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Encyclopedia > Bauxite
Bauxite with penny
Bauxite with penny
Bauxite with core of unweathered rock
Bauxite with core of unweathered rock

Bauxite is the most important aluminium ore. It consists largely of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3, boehmite and diaspore AlOOH, together with the iron oxides goethite and hematite, the clay mineral kaolinite and small amounts of anatase TiO2. It was named after the village Les Baux-de-Provence in southern France, where it was first discovered in 1821 by geologist Pierre Berthier. Bauxite is a town located in Saline County, Arkansas. ... Bauxite. ... Bauxite. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1492x968, 1666 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bauxite Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1492x968, 1666 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bauxite Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Aluminum redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Gibbsite, Al(OH)3, is an important ore of aluminium and is one of three minerals that make up the rock bauxite. ... Diaspore is a native aluminium hydroxide, AlO(OH), crystallizing in the orthorhombic system and isomorphous with goethite and manganite. ... For the plant structure, see Spore Diaspore from Slovakia Diaspore is a native aluminium hydroxide, AlO(OH), crystallizing in the orthorhombic system and isomorphous with goethite and manganite. ... Goethite, named after the German polymath Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, is an iron bearing oxide mineral found in soil and other low temperature environments. ... Hematite, also spelled haematite, is the mineral form of Iron(III) oxide, (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. ... Kaolin redirects here. ... Three crystals from Gouveia, Minas Gerais, Brazil Anatase is one of the three mineral forms of titanium dioxide (the other two being brookite and rutile). ... Les Baux de Provence Les Baux de Provence is a small village in the Bouches-du-Rh ne d partement in southern France, in the former province of Provence. ... Pierre Berthier (July 3, 1782 – August 24, 1861) was a French geologist who discovered the properties of Bauxite in 1821 in the village Les Baux de Provence in southern France. ...

Contents

Bauxite information

Lateritic bauxites (silicate bauxites) are distinguished from karst bauxites (carbonate bauxites). The early discovered carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite), where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clays or of clayey dissolution residues of the limestone. Karst topography occurs when a landscape is marked by underground drainage patterns. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dolomite (disambiguation). ... Weathering is the decomposition of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the Earths atmosphere. ...


The lateritic bauxites occur in many countries of the tropical belt. They were formed by lateritization (see laterite) of various silicate rocks such as granite, gneiss, basalt, syenite and shale. Compared with iron-rich laterites, the formation of bauxites demands even more intense weathering conditions with a very good drainage. This enables dissolution of kaolinite and precipitation of gibbsite. Zones with highest aluminum content are frequently located below a ferruginous surface layer. The aluminum hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is almost exclusively gibbsite. Cutting of laterite brickstones, Angadipuram, India Laterite is a surface formation in tropical areas which is enriched in iron and aluminium and develops by intensive and long lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Gneiss Gneiss (IPA: ) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks, which most commonly forms on ancient seabeds. ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... Syenite leucocratic variety of nepheline syenite from Sweden (särnaite). ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... // Ferruginous redirects here. ...


Production trends

Bauxite output in 2005

In 2005, Australia was the top producer of bauxite with almost one-third world share, followed by Guinea, Brazil and China, reports the British Geological Survey. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,425 × 625 pixels, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of bauxite output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Australia - 59,959,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,425 × 625 pixels, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of bauxite output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Australia - 59,959,000 tonnes). ... The British Geological Survey is a publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research. ...

(x1000 tonne, Numbers for 2001 estimated)
Country Mine production Reserves Reserve base
2000 2001
Australia 53,800 53,500 3,800,000 7,400,000
Brazil 14,000 14,000 3,900,000 4,900,000
People's Republic of China 9,000 9,200 720,000 2,000,000
Guinea 15,000 15,000 7,400,000 8,600,000
Guyana 2,400 2,000 700,000 900,000
India 7,370 8,000 770,000 1,400,000
Jamaica 11,100 13,000 2,000,000 2,500,000
Russia 4,200 4,000 200,000 250,000
Suriname 3,610 4,000 580,000 600,000
United States NA NA 20,000 40,000
Venezuela 4,200 4,400 320,000 350,000
Other countries 10,800 10,200 4,100,000 4,700,000
World total (rounded) 135,000 137,000 24,000,000 34,000,000

This article is about the metric tonne. ...

Processing

Bauxite is strip mined (surface mining) because it is found at the surface, with little or no overburden. Approximately 95% of the world's bauxite production is processed into aluminium. Bauxites are typically classified according to their intended commercial application: metallurgical, abrasive, cement, chemical and refractory. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Bauxites are heated in pressure vessels with sodium hydroxide solution at 150-200 °C through which aluminum is dissolved as aluminate (Bayer process). After separation of ferruginous residue (red mud) by filtering, pure gibbsite is precipitated when the liquor is cooled and seeded with fine grained aluminum hydroxide. Gibbsite is converted into aluminium oxide by heating. This is molten at approx. 1000 °C by addition of cryolite as a flux and reduced to metallic aluminum by a highly energy-consumptive electrolytic process (the Hall-Héroult process). The Bayer process is the principal industrial means of producing alumina, itself important in the Hall-Héroult process for producing aluminum. ... Alumina redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with sodium hexafluoroaluminate. ... An electrolyte is a substance which dissociates free ions when dissolved (or molten), to produce an electrically conductive medium. ... The Hall-Héroult process is the major industrial process for the production of aluminium. ...


Supply

According to The Recycler's Handbook By The EarthWorks Group (1990), Earth's bauxite supplies will run out in 200-300 years.


Aluminocrete or Alcrete

Aluminocrete or Alcrete[1] is a type of soil deposit, rich in aluminum. It is generally found in tropical regions, where the parent material is rapidly weathered because of high rainfall and high ambient temperatures. In these conditions, more mobile elements are leached out of the soil, leaving the relatively insoluble Al3+ ions behind. A hard, nearly impermeable crust, called a duricrust, may form on or near the surface of such soils. Duricrusts of aluminum-rich soils are called alcrete, or aluminocrete. Alcrete deposits with extremely high concentrations of aluminum are known as bauxite. SOiL was originally a five piece rock band from Chicago, Illinois, United States, founded by Shaun Glass, Tim King, Tom Schofield, and Adam Zadel. ... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... Weathering is the decomposition of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the Earths atmosphere. ... Duricrust refers to a thin hard layer on or near the surface of soil, Usually a few millimeters to a few centimeters thick. ...


See also

Aluminium in Africa is mined primarily in Guinea, Mozambique and Ghana. ...

References

  1. ^ Soils at James Cook University, Cairns Qld
  • Bardossy, G. (1882): Karst Bauxites. Bauxite deposits on carbonate rocks. Elsevier Sci. Publ. 441 p.
  • Bardossy, G. and Aleva, G.J.J. (1990): Lateritic Bauxites. Developments in Economic Geology 27, Elsevier Sci. Publ. 624 p. ISBN 0-444-98811-4

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Olympus MIC-D: Darkfield Gallery - Bauxite Ore (472 words)
Commonly, bauxite is composed of the aluminum-containing minerals gibbsite (or hydragillite), boehmite, and diaspore; iron-containing minerals hematite, goethite, magnetite, siderite, and ilmenite; titanium-containing minerals anatase, rutile, and brookite; and the silicon-containing minerals halloysite, kaolinite, and quartz.
Bauxites contain hydrated forms of aluminum oxide, which vary in the amount of water of hydration, and are usually claylike and earthy.
Bauxite forms most commonly in deeply weathered rocks as a hydrated aluminum oxide ore. In some locations, the parent material is basalt or other volcanic rocks.
Bauxite - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (312 words)
Bauxite is a naturally occurring, heterogeneous material composed primarily of one or more aluminium hydroxide minerals, plus various mixtures of silica, iron oxide, titania, aluminium silicates, and other impurities in minor or trace amounts.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock produced by in situ chemical weathering typically under tropical to subtropical climate conditions.
The principal aluminium hydroxide minerals found in varying proportions with bauxites are gibbsite and the polymorphs boehmite and diaspore.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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