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Encyclopedia > Batumi
A general view of Batumi
Batumi

Batumi (Georgian: ბათუმი, formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. It has a population of 121,806 (2002 census). Image File history File links Batumi_View. ... Image File history File links Batumi_View. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...


Batumi, with its large port and commercial center, is also the last stop of the Transcaucasian railroad and the Baku oil pipeline. It is situated some 20 km (12 mi) from the Turkish border, in a subtropical zone, rich in citrus fruit and tea. Industries include oil refineries, shipbuilding, food processing, and light manufacturing. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline (sometimes abbreviated as BTC pipeline) transports crude petroleum 1,776 km from the Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... View of the Shell/Valero Martinez oil refinery An oil refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into useful petroleum products. ... Men from Francisco de Orellanas expedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro, to be used in the search for food Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ...

Contents

History

Early history

Batumi is located on the site of the ancient Greek colony of Bathus or Bathys - derived from the Greek phrase 'bathus limen' or 'bathys limin' meaning 'deep harbour'. It has been known since the 11th century for its fortifications. A part of Georgia since the Middle Ages, it came under Ottoman rule in the 16th century and was annexed by Russia in 1878 in accordance with Treaty of San Stefano between Russia and the Ottoman Empire (ratified on March 23). In exchange, according to a secret Anglo-Ottoman Cyprus Convention, the British were to be allowed to occupy Cyprus - Cuprum probatum.[1] During these early years of annexation Batumi functioned as a free port and was one of the most important world exporters of wool, cotton and wood. After 1883 the city became an important place for the shipment of oil. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano of March 3rd, 1878 The Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. ... The Cyprus Convention of June 4, 1878 was an agreement reached between the United Kingdom and the Ottoman Empire which granted control of Cyprus to Great Britain in exchange for their support of the Ottomans in the Russian-Turkish war. ... A free port (porto franco) or free zone (US: Foreign-Trade Zone) is a port or area with relaxed jurisdiction with respect to the country of location. ...

A view of Batumi, circa, 1911, towards the mountains

Batumi, 1911, public domain. ... Batumi, 1911, public domain. ...

War, Communism and Independence

During 1901, 16 years prior to the Russian Revolution, Joseph Stalin the future leader of the Soviet Union, lived in the city organizing strikes. Unrest during World War I led to Turkey re-entering in April 1918, followed by the British in December, who stayed until July 1920. Kemal Atatürk then ceded it to the Bolsheviks, on the condition that it be granted autonomy, for the sake of the Muslims among Batumi's mixed population. 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... “Stalin” redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–10 November 1938), until 1934 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Turkish army officer and revolutionist statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


When the USSR collapsed, Aslan Abashidze was appointed head of Ajaria's governing council and subsequently held onto power throughout the unrest of the 1990s. Whilst other regions, such as Abkhazia, attempted to break away from the Georgian state, Ajara maintained an integral part of the Republic's territory. However due to a fragile security situation, Abashidze was able to exploit the central government's weaknesses and rule the area as a personal fiefdom. In May 2004 he fled the region to Russia as a result of mass protests sparked by the Rose Revolution in Tbilisi. Aslan Abashidze Aslan Abashidze (Georgian: ასლან აბაშიძე) (born July 20, 1938) was the leader of the Ajarian Autonomous Republic in western Georgia from 1991 to May 5, 2004. ... Capital Sokhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Government  -  Chairman, Cabinet of Ministers  -  Chairman, Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia Autonomous republic of Georgia  -  Georgian independence Declared Recognised 9 April 1991 25 December 1991  Currency Georgian lari (GEL) Anthem Aiaaira Capital Sukhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Russian1 Government  -  President Sergei Bagapsh  -  Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab... Central government or the national government (or, in federal states, the federal government) is the government at the level of the nation state. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a form of allegiance, originally to give him the means to fulfill his military duties when called upon. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Coordinates: Government  - Governing Mayor Giorgi Gigi Ugulava Area  - City 372 km²  (143. ...


Present Day

Port Authority in Batumi
Port Authority in Batumi
Port in Batumi
Port in Batumi

Batumi today is the main port of Georgia. It has the capacity for 80,000-Tonne Tankers to deposit materials such as oil. This oil originates from Azerbaijan and is refined near the port and shipped across all world. Smaller oil exports also come from Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Additionally the city exports regional agricultural products. Since 1995 the freight conversion of the port has constantly risen, with an appoximate 8 million tons in 2001. The annual revenue from the port is an estimated 200 to 300 million US dollar. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 550 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Batumi Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 550 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Batumi Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 623 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Batumi Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 623 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Batumi Metadata This file contains... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... United States one-dollar bill Canadian one-dollar coin (Loonie) One New Taiwan dollar Australian one-dollar coin 500 old Zimbabwean dollars The dollar (often represented by the dollar sign: $) is the name of the official currency in several countries, dependencies and other regions. ...


Since the change of power in Ajaria, Batumi has attracted several international investors with real estate prices in the city trebling themselves since 2001. Kazakh investors have reportedly invested USD 100 million to purchase over 20 hotels in the Ajaria Autonomous Republic. Construction of new hotels will be launched in Ajaria’s Black Sea resorts starting from 2007. 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Batumi is also host to the Russian 12th Military Base. Following the Rose Revolution, the central government has pushed for the removal of these forces, and in 2005 an agreement with Moscow was reached. Under the terms of the agreement, all equipment and personnel must be removed by 2008. The 89th Tamanyan Division (Armenian: ) was a distinguished infantry fighting unit in the Soviet Red Army during the Second World War. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ...


Climate

The climate in Batumi is subtropical. Palm trees, lemon and orange trees all grow in the city. The subtropics refers to the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone, which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, at latitude 23. ...


The average annual temperature in Batumi is 14 degrees Celsius. January is the coldest month with an average temperature of 6 degrees Celsius. July and August are the hottest months with an average temperature of 22 degrees Celsius. The absolute minimum recorded temperature is -7 degrees Celsius and the absolute maximum is 40 degrees Celsius. The average annual amount of precipitation amounts to 2500 mm. January is the wettest month (20 days on average) while May is the driest (15 days on average).

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Avg Temperature [°C] 6 7 8 12 16 20 22 22 20 16 12 8 14
Precipitation (mm) - - - - - - - - - - - - 2500

Demographics

The town is home to all the major religions of the Caucasus, with a mixed population of Catholics, Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church, Muslims, and Jews. There is an Armenian minority in Batumi. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church (Saqartvelos Samotsiqulo Avtokepaluri Martlmadidebeli Eklesia in Georgian language) is one of the worlds most ancient Christian Churches, founded in the 1st century by the Apostle Andrew. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


Landmarks

Attractions include the Adjara State Museum, botanical gardens, which were started by professor Krasnov (brother of the general Pyotr Krasnov), aquarium, circus, and a former resort area along the Black Sea coast. Inside the United States Botanic Garden Inside the Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden (Brazil), 1890 Botanical gardens (in Latin, hortus botanicus) grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes, but also for the enjoyment and education of visitors, a consideration that has become essential to... Ataman Pyotr Krasnov Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov (Петр Николаевич Краснов in Russian) (September 22 (10 O.S.), 1869 — January 17, 1947), sometimes referred to in English as Peter Krasnov, was Lieutenant General of the Russian army when the revolution broke out in 1917, and one of the leaders of the counterrevolutionary White movement afterwards. ... For other uses, see Aquarium (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Postage stamps

See : Postage stamps of Batum under British occupation See also : Batumi Background Batumi (formerly Batum) is a city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ...


Sister Cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Main street in Vanadzor Vanadzor (Armenian: ) — previously known under the Turkish name Karakilisa, meaning black church, and later named Kirovakan (after Sergey Kirov) is a city in northern Armenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... It has been suggested that Kaminia (Piraeus), Greece be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Location within Italy Bari is the capital of the province of Bari and of the Apulia (or Puglia) region, on the Adriatic sea, in Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Kislovodsk (Кислово́дск) is a city of 129,788 inhabitants (2002 census) in Stavropol Krai, Russia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coordinates: County Chatham Government  - Mayor Otis S. Johnson Area  - City 202. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Geography > Europe > Spain > Basque Country > Guipuscoa San Sebastián with sailboats San Sebastián (Donostia in Basque) is the capital city of the province of Guipúzcoa, in the Spanish autonomous community of Basque Country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Modern Greek: Τραπεζούντα, Trapezoúnta; Ancient Greek: , Trapezoûs), is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ...

Notable people

Notable people who are from or have resided in Batumi:

Performing at the ESC 2007 in Helsinki. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 2007 was the 52nd edition of the Eurovision Song Contest. ... Ketevan Katie Melua (Georgian: , surname pronounced IPA: //; born 16 September 1984) is a British-Georgian singer and musician, who was born in Georgia, but moved to Northern Ireland at the age of eight and then relocated to England at the age of 14. ... ... William Horwood Stuart was a British diplomat who was murdered at Batum, Georgia, in 1906. ... Fyodor Nikolayevich Yurchikhin (Russian: Фёдор Николаевич Юрчихин), Ph. ... Valeriy Shotayevich Meladze (Russian: , Georgian: ) is a Russian singer of Georgian descent. ...

References

  1. ^ Zaim M. Necatigil (1993), The Cyprus Question and the Turkish Position in International Law, p. 3. Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198258461.

nino katamadze Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

External links

Coordinates: 41°39′N, 41°39′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Batumi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (499 words)
Batumi (formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia.
Batumi, with its large port and commercial center, is also the last stop of the Trans-Caucasian railroad and the Baku oil pipeline.
Batumi is located on the site of the ancient Greek colony of Batis.
Batumi (325 words)
Batumi (also Batum or Batoum) is a seaside town (population: approximately 137,000) on the Black Sea coast and capital of Ajaria, an autonomous republic in southeast Georgia.
Batumi, with its large port and commercial center, is also the last stop of the Trans-Caucasian railroad[?] and the Baky oil pipeline.
Despite the short period of British rule, the tree stamps exist in large numbers (probably additional ones were printed after the occupation was over), but the overprinted Russian stamps are not common, and in 2003 some command prices of over $500 US.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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