothek, Munich Albrecht Altdorfer (c. ... Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553) Lucas Cranach the Younger (1515-1586) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Poor Poet, 1839. ... Franz von Lenbach, Portrait of his daughter Marion. ... Franz von Stuck, self-portrait. ... Franz Marc (February 8, 1880 – March 4, 1916) was one of the principal painters and printmakers of the German Expressionist movement. ... “Klee” redirects here. ... Composer Orlande de Lassus Orlande de Lassus (also Orlandus Lassus, Orlando di Lasso, Roland de Lassus, or Roland Delattre) (1532 (possibly 1530) – June 14, 1594) was a Franco-Flemish composer of late Renaissance music. ... Gluck redirects here. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Carl Orff Carl Orff (July 10, 1895 – March 29, 1982) was a 20th-century German composer, most famous for Carmina Burana (1937). ... Theobald Boehm (April 9, 1794- November 25, 1881) was a Bavarian inventor and musician, who perfected the modern flute and its improved fingering system, which has not changed since his time. ... â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... Klaus Doldinger 2004 Klaus Doldinger (born 12 May 1936) is a German saxophonist, especially well-known for jazz and as a composer of film music. ... Barbara Dennerlein (born 25 September 1964 in Munich, Germany), is a jazz musician and Hammond organist whose 1980s recordings helped to revive interest in the Hammond organ. ... Hans Sachs (November 5, 1494 - January 19, 1576) was a German meistersinger (mastersinger), poet, playwright and shoemaker. ... Jean Paul Jean Paul (March 21, 1763 – November 14, 1825), born Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, was a famous German humorist. ... Benjamin Franklin Wedekind (July 24, 1864 - March 9, 1918) was a German playwright. ... Christian Morgenstern (May 6, 1871–March 31, 1914) was a German author and poet. ... Oskar Maria Graf (born July 22, 1894 in Berg, Bavaria ; died June 28, 1967 in New York) was a German author. ... {{dy justified his choice of form, and from about 1929 on he began to interpret its penchant for contradictions, much as had Eisenstein, in terms of the dialectic. ... Lion Feuchtwanger (pseudonym: J.L. Wetcheek) (7 July 1884 - 21 December 1958) was a German-Jewish novelist who was imprisoned in a French internment camp in Les Milles and later escaped to Los Angeles with the help of his wife, Marta. ... For other persons named Thomas Mann, see Thomas Mann (disambiguation). ... Klaus Mann at 12 years old. ... Golo Mann (27 March 1909 - 7 April 1994 Leverkusen), was the third child of the novelist Thomas Mann. ... “Planck” redirects here. ... Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (in English: William Conrad Roentgen) (March 27, 1845 – February 10, 1923) was a German physicist, of the University of Würzburg, who, on November 8, 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as x-rays or Röntgen Rays, an achievement... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... Adam RIES Adam Ries (1492-March 30, 1559) was a German mathematician. ... Joseph von Fraunhofer Joseph von Fraunhofer (March 6, 1787 – June 7, 1826) was a German physicist. ... Georg Simon Ohm (March 16, 1789 - July 6, 1854) was a German physicist. ... Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde (born 11 June 1842 in Berndorf (Oberfranken); died 16 November 1934 in Munich) was a German engineer who developed the basics of modern refrigeration technology. ... Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer (born January 31, 1929) is a German physicist who studied gamma rays from nuclear transitions. ... Robert Huber is a German biochemist and Nobel laureate. ... Martin Behaim (October 6, 1459 – July 29, 1507), or Behem, was a navigator and geographer of great pretensions. ... Alternative meaning: Claude L vi-Strauss, the French anthropologist. ... This article is about Rudolf Diesel, the German inventor. ... Max Joseph von Pettenkofer (1818-1901), Bavarian chemist and hygienist, was born on the 3rd of December 1818 at Lichtenheim, near Neuburg. ... Sebastian Kneipp (May 17, 1821, Stephansried, Germany – June 17, 1897 in Wörishofen) was a Bavarian priest and one of the founders of the Naturopathic medicine movement. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Aloysius Alois Alzheimer (14 June 1864, Marktbreit, Bavaria - 19 December 1915, Breslau, now WrocÅ‚aw, Poland) was a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist and a colleague of Emil Kraepelin. ... Franz Anton Beckenbauer (born September 11, 1945) is a German football coach, manager, and former player, nicknamed der Kaiser (the emperor) because of his elegant style, his leadership qualities, his first name Franz (reminiscent of the Austrian emperors), and his dominance on the football pitch. ... Josef Sepp Maier (born February 28, 1944, Metten, Germany) is a former professional football goalkeeper. ... Gerd Müller (IPA—German: ) (born November 3, 1945 in Nördlingen) is a former West German football player. ... Paul Breitner (born September 5, 1951 in Kolbermoor, West Germany) was a German football player. ... Klaus Augenthaler (born September 26, 1957 in Fürstenzell, Germany) is a former football player and now manager. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...   (born August 1, 1984 in Kolbermoor, Bavaria, Germany) is a professional footballer from Germany who currently plays in midfield for Bayern Munich. ... Philipp Lahm (born November 11, 1983 in Munich, Bavaria) is a German footballer who currently plays as a defender for Bayern Munich and Germany at Euro 2004 and the 2006 FIFA World Cup. ... Werner Stocker as Darius in the highlander series Werner Stocker as Darius in the highlander series Werner Stocker (b. ... The Silence of the Lambs is a 1991 Academy Award-winning film directed by Jonathan Demme and starring Jodie Foster and Anthony Hopkins. ... Hannibal is a 2001 film directed by Ridley Scott, adapted from the Thomas Harris novel of the same name. ... Rainer Werner Fassbinder (May 31, 1945 – June 10, 1982) was a German movie director, screenwriter and actor. ... Joseph Vilsmaier (1939 in Munich) is a German film director. ... Werner Herzog (born Werner Stipetić on September 5, 1942) is a critically and internationally acclaimed German film director, screenwriter, actor, and opera director. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Hitler redirects here. ... Memorial for the smith at Sendling (Munich), Lindwurmstraße opposite of Old Sendling Church St. ... Kaspar Hauser Kaspar Hauser or Casparus Hauser (April 30, 1812–December 17, 1833) was a mysterious foundling in 19th century Germany with suspected ties to the royal house of Baden. ...

Company names

The motorcycle and automobile makers BMW (Bayerische Motoren-Werke, or Bavarian Motor Works) and Audi, Grundig (consumer electronics), Siemens (electricity, telephones, informatics, medical instruments), Adidas and Puma have (or had) a Bavarian industrial base. For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, and has been an almost wholly owned (99. ... Grundig AG was a West German manufacturer of consumer electronics for home entertainment. ... Siemens redirects here. ... This article is about the company. ... For other uses, see Puma (disambiguation). ...


The iconic, opening scenes of the 1965 Rodgers and Hammerstein film musical The Sound of Music were shot in the Bavarian Alps.


A famous annual festival is called Oktoberfest or October Festival. It was first celebrated in 1810 as a public feast when the Bavarian crown prince Ludwig married Therese von Sachsen-Hildburghausen. The celebration originally was designed as a feast for all members of the Bavarian Nation, who should celebrate the country and the crown. It only turned to a pure matter of boozing in the 20th century and is nowadays attended rather by tourists than by Bavarians. Munich locals often despise it. It is celebrated during the two weeks leading up to the first Sunday in October. For the beer, see Pale lager#Oktoberfestbier. ...


Bavaria has also given its name to a major Dutch brewery, Bavaria Brewery. Bavaria Beer Logo Bavaria is a Dutch brewery founded in 1719 by Laurentius Moorees in Lieshout, North Brabant. ...


The meaning of the coat of arms

Modern coat of arms was designed by Eduard Ege, following heraldic traditions in 1946.

  • The Golden Lion: At the dexter chief, sable, a lion rampant Or, armed and langued gules. This represents the administrative region of Upper Palatinate.
  • The "Franconian Rake": At the sinister chief, per fess dancetty, gules and argent. This represents the administrative regions of Upper, Middle and Lower Franconia.
  • The Blue Panther: At the dexter base, argent, a panther rampant azure, armed Or and langued gules. This represents the regions of Lower and Upper Bavaria.
  • The Three Lions: At the sinister base, Or, three lions passant guardant sable, armed and langued gules. This represents Swabia.
  • The White-And-Blue Heart-Shaped Shield: The heart-shaped shield of white and blue fusils askance was originally the coat of arms of the Counts of Bogen, adopted in 1247 by the Wittelsbachs House. The white-and-blue fusils are indisputably the emblem of Bavaria and the heart-shaped shield today symbolizes Bavaria as a whole. Along with the People's Crown, it is officially used as the Minor Coat of Arms.
  • The People's Crown: The four coat fields with the heart-shaped shield in the centre are crowned with a golden band with precious stones decorated with five ornamental leaves. This crown appeared for the first time in the coat of arms in 1923 to symbolize sovereignty of the people after the dropping out of the royal crown.
Arms of the Bavarian electorate 1753:
Arms of the Kingdom of Bavaria 1807:
Arms of the Kingdom of Bavaria 1835:

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 513 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (525 × 613 pixel, file size: 125 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Arms of the Kingdom of Bavaria 1807 Drawn by Theo van der Zalm I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 487 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (565 × 695 pixel, file size: 132 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Arms of the Kingdom of Bavaria 1835 Drawn by Theo van der Zalm I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute...

Bavarian "citizenship"

The fact that unlike all other German Länder, Bavaria's constitution provides for Bavarian citizenship is often mentioned as an indicator for Bavarian distinctiveness. Some Bavarians are keen to emphasize that - in accordance with the generous indication of the constitution - they regard everyone “Citizen” redirects here. ...

  • born in Bavaria,
  • born to a Bavarian parent,
  • adopted by a Bavarian as a child,
  • married to a Bavarian, or
  • naturalized in Bavaria,

as a fellow-Bavarian; some of those falling under this untechnical definition express pride in being "Bavarian". However, state legislation regulating citizenship procedures has never been enacted, the constitution itself provides that all Germans enjoy the same rights as Bavarian citizens, and no office issues certificates concerning a "Bavarian" citizenship. Thus, the notion of citizenship rather bears a folkloristic, but not really political meaning.


However, many of those born in Bavarian clearly divide between born Bavarians and people that only moved to Bavaria. The nickname for all those who came to Bavaria is "Zuagroaste" ("those who have traveled here").


Many people in the northern part of Bavaria see themselves as Franconians and do therefore not like to be called "Bavarians". They have a separate dialect and don't wear traditional Bavarian clothing.


German-Bavarian relations

It is a common joke in Germany that Bavaria is not part of Germany. In fact a minority seriously agrees with this notion; the Bayernpartei (Bavaria Party) advocates Bavarian independence from Germany. It is important to note that Bavaria was the only state to reject the West German constitution in 1949. However this has had no consequences on its implementation. Furthermore, many NGOs (non-governmental organizations) have a German and a dedicated Bavarian branch. For example the Red Cross: BRK (Bayerisches Rotes Kreuz) in Bavaria and DRK (Deutsches Rotes Kreuz) in the rest of Germany. The main disintegrated factor might seem to be the fact that Bavaria has its very own political party representing the free state in the Bundestag. However, this party always cooperates with CDU (Christian Democratic Union), forming factions and building up the government with it. Thus, the existence of a dedicated party is not necessarily a disintegrating factor and is rather seen as a sign for political diversity in Germany. Bavaria fielded a border police force, much like the Federal German Grenzschutz, during the Cold War. The Bavaria Party (German: Bayernpartei) is a political party in the state of Germany. ... // The Basic Law (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution[1] of modern Germany. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups (as of September 18, 2005 elections) Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226), Social Democratic Party of Germany (222), Free Democratic Party (61), The Left Party. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ...


Population and area

Administrative Region Population (2005) Area (km²) No. municipalities
Lower Bavaria 1,196,923 9.6% 10,330 14.6% 258 12.5%
Lower Franconia 1,341,481 10.8% 8,531 12.1% 308 15.0%
Upper Franconia 1,101,390 8.8% 7,231 10.2% 214 10.4%
Middle Franconia 1,712,275 13.7% 7,245 10.3% 210 10.2%
Upper Palatinate 1,089,543 8.7% 9,691 13.7% 226 11.0%
Swabia 1,788,919 14.3% 9,992 14.2% 340 16.5%
Upper Bavaria 4,238,195 33.8% 17,530 24.8% 500 24.3%
Total 12,468,726 100.0% 70,549 100.0% 2,056 100.0%

Lower Bavaria (German Niederbayern) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria. ... Unterfranken (Lower Franconia) is one of the three administrative regions of Franconia in Bavaria (seven regions), Germany (32 regions). ... Oberfranken (Upper Franconia) is one of the three administrative regions of Franconia in Bavaria, Germany. ... Mittelfranken (Middle Franconia) is one of the three administrative regions of Franconia in Bavaria, Germany. ... The Upper Palatinate (Oberpfalz) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria. ... Swabia (German: Schwaben) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the south-west of Bavaria. ... Oberbayern (Upper Bavaria) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the south of Bavaria, around the city Munich. ...

See also

List of rulers of Bavaria
List of Premiers of Bavaria
Former countries in Europe after 1815
Extensive pictures of Bavaria in addition to those shown below are linked from in Category:Bavaria, where they are organized (predominantly) by locale.

The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria: // Dukes of Bavaria, 548-1623 Agilolfing Dynasty (see also Bavarii) ca. ... This is a list of the men who have served in the capacity of Prime Minister or equivalent office in Bavaria from the mid-18th century to the present: Count Franz Joseph von Berchem 1745-1777 Count Matthäus von Vieregg 1777-1799 Count Maximilian Joseph von Montgelas 1799-1817... This article gives an overview of countries (including puppet-countries) that existed in Europe after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Bavaria

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

References

  1. ^ State population. Portal of the Federal Statistics Office Germany. Retrieved on 2007-04-25.
  2. ^ http://www.leavenworth.org/

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Kingdom of Bavaria (3882 words)
Bavaria from the south are the Iller, a stream rich in fish, the Lech, the Isar, and the Inn; from the north its tributaries are the Wörnitz, the Altmühl, the Regen, and the Vils.
Bavaria varies according to the province in question; the races that now live peacefully together under the rule of the Wittelsbach dynasty were once constantly engaged in bloody feuds.
Bavaria no longer had native-born rulers but Saxons, Franconians, and members of the Welf family who ruled as vassals of the king with the title of duke.
Bavaria. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1297 words)
The largest state of Germany, Bavaria is bordered by the Czech Republic on the east, by Austria on the southeast and south, by Baden-Württemberg on the west, by Hesse on the northwest, and by Thuringia and Saxony on the north.
Bavaria is divided into seven administrative districts: Upper and Lower Bavaria; Upper, Middle, and Lower Franconia; Swabia; and the Upper Palatinate.
Bavaria was overrun by foreign armies, notably in the War of the Spanish Succession, the War of the Austrian Succession, the War of the Bavarian Succession (1778, by which Bavaria lost the Inn Quarter to Austria), and the French Revolutionary Wars.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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