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Encyclopedia > Battle of the Thames
Battle of the Thames
Part of the War of 1812

A speculative depiction of Tecumseh's death at the hands of Richard M. Johnson.
Date October 5, 1813
Location Near Chatham, Ontario
Result Decisive American victory
Combatants
British Empire
Indian Confederation
United States
Commanders
Henry Procter
Tecumseh
William Henry Harrison
Strength
800 regulars
500 natives1
2,380 militia
1,000 cavalry
120 regulars
260 natives1
Casualties
155 British dead or wounded
477 captured
33 natives dead
15 dead
30 wounded
Detroit frontier
Tippecanoe1st Mackinac IslandMaguagaFort DearbornDetroitFort HarrisonFort WayneMississinewaFrenchtownFort MeigsFort StephensonLake ErieThamesLongwoodsPrairie du Chien2nd Mackinac IslandLake HuronMalcolm's Mills

The Battle of the Thames, also known as the Battle of Moraviantown, was a decisive American victory in the War of 1812 which took place on October 5, 1813, near Chatham, Ontario, in Lower Canada. Combatants United States Native Americans Great Britain, Canadian provincial forces Native Americans First Nations Peoples Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn George Prevost Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other vessels: 14 •Indigenous... Image File history File links Death_of_Tecumseh. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (279th in Leap years). ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Categories: Stub | Cities in Ontario | Ontario counties and regions ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... At Vincennes in 1810, Tecumseh loses his temper when William Henry Harrison refuses to rescind the Treaty of Fort Wayne. ... Henry Procter (c. ... This 1848 drawing of Tecumseh was based on a sketch done from life in 1808. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... Combatants Tecumsehs confederacy United States Commanders Tenskwatawa William Henry Harrison Strength 500+ 1,000 regulars and militia Casualties 50+ killed 70+ wounded 68 killed 120 wounded The Battle of Tippecanoe was fought between United States forces led by Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory and forces of... Combatants Britain Native Americans United States Commanders Captain Charles Roberts Lieutenant Porter Hanks Strength about 600 61 Casualties 0 61 surrendered The Battle of Mackinac Island (1812) was a British victory in the War of 1812. ... The Battle of Maguaga was a small battle fought between British troops, Canadian militia and Tecumsehs natives against a larger force of American troops in Maguaga, Michigan. ... Combatants Potawatomi United Kingdom United States Commanders Chief Blackbird Nathan Heald Strength 500+ 69 military + civilians Casualties 15 39 military + 27 civilians The Fort Dearborn massacre occurred on August 15, 1812 near Fort Dearborn in the United States during the War of 1812. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Isaac Brock William Hull Strength 100 regulars 300 militia 150 natives 2,500 Casualties None 2,500 captured For the 1763 action in Pontiacs Rebellion, see the Siege of Fort Detroit The Siege of Detroit, also known as the Surrender of Detroit or the... The Battle of Fort Harrison was a decisive victory for the United States against an Indian force which greatly outnumbered their own. ... The Siege of Fort Wayne took place during the War of 1812, between American and Indian forces in the wake of the successful British campaigns of 1812. ... The Battle of the Mississinewa also known as the Battle of Mississineway was an expedition ordered by William Henry Harrison against Miami villages in response to the attacks on Fort Wayne. ... Combatants Britain American Indians United States Commanders Henry Procter Tecumseh James Winchester Strength 200 regulars 300 militia 450 natives 1,000 regulars and militia Casualties 182 killed or wounded 958 killed, wounded or captured {{{notes}}} The Battle of Frenchtown also known as the River Raisin massacre, was a severe defeat... The Siege of Fort Meigs took place during the War of 1812 in northwestern Ohio. ... The Battle of Fort Stephenson was an American victory during the War of 1812. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Robert Heriot Barclay Oliver Hazard Perry Strength 6 warships 9 small warships Casualties 41 dead 94 wounded 6 ships captured 27 dead 96 wounded 1 ship lost The Battle of Lake Erie, sometimes referred to as the Battle of Put-in-Bay, was fought... The Battle of Longwoods was a battle of the War of 1812 on March 4, 1814, fought near present-day Wardsville, Ontario. ... Combatants British Empire Native Americans United States Commanders William McKay Joseph Perkins Strength about 650 about 100 Casualties 0 dead, few wounded 5 wounded The Battle of Prairie du Chien was a British victory in the far western theater of the War of 1812. ... Combatants British Empire United States Commanders Robert McDouall George Croghan Andrew Holmes† Strength about 300 700 Casualties 1 dead, 1 wounded 13 dead, 51 wounded The Battle of Fort Mackinac was a British victory in the War of 1812. ... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders Miller Worsley Arthur Sinclair George Croghan Casualties 3 killed 9 wounded 1 schooner destroyed 6 killed 6 wounded 2 gunboats captured The Engagement on Lake Huron was actually a series of minor engagements, which left the British in control of the Lake, and thus... The Battle of Malcolms Mills was a brief skirmish during the War of 1812, in which a force of American cavalry overran and scattered a force of Canadian militia. ... Combatants United States Native Americans Great Britain, Canadian provincial forces Native Americans First Nations Peoples Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn George Prevost Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other vessels: 14 •Indigenous... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (279th in Leap years). ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Categories: Stub | Cities in Ontario | Ontario counties and regions ... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ...

Contents

Background

In September 1813, the United States Navy under Oliver Hazard Perry scored a decisive victory in the Battle of Lake Erie. British General Henry Procter feared losing his supply lines and—against the advice of his ally Tecumseh—was retreating from Fort Malden. American General William Henry Harrison trailed Procter through Upper Canada. Tecumseh had pleaded with Procter to stop and face Harrison several times. Finally Procter was convinced to face Harrison at Moraviantown on the Thames River. USN redirects here. ... This article is about the naval officer. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Robert Heriot Barclay Oliver Hazard Perry Strength 6 warships 9 small warships Casualties 41 dead 94 wounded 6 ships captured 27 dead 96 wounded 1 ship lost The Battle of Lake Erie, sometimes referred to as the Battle of Put-in-Bay, was fought... Henry Procter (c. ... This 1848 drawing of Tecumseh was based on a sketch done from life in 1808. ... Bastion of the Detroit River For 200 years, fortifications at Fort Malden have witnessed and participated in the struggles which helped forge a new nation out of the North American wilderness. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... The Thames River is located in southwestern Ontario, Canada. ...


Forces

William Henry Harrison's force totaled at least 3,500 infantry and cavalry. Harrison had two regular infantry brigades under generals Duncan McArthur and Lewis Cass. Colonel Richard Mentor Johnson commanded the Kentucky cavalry; five brigades of Kentucky militia were led by Isaac Shelby, the sixty-three year-old governor of Kentucky and a hero of the American Revolutionary War. Many of the volunteers under Johnson were from the River Raisin area and enlisted with the slogan "Remember the Raisin". Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ... Duncan McArthur (January 14, 1772 - April 29, 1839) was a Federalist and National Republican politician from Ohio. ... Lewis Cass (October 9, 1782 – June 17, 1866) was an American military officer and politician. ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ... Richard Mentor Johnson (October 17, 1780 – November 19, 1850) was the ninth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Martin Van Buren. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker A militia is the activity of one or more citizens organized to provide defense or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... Isaac Shelby Isaac Shelby (December 11, 1750-July 18, 1826) was an officer in the American Revolutionary War and the first Governor of Kentucky, serving from 1792 to 1796 and from 1812 to 1816. ... Combatants American Revolutionaries, France, Dutch Republic, Spain, American Indians Kingdom of Great Britain, German mercenaries, Loyalists, American Indians Commanders George Washington, Comte de Rochambeau, Nathanael Greene, Bernardo de Gálvez Sir William Howe, Sir Henry Clinton, Lord Cornwallis (more commanders) The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the... Boats on the River Raisin just downstream from Monroe, Michigan The River Raisin is a river in southeastern Michigan, United States that flows through glacial sediments into Lake Erie. ... Combatants Britain American Indians United States Commanders Henry Procter Tecumseh James Winchester Strength 200 regulars 300 militia 450 natives 1,000 regulars and militia Casualties 182 killed or wounded 958 killed, wounded or captured {{{notes}}} The Battle of Frenchtown also known as the River Raisin massacre, was a severe defeat...


Procter had about 800 soldiers along with about 500 American Indians led by Tecumseh. The British soldiers were becoming increasingly demoralized, and Tecumseh's warriors grew even more impatient with Procter for his unwillingness to stop and fight, giving Procter reason to fear a mutiny by the warriors. Native Americans are the indigenous peoples within the territory that is now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska down to their descendants in modern times. ... Mutiny is the act of conspiring to disobey an order that a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) is legally obliged to obey. ...


Battle

General William Henry Harrison
General William Henry Harrison

On October 4, Tecumseh skirmished the Americans near Chatham, Ontario, to slow the American advance. The warriors were quickly overwhelmed, and Procter's aide Lieutenant Colonel Augustus Warburton lost his supplies and ammunition to an American raiding party. On October 5, Procter formed the British regulars in line of battle at Moraviantown and planned to trap Harrison on the banks of the Thames, driving the Americans off the road with cannon. Tecumseh's warriors took up positions in a swamp on the British right to flank the Americans. General Harrison surveyed the battlefield and ordered James Johnson (brother of Richard Mentor Johnson) to make a frontal attack against the British regulars. Despite the Indians' flanking fire, Johnson broke through, the British cannon having failed to fire. Immediately Procter and the British turned and fled the field, many of them surrendering. Tecumseh remained and kept up the fighting. Image File history File links William_H._Harrison. ... Image File history File links William_H._Harrison. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Categories: Stub | Cities in Ontario | Ontario counties and regions ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (279th in Leap years). ... The Battle of Marathon, an example of the double-envelopment, a form of flanking maneuver In military tactics, a flanking maneuver, also called a flank attack, is an attack on the sides of an opposing force. ... Richard Mentor Johnson (October 17, 1780 – November 19, 1850) was the ninth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Martin Van Buren. ...


Richard Johnson was at the head of about 20 cavaliers and charged into the Indian position to draw attention away from the main American force, but Tecumseh and his warriors answered with a volley of musketfire that stopped the cavalry charge. Fifteen of the men were killed or wounded, and Johnson was hit five times. Johnson's main force became bogged down in the mud of the swamp. Tecumseh was killed in this fighting; Colonel Johnson may have been the one who killed Tecumseh, though the evidence is unclear. William Whitley, a Revolutionary War veteran, is another credited with the killing of Tecumseh. Whitley, a native of Crab Orchard, Kentucky, volunteered for the raid on Tecumseh's camp. Whitley requested that General Harrison have his scalp removed when his body was found and sent to his wife. The main force finally made its way through the swamp, and James Johnson's troops were freed from their attack on the British. With the American reinforcements converging and news of the death of Tecumseh spreading quickly, the Indian resistance quickly dissolved. Mounted troops then moved on and burned Moraviantown, a peaceful settlement of Christian Munsee Indians, who had no involvement with the conflict. Combatants American Revolutionaries, France, Dutch Republic, Spain, American Indians Kingdom of Great Britain, German mercenaries, Loyalists, American Indians Commanders George Washington, Comte de Rochambeau, Nathanael Greene, Bernardo de Gálvez Sir William Howe, Sir Henry Clinton, Lord Cornwallis (more commanders) The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the... Crab Orchard is a city located in Lincoln County, Kentucky. ... The Christian Munsee were a group of Lenape native American Indians, primarily Munsee, who converted to Christianity, following the teachings of the Moravian missionaries. ...


Results

Chief Tecumseh, killed during the battle
Chief Tecumseh, killed during the battle

The Battle of the Thames was a decisive victory for the Americans that led to the re-establishment of American control over the Northwest frontier for the remainder of the war. However, Harrison failed to exploit this success and withdrew to Detroit after burning Moraviantown. The front remained quiet for the rest of the war. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (612x812, 69 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (612x812, 69 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This 1848 drawing of Tecumseh was based on a sketch done from life in 1808. ... This article is about the historic region of the United States; you may be looking for: North-Western Territory, British North American territory Northwest Territories, present-day Canadian territory Pacific Northwest, unofficial region in the United States The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North...


Harrison's popularity grew, and he was eventually elected President of the United States. Richard Mentor Johnson eventually became Vice President based partly on the belief that he had killed Tecumseh. The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession...


Procter was later court-martialed for cowardice and removed from command. Historians have been somewhat kinder to Procter, noting that with the Americans in control of Lake Erie, the Detroit frontier was no longer tenable with the limited men and supplies available to Procter. The death of Tecumseh was a crushing blow to the Indian alliance he had created, and it effectively dissolved following the battle. A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ...


Notes

  1.   Strength numbers and composition from John Sugden, Tecumseh: A Life (New York: Holt, 1997), pp. 368-72; casualty figures from John R. Elting Amateurs, To Arms! A Military History of the War of 1812 (Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin, 1991;Da Capo reprint, 1995) p. 113.

References

  • Carter-Edwards, Dennis. "The War of 1812 Along the Detroit Frontier: A Canadian Perspective," in The Michigan Historical Review, 13:2 (Fall 1987), pp. 25-50.
  • Cleaves, Freeman. Old Tippecanoe: William Henry Harrison and His Time. New York: Scribner, 1939. ISBN 0-945707-01-0 (1990 reissue).
  • Edmunds, R. David. "Forgotten Allies: The Loyal Shawnees and the War of 1812" in David Curtis Skaggs and Larry L. Nelson, eds., The Sixty Years' War for the Great Lakes, 1754-1814, pp. 337-51. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-87013-569-4.
  • Elting, John R. Amateurs, To Arms! A Military History of the War of 1812. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin, 1991. ISBN 0-945575-08-4 (hardcover); ISBN 0-306-80653-3 (1995 Da Capo Press paperback).
  • Sugden, John. Tecumseh's Last Stand. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985. ISBN 0-8061-1944-6.
  • ———. Tecumseh: A Life. New York: Holt, 1997. ISBN 0-8050-4138-9 (hardcover); ISBN 0-8050-6121-5 (1999 paperback).

External links

  • Overview of the battle from Galafilm
  • Another short overview

  Results from FactBites:
 
The War of 1812 (294 words)
At the Battle of Moraviantown - also known as the Battle of the Thames - American troops came as close as they ever would, to their goal of conquering Canada.
After the battle, British officials faced the prospect of losing all of Upper Canada west of Kingston.
The Battle of Moraviantown played a central role in the creation of the myths surrounding the three commanders involved in the conflict.
Thames River (229 words)
Much of the Thames is surrounded by deciduous Carolinian forests, although much of this forest has been removed to allow for agriculture.
The river was the location of an important battle of the War of 1812.
The Battle of the Thames (also known as the Battle of Moraviantown) was fought on October 5, 1813, between American General William Henry Harrison and British General Henry Proctor[?], along with Procter's ally Tecumseh.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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