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Encyclopedia > Bauhaus
Typography by Herbert Bayer above the entrance to the workshop block of the Bauhaus, Dessau, 2005.
Typography by Herbert Bayer above the entrance to the workshop block of the Bauhaus, Dessau, 2005.

Bauhaus  "House of Building" or "Building School") is the common term for the Staatliches Bauhaus , a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught. It operated from 1919 to 1933. The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar. In spite of its name, and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department for the first several years of its existence. Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design.[1] The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design and typography. The school existed in three German cities (Weimar from 1919 to 1925, Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and Berlin from 1932 to 1933), under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1927, Hannes Meyer from 1927 to 1930 and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 to 1933, when the school was closed by the Nazi regime. The changes of venue and leadership resulted in a constant shifting of focus, technique, instructors, and politics. When the school moved from Weimar to Dessau, for instance, although it had been an important revenue source, the pottery shop was discontinued. When Mies took over the school in 1930, he transformed it into a private school, and would not allow any supporters of Hannes Meyer to attend it. Bauhaus were an English rock band formed in Northampton in 1978. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixels Full resolution (1800 × 1215 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixels Full resolution (1800 × 1215 pixel, file size: 1. ... Herbert Bayers 1925 experimental universal typeface combined upper and lowercase characters into a single character set. ... Image File history File links Bauhaus. ... Image File history File links Staaatliches_Bauhaus. ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Graphics are often utilitarian and anonymous,[1] as these pictographs from the US National Park Service illustrate. ... It has been suggested that Interior decoration be merged into this article or section. ... Example of industrial design item - hanger chair Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ... A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ... Dessau is a town in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony-Anhalt. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ... Hannes Meyer Hannes Meyer (November 18, 1889–July 19, 1954) was a Swiss architect and second director of the Bauhaus in Dessau from 1928 to 1930. ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies (March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German architect. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...

Contents

Bauhaus and German modernism

For more details on this topic, see New Objectivity (architecture).
The Bauhaus
The Bauhaus

Defeat in World War One, the fall of the German monarchy and the abolition of censorship under the new, liberal Weimar Republic allowed an upsurge of radical experimentation in all the arts, previously suppressed by the old regime. Many Germans of left-wing views were influenced by the cultural experimentation that followed the Russian Revolution, such as constructivism. Such influences can be overstated: Gropius himself did not share these radical views, and said that Bauhaus was entirely unpolitical.[2] Just as important was the influence of the 19th century English designer William Morris, who had argued that art should meet the needs of society and that there should be no distinction between form and function.[3]. Thus the Bauhaus style, also known as the International Style, was marked by the absence of ornamentation and by harmony between the function of an object or a building and its design. Walter Gropius Bauhaus, Dessau For the literary and artistic aspects of this movement, see New Objectivity. ... Image File history File links From WIKIPEDIA.DE. There described as: Bauhaus Dessau, eigenes Foto von 2003, public domain. ... Image File history File links From WIKIPEDIA.DE. There described as: Bauhaus Dessau, eigenes Foto von 2003, public domain. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Hohenzollern family originated in the area around the city of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... The Russian Revolution (1917) was a series of economic and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Tatlin Tower. ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ... This page is about William Morris, the writer, designer and socialist. ... International style can refer to International style in ballroom dancing - see ballroom dance; International style in architecture - see international style. ...


The most important influence on Bauhaus was however modernism, a cultural movement whose origins lay as far back as the 1880s, and which had already made its presence felt in Germany before the World War, despite the prevailing conservatism. The design innovations commonly associated with Gropius and the Bauhaus - the radically simplified forms, the rationality and functionality, and the idea that mass-production was reconcilable with the individual artistic spirit - were already partly developed in Germany before the Bauhaus was founded. The German national designers' organization Deutscher Werkbund was formed in 1907 by Hermann Muthesius to harness the new potentials of mass production, with a mind towards preserving Germany's economic competitiveness with England. In its first seven years, the Werkbund came to be regarded as the authoritative body on questions of design in Germany, and was copied in other countries. Many fundamental questions of craftsmanship vs. mass production, the relationship of usefulness and beauty, the practical purpose of formal beauty in a commonplace object, and whether or not a single proper form could exist, were argued out among its 1870 members (by 1914). For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ... The Deutscher Werkbund (German Work Federation) was a German association of architects, designers and industrialists, an important precursor to the Bauhaus. ... Adam Gottlieb Hermann Muthesius (April 20, 1861 - October 29, 1927), known as Hermann Muthesius, was a German architect, author and diplomat, perhaps best known for promoting many of the ideas of the English Arts and Crafts movement within Germany and for his subsequent influence on early pioneers of German architectural...


The entire movement of German architectural modernism was known as Neues Bauen. Beginning in June 1907, Peter Behrens' pioneering industrial design work for the German electrical company AEG successfully integrated art and mass production on a large scale. He designed consumer products, standardized parts, created clean-lined designs for the company's graphics, developed a consistent corporate identity, built the modernist landmark AEG Turbine Factory, and made full use of newly developed materials such as poured concrete and exposed steel. Behrens was a founding member of the Werkbund, and both Walter Gropius and Adolf Meier worked for him in this period. Walter Gropius Bauhaus, Dessau For the literary and artistic aspects of this movement, see New Objectivity. ... Peter Behrens (April 14, 1868–February 27, 1940) was a German architect and designer. ... Example of industrial design item - hanger chair Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ... AEG volt-meter designed by Peter Behrens AEG (Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft, General Electricity Company) was a German producer of electronics and electrical equipment. ... The Deutscher Werkbund (German Work Federation) was a German association of architects, designers and industrialists, an important organization in the history of architectural modernism. ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ...


The Bauhaus was founded at a time when the German zeitgeist ("spirit of the times") had turned from emotional Expressionism to the matter-of-fact New Objectivity. An entire group of working architects, including Erich Mendelsohn, Bruno Taut and Hans Poelzig, turned away from fanciful experimentation, and turned toward rational, functional, sometimes standardized building. Beyond the Bauhaus, many other significant German-speaking architects in the 1920s responded to the same aesthetic issues and material possibilities as the school. They also responded to the promise of a "minimal dwelling" written into the new Weimar Constitution. Ernst May, Bruno Taut, and Martin Wagner, among others, built large housing blocks in Frankfurt and Berlin. The acceptance of modernist design into everyday life was the subject of publicity campaigns, well-attended public exhibitions like the Weissenhof Estate, films, and sometimes fierce public debate. This article is about the German word. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... The New Objectivity, or neue Sachlichkeit (new matter-of-factness), was an art movement which arose in Germany during the 1920s as an outgrowth of, and in opposition to, expressionism. ... Translation in progress Erich Mendelsohn (21 March 1887 – 15 September 1953) was a German Jewish architect, known for his expressionist buildings in the 1920s, the first in their style. ... Bruno Julius Florian Taut (May 4, 1880, Konigsberg, Germany - December 24, 1938, Istanbul), was a prolific German architect, urban planner and author active in the Weimar period. ... Hans Poelzig (30 April 1869 Berlin – June 14, 1936 Berlin) was a German architect, painter and set designer active in the Weimar years. ... The Weimar Constitution in booklet form. ... Ernst May (July 27, 1886, Frankfurt am Main—September 11, 1970, Hamburg) was a German architect and city planner. ... Hepcats #9 Martin Wagner (born April 27, 1966) is an artist, cartoonist, and filmmaker currently living in Austin, Texas. ... Postcard showing the Weissenhof Estate, with index of contributing architects The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1927) The Weissenhof Estate (German: Weißenhofsiedlung) is a estate of working class housing which was built in Stuttgart in 1927. ...


History of the Bauhaus

Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Dessau*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Bauhaus Dessau Workshop
State Party Flag of Germany Germany
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv, vi
Reference 729
Region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1996  (20th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (965x1639, 611 KB) Bauhaus-Dessau Ateliergebäude (Glasecke) own photograph 2005. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

Weimar

The school was founded by Gropius in Weimar in 1919 as a merger of the Grand Ducal School of Arts and Crafts and the Weimar Academy of Fine Art. Its roots lay in the arts and crafts school founded by the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach in 1906 and directed by Belgian Art Nouveau architect Henry van de Velde.[4] When van de Velde was forced to resign in 1915 because he was Belgian, he suggested Gropius, Hermann Obrist and August Endell as possible successors. In 1919, after delays caused by the destruction of World War I and a lengthy debate over the ideological and socio-economic reconciliation of the fine arts and the applied arts (an issue which remained a defining one throughout the school's existence), Gropius was made the director of a new institution integrating the two called the Bauhaus.[5] In the pamphlet for an April 1919 exhibition entitled "Exhibition of Unknown Architects", Gropius proclaimed his goal as being "to create a new guild of craftsmen, without the class distinctions which raise an arrogant barrier between craftsman and artist." The early intention was for the Bauhaus to be a combined architecture school, crafts school, and academy of the arts. In 1919 Swiss painter Johannes Itten, German-American painter Lyonel Feininger, and German sculptor Gerhard Marcks, along with Gropius, comprised the faculty of the Bauhaus. By the following year their ranks had grown to include German painter, sculptor and designer Oskar Schlemmer and Swiss painter Paul Klee, joined in 1922 by Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky. A tumultuous year at the Bauhaus, 1922 also saw the move of Dutch painter Theo van Doesburg to Weimar to promote De Stijl ("The Style"), and a visit to the Bauhaus by Russian Constructivist artist and architect El Lissitzky [6] William Ernest, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Wilhelm Ernst Karl Alexander Frederick Heinrich Bernhard Albert Georg Hermann, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (10 June 1876 - 24 April 1923) was the last Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... Henry Van de Velde (3 April 1863 – 15 October 1957) was a Belgian painter, architect and interior designer. ... Hermann Obrist (born May 23, 1863 at Kilchberg (near Zürich), Switzerland; died February 26, 1927, Munich, Germany) was a German sculptor of the Jugendstil (Art Nouveau) movement. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Fine art refers to arts that are concerned with beauty or which appealed to taste (SOED 1991). ... Example of a cup figuring a tortise. ... Johannes Itten (November 11, 1888 - May 27, 1967) was a Swiss painter, designer teacher, writer and theorist associated with the Bauhaus school (Staatliches Bauhaus). ... Lyonel Charles Feininger (July 17, 1871 - January 13, 1956); was a German-American painter and caricaturist. ... Gerhard Marcks (born 18 February 1889 in Berlin, died 13 November 1981 in Burgbrohl, Eifel) was a German sculptor, famous for his woodcuts, drawings, lithographs and ceramics. ... Oskar Schlemmer (September 4, 1888 – April 13, 1943) was a German painter, sculptor and designer associated with the Bauhaus school. ... “Klee” redirects here. ... Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name pronounced as [vassi:li]) (December 16 [O.S. December 4] 1866 – December 13, 1944) was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. ... Counter-Composition V (1924) Theo van Doesburg (Utrecht, August 30, 1883 – Davos, March 7, 1931) was a Dutch artist, practicing in painting, writing, poetry and architecture. ... De Stijl redirects here. ...   (Лазарь Маркович Лисицкий, November 23, 1890 – December 30, 1941), better known as El Lissitzky (Эль Лисицкий), was a Russian artist, designer, photographer, teacher, typographer, and architect. ...


From 1919 to 1922 the school was shaped by the pedagogical and aesthetic ideas of Johannes Itten, who taught the Vorkurs or 'preliminary course' that was the introduction to the ideas of the Bauhaus.[7] Itten was heavily influenced in his teaching by the ideas of Franz Cižek and Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel an in respect to aesthetics by the work of the Blaue Reiter group in Munich as well as the work of Austrian Expressionist Oskar Kokoschka. The influence of German Expressionism favored by Itten was analogous in some ways to the fine arts side of the ongoing debate. This influence culminated with the addition of Der Blaue Reiter founding member Wassily Kandinsky to the faculty and ended when Itten resigned in late 1922. Itten was replaced by the Hungarian designer László Moholy-Nagy, who rewrote the Vorkurs with a leaning towards the New Objectivity favored by Gropius, which was analogous in some ways to the applied arts side of the debate. Although this shift was an important one, it did not represent a radical break from the past so much as a small step in a broader, more gradual socio-econimic movement that had been going on at least since 1907 when van de Velde had argued for a craft basis for design while Hermann Muthesius had begun implementing industrial prototypes.[8] Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel (1782-1852) was a German educationalist. ... Aesthetics is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... Cover of Der Blaue Reiter almanac. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Oskar Kokoschka (March 1, 1886-February 22, 1980) was an Austrian artist and poet of Czech origin, best known for his intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Adam Gottlieb Hermann Muthesius (April 20, 1861 - October 29, 1927), known as Hermann Muthesius, was a German architect, author and diplomat, perhaps best known for promoting many of the ideas of the English Arts and Crafts movement within Germany and for his subsequent influence on early pioneers of German architectural...


Gropius was not necessarily against Expressionism, and in fact himself in the same 1919 pamphlet proclaiming this "new guild of craftsmen, with out the class snobbery," described "painting and sculpture rising to heaven out of the hands of a million craftsmen, the crystal symbol of the new faith of the future." By 1923 however, Gropius was no longer evoking images of soaring Romanesque cathedrals and the craft-driven aesthetic of the "Völkisch movement," instead declaring "we want an architecture adapted to our world of machines, radios and fast cars."[9] Gropius argued that a new period of history had begun with the end of the war. He wanted to create a new architectural style to reflect this new era. His style in architecture and consumer goods was to be functional, cheap and consistent with mass production. To these ends, Gropius wanted to reunite art and craft to arrive at high-end functional products with artistic pretensions. The Bauhaus issued a magazine called Bauhaus and a series of books called "Bauhausbücher". Since the country lacked the quantity of raw materials that the United States and Great Britain had, they had to rely on the proficiency of its skilled labor force and ability to export innovative and high quality goods. Therefore designers were needed and so was a new type of art education. The school’s philosophy stated that the artist should be trained to work with the industry. The völkisch movement is the German interpretation of the Populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the organic. ...


Weimar was in the German state of Thuringia, and the Bauhaus school received state support from the Social Democrat-controlled Thuringian state government. In February 1924, the Social Democrats lost control of the state parliament to the Nationalists. The Ministry of Education placed the staff on six-month contracts and cut the school's funding in half. They had already been looking for alternative sources of funding. Together with the Council of Masters Gropius announced the closure of the Bauhaus from the end of March 1925. After the Bauhaus moved to Dessau, a school of industrial design with teachers and staff less antagonistic to the conservative political regime remained in Weimar. This school was eventually known as the Technical University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, and in 1996 changed its name to Bauhaus University Weimar. The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... SPD redirects here. ... 1924 electoral poster, using the Admiral Tirpitz as a figurehead The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ...


Dessau

Gropius's design for the Dessau facilities was a return to the futuristic Gropius of 1914 that had more in common with the International style lines of the Fagus Factory than the stripped down Neo-classical of the Werkbund pavilion or the Völkisch Sommerfeld House.[10] The Dessau years saw a remarkable change in direction for the school. According to Elaine Hoffman, Gropius had approached the Dutch architect Mart Stam to run the newly-founded architecture program, and when Stam declined the position, Gropius turned to Stam's friend and colleague in the ABC group, Hannes Meyer. Meyer became director when Gropius resigned in February 1928, and brought the Bauhaus its two most significant building commissions, both of which still exist: five apartment buildings in the city of Dessau, and the headquarters of the Federal School of the German Trade Unions (ADGB) in Bernau. Meyer favored measurements and calculations in his presentations to clients, along with the use of off-the-shelf architectural components to reduce costs, and this approach proved attractive to potential clients. The school turned its first profit under his leadership in 1929. The Fagus Factory The Fagus Factory (German: Fagus Fabrik or Fagus Werk) was constructed between 1911 and 1913 (with additions and interiors completed in 1925) in Alfeld on the Leine in Germany. ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... The völkisch movement is the German interpretation of the Populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the organic. ... Mart Stam (1899 - 1986) was a Dutch architect, urban planner, and chair designer. ... Bernau may refer to: Bernau bei Berlin, a town in Brandenburg, Germany Bernau am Chiemsee, a municipality in the district of Rosenheim in Bavaria, Germany Bernau im Schwarzwald, a municipality in Baden-Württemberg, Germany Category: ...


But Meyer also generated a great deal of conflict. As a radical functionalist, he had no patience with the aesthetic program, and forced the resignations of Herbert Bayer, Marcel Breuer, and other longtime instructors. As a vocal Communist, he encouraged the formation of a Communist student organization. In the increasingly dangerous political atmosphere, this became a threat to the existence of the Dessau school. Meyer was also compromised by a sexual scandal involving one of his students, and Gropius fired him in 1930. Herbert Bayers 1925 experimental universal typeface combined upper and lowercase characters into a single character set. ... Marcel Lajos Breuer (May 21, 1902 Pécs, Hungary – July 1, 1981 New York City), architect and furniture designer, was an influential Hungarian-born modernist of Jewish descent. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ...


Berlin

Although neither the Nazi Party nor Hitler himself had a cohesive architectural policy before they came to power in 1933, Nazi writers like Wilhelm Frick and Alfred Rosenberg had already labeled the Bauhaus "un-German" and criticized its modernist styles, deliberately generating public controversy over issues like flat roofs. Increasingly through the early 1930s, they characterized the Bauhaus as a front for Communists and social liberals. Indeed, a number of Communist students loyal to Meyer moved to the Soviet Union when he was fired in 1930. The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Dr. Wilhelm Frick (March 12, 1877 â€“ October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi official. ... Alfred Rosenberg around 1935   (January 12, 1893 Reval (today Tallinn) – October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ...


Even before the Nazis came to power, political pressure on Bauhaus had increased. But the Nazi regime was determined to crack down on what it saw as the foreign, probably Jewish influences of "cosmopolitan modernism." Despite Gropius's protestations that as a war veteran and a patriot his work had no subversive political intent, the Berlin Bauhaus was closed in April 1933. Mies van der Rohe was expelled from Germany. (The closure, and the response of Mies van der Rohe, is fully documented in Elaine Hochman's Architects of Fortune.) Curiously, however, some Bauhaus influences lived on in Nazi Germany. When Hitler's chief engineer, Fritz Todt, began opening the new autobahn (highways) in 1935, many of the bridges and service stations were "bold examples of modernism" - among those submitting designs was Mies van der Rohe.[11] For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Fritz Todt in the uniform of a major general of the Luftwaffe Fritz Todt (September 4, 1891 – February 8, 1942) was an German engineer and senior Nazi figure, the founder of Organisation Todt. ... This article is about the German, Austrian and Swiss road system. ...


Architectural output

Bauhaus building in Chemnitz
Bauhaus building in Chemnitz

The paradox of the early Bauhaus was that, although its manifesto proclaimed that the ultimate aim of all creative activity was building, the school did not offer classes in architecture until 1927. The single most profitable tangible product of the Bauhaus was its wallpaper. During the years under Gropius (1919–1927), he and his partner Adolf Meyer observed no real distinction between the output of his architectural office and the school. So the built output of Bauhaus architecture in these years is the output of Gropius: the Sommerfeld house in Berlin, the Otte house in Berlin, the Auerbach house in Jena, and the competition design for the Chicago Tribune Tower, which brought the school much attention. The definitive 1926 Bauhaus building in Dessau is also attributed to Gropius. Apart from contributions to the 1923 Haus am Horn, student architectural work amounted to unbuilt projects, interior finishes, and craft work like cabinets, chairs and pottery. Chemnitz (Sorbian/Lusatian Kamjenica, 1953-1990 called Karl-Marx-Stadt; Czech: Saská Kamenice) is a city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. ... , For other uses, see Jena (disambiguation). ... The Gothic Tribune Tower in Chicago. ...


In the next two years under Meyer, the architectural focus shifted away from aesthetics and towards functionality. There were major commissions: one by the city of Dessau for five tightly designed "Laubenganghäuser" (apartment buildings with balcony access), which are still in use today, and another for the headquarters of the Federal School of the German Trade Unions (ADGB) in Bernau bei Berlin. Meyer's approach was to research users' needs and scientifically develop the design solution. The German Confederation of Trade Unions (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund, DGB) is an umbrella organisation (sometimes known as a national trade union center) for eight German trade unions, in total representing more than 7 million people (31 December 2004). ... Bernau bei Berlin (English Bernau near Berlin) is a German city in the Barnim district. ...


Mies van der Rohe repudiated Meyer's politics, his supporters, and his architectural approach. As opposed to Gropius's "study of essentials", and Meyer's research into user requirements, Mies advocated a "spatial implementation of intellectual decisions", which effectively meant an adoption of his own aesthetics. Neither Mies nor his Bauhaus students saw any projects built during the 1930s.


The popular conception of the Bauhaus as the source of extensive Weimar-era working housing is not accurate. Two projects, the apartment building project in Dessau and the Törten row housing also in Dessau, fall in that category, but developing worker housing was not the first priority of Gropius nor Mies. It was the Bauhaus contemporaries Bruno Taut, Hans Poelzig and particularly Ernst May, as the city architects of Berlin, Dresden and Frankfurt respectively, who are rightfully credited with the thousands of socially progressive housing units built in Weimar Germany. In Taut's case, the housing may still be seen in south-west Berlin, is still occupied, and can be reached by going easily from the U-Bahn stop Onkel Toms Hütte. This article is about the city in Germany. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Onkel Toms Hütte is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U3. ...


Impact

The Engel House in the White City of Tel Aviv. Architect: Zeev Rechter, 1933. A residential building that has become one of the symbols of Modernist architecture. The first building in Tel Aviv to be built on pilotis.
The Engel House in the White City of Tel Aviv. Architect: Zeev Rechter, 1933. A residential building that has become one of the symbols of Modernist architecture. The first building in Tel Aviv to be built on pilotis.

The Bauhaus had a major impact on art and architecture trends in Western Europe, the United States, Canada and Israel (particularly in White City, Tel Aviv) in the decades following its demise, as many of the artists involved fled, or were exiled, by the Nazi regime. Tel Aviv, in fact, has been named to the list of world heritage sites by the UN due to its abundance of Bauhaus architecture [1][2]; it had some 4000 Bauhaus buildings erected from 1933 on. Pilotis or piers, are supports such as columns, pillars, stilts, by which a building is lifted above what is underneath, whether it is ground or water. ... The White City is the name given to Tel Aviv, Israel, because of the large number of white, or light-colored buildings built there between the 1920s and the 1950s in the Bauhaus or International style. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...


Gropius, Breuer, and Moholy-Nagy re-assembled in England during the mid 1930s to live and work in the Isokon project before the war caught up to them. Both Gropius and Breuer went to teach at the Harvard Graduate School of Design and worked together before their professional split. The Harvard School was enormously influential in America in the late 1920s and early 1930s, producing such students as Philip Johnson, I.M. Pei, Lawrence Halprin and Paul Rudolph, among many others. The London-based Isokon firm was founded in 1929 to design and construct modernist houses and flats, and subsequently furniture and fittings for them. ... The Harvard Graduate School of Design (GSD) is a graduate school at Harvard University offering degrees in Architecture, Landscape Architecture, and Urban Planning and Design. ... 1933 Portrait of Philip Johnson by Carl Van Vechten Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an influential American architect. ... Ieoh Ming Pei (貝聿銘 pinyin Bèi Yùmíng) is a Chinese American architect born in Suzhou, China on April 26, 1917. ... Lawrence Halprin (born July 1, 1916 in New York City) is a prolific and accomplished American landscape architect and educator. ... Orange County Government Center in Goshen, N.Y., designed by Paul Rudolph in 1963; built in 1967. ...


In the late 1930s, Mies van der Rohe re-settled in Chicago, enjoyed the sponsorship of the influential Philip Johnson, and became one of the pre-eminent architects in the world. Moholy-Nagy also went to Chicago and founded the New Bauhaus school under the sponsorship of industrialist and philanthropist Walter Paepcke. Printmaker and painter Werner Drewes was also largely responsible for bringing the Bauhaus aesthetic to America and taught at both Columbia University and Washington University in St. Louis. Herbert Bayer, sponsored by Paepcke, moved to Aspen, Colorado in support of Paepcke's Aspen projects at the Aspen Institute. 1933 Portrait of Philip Johnson by Carl Van Vechten Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an influential American architect. ... New Bauhaus is a school formed by László Moholy-Nagy in Chicago after the demise of the Bauhaus in Germany. ... Walter Paepcke (1896–1960) was a U.S. industrialist and philanthropist prominent in the middle 20th century. ... Werner Drewes, 1940 Drewes, Pencil Sketch Werner Drewes (1899-1985) was a German-American painter and printmaker, born in 1899 in Canig, Germany. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Washington University redirects here. ... Herbert Bayers 1925 experimental universal typeface combined upper and lowercase characters into a single character set. ... The City of Aspen is a Home Rule Municipality that is the most populous city and the county seat of Pitkin County, Colorado, United States. ... The Aspen Institute is a U.S. nonprofit cultural organization founded in 1950 dedicated to fostering enlightened leadership and open-minded dialogue. ...


One of the main objectives of the Bauhaus was to unify art, craft, and technology. The machine was considered a positive element, and therefore industrial and product design were important components. Vorkurs ("initial" or "preliminary course") was taught; this is the modern day "Basic Design" course that has become one of the key foundational courses offered in architectural and design schools across the globe. There was no teaching of history in the school because everything was supposed to be designed and created according to first principles rather than by following precedent.


One of the most important contributions of the Bauhaus is in the field of modern furniture design. The ubiquitous Cantilever chair by Dutch designer Mart Stam, using the tensile properties of steel, and the Wassily Chair designed by Marcel Breuer are two examples. Modern furniture refers to furniture produced from the late 19th century through the present that is influenced by modernism. ... Cantilever chair Cesca by Marcel Breuer Cantilever chair by Mies van der Rohe A cantilever chair has no back legs, relying for support on the Penis properties of the material from which it is made out of condoms. ... Mart Stam (1899 - 1986) was a Dutch architect, urban planner, and chair designer. ... Wassily chair by Marcel Breuer The Wassily Chair, also known as the Model B3 chair, was designed by Marcel Breuer in 1925-26 while he was the head of the cabinet-making workshop at the Bauhaus, in Dessau, Germany. ... Marcel Lajos Breuer (May 21, 1902 Pécs, Hungary – July 1, 1981 New York City), architect and furniture designer, was an influential Hungarian-born modernist of Jewish descent. ...


The physical plant at Dessau survived World War II and was operated as a design school with some architectural facilities by the German Democratic Republic. This included live stage productions in the Bauhaus theater under the name of Bauhausbühne ("Bauhaus Stage"). After German reunification, a reorganized school continued in the same building, with no essential continuity with the Bauhaus under Gropius in the early 1920s [3]. In 1979 Bauhaus-Dessau College started to organize postgraduate programs with participants from all over the world. This effort has been supported by the Bauhaus-Dessau Foundation which was founded in 1974 as a public institution. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ...


American art schools have also rediscovered the Bauhaus school. The Master Craftsman Program at Florida State University bases its artistic philosophy on Bauhaus theory and practice. Florida State University (commonly referred to as Florida State or FSU)[8] is a public research university located in Tallahassee. ...


Many outstanding artists of their time were lecturers at Bauhaus:

Annelise Albers (née Fleischmann) (1899 - May 9, 1994) was a German-American textile artist and printmaker. ... Josef Albers (born March 19, 1888 in Bottrop, Westphalia (Germany) - died March 26, 1976 in New Haven, Connecticut), was a German artist and educator whose work, both in Europe and in the United States, formed the basis of some of the most influential and far-reaching art education programs of... Herbert Bayers 1925 experimental universal typeface combined upper and lowercase characters into a single character set. ... Granite sculpture, Bahnhofstrasse, Zürich Max Bill (December 22, 1908 – December 8, 1994) was a Swiss architect, artist, and designer. ... Ashtray, Bauhaus, designed by Marianne Brandt in 1926 Marianne Brandt (October 1, 1893 – June 18, 1983) was a German painter, sculptor, and designer involved with the Bauhaus beginning in 1923, where her designs for practical metal objects formed an important part of the repertoire. ... Marcel Lajos Breuer (May 21, 1902 Pécs, Hungary – July 1, 1981 New York City), architect and furniture designer, was an influential Hungarian-born modernist of Jewish descent. ... Werner Drewes, 1940 Drewes, Pencil Sketch Werner Drewes (1899-1985) was a German-American painter and printmaker, born in 1899 in Canig, Germany. ... Lyonel Charles Feininger (July 17, 1871 - January 13, 1956); was a German-American painter and caricaturist. ... Naum Gabo KBE (August 5, 1890 - August 23, 1977) was a prominent Russian sculptor in the Constructivism movement and a pioneer of Kinetic Art. ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ... Ludwig Karl Hilberseimer (1885 - 1967) was a German architect and urban planner best known for his ties to the Bauhaus and to Mies van der Rohe. ... Johannes Itten (November 11, 1888 - May 27, 1967) was a Swiss painter, designer teacher, writer and theorist associated with the Bauhaus school (Staatliches Bauhaus). ... Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name pronounced as [vassi:li]) (December 16 [O.S. December 4] 1866 – December 13, 1944) was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. ... “Klee” redirects here. ... Gerhard Marcks (born 18 February 1889 in Berlin, died 13 November 1981 in Burgbrohl, Eifel) was a German sculptor, famous for his woodcuts, drawings, lithographs and ceramics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Piet Mondrian, 1924 Pieter Cornelis (Piet) Mondriaan, after 1912 Mondrian, (pronounced: Dutch IPA: , later IPA: ), (March 7, 1872–February 1, 1944) was a Dutch painter. ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies (March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German architect. ... Oskar Schlemmer (September 4, 1888 – April 13, 1943) was a German painter, sculptor and designer associated with the Bauhaus school. ... Joost Schmidt (1893-1948) was a teacher or master at the Bauhaus and later a professor at the College of Visual Arts, Berlin. ... Naum Slutzky was an Ukrainan designer (born in 1894 in Kiev, died in 1965). ... Gunta Stölzl (5 March 1897 – 22 April 1983) was a German born textile artist who played a fundamental role in the development of the Bauhaus school’s weaving workshop. ...

Gallery

See also

Bauhaus archive, view from the west The Bauhaus Archive (German: ) Museum of Design, in Berlin, collects items, documents and literature which relate to the Bauhaus School (1919 - 1933; the most important school of architecture, design, and art of the 20th century) and puts them on public display. ... Walter Gropius Bauhaus, Dessau For the literary and artistic aspects of this movement, see New Objectivity. ... The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1927) The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1930) The International style was a major architectural style of the 1920s and 1930s. ... The District Map of Budapest Bauhaus in Budapest was clearly a dominant tendency between 1930 and 1948: large residential buildings, cinemas, churches and even an airport was built in this style. ... New Bauhaus is a school formed by László Moholy-Nagy in Chicago after the demise of the Bauhaus in Germany. ...

External links

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References

  1. ^ [1999] in Nikolaus Pevsner: A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (Paperback), John Fleming, Hugh Honour, 5th (in English), Penguin Books, 880. ISBN 78014513233x. 
  2. ^ Richard J Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, 416
  3. ^ Funk and Wagnall's New Encyclopaedia, Vol 5, 348
  4. ^ [1999] in Nikolaus Pevsner: A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (Paperback), John Fleming, Hugh Honour, 5th (in English), Penguin Books, p.44. ISBN 78014513233x. 
  5. ^ Frampton, Kenneth [1992]. "The Bauhaus: the evolution of an idea 1919-32", Modern Architecture: a critical history, 3rd ed. rev., New York, NY: Thames and Hudson, Inc., p.124. ISBN 0500202575. 
  6. ^ [2004] "1923: The Bauhaus … holds its first public exhibition in Weimar, Germany", in Hal Foster: Art Since 1900: Volume 1 - 1900 to 1944, Rosalind Krauss, Yve-Alain Bois, Benjamin Buchloh, New York, NY: Thames & Hudson, p.185-189. ISBN 0500285349. 
  7. ^ Frampton, Kenneth [1992]. "The Bauhaus: the evolution of an idea 1919-32", Modern Architecture: a critical history, 3rd ed. rev., New York, NY: Thames and Hudson, Inc., p.124. ISBN 0500202575. 
  8. ^ [2004] "1923: The Bauhaus … holds its first public exhibition in Weimar, Germany", in Hal Foster: Art Since 1900: Volume 1 - 1900 to 1944, Rosalind Krauss, Yve-Alain Bois, Benjamin Buchloh, New York: Thames & Hudson, p.185-189. ISBN 0442240392. 
  9. ^ Curtis, William [1987]. "Walter Gropius, German Expressionism, and the Bauhaus", Modern Architecture Since 1900, 2nd Ed., Prentice-Hall, p.309-316. ISBN 0135866944. 
  10. ^ Curtis, William [1987]. "Walter Gropius, German Expressionism, and the Bauhaus", Modern Architecture Since 1900, 2nd Ed., Prentice-Hall, p.120. ISBN 0135866944. 
  11. ^ Richard J Evans, The Third Reich in Power, 325
  • Oskar Schlemmer. Tut Schlemmer, Editor. The Letters and Diaries of Oskar Schlemmer. Translated by Krishna Winston. Wesleyan University Press, 1972. ISBN 0819540471
  • Magdalena Droste, Peter Gossel, Editors. Bauhaus, Taschen America LLC, 2005. ISBN 3822836494
  • Marty Bax. Bauhaus Lecture Notes 1930–1933. Theory and practice of architectural training at the Bauhaus, based on the lecture notes made by the Dutch ex-Bauhaus student and architect J.J. van der Linden of the Mies van der Rohe curriculum. Amsterdam, Architectura & Natura 1991. ISBN 9071570045
  • Anja Baumhoff, The Gendered World of the Bauhaus. The Politics of Power at the Weimar Republic's Premier Art Institute, 1919-1931. Peter Lang, Frankfurt, New York 2001.

ISBN 3-631-37945-5

.... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bauhaus - MSN Encarta (433 words)
Bauhaus   (help ·; info) "House of Building" or "Building School") is the common term for the Staatliches Bauhaus   (help ·; info), a school in Germany that combined crafts...
The Bauhaus was based on the principles of the 19th-century English designer William Morris and the Arts and Crafts movement that art should meet the needs of society and that no distinction should be made between fine arts and practical crafts.
The Bauhaus style, later also known as the International Style, was marked by the absence of ornament and ostentatious facades and by harmony between function and the artistic and technical means employed.
Bauhaus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1610 words)
Bauhaus is the common term for the Staatliches Bauhaus, an art and architecture school in Germany that operated from 1919 to 1933, and for the approach to design that it developed and taught.
The Bauhaus was largely subsidized by the early Weimar Republic.
The Bauhaus had a major impact on art and architecture trends in Western Europe, the United States and Israel in the decades following its demise, as many of the artists involved fled or were exiled by the Nazi regime.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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