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Encyclopedia > Batu Khan

Batu Khan (Russian: Баты́й, Ukrainian: Батий, Chinese: 拔都) (c. 1205 - 1255) was a Turkic ruler and the founder of the Blue Horde. Batu was a son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. His Blue Horde became the Golden Horde (or Kipchak Khanate), which ruled Rus and the Caucasus for around 250 years, after also destroying the armies of Poland and Hungary. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Khwarezmia Commanders Genghis Khan, Jochi, Chaghatai, Ögodei, Tolui, Subutai, Jebe, Jelme, Mukali, Khubilai, Kasar, Boorchu, Sorkin-shara Ala ad-Din Muhammad, Jalal Al-Din, Inalchuq† (executed) Strength 100,000-200,000 mounted archers, with powerful siege engines 400,000 men, however not organized into armies, only city... The medieval kingdom of Georgia first clashed with the advancing Mongol armies in 1220. ... The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. ... Combatants Volga Bulgaria Mongols Commanders Ghabdulla Chelbir Subutai, Jebe Strength N/A 50,000 Casualties N/A 4,000 survived The Battle of Samara Bend or the Battle of Kernek was the first battle between Volga Bulgaria and the Mongols, probably the first major battle the Mongols lost. ... Combatants Volga Bulgaria Mongols Commanders Mir-Ghazi Batu Khan Strength 10,000-50,0001 100,000-150,0002 Casualties all population and defenders N/A 1 Friar Julian 2 only Batus horde The siege of Bilär was a battle for the capital city of the Volga Bulgaria between... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... Combatants Mongols Sultanate of Rüm, Georgian and Trapezuntine auxiliaries Commanders Bayju Kay Khusrau II Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The Battle of Köse Dag was fought between the Seljuk Turks of Rum and the Mongols on June 26, 1243 at the place Köse Dag on Sivas-Erzincan road (now... The Mongol invasions of Europe were centered in their destruction of the Ruthenian states, especially Kiev, under the leadership of Subutai. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Alliance Polish states Teutonic Knights[3][4] Commanders Baidar, Kadan, Orda Khan Henry II the Pious † Strength Estimated between 8,000-20,000 (max of two tumen) diversionary force [5] Unknown, estimates have ranged from 2,000-25,000[5] Casualties Unknown, but supposedly heavier than expected... Combatants Kingdom of Hungary Mongol Empire Commanders King Béla IV Batu Khan, Subutai Strength 15,000-30,000+ Unknown (mostly cavalry) Casualties 10,000-30,000+ unknown The Battle of Mohi, or Battle of the Sajó River, (on April 11, 1241) was the main battle between the Mongols and... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Baibars C * Kitbuqa + Strength About 20,000-30,000 About 10,000-20,000 The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260 between the... The Mongol invasions of Korea consisted of a series of campaigns by the Mongol Empire against Korea, then known as Koryo, from 1231 to 1259. ... Battle of Bunei Conflict Mongol Invasions of Japan Date November 20, 1274 Place Hakata Bay, near present-day Fukuoka, Kyushu Result Invasion fails. ... Combatants Kamakura shogunate Mongols Commanders Hōjō Tokimune Mongol-Chinese Joint Command Strength 100,000? 142,000 men in 4400 ships? Casualties Unknown 120,000+ The battle of Kōan ), also known as the Second Battle of Hakata Bay, was the second attempt by the Mongols to invade Japan. ... Combatants Song Dynasty Yuan Dynasty Commanders Lü Wenhuan Li Tingzhi Liu Zheng, Ashu, Shi Tianzhe, Guo Kan Strength unknown 100,000+ Cavalry 5,000 ships 100+ trebuchet 20+ counterweight trebuchet Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Xiangyang (襄陽之戰) was a six-year battle between invading Mongol armies and Southern Song Chinese... The Battle of Ngasaunggyan was fought in 1277 between Kublai Khans Mongol Yuan Dynasty of China, and their neighbors to the south, the Pagan Empire (in present-day Myanmar) led by Narathihapate. ... Combatants Song Dynasty Yuan Dynasty Commanders Zhang Shijie Zhang Hongfan Strength 200,000 1000+ warships 20,000 50+ warships Casualties unknown, though almost all perished unknown The Battle of Yamen (崖門戰役; or 崖山海戰, lit. ... Combatants Pagan Empire Mongol Empire Commanders Thihathu Temür Strength Unknown Unknown, but considerable Casualties Unknown Unknown Im really tired of people changing what i write i think that is almost as bad as vandalism. ... Combatants Dai Viet Yuan Mongol Army Yuan Mongol Navy Commanders Tran Hung Dao Tran Khanh Du General Omar Strength 200 000 500 000 Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Bach Dang took place near Halong Bay in present-day Vietnam, it was part of the Third Yuan Mongol Invasion (1287... Towards the end of the Crusades, there were several attempted Mongol invasions of Syria, with a certain amount of success in 1260 and 1300. ... Combatants Combined Russian armies The Golden Horde Commanders Dmitri Ivanovich of Moscow Mamai Strength between 60,000 and 80,000 between 75,000 and 125,000 Casualties up to 40,000 killed or wounded Almost entire army killed The Battle of Kulikovo (Russian: ) was fought by the Tartaro-Mongols (the... Combatants Golden Horde Lithuania, Poland, Moldavia Tokhtamysh forces Commanders Edigu, Temur Qutlugh â€  Grand Duke Vytautas, Tokhtamysh Strength ~200 000 ~75 000, 500 of them - Teutonic knights Casualties Unknown Unknown (Reportedly very heavy) (11 Teutonic Knights including Hanus and Thomas Surville) The Battle of the Vorskla River was one of the... Miniature in Russian chronicle, XVI century The Great standing on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in English, derived from Ugra) was a standoff between Akhmat Khan, Khan of the Great Horde, and Grand Duke Ivan III of Russia in 1480, which resulted in the retreat of the... January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire April 1 - King Amalric II of Jerusalem (born 1145) May 7... Events Königsberg was founded Births Emperor Albert I of Germany, in July Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Categories: 1255 ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Blue Horde was one of descendat states which formed around 1227 as the Mongol Empire desintegrated. ... Jochi (also spelled Jöchi) (c. ... This article is about the person. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire upon its breakup in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... The word Rus or Rus (Русь in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...

Contents

Bloodline of the Kipchak Khans

Although Genghis Khan recognized Jochi as his son, his parentage was always in question, as his mother Börte, Genghis Khan's wife, had been captured and he was born shortly after her return. During the lifetime of Genghis, this issue was public knowledge but it was taboo to publicly discuss it. Still, it drove a wedge between Jochi and his father; just before Jochi's death, he and Genghis almost fought a civil war because of Jochi's sullen refusal to join in military campaigns. Jochi also was given only 4,000 Mongol soldiers to carve out his own Khanate. Jochi's son Batu got most of his soldiers by recruiting amongst the Turkic people he defeated, mostly Kipchak Turks. Batu was later instrumental in setting the house of his uncle Ögedei aside in favor of the house of Tolui, his other uncle. Börte Ujin was the Grand Empress of the Mongol Khan Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... Kipchaks (also Kypchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Their language was also known as Kipchak. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... Tolui,also rendered Toluy or Tolui Khan (Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 1190–1232), was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by Börte. ...


After Jochi and Genghis died, Jochi's lands were divided between Batu and his older brother Orda. Orda's White Horde ruled the lands roughly between the Volga river and Lake Balkhash, while Batu's Golden Horde ruled the lands west of the Volga. Orda was a Mongol khan, the eldest grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Jöchi and the founder of White Horde. ... The White Horde was a the name of a Mongolian state of the 14th century. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Lake Balkhash from space, April 1991 Lake Balkhash: NASA image, taken 18 April 2000 by SeaWiFS Lake Balkhash, or Lake Balqash, is a large lake in southeastern Kazakhstan, the second largest in Central Asia after the Aral Sea. ...


When Batu and his son Sartak died, Batu's brother Berke inherited the Golden Horde. Berke was not inclined to unity with his cousins in the Mongol family, making war on Hulagu Khan, though Berke officially recognized the Khanate of China as his overlord—in theory only. In fact, Berke was an independent ruler by then. Fortunately for Europe, Berke did not share Batu's interest in conquering it. Sartak was the son of Batu Khan and his succesor to the throne of the Golden Horde. ... Berke was the ruler of the Golden Horde from 1257 to 1266, in the aftermath of the reign of his brother Batu Khan. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire upon its breakup in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chaghatay/Persian: ; Arabic:هولاكو; c. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Batu had at least two children:

  • Sartaq, khan of the Golden Horde from 1256-1257
  • Toqoqan[1]

Sartaq Khan (also spelt as Sartak or Sartach, died 1256) was the son of Batu Khan and Empress Dowager Khanum Boraqcin of Hwarizim Sahi (Khanate of Kipchak). ... Toqoqan was a member of the ruling family of the Mongol Empire. ...

Invasion of Rus

Main articles: Mongol invasion of Rus, Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria.

In 1235 Batu, who earlier had directed the conquest of the Crimea, was assigned an army of possibly 130,000 to oversee an invasion of Europe. The army, actually commanded by Subutai, crossed the Volga and invaded Volga Bulgaria in 1236. It took them a year to extinguish the resistance of the Volga Bulgarians, Kypchaks, and Alani. The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. ... Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Subutai (Mongolian: , Sübeedei; Classic Mongolian: Sübügätäi or Sübüätäi; 1176 to 1248) was the primary strategist and general of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... // Events May 6 - Roger of Wendover, Benedictine monk and chronicler of St Albanss Abbey dies. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... Kypchaks (also Kipchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western Kypchaks were also named Kuman, Kun and Polovtsian (pl. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ...


In November 1237 Batu Khan sent his envoys to the court of Yuri II of Vladimir and demanded his allegiance. A month later, the hordes besieged Ryazan. After six days of the bloody battle, the city was totally annihilated, and never restored its former glory. Alarmed by the news, Yuri II sent his sons to detain the horde, but these were soundly defeated. Having burnt Kolomna and Moscow, the horde laid siege to Vladimir on February 4, 1238. Three days later the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal was taken and burnt to the ground. The royal family perished in the fire, while the grand prince hastily retreated northward. Crossing the Volga, he mustered a new army, which was totally exterminated by the Mongols on the Sit' River on March 4. // Events Thomas II of Savoy becomes count of Flanders. ... Yuriy II (Юрий II), also known as Georgy II of Vladimir or Georgy II Vsevolodovich (1189 - 1238), was the 4th Grand Prince of Vladimir (1212-16, 1218-38) who presided over Vladimir-Suzdal at the time of the Mongol invasion of Russia. ... Population 315,954 (2002) Time zone Moscow (MSK/MSD), UTC +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD) Latitude/Longitude Vladimir (Russian: ) is an old city in Russia. ... , Ryazan (Russian: IPA: ) is a city in the Central Federal District of Russia, the administrative center of Ryazan Oblast. ... Kolomna (Russian: Коломна) is an ancient Russian city, founded in 1177 on the Moskva River and Oka River. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Population 315,954 (2002) Time zone Moscow (MSK/MSD), UTC +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD) Latitude/Longitude Vladimir (Russian: ) is an old city in Russia. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... The Battle of the Sit River was fought in the northern part of the present-day Yaroslavl Oblast of Russia on March 4, 1238 between the Mongol Hordes of Batu Khan and the Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal during the Mongol invasion of Russia. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Thereupon Batu Khan divided his army into smaller units, which ransacked fourteen Rus' cities: Rostov, Uglich, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Kashin, Ksnyatin, Gorodets, Galich, Pereslavl-Zalessky, Yuriev-Polsky, Dmitrov, Volokolamsk, Tver, and Torzhok. The most difficult to take was the small town of Kozelsk, whose boy-prince Titus and inhabitants resisted the Mongols for seven weeks. As the story goes, at the news of Mongol approach, a city of Kitezh was submerged into a lake with all its inhabitants, where it may be seen to this day. The only major cities to escape destruction was Smolensk, who very wisely submitted to the Mongols and agreed to pay tribute, and Novgorod with Pskov, which could not be reached by the Mongols on account of considerable distance and winter weather. Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... Transfiguration cathedral in the kremlin Uglich (Russian: У́глич, pronounced ooglitch) is a historic town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, on the Volga River. ... Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... Fire-observation watchtower in Kostroma (1825-28). ... A church in the center of Kashin. ... Sknyatino is a former village in the Tver Oblast of Russia, situated at the confluence of the Nerl River and the Volga, about halfway between Uglich and Tver. ... Gorodets (Городец in Russian) is a town in the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast of Central Russia. ... The name may refer to Halych, of Galicia (Central Europe) Galich, Russia Alexander Galich, a Russian dissident bard This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Pereslavls most famous ruler, Alexander Nevsky, was baptized at the Saviour Cathedral (1152-57). ... Yuriev-Polsky (Yuriev Polskoy) (Юрьев-Польский or Юрьев Польской in Russian) is a town in the Vladimir Oblast in Russia, located in the upper reaches of the Koloksha... In the kremlin of Dmitrov: Cathedral of the Assumption was built in 1509–1523. ... Volokolamsk (Волокола́мск in Russian) is an administrative center of the Volokolamsky District of the Moscow Oblast in Russia. ... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ... General view of the town in the 1910s. ... Kozelsks Coat of Arms Kozelsk (Козельск in Russian, also spelt Kozielsk in English) is a town in the Kaluga Oblast in Russia, located on the Zhizdra River (Okas tributary) 72 km southwest of Kaluga. ... The Invisible Town of Kitezh (1913) by Konstantin Gorbatov Kitezh (Китеж in Russian) was a legendary town in what is today the Voskresensky District of the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in Russia. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ...


In the summer of 1238, Batu Khan devastated the Crimea and pacified Mordovia. In the winter of 1239, he sacked Chernigov and Pereyaslav. After several months of siege, the horde stormed Kyiv in December 1239. Despite fierce resistance of Danylo of Halych, Batu Khan managed to take two principal capitals of his land, Halych and Volodymyr-Volyns'kyi. The Rus' states were left as vassals rather than integrated into the central Asian empire. Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... The Republic of Mordovia (Russian: ; Moksha: Мордовскяй Республикась; Erzya: Мордовской Республикась) or Mordvinia is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... // Events Births June 17 - King Edward I of England (died 1307) December 17 - Kujo Yoritsugu, Japanese shogun (died 1256) Peter III of Aragon (died 1285) John II, Duke of Brittany (died 1305) Ippen, Japanese monk (died 1289) Deaths March 3 - Vladimir III Rurikovich, Grand Prince of Kiev (born 1187) March... Chernihiv (Чернігів in Ukrainian) is an ancient city in northern Ukraine, the central city of Chernihivska oblast. Some common historical spellings of the name are Polish: Czernichów, and Russian: Чернигов, Chernigov. ... Pereyaslav is the former name of towns in Ukraine and Russia: Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi in Ukraine. ... Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. ... Monument to King Danylo in Lviv. ... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... Volodymyr-Volynskyi or Volodymyr-Volynsky (Ukrainian: Володимир-Волинський, Volodymyr-Volynskyi;Russian: Владимир-Волынский, Vladimir-Volinskij; Polish: WÅ‚odzimierz WoÅ‚yÅ„ski, ) is a city in Volyn Oblast, northwestern Ukraine, with a population of 38,000 (2004). ...


Invasion of Central Europe

Batu Khan then decided to "reach the ultimate sea", where the Mongols could proceed no further. Some modern historians speculate that Batu Khan intended primarily to assure his flanks were safe for the future from possible interference from the Europeans, and partially as a precursor to further conquest. Most believe he intended the conquest of all Europe, as soon as his flanks were safe, and his forces ready.


The Mongols invaded central Europe in three groups. One group conquered Poland, defeating a combined force under Henry the Pious, Duke of Silesia and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order at Legnica. A second crossed the Carpathians and a third followed the Danube. The armies re-grouped and crushed Hungary in 1241, defeating the army led by Béla IV of Hungary at the Battle of Mohi on April 11. The armies swept the plains of Hungary over the summer and in the spring of 1242 regained impetus and extended their control into Austria and Dalmatia as well as invading Bohemia. Categories: Poland-related stubs | Polish monarchs | Dukes of Greater Poland | Dukes of Poznan | Dukes of Gniezno | Dukes of Kalisz | Dukes of Wroclaw | 1241 deaths ... Legnica ( , formerly Lignica; German: ) is a town in Silesia in southwestern Poland. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... Béla IV c. ... Combatants Kingdom of Hungary Mongol Empire Commanders King Béla IV Batu Khan, Subutai Strength 15,000-30,000+ Unknown (mostly cavalry) Casualties 10,000-30,000+ unknown The Battle of Mohi, or Battle of the Sajó River, (on April 11, 1241) was the main battle between the Mongols and... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ...


This attack on Europe was planned and carried out by Subutai, under the nominal command of Batu. Subutai achieved perhaps his most lasting fame with his victories there. Having devastated the various Rus principalities, he sent spies into Poland, Hungary, and as far as Austria, in preparation for an attack into the heartland of Europe. Having gotten a clear picture of the European kingdoms, he brilliantly prepared an attack nominally commanded by Batu Khan and two other princes of the blood. Batu Khan, son of Jochi, was the overall leader, but Subutai was the actual commander in the field, and as such was present in both the northern and southern campaigns against Rus. While Kaidu's northern force won the Battle of Legnica and Kadan's army triumphed in Transylvania, Subutai was waiting for them on the Hungarian plain. The newly reunited army then withdrew to the Sajo river where they inflicted the tremendous defeat on King Béla IV at the Battle of Mohi. Subutai (Mongolian: , Sübeedei; Classic Mongolian: Sübügätäi or Sübüätäi; 1176 to 1248) was the primary strategist and general of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Alliance Polish states Teutonic Knights[3][4] Commanders Baidar, Kadan, Orda Khan Henry II the Pious † Strength Estimated between 8,000-20,000 (max of two tumen) diversionary force [5] Unknown, estimates have ranged from 2,000-25,000[5] Casualties Unknown, but supposedly heavier than expected... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Combatants Kingdom of Hungary Mongol Empire Commanders King Béla IV Batu Khan, Subutai Strength 15,000-30,000+ Unknown (mostly cavalry) Casualties 10,000-30,000+ unknown The Battle of Mohi, or Battle of the Sajó River, (on April 11, 1241) was the main battle between the Mongols and...


Aftermath

By late 1241, Batu and Subutai were finishing plans to invade Austria, Italy and Germany, when the news came of the death of Ögedei Khan (died in December, 1241), and the Mongols withdrew in the late spring of 1242, as the Princes of the blood, and Subutai, were recalled to Karakorum where the kurultai was held. Batu was a potential Great Khan and when he failed to win this he turned to consolidate his conquests in Asia and the Urals. He did not have Subutai with him when he returned—Subutai had remained in Mongolia where he died in 1248—and Batu's animosity to Guyuk Khan made any further European invasion impossible. He had to keep his troops ready in the event of attack from the East, as the deterioration of relations between the grandsons of Genghis Khan ultimately brought about the end of the Mongol Empire. After his return, Batu Khan established the capital of his khanate at Sarai on the lower Volga in 1242. He was planning new campaigns after Guyuk's death, (he was intent on carrying out Subutai's original plans to invade Europe) but he died in 1255 and the khanate passed to Sartaq. He decided against the invasion of Europe. The Kipchak Khanate ruled Russia through local princes for the next 230 years. Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... The Karakorum palace (also Ka-la-kun-lun, Khara-khorin, Kharakhorum, Khara Khorum in Classical Mongolian) was an ancient capital of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, although for only about 30 years. ... Kurultai (Tatar: Qorıltay, Azerbaijani: Qurultay; Kurulmak meaning to assemble in Turkish, also Khural meaning meeting in Mongolian) is a political and military council of ancient Mongol and Turkic chiefs and khans. ... KHAGAN, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc, is a title of royal or imperial rank in Mongolian and Turkic languages. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Ural Mountains, (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры = Ура́л) also known simply as the Urals, are a mountain range that run roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Güyük (c. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... Sarai Batu (Old Sarai, Sarai-al-Maqrus) was a capital city of the Golden Horde. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Events Königsberg was founded Births Emperor Albert I of Germany, in July Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Categories: 1255 ... Sartaq Khan (also spelt as Sartak or Sartach, died 1256) was the son of Batu Khan and Empress Dowager Khanum Boraqcin of Hwarizim Sahi (Khanate of Kipchak). ... The Golden Horde (also known as Kipchak or Qipchaq Khanate) was a Tatar state established in present day Russia by unification of Blue Horde and White Horde around 1378. ...


Berke did not share Batu's interest in conquering Europe. He was more interested in fighting his cousins, especially Hulagu, whom he loathed for destroying Baghdad. For Berke, a devout Muslim, what Hulagu had done was despicable, and in 1262, when Hulagu prepared to move on Egypt to avenge the defeat of his army (during his absence) at the Battle of Ain Jalut, Berke Khan had Kipchak raiding parties despoil lands considered part of the Il-Khanate. Enraged, Hulagu gathered his armies and marched north, and suffering severe defeat in an attempted invasion north of the Caucasus in 1263, after Berke Khan had lured him north, and away from the Holy Land. Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Baibars C * Kitbuqa + Strength About 20,000-30,000 About 10,000-20,000 The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260 between the...


The Kipchak Khanate was known in Rus and Europe as the Golden Horde (Zolota Orda) some think because of the Golden colour of the Khan's tent. "Horde" comes from the mongol word "orda/ordu" or camp. "Golden" is thought to have had a similar meaning to "royal." (Royal Camp) Of all the Khanates, the Golden Horde ruled longest. Long after the Yuan Dynasty had been driven out of China, and Il Khanate of the Middle East had fallen, the descendants of Batu Khan continued to rule the Russian steppes. The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire upon its breakup in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ...


See also

This is a list of Khans of the Golden Horde and of the Great Horde: Golden Horde Batu Khan (1242-55) Sartak Khan (1255-56) Berke Khan (1256-66) Mengu-Timur (1266-82) Tuda-Mengu (1282-87), actual ruler was Nogai Talabuga Khan (1287-91), actual ruler was Nogai Tokhta...

References

  • Morgan, David. The Mongols. ISBN 0-631-17563-6. 
  • Nicolle, David (1998). The Mongol Warlords. Brockhampton Press. 
  • Ronay, Gabriel (1978). The Tartar Khan's Englishman. Cassel. 
  • Saunders, J.J. (1971). The History of the Mongol Conquests. Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-8122-1766-7. 
  • Sicker, Martin (2000). The Islamic World in Ascendancy: From the Arab Conquests to the Siege of Vienna. Praeger Publishers. 
  • Soucek, Svatopluk (2000). A History of Inner Asia. Cambridge. 

External links

  • The Islamic World to 1600: The Golden Horde
Preceded by
none
Khan of Blue Horde
1240 – 1255
Succeeded by
Sartaq

  Results from FactBites:
 
Batu Khan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1758 words)
Batu was a son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan.
Batu was later instrumental in setting the house of his uncle Ögedei aside in favor of the house of Tolui, his other uncle.
Batu Khan, son of Jochi, was the overall leader, but Subutai was the actual commander in the field, and as such was present in both the northern and southern campaigns against Russia.
Batu Khan Biography / Biography of Batu Khan Main Biography (438 words)
The Mongolian military leader Batu Khan (died 1255) conquered Russia and the adjoining territories of eastern Europe and organized the Mongol state known as the Golden Horde.
Batu was a grandson of Genghis Khan, the conqueror of Asia and founder of the Mongol Empire.
Batu early showed a talent for military and administrative affairs and distinguished himself in the service of his father, Juchi, who had been entrusted with the administration and expansion of the western section of the empire, then comprising the territory of central Asia and western Siberia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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