FACTOID # 20: Statistically, Delaware bears more cost of the US Military than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Battle of the Somme (1916)
Battle of the Somme
Part of the Western Front (First World War)
Cheshire Regiment sentry, Somme, 1916
Men of the 11th Battalion, The Cheshire Regiment.
Near La Boisselle, July 1916
Date 1 July 191618 November 1916
Location Somme, Picardy, France
Result tactical stalemate, strategic Allied victory
Combatants
United Kingdom British Empire

France France Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg... Image File history File linksMetadata Cheshire_Regiment_trench_Somme_1916. ... The 22nd (Cheshire) Regiment is an infantry regiment of the British Army. ... Ovillers-la-Boisselle is a commune of the Somme département in northern France. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Somme is a French département, named after the Somme River, located in the north of France. ... wazzup Categories: | ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada-1868-Red. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Newfoundland_Blue_Ensign. ... National motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... Image File history File links South_Africa_Red_Ensign. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ...

German Empire
Commanders
United Kingdom Douglas Haig
France Joseph Joffre
German Empire Max von Gallwitz
German Empire Fritz von Below
Strength
13 British & 11 French divisions (initial)
51 British and 48 French divisions (final)
10.5 divisions (initial)
50 divisions (final)
Casualties
419,654 British Empire
204,253 French
623,907 total (of which 146,431 killed or missing)
100 tanks & 782 RFC aircraft destroyed
434,500 total [1](of which 164,055 killed or missing)
Battle of the Somme
AlbertBazentinFromellesPozièresMouquet FarmGuillemontGinchy – Flers-Courcelette – MorvalThiepval RidgeLe TransloyAncre HeightsAncre

The 1916 Battle of the Somme was one of the largest battles of the First World War, with more than one million casualties, and also one of the bloodiest battles in human history. The Allied forces attempted to break through the German lines along a 25-mile (40 km) front north and south of the River Somme in northern France. One purpose of the battle was to draw German forces away from the Battle of Verdun; however, by its end the losses on the Somme had exceeded those at Verdun. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I   Capital Berlin Language(s) German (official) Polish (Posen, Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871-1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Field Marshal Lord Haig Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig KT GCB OM GCVO KCIE ADC (June 19, 1861 – January 28, 1928) was a British soldier and senior commander during World War I. He was commander of the British Expeditionary Force during the Battle of the Somme and the... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre (January 12, 1852 - January 3, 1931) was a Catalan French general who became prominent in the battles of World War I. Joffre was born in Rivesaltes, Roussillon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Categories: Stub | German World War I people ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Fritz Wilhelm Theodor Karl von Below (1853-1918) was a commander in the German Army during the First World War. ... The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of World War I. Origin and Early History Formed by Royal Warrant on May 13, 1912, the RFC superseded the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers. ... Combatants United Kingdom Canada Australia New Zealand South Africa Newfoundland India France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Henry Rawlinson Ferdinand Foch Fritz von Below Strength 13 British divisions 6 French divisions 6 divisions Casualties British: 57,470 French: 7,000 10,000 - 12,000 The first day on the Somme... Combatants United Kingdom South Africa German Empire Commanders Henry Rawlinson Fritz von Below Strength 5 divisions 2 divisions Casualties 9,000 dead, wounded, or missing 1,400 captured The Battle of Bazentin Ridge, launched by the British Fourth Army at dawn on 14 July 1916, marked the start of the... The Battle of Fromelles, sometimes known as the Battle of Fleurbaix, occurred in France on July 19-20, 1916, during World War I. It was fought as the Battle of the Somme raged, about 80 kilometres (50 miles) to the south. ... The Battle of Pozières was a two week struggle for the French village of Pozières, and the ridge on which it stands, during the middle stages of the 1916 Battle of the Somme. ... Mouquet farm, Pozières by Fred Leist, 1917. ... The Battle of Guillemont was a British assault on the German-held village of Guillemont during the 1916 Battle of the Somme. ... The Battle of Ginchy took place on 9 September 1916 during the Battle of the Somme when the British 16th (Irish) Division captured the German-held village of Ginchy. ... The Battle of Flers-Courcelette, which began on 15 September 1916 and lasted for one week, was the third and last of the large-scale offensives mounted by the British Army during the Battle of the Somme. ... The Battle of Morval, which began on 25 September 1916, was an attack by the British Fourth Army on the German-held villages of Morval, Gueudecourt and Lesboeufs during the Battle of the Somme. ... The Battle of Thiepval Ridge was the first large offensive mounted by the British Reserve Army of Lieutenant General Hubert Gough during the Battle of the Somme. ... The Battle of Le Transloy was the final offensive mounted by the British Fourth Army during the 1916 Battle of the Somme. ... The Battle of the Ancre Heights was a prolonged battle of attrition in October 1916 during the Battle of the Somme. ... The Battle of the Ancre was the final act of the 1916 Battle of the Somme. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg... The following is a list of the most lethal battles in world history. ... European military alliances in 1915. ... Somme river The Somme River (French Rivière Somme) is a river in Picardy, northern France. ... Combatants France Germany Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 dead 337,000; of whom 100,000 dead The Battle of Verdun was a major battle...


While Verdun would bite deep in the national consciousness of France for generations, the Somme would have the same effect on generations of Britons. The battle is best remembered for its first day, 1 July 1916, on which the British suffered 57,470 casualties, including 19,240 dead — the bloodiest day in the history of the British Army to this day. As terrible as the battle was for the British Empire troops who suffered there, it naturally affected the other nationalities as well. One German officer famously described it as "the muddy grave of the German field army." By the end of the battle, the British had learnt many lessons in modern warfare while the Germans had suffered irreplaceable losses. British official historian Sir James Edmonds stated, "It is not too much to claim that the foundations of the final victory on the Western Front were laid by the Somme offensive of 1916." July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Brigadier General James Edward Edmonds (1861–1956) was a British First World War officer of the Royal Engineers who in the role of British official historian was responsible for the post-war compilation of the 28-volume History of the Great War. ...


For the first time the home front in Britain was exposed to the horrors of modern war with the release of the propaganda film The Battle of the Somme, which used actual footage from the first days of the battle. The Why We Fight Series depicts the Nazi propaganda machine. ... A staged advance filmed before the battle. ...

Contents

Prelude

The Allied war strategy for 1916 was largely formulated during a conference at Chantilly held between 6 December and 8 December 1915, when it was decided that for the next year, simultaneous offensives were to be be mounted by the Russians in the East, the Italians (who had by now joined the Entente) in the Alps and the Anglo-French on the Western Front, thereby assailing the Central Powers from all sides. Chantilly is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants German Empire Austria-Hungary Russian Empire Romania Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Erich Ludendorff Conrad von Hötzendorf Nikolay II Grand Duke Nicholas Constantin Prezan The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. ... Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ...


In late December 1915, General Sir Douglas Haig had replaced General Sir John French as Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF). Haig favoured a British offensive in Flanders — it was close to BEF supply routes via the Channel ports and had a strategic goal of driving the Germans from the North Sea coast of Belgium, from which their U-boats were menacing Britain. However, though there was no formal arrangement, the British were as yet the junior partner on the Western Front and had to comply with French policy. In January 1916, the French commander, General Joseph Joffre, had agreed to the BEF making their main effort in Flanders, but after further discussions in February, the decision was reached to mount a combined offensive where the French and British armies met astride the Somme River in Picardy. Field Marshal Lord Haig Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig KT GCB OM GCVO KCIE ADC (June 19, 1861 – January 28, 1928) was a British soldier and senior commander during World War I. He was commander of the British Expeditionary Force during the Battle of the Somme and the... The Earl of Ypres John Denton Pinkstone French, 1st Earl of Ypres, KP, GCB, OM, GCVO, KCMG, PC (28 September 1852–22 May 1925) was a British Field Marshal, the first commander of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in World War I. Biography Born in Ripple in Kent, the son... The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British army sent to France and Belgium in World War I and British Forces in Europe from 1939 - 1940 during World War II. The BEF was established by Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Second Boer War in case the... Flanders (Dutch: Vlaanderen) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians... Map of the English Channel Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: La Manche (IPA: ), the sleeve) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre (January 12, 1852 - January 3, 1931) was a Catalan French general who became prominent in the battles of World War I. Joffre was born in Rivesaltes, Roussillon. ... wazzup Categories: | ...

Newfoundland soldiers in support trench, 1 July 1916
Newfoundland soldiers in support trench, 1 July 1916

Plans for the joint offensive on the Somme had barely begun to take shape when the Germans launched the Battle of Verdun on 21 February 1916. As the French committed themselves to defending Verdun, their capacity to carry out their role on the Somme disappeared, and the burden shifted to the British. France would end up contributing 3 corps to the opening of the attack (the XX, I Colonial and XXXV Corps of the 6th Army).[1] As the bloodbath at Verdun dragged on, the aim of the Somme offensive changed from delivering a decisive blow against Germany to relieving the pressure on the French army. Image File history File links Newfoundland_soldiers_1916. ... Image File history File links Newfoundland_soldiers_1916. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


The original British regular army, six divisions strong at the start of the war, had been effectively wiped out by the battles of 1914 and 1915. The bulk of the army was now made up of volunteers of the Territorial Force and Lord Kitchener's New Army, which had begun forming in August 1914. The expansion of the army demanded generals for the senior commands, so promotion came at a dizzying pace and did not always reflect competence or ability. Haig himself had started the war as commander of British I Corps before commanding the British First Army and now the BEF, in effect an army group, made up of four armies (soon to be five) of 60 divisions. Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to fifteen thousand soldiers. ... In the United Kingdom the Territorial Army is a part of the British Army composed of reserve units, or part-time soldiers. ... Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener of Khartoum (June 24, 1850 - June 5, 1916) was a British Field Marshal and statesman. ... WWI recruitment poster for Kitcheners Army. ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ... The British I Corps has a long history, and was in existence as an active formation in the British Army for longer than any other corps. ... The British First Army was a field army that existed during the First and Second World Wars. ... An army group is a military organization (formation) consisting of several armies, and is supposed to be self-sufficient for indefinite periods. ...


By mid-1916, the Fokker Scourge was over, and the Royal Flying Corps had achieved air supremacy over the Somme battlefield. On the Somme front, the RFC fielded 10 squadrons and 185 aircraft against the 129 of the Germans. The British pursued a vigorous offensive policy that enabled them to spot for the artillery, via aircraft or tethered balloons, while denying the Germans the same. It was not until September that the introduction of new aircraft would swing the balance back in favour of the German Air Service once again. The Fokker Scourge, a term coined by the British press, was a period of time in World War I in the summer of 1915. ... The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of World War I. Origin and Early History Formed by Royal Warrant on May 13, 1912, the RFC superseded the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers. ... Air supremacy is the most favorable state of control of the air. ... Balloons are a type of lighter than air aircraft that remain aloft due to their buoyancy. ...


The first day on the Somme

Explosion of the Hawthorn Ridge mine, 7:20 am, 1 July 1916
Explosion of the Hawthorn Ridge mine, 7:20 am, 1 July 1916
Main article: First day on the Somme

The first day of the battle was preceded by five days of preliminary artillery bombardment in which the British fired over 1.7 million shells. Ten mines had also been dug beneath the German front-line trenches and strongpoints; the three largest mines contained about 21 tons (18 tonnes) of explosives each. Still image from the film The Battle of the Somme showing the explosion of the mine beneath Hawthorn Ridge Redoubt on July 1, 1916. ... Still image from the film The Battle of the Somme showing the explosion of the mine beneath Hawthorn Ridge Redoubt on July 1, 1916. ... The Hawthorn Ridge mine is detonated at 7. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants United Kingdom Canada Australia New Zealand South Africa Newfoundland India France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Henry Rawlinson Ferdinand Foch Fritz von Below Strength 13 British divisions 6 French divisions 6 divisions Casualties British: 57,470 French: 7,000 10,000 - 12,000 The first day on the Somme... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... Sapping, or undermining, was a siege method used in the Middle Ages against fortified castles. ... The word ton or tonne is derived from the Old English tunne, and ultimately from the Old French tonne, and referred originally to a large cask with a capacity of 252 wine gallons, which holds approximately 2100 pounds of water. ...


The attack would be made by 13 British divisions (11 from the Fourth Army and two from the Third Army) north of the Somme River and 11 divisions of the French Sixth Army astride and south of the river. They were opposed by the German Second Army of General Fritz von Below. The axis of the advance was centred on the Roman road that ran from Albert in the west to Bapaume 12 miles (19 km) to the northeast. Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to fifteen thousand soldiers. ... The British Fourth Army was a field army of the British Expeditionary Force during the First World War. ... The British Third Army was a British Army unit. ... The German Second Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... Fritz Wilhelm Theodor Karl von Below (1853-1918) was a commander in the German Army during the First World War. ... A Roman road in Pompeii Road Construction on Trajans Column The Roman roads were essential for the growth of their empire, by enabling them to move armies. ... Albert is a commune of the Somme France. ... Bapaume is a chief town of canton of northern France, in the département of Pas-de-Calais, arrondissement of Arras. ...


Zero hour for the Battle of the Somme was 07:30 on 1 July, 1916. Ten minutes prior to this, at 07:20, the mine beneath Hawthorn Ridge Redoubt was detonated by an officer. The reason he detonated the mine earlier than was planned is unknown. At 07:28, the remaining mines were exploded (except for the mine at Kasino Point, which was late). At zero hour there was a brief and unsettling silence as the artillery shifted their aim onto the next line of targets. Then, in the words of poet John Masefield: The Hawthorn Ridge mine is detonated at 7. ... A poet is some one who writes poetry. ... John Edward Masefield, OM, (1 June 1878 – 12 May 1967), was an English poet and writer, and Poet Laureate from 1930 until his death in 1967. ...

[T]he hand of time rested on the half-hour mark, and all along that old front line of the English there came a whistling and a crying. The men of the first wave climbed up the parapets, in tumult, darkness, and the presence of death, and having done with all pleasant things, advanced across No Man's Land to begin the Battle of the Somme. (The Old Front Line, 1917)

The infantry were burdened with 70 lb (32 kg) of equipment and in some cases had been instructed to form up into uniform waves and advance at a walking pace.[2] Elsewhere units had crawled out into no man's land early so that they could rush the front German trench as soon as the barrage lifted. Despite the heavy bombardment, many of the German defenders had survived, protected in deep dugouts, and they were able to inflict a terrible toll on the vulnerable infantry. No mans land is a term for a land that is not occupied or more specifically land that is under dispute between parties that will not occupy it because of fear or uncertainty. ... The Old Front Line (ISBN 0850529360) is a military history book by English poet John Masefield, first published in 1917. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Officially the pound is the name for at least three different units of mass: The pound (avoirdupois). ...

British infantry attack plan for 1 July. The only success came in the south at Mametz and Montauban and on the French sector.
British infantry attack plan for 1 July. The only success came in the south at Mametz and Montauban and on the French sector.

North of the Albert-Bapaume road, the advance was almost a complete failure from the outset. In a few places the attackers got into the German front line trench system or even the support line, but invariably their numbers were too few to withstand the German counter-attacks. As the German defensive barrage descended on no man's land, it became impossible for reinforcements to get through or for reports to get back. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x952, 64 KB)British infantry attack plan for 1 July 1916, the first day on the Somme. British and French front line shown in red, German front line shown in blue. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x952, 64 KB)British infantry attack plan for 1 July 1916, the first day on the Somme. British and French front line shown in red, German front line shown in blue. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Montauban-de-Picardie is a village in the Somme département, Picardy region of Northern France. ...


Communications were completely inadequate, and commanders were largely ignorant of the progress of the battle. A mistaken report that the 29th Division had succeeded at Beaumont Hamel led to the reserve brigade being ordered forward in support. The 1st Newfoundland Regiment was unable to reach the forward trenches, so it advanced from the reserve trench. Most of the battalion was wiped out before it crossed the front line, and it suffered 91% casualties, the second worst battalion loss of the day. The British 29th Division, known as the Incomparable Division, was a First World War regular army infantry division formed in early 1915 by combining various units that had been acting as garrisons about the British Empire. ... The Newfoundland Memorial at Beaumont Hamel Beaumont-Hamel is a commune of the Somme département, in northern France. ... The Royal Newfoundland Regiment is a militia unit of the Canadian Armed Forces. ...


British progress astride the Albert-Bapaume road was likewise a failure, despite the explosion of the two mines at La Boisselle. Here another tragic advance was made by the Tyneside Irish Brigade of the 34th Division which started nearly one mile from the German front line, in full view of the defenders' machine guns, and was effectively wiped out before it reached its own friendly forward trench line. Ovillers-la-Boisselle is a commune of the Somme département in northern France. ... The Tyneside Irish Brigade was a British First World War infantry brigade of Kitcheners Army, raised in 1914. ... The British 34th Division was a New Army division formed in April France on January 1916 and spent the duration of the First World War in action on the Western Front. ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ...


In the sector south of the road, the French divisions had greater success. Here the German defences were relatively weak, and the French artillery, which was superior in numbers and experience to the British, was highly effective. From the town of Montauban to the Somme River, all the first day objectives were reached. Though the French XX Corps was to only act in a supporting role in this sector, in the event they would help lead the way. South of the Somme, French forces fared very well, surpassing their intended objectives. The I Colonial Corps departed their trenches at 9:30 am as part of a feint meant to lure the Germans opposite into a false sense of security. The feint was successful as, like the French divisions to the north, they too advanced easily. In under an hour, they had stormed Fay, Dompierre, Becquincourt and attained a foothold on the Flaucourt plateau. The entire German first line was in French hands. By 1100 hrs, the second line –– marked by Assevillers, Herbecourt and Feuillères –– was reached without even having to send in reserves. To the right of the Colonial Corps, the XXXV Corps also attacked at 9:30 am but, having only one division in the first line, had made less progress. Nevertheless, all first-day objectives were met. The Germans trenches had been completely pulverized. The enemy had been completely surprised by the infantry attack. On the north bank, the French had advanced 1.5 km and on the south, 2 km. Montauban-de-Picardie is a village in the Somme département, Picardy region of Northern France. ...

A wounded man of the Newfoundland Regiment is brought in at Beaumont Hamel
A wounded man of the Newfoundland Regiment is brought in at Beaumont Hamel

Some British divisions managed to perform extremely well; according to Middlebrook: Image File history File links Battle_of_Albert. ... Image File history File links Battle_of_Albert. ... The First Day on the Somme (ISBN 0141390719) is a First World War military history book by Martin Middlebrook, published in 1971. ...

The leading battalions (of the 36th (Ulster) Division) had been ordered out from the wood just before 7.30 A.M. and laid down near the German trenches...At zero hour the British barrage lifted. Bugles blew the "Advance". Up sprang the Ulstermen and, without forming up in the waves adopted by other divisions, they rushed the German front line.....By a combination of sensible tactics and Ulster dash, the prize that eluded so many, the capture of a long section of the German front line, had been accomplished.

And in another sector, according to Middlebrook: The British 36th (Ulster) Division was a New Army division formed in September 1914. ... The First Day on the Somme (ISBN 0141390719) is a First World War military history book by Martin Middlebrook, published in 1971. ...

At Gommecourt...Attacking from the south, the 56th (London) Division had performed brilliantly. Making use of the new trench they had dug in No Man's Land and a smoke-screen, four battalions had captured the whole of the German front-line system.

Overall, however, the first day on the Somme was a failure. The British had suffered 19,240 dead, 35,493 wounded, 2,152 missing and 585 prisoners for a total loss of 57,470. Initial casualties were especially heavy among officers, who still dressed differently from non-commissioned officers and other ranks, and whose uniforms the Germans had been trained to recognize. A non-commissioned officer (sometimes noncommissioned officer), also known as an NCO or noncom, is a non-commissioned member of an armed force who has been given authority by a commissioned officer. ...


An exact count of German casualties for 1 July is difficult to make, because German units only submitted casualty returns every 10 days. It is estimated that the Germans suffered 8,000 casualties on the British front of which 2,200 were prisoners of war. The disparity between British and German casualties was highest at Ovillers, where the British 8th Division suffered 5,121 casualties while the defending German 180th Regiment had only 280 casualties — a ratio of 18 to 1. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The British 8th Infantry Division was a World War II division. ...


Aftermath of the first day

An aerial view of the Somme battlefield in July, taken from a British balloon near Bécourt.
An aerial view of the Somme battlefield in July, taken from a British balloon near Bécourt.

At 22:00 on 1 July, the commander of the British Fourth Army, Lieutenant-General Henry Rawlinson, had issued orders for the attack to be resumed. Confusion and poor communications through the extended chain of command meant it was some days before the British leaders realised the scale of the disaster. Haig appointed Lieutenant-General Hubert Gough to take over the northern sector while the Fourth Army dealt with the southern sector. Gough recognised the fiasco on his sector and prevented an immediate resumption of the offensive — operations would not resume until 3 July. Photo of the Somme battlefield taken from a British observation kite-balloon, July 1916. ... Photo of the Somme battlefield taken from a British observation kite-balloon, July 1916. ... Balloons are a type of lighter than air aircraft that remain aloft due to their buoyancy. ... The British Fourth Army was a field army of the British Expeditionary Force during the First World War. ... General Henry Rawlinson at Fourth Army HQ, Querrieu Chateau, July 1916. ... Sir Hubert de la Poer Gough (August 12, 1870–1963) was a British World War I general who commanded the British Fifth Army from 1916 to 1918. ... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ...


The British were also ignorant of opportunities that existed south of the Albert-Bapaume road where they had achieved partial success. It is now known that there existed for a time a large gap in the German defences between Ovillers (on the road) and Longueval. On 3 July a reconnaissance patrol from the 18th (Eastern) Division ranged two miles into German territory without encountering an established defensive position. However, the opportunity was missed or the British lacked the resources to exploit it, and the Germans were able to fill the gap in time. Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... The British 18th (Eastern) Division was a New Army division formed in September 1914 as part of the K2 Army Group. ...


Mametz Wood was still vacant on 3 July but was reoccupied by the Germans the following day and would not be captured until 10 July after two costly attempts. Places such as High Wood and Delville Wood, there for the taking in the aftermath of the first day, would require an enormous expenditure of lives before they were eventually captured in August and September. In August Rawlinson wrote of the period 1–4 July: July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... High Wood is a small forest near Bazentin le Petit in the Somme département of northern France which was the scene of intense fighting for two months from 14 July to 15 September 1916 during the Battle of the Somme. ... Remains of a German trench in Delville Wood, September 1916. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ...

These four days would in all probability have enabled us to gain full possession of the hostile third line of defence, which was at that time less than half finished... It makes me sick to think of the "might have beens".

As the British struggled to jump-start their offensive, the French continued their rapid advance south of the Somme. 3 July - 4 July was the critical point in the offensive when the possibility of a breakthrough actually seemed achievable. But just as quickly as it appeared, it began to slip away. When the XX Corps was forced to halt its advance on the north bank in order to wait for the British to catch up, a simmering hostility toward the British rose up among the rank and file of the French army. Elsewhere, the I Colonial Corps pressed on and by the end of 3 July Frise, Méréaucourt Wood, Herbécourt, Buscourt, Chapitre Wood, Flaucourt, and Asseviller were all in French hands. In so doing, 8,000 Germans had been made prisoner, while the taking of the Flaucourt plateau would allow Foch to move heavy artillery up to support the XX Corps on the north bank. The French continued their advance on July 5 as Hem was taken. On 8 July Hardecourt-aux-Bois and Monacu Farm (a veritable fortress, surrounded by hidden machine-gun nests in the nearby marsh) both fell. On 9 July -10 July, Biaches, Maisonnette and Fortress Biaches. July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ...


Thus, in ten days of fighting, on nearly a 20 km (12.5 mile) front, the French 6th Army had progressed as far as 10 km at points. It had occupied the entire Flaucourt plateau (which constituted the principal defense of Péronne) while taking 12,000 prisoners, 85 canons, 26 minenwerfers, 100 machine-guns, and other assorted materials, all with relatively minimal losses.


For the British, the first two weeks of the battle had descended into a series of disjointed, small-scale actions, ostensibly in preparation for making a major push. Between 3 July and 13 July Rawlinson's Fourth Army carried out 46 "actions" resulting in 25,000 casualties but no significant advance. This demonstrated a difference in strategy between Haig and his French counterparts and was a source of friction. Haig's purpose was to maintain continual pressure on the enemy while Joffre and Foch preferred to conserve their strength in preparation for a single, heavy blow. July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ...


In one significant respect, the Battle of the Somme was a major strategic success for the British as on 12 July, in response to the Somme fighting and the situation in the east, Falkenhayn called off the German offensive at Verdun. While the fighting would continue there until December, it would be the French who dictated the course of the battle. July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ...


On the Somme, von Below's Second Army would not be able to endure the continued British and French pressure alone. Each front line German division was being attacked by three or four Allied divisions. On 19 July, the German forces were reorganised with von Below taking command of the German First Army, responsible for the northern sector, and General Max von Gallwitz taking over the Second Army which covered the southern sector. In addition, von Gallwitz was made army group commander responsible for both German armies on the Somme. July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... The German First Army (German: ) was a World War I and World War II field army. ... Categories: Stub | German World War I people ... An army group is a military organization (formation) consisting of several armies, and is supposed to be self-sufficient for indefinite periods. ...


As early as 2 July, seven German divisions were on their way to the Somme as reinforcements, and seven more were on their way within another week. In July and August the Germans poured in 35 extra divisions on the British sectors and a further seven divisions on the French sector. The combined pressure on Germany meant that Oberste Heeresleitung (OHL, army high command) had only one division left in reserve by August. July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... The Oberste Heeresleitung or OHL (Supreme Army Command) was the highest echelon of command of the German army in World War I, while the Navy was led by the Seekriegsleitung or SKL, (Naval Warfare Command). ...


The British had hoped to stem this flow of German reinforcements to the Somme from other sectors of the front. To do this a series of raids and demonstrations were carried out with the aim of "pinning" the German divisions to the front. The largest and most infamous of these was the Battle of Fromelles, 19 July - 20 July, opposite Aubers Ridge in Artois. For the cost of 7,080 Australian and British casualties, no ground was captured and no halt was made to the withdrawal of German divisions from Artois to the Somme. The Battle of Fromelles, sometimes known as the Battle of Fleurbaix, occurred in France on July 19-20, 1916, during World War I. It was fought as the Battle of the Somme raged, about 80 kilometres (50 miles) to the south. ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... Artois is a former province of northern France. ...


Battle of Bazentin Ridge

Main article: Battle of Bazentin Ridge

On 14 July (Bastille Day) the Fourth Army was finally ready to resume the offensive in the southern sector. The attack, known as the Battle of Bazentin Ridge, was aimed at capturing the German second defensive position which ran along the crest of the ridge from Pozières, on the Albert–Bapaume road, southeast towards the villages of Guillemont and Ginchy. The objectives were the villages of Bazentin le Petit, Bazentin le Grand and Longueval, which was adjacent to Delville Wood. Beyond this line, on the reverse slope of the ridge, lay High Wood. Combatants United Kingdom South Africa German Empire Commanders Henry Rawlinson Fritz von Below Strength 5 divisions 2 divisions Casualties 9,000 dead, wounded, or missing 1,400 captured The Battle of Bazentin Ridge, launched by the British Fourth Army at dawn on 14 July 1916, marked the start of the... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... The Champs-Élysées decorated with flags for the 14 July. ... Combatants United Kingdom South Africa German Empire Commanders Henry Rawlinson Fritz von Below Strength 5 divisions 2 divisions Casualties 9,000 dead, wounded, or missing 1,400 captured The Battle of Bazentin Ridge, launched by the British Fourth Army at dawn on 14 July 1916, marked the start of the... Pozières is a village in Somme, France. ... Guillemont is a small village roughly 8 miles east of Albert in the Somme district of France. ... Remains of a German trench in Delville Wood, September 1916. ... High Wood is a small forest near Bazentin le Petit in the Somme département of northern France which was the scene of intense fighting for two months from 14 July to 15 September 1916 during the Battle of the Somme. ...

The British 21st Division attack on Bazentin le Petit, 14 July 1916. The area captured by 9.00 am is shown by the dashed red line.

There is considerable contrast between the preparation and execution of this attack and that of 1 July. The attack on Bazentin Ridge was made by four divisions on a front of 6,000 yards with the troops going over before dawn at 03:25 after a surprise five minute artillery bombardment. The artillery laid down a creeping barrage, and the attacking waves pushed up close behind it in no man's land, leaving them only a short distance to cross when the barrage lifted from the Germans' front trench. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x632, 113 KB)Map of Bazentin le Petit sector on the morning of 14 July 1916, Battle of Bazentin Ridge, showing the German second defensive position. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x632, 113 KB)Map of Bazentin le Petit sector on the morning of 14 July 1916, Battle of Bazentin Ridge, showing the German second defensive position. ... The British 21st Division was a New Army division raised in September France in September 1915 and served on the Western Front for the duration of the First World War. ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Rolling barrage is a military tactic in which massed artillery support an infantry advance by firing continuously at positions just in front of the advancing troops. ...


By mid-morning, the first phase of the attack was a success with nearly all objectives taken, and as on 1 July, a gap was made in the German defences. However, again as on 1 July, the British were unable to successfully exploit it. Their attempt to do so created the most famous cavalry action of the Battle of the Somme when the 7th Dragoon Guards and the 2nd Deccan Horse attempted to capture High Wood. It is likely that the wood could have been captured by the infantry in the morning, but by the time the cavalry were in position to attack, the Germans had begun to recover. Though the cavalry held on in the wood through the night of 14 July, they had to withdraw the following day. Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ...


The British had a foothold in High Wood and would continue to fight over it as well as Delville Wood, neighbouring Longueval, for many days. Unfortunately for them, the successful opening of the 14 July attack did not mean they had learnt how to conduct trench battles. On the night of 22–23 July, Rawlinson launched an attack using six divisions along the length of the Fourth Army front which failed completely. The Germans were learning; they had begun to move away from the trench-based defences and towards a flexible defence in depth system of strongpoints that was difficult for the supporting artillery to suppress. Defence in depth is a military strategy sometimes also called elastic defence. ...


Pozières and Mouquet Farm

Main articles: Battle of PozièresBattle of Mouquet Farm

No significant progress was made in the northern sector in the first few weeks of July. Ovillers, just north of the Albert-Bapaume road, was not captured until 16 July. Its capture, and the foothold the British had obtained in the German second position on 14 July, meant that the chance now existed for the German northern defences to be taken in the flank. The key to this was Pozières. The Battle of Pozières was a two week struggle for the French village of Pozières, and the ridge on which it stands, during the middle stages of the 1916 Battle of the Somme. ... Mouquet farm, Pozières by Fred Leist, 1917. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... Pozières is a village in Somme, France. ...


The village of Pozières lay on the Albert-Bapaume road at the crest of the ridge. Just behind (east) the village ran the trenches of the German second position. The Fourth Army made three attempts to seize the village between 14 July and 17 July before Haig relieved Rawlinson's army of responsibility for its northern flank. The capture of Pozières became a task for Gough's Reserve Army, and the tool he would use was the three Australian divisions of I Anzac Corps. July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... The British Reserve Army was a field army of the British Expeditionary Force during the First World War. ... The I Anzac Corps was an Australian and New Zealand World War I army corps formed in Egypt in February 1916 as part of the reorganization of the Australian Imperial Force following the evacuation of Gallipoli in November 1915. ...

The ruins of Pozières looking north, 28 August.
The ruins of Pozières looking north, 28 August.

Gough wanted the Australian 1st Division to attack immediately, but the division's British commander, Major General Harold Walker, refused to send his men in without adequate preparation. The attack was scheduled for the night of 23 July to coincide with the Fourth Army attack of 22 – 23 July. A photo of the French village of Pozières taken 28 August 1916 during the Battle of the Somme. ... A photo of the French village of Pozières taken 28 August 1916 during the Battle of the Somme. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... The Australian 1st Division was formed in August 1914, at the outbreak of the First World War, as part of the Australian Imperial Force. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Lieutenant-General Sir Harold Bridgwood Walker (KCB, KCMG, DSO) (26 April 1862–5 November 1934) was an English general who led Australian and New Zealand forces during the First World War. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 161 days remaining. ...


Going in shortly after midnight, the attack on Pozières was a success, largely thanks to Walker's insistence on careful preparation and an overwhelming supporting bombardment; however, an attempt to capture the neighbouring German second position failed, though two Australians were awarded the Victoria Cross in the attempt. The Germans, recognising the critical importance of the village to their defensive network, made three unsuccessful counter-attacks before beginning a prolonged and methodical bombardment of the village. The final German effort to reclaim Pozières came before dawn on 7 August following a particularly heavy bombardment. The Germans overran the forward Australian defences, and a wild mêlée developed from which the Australians emerged victorious. Victoria Cross medal, ribbon, and bar. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ...


Gough planned to drive north along the ridge towards Mouquet Farm, allowing him to threaten the German bastion of Thiepval from the rear. However, the further the Australians advanced, the deeper was the salient they created such that the German artillery could concentrate on them from three directions. Categories: Stub | Battles of the Somme 1916 ... This article is about the Thiepval village and memorial, for other uses see Thiepval (disambiguation) Thiepval is a village in the Somme département, Picardy region of Northern France. ... In military terms, a salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory. ...

The plateau north and east of Pozières, 28 August.
The plateau north and east of Pozières, 28 August.

On 8 August the Australians began pushing north along the ridge with the British II Corps advancing from Ovillers on their left. By 10 August a line had been established just south of the farm, which the Germans had turned into a fortress with deep dugouts and tunnels connecting to distant redoubts. The Australians made numerous attempts to capture the farm between 12 August and 3 September, inching closer with each attempt; however, the German garrison held out. The Australians were relieved by the Canadian Corps, who would briefly capture Mouquet Farm on 16 September, the day after the next major British offensive. The farm was finally overrun on 26 September, and the garrison surrendered the following day. View from Centre Way trench on the plateau north of Pozières looking east towards the first trench of the German second position, known as Old German 1 or OG1, which runs along the horizon. ... View from Centre Way trench on the plateau north of Pozières looking east towards the first trench of the German second position, known as Old German 1 or OG1, which runs along the horizon. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... The British II Corps was formed in both World War I and World War II. During WWII its first assignment was to the British Expeditionary Force where it was commanded by Alan Brooke (from whose name it took its insignia of a red leaping salmon upon three wavy blue bands... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Canadian Corps was a World War I Canadas soldiers in September of 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 96 days remaining. ...


In the fighting at Pozières and Mouquet Farm, the three Australian divisions suffered over 23,000 casualties. If the losses from Fromelles on 19 July are included, Australia had sustained more casualties in six weeks in France than they had in the eight months of the Battle of Gallipoli. The Battle of Fromelles, sometimes known as the Battle of Fleurbaix, occurred in France on July 19-20, 1916, during World War I. It was fought as the Battle of the Somme raged, about 80 kilometres (50 miles) to the south. ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Dominion of Canada France Turkey (Ottoman Empire) Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions The Battle of Gallipoli (sometimes referred to as the first D-Day) took place on...


Attrition: August and September

Main articles: Battle of GuillemontBattle of Ginchy
Men from The Wiltshire Regiment attacking near Thiepval, 7 August.
Men from The Wiltshire Regiment attacking near Thiepval, 7 August.

By the start of August, Haig had accepted that the prospect of achieving a breakthrough was now unlikely; the Germans had "recovered to a great extent from the disorganisation" of July. For the next six weeks, the British would engage in a series of small-scale actions in preparation for the next major push. On 29 August the German Chief of the General Staff, Erich Falkenhayn, was replaced by General Paul von Hindenburg, with General Erich Ludendorff as his deputy, but in effect the operational commander. The immediate effect of this change was the introduction of a new defensive doctrine. On 23 September the Germans began constructing the Siegfried Stellung, called the Hindenburg Line by the British. The Battle of Guillemont was a British assault on the German-held village of Guillemont during the 1916 Battle of the Somme. ... The Battle of Ginchy took place on 9 September 1916 during the Battle of the Somme when the British 16th (Irish) Division captured the German-held village of Ginchy. ... Download high resolution version (1380x1079, 212 KB)British infantry from The Wiltshire Regiment attacking near Thiepval, 7 August 1916, during the Battle of the Somme. ... Download high resolution version (1380x1079, 212 KB)British infantry from The Wiltshire Regiment attacking near Thiepval, 7 August 1916, during the Battle of the Somme. ... This article is about the Thiepval village and memorial, for other uses see Thiepval (disambiguation) Thiepval is a village in the Somme département, Picardy region of Northern France. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German Field Marshal and statesman. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as Erich von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, noted as a general during World War I. // Ludendorff was born in Kruszewnia near Posen, Prussia (now PoznaÅ„, Poland). ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... The Hindenburg Line was a vast system of defences in Northern France constructed by the Germans during the winter of 1916– 17 during World War I; the Germans called it the Siegfried Line. ...


On the Fourth Army's front, the struggle for High Wood, Delville Wood and the Switch Line dragged on. The boundary between the British and French armies lay southeast of Delville Wood, beyond the villages of Guillemont and Ginchy. Here the British line had not progressed significantly since the first day of the battle, and the two armies were in echelon, making progress impossible until the villages were captured. The first British effort to seize Guillemont on 8 August was a debacle. On 18 August, a larger effort began, involving three British corps as well as the French, but it took until 3 September before Guillemont was in British hands. Attention now turned to Ginchy, which was captured by the 16th (Irish) Division on 9 September. The French had also made progress, and once Ginchy fell, the two armies were linked near Combles. High Wood is a small forest near Bazentin le Petit in the Somme département of northern France which was the scene of intense fighting for two months from 14 July to 15 September 1916 during the Battle of the Somme. ... Remains of a German trench in Delville Wood, September 1916. ... The Battle of Guillemont was a British assault on the German-held village of Guillemont during the 1916 Battle of the Somme. ... The Battle of Ginchy took place on 9 September 1916 during the Battle of the Somme when the British 16th (Irish) Division captured the German-held village of Ginchy. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 16th (Irish) Division was a division of the New Army, raised in Ireland from the Irish National Volunteers in September 1914 as part of the K2 Army Group. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ...

A demolished German trench and dugout near Guillemont.
A demolished German trench and dugout near Guillemont.

The British now had an almost straight front line from near Mouquet Farm in the northwest to Combles in the southeast, providing a suitable jumping-off position for another large scale attack. In 1916, a straight front was considered necessary to enable the supporting artillery to lay down an effective creeping barrage behind which the infantry could advance. German dead in a trench and dugout near Guillemont during the Battle of the Somme. ... German dead in a trench and dugout near Guillemont during the Battle of the Somme. ... Guillemont is a small village roughly 8 miles east of Albert in the Somme district of France. ...


This intermediate phase of the Battle of the Somme had been costly for the Fourth Army, despite there being no major offensive. Between 15 July and 14 September (the eve of the next battle), the Fourth Army made around 90 attacks of battalion strength or more with only four being general attacks across the length of the army's 5 miles of front. The result was 82,000 casualties and an advance of approximately 1,000 yards—a performance even worse than 1 July. July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols A battalion is a military unit usually consisting of between two and six companies and typically commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel. ... This article is about the unit of measure known as the yard. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ...


Debut of the Tank

Main articles: Battle of Flers-Courcelette – Battle of Morval
C-15, a British Mark I "male" tank, 25 September 1916.
C-15, a British Mark I "male" tank, 25 September 1916.

The last great Allied effort to achieve a breakthrough came on 15 September in the Battle of Flers-Courcelette with the initial advance made by 11 British divisions (nine from Fourth Army, two Canadian divisions on the Reserve Army sector) and a later attack by four French corps. The Battle of Flers-Courcelette, which began on 15 September 1916 and lasted for one week, was the third and last of the large-scale offensives mounted by the British Army during the Battle of the Somme. ... The Battle of Morval, which began on 25 September 1916, was an attack by the British Fourth Army on the German-held villages of Morval, Gueudecourt and Lesboeufs during the Battle of the Somme. ... An early model British Mark I male tank, named C-15, near Thiepval, 25 September 1916. ... An early model British Mark I male tank, named C-15, near Thiepval, 25 September 1916. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... The Battle of Flers-Courcelette, which began on 15 September 1916 and lasted for one week, was the third and last of the large-scale offensives mounted by the British Army during the Battle of the Somme. ...


The battle is chiefly remembered today as the debut of the tank. The British had high hopes that this secret weapon would break the deadlock of the trenches. Early tanks were not weapons of mobile warfare — with a top speed of 2 mph (3.2 km/h), they were easily outpaced by the infantry — but were designed for trench warfare. They were untroubled by barbed wire obstacles and impervious to rifle and machine gun fire, though highly vulnerable to artillery. Additionally, the tanks were notoriously unreliable; of the 49 tanks available on 15 September, only 32 made it to the start line, and of these, only 21 made it into action. Mechanical breakdowns were common, and many others became bogged or ditched in the shell holes and trenches of the churned battlefield. Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ... A selection of forms of barbed wire. ... A rifle is a firearm with a stock and a barrel that has a spiral groove or grooves (rifling) cut into its interior. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ...

New Zealand infantry in the Switch Line.
New Zealand infantry in the Switch Line.

The British made gains across the length of their front, the greatest being in the centre at Flers with an advance of 3,500 yards, a feat achieved by the newest British division in France, the 41st Division, in their first action. They were later joined by the tank D-17, giving rise to the optimistic press report: "A tank is walking up the High Street of Flers with the British Army cheering behind." Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (970x636, 526 KB) Infantry from the 2nd Battalion, Auckland Regiment, New Zealand Division in the Switch Line near Flers, taken some time in September 1916, after the Battle of Flers-Courcelette. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (970x636, 526 KB) Infantry from the 2nd Battalion, Auckland Regiment, New Zealand Division in the Switch Line near Flers, taken some time in September 1916, after the Battle of Flers-Courcelette. ... Flers is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Flers, a former commune of the Nord département, now part of Villeneuve dAscq Flers, in the Orne département Flers, in the Pas-de-Calais département Flers, in the Somme département Flers... The British 41st Division was a New Army division formed in September 1915 as part of the K5 Army. ...


It was also the first major Western Front battle for the New Zealand Division, at the time part of the British XV Corps, which captured part of the Switch Line west of Flers. On the left flank, the Canadian 2nd Division captured the village of Courcelette after heavy fighting, with some assistance from tanks. And finally after two months of fighting, the British captured all of High Wood, though not without another costly struggle. The plan was to use tanks in support of infantry from the 47th (1/2nd London) Division, but the wood was an impassable landscape of shattered stumps and shell holes, and only one tank managed to penetrate any distance. The German defenders were forced to abandon High Wood once British progress on the flanks threatened to encircle them. The New Zealand Division was a World War I division formed in Egypt in January 1916 following the evacuation of Gallipoli. ... The Canadian Corps - 2nd Canadian Division – World War I The formation of the 2nd Canadian Division began in May of 1915 in France in September of 1915. ... High Wood is a small forest near Bazentin le Petit in the Somme département of northern France which was the scene of intense fighting for two months from 14 July to 15 September 1916 during the Battle of the Somme. ... The British 47th (1/2nd London) Division was a first_line Territorial Force division. ...

British infantry advancing near Ginchy during the Battle of Morval, 25 September.
British infantry advancing near Ginchy during the Battle of Morval, 25 September.

The British had managed to advance during Flers-Courcelette, capturing 4,500 yards of the German third position, but fell short of all their objectives, and once again the breakthrough eluded them. The tank had shown promise, but its lack of reliability limited its impact, and the tactics of tank warfare were obviously in their infancy. British infantry advancing in support during the Battle of Morval, 25 September 1916 -- part of the Battle of the Somme. ... British infantry advancing in support during the Battle of Morval, 25 September 1916 -- part of the Battle of the Somme. ... The Battle of Morval, which began on 25 September 1916, was an attack by the British Fourth Army on the German-held villages of Morval, Gueudecourt and Lesboeufs during the Battle of the Somme. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Military tactics is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ...


The least successful sector on 15 September had been east of Ginchy where the Quadrilateral redoubt had held up the advance towards Morval — the Quadrilateral was not captured until 18 September. Another attack was planned for 25 September with the objectives of the villages of Gueudecourt, Lesbœufs and Morval. Like the 14 July Battle of Bazentin Ridge, the limited objectives, concentrated artillery and weak German defences resulted in a successful attack. On this occasion the tanks remained in reserve. In geometry, a quadrilateral is a polygon with four sides and four vertices. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The town of Gueudecourt had comprised one of the most distant objectives for the British drive that opened on September 15, 1916, a drive that has come to be known as the Battle of Flers-Courcelette. ... LesbÅ“ufs is a commune of the Somme département in northern France. ... Combatants United Kingdom South Africa German Empire Commanders Henry Rawlinson Fritz von Below Strength 5 divisions 2 divisions Casualties 9,000 dead, wounded, or missing 1,400 captured The Battle of Bazentin Ridge, launched by the British Fourth Army at dawn on 14 July 1916, marked the start of the...


The final phase

Main articles: Battle of Thiepval RidgeBattle of Le TransloyBattle of the Ancre HeightsBattle of the Ancre
Stretcher bearers recovering wounded during the Battle of Thiepval Ridge, September 1916.
Stretcher bearers recovering wounded during the Battle of Thiepval Ridge, September 1916.

On 26 September Gough's Reserve Army launched its first major offensive since the opening day of the battle in an attempt to capture the German fortress of Thiepval. The 18th (Eastern) Division, which had excelled on 1 July, once more demonstrated by capturing most of Thiepval on the first day that careful training, preparation and leadership could overcome the obstacles of trench warfare. Mouquet Farm finally fell to the 11th (Northern) Division, and the Canadians advanced 1,000 yards (1 km) from Courcelette. The Battle of Thiepval Ridge was the first large offensive mounted by the British Reserve Army of Lieutenant General Hubert Gough during the Battle of the Somme. ... The Battle of Le Transloy was the final offensive mounted by the British Fourth Army during the 1916 Battle of the Somme. ... The Battle of the Ancre Heights was a prolonged battle of attrition in October 1916 during the Battle of the Somme. ... The Battle of the Ancre was the final act of the 1916 Battle of the Somme. ... British stretcher bearers recovering a wounded soldier from a captured German trench during the Battle of Thiepval Ridge, late September 1916, part of the Battle of the Somme. ... British stretcher bearers recovering a wounded soldier from a captured German trench during the Battle of Thiepval Ridge, late September 1916, part of the Battle of the Somme. ... The Battle of Thiepval Ridge was the first large offensive mounted by the British Reserve Army of Lieutenant General Hubert Gough during the Battle of the Somme. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 96 days remaining. ... This article is about the Thiepval village and memorial, for other uses see Thiepval (disambiguation) Thiepval is a village in the Somme département, Picardy region of Northern France. ... The British 18th (Eastern) Division was a New Army division formed in September 1914 as part of the K2 Army Group. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Categories: Stub | Battles of the Somme 1916 ... The British 11th (Northern) Division, was one of the Kitcheners Army divisions raised from volunteers by Lord Kitchener, it fought at Gallipoli and the Western Front during the First World War. ...


There followed a period from 1 October to 11 November, known as the Battle of the Ancre Heights, of grinding attritional fighting for little gain. At the end of October, Gough's army was renamed the British Fifth Army. October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... The Battle of the Ancre Heights was a prolonged battle of attrition in October 1916 during the Battle of the Somme. ... The British Fifth Army was a field army of the British Expeditionary Force during the First World War. ...


Meanwhile on the Fourth Army's front, Haig was still under the illusion that a breakthrough was imminent. On 29 September he had outlined plans for Allenby's Third Army to rejoin the battle in the north around Gommecourt and for the Fourth Army to attack towards Cambrai. The first step required the capture of the German Transloy Line, effectively the German fourth defensive position that ran from the village of Le Transloy in the east to Le Sars on the Albert-Bapaume road. September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (April 23, 1861 - May 14, 1936) was a British soldier and administrator most famous for his role during World War I, in which he led the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in the conquest of Palestine and Syria in 1917... The British Third Army was a British Army unit. ... Cambrai (Dutch: Kamerijk) is a French city and commune, in the Nord département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ...


Opening on 1 October, the Battle of Le Transloy became bogged down as the weather broke, and heavy rain turned the churned battlefield into a quagmire. Le Sars was captured on 7 October, but elsewhere there was little progress and a continual flow of casualties. The final throe came on 5 November with a failed attack on the Butte de Warlencourt. On the Fourth Army's front, major operations in the Battle of the Somme had now ceased. October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Battle of Le Transloy was the final offensive mounted by the British Fourth Army during the 1916 Battle of the Somme. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... The Butte de Warlencourt is an ancient burial mound alongside the Albert-Bapaume road, north-east of the village of Le Sars in the Somme département of northern France. ...

Mametz, Western Front, a winter scene by Frank Crozier.

The final act of the Battle of the Somme was played out between 13–18 November along the Ancre River, north of Thiepval. Haig's purpose for the attack was more political than military — with winter setting in, there was no longer any prospect of a breakthrough. Instead, with another conference at Chantilly starting on 15 November, he hoped to be able to report of success to his French counterparts. Download high resolution version (1200x738, 125 KB)Mametz, Western Front: men, animals and supplies in snow covered valley, 1919 oil-on-canvas by Frank Crozier, Australian official war artist. ... Download high resolution version (1200x738, 125 KB)Mametz, Western Front: men, animals and supplies in snow covered valley, 1919 oil-on-canvas by Frank Crozier, Australian official war artist. ... For other senses of this word, see winter (disambiguation). ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 46 days remaining. ...


The opening moves were almost a replay of 1 July, even down to another mine being detonated beneath Hawthorn Ridge Redoubt west of Beaumont Hamel. The 31st Division had attacked Serre on 1 July and four and a half months later was called on to do it again; the results were similar. South of Serre the British, with the benefit of their hard-earned experience, succeeded in capturing most of their objectives. The 51st (Highland) Division took Beaumont Hamel while on their right the 63rd (Royal Naval) Division captured Beaucourt, Lieutenant Colonel Bernard Freyberg winning the Victoria Cross in the process. South of the Ancre II Corps had also made progress. The Hawthorn Ridge mine is detonated at 7. ... The Newfoundland Memorial at Beaumont Hamel Beaumont-Hamel is a commune of the Somme département, in northern France. ... The British 31st Division was a New Army division formed in April 1915 as part of the K4 Army Group and taken over by the War Office on 10 August 1915. ... The British 51st (Highland) Division was a Territorial Force division that fought on the Western Front in France during the First World War. ... The British 63rd (Royal Naval) Division was a First World War division of the New Army. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... The Rt Hon. ... Victoria Cross medal, ribbon, and bar. ... The British II Corps was formed in both World War I and World War II. During WWII its first assignment was to the British Expeditionary Force where it was commanded by Alan Brooke (from whose name it took its insignia of a red leaping salmon upon three wavy blue bands...


Haig was satisfied with the result, but Gough argued for a final effort which was made on 18 November with an attack on the Munich and Frankfurt Trenches and a push towards Grandcourt. Ninety men of the 16th Battalion, Highland Light Infantry (the "Glasgow Boys Brigade" Pals battalion) were cut-off in Frankfurt Trench where they held out until 21 November when the 45 survivors — 30 of them wounded — surrendered. So ended the Battle of the Ancre and with it the Battle of the Somme. November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Highland Light Infantry later the Highland Light Infantry (City of Glasgow Regiment) was a regiment of the British Army. ... The Pals battalions of World War I were units of the British Army that consisted of men who had enlisted together at special local recruiting drives, with the promise that they would be able to serve alongside their friends, neighbours and work colleagues (Pals) rather than having to be mixed... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Battle of the Ancre was the final act of the 1916 Battle of the Somme. ...


The Conclusion

Progress of the Battle of the Somme between 1 July and 18 November.

It is difficult to declare the Battle of the Somme a victory for either side. The British and French did succeed in capturing ground but little more than 5 miles (8 km) at the deepest point of penetration, well short of their original objectives. Taking a long-term view, the Battle of the Somme delivered more benefits for the British than it did for the Germans. As British historian Gary Sheffield said, "The battle of the Somme was not a victory in itself, but without it the Entente would not have emerged victorious in 1918." Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x990, 62 KB)Map of the Somme battlefield, 1916, showing the frontline before the three major offensives of 1 & 14 July and 15 September as well as the final frontline at the end of the battle of 18 November. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x990, 62 KB)Map of the Somme battlefield, 1916, showing the frontline before the three major offensives of 1 & 14 July and 15 September as well as the final frontline at the end of the battle of 18 November. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... European military alliances in 1915. ...


Strategic effects

Prior to the battle, Germany had regarded Britain as a naval power and discounted her as a military force to be reckoned with, believing Germany's major enemies were France and Russia. Starting with the Somme, Britain began to gain influence in the coalition, especially following the mutinies in the French army in 1917. In recognition of the growing threat Britain posed, on 31 January Germany adopted the policy of unrestricted submarine warfare in an attempt to starve the island nation of supplies, an act that would ultimately bring the United States into the war. Navy is also:- shorthand for Navy Blue the nickname of the United States Naval Academy A navy is the branch of the armed forces of a nation that operates primarily on water. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... Mutiny is the crime of conspiring to disobey an order that a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) is legally obliged to obey. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Unrestricted submarine warfare is a kind of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchant ships without warning. ...


At the start of 1916, the British army had been a largely inexperienced mass of volunteers. The Somme was the first real test of this newly raised "citizens army" that had come into being following Lord Kitchener's call for recruits at the start of the war. It is brutal but accurate to observe that many of the British soldiers killed on the Somme lacked experience, and therefore their loss was of little military significance. However, they had been the first to volunteer and so were often the fittest, most enthusiastic and best educated of the citizen soldiers. For Germany, which had entered the war with a trained force of regulars and reservists, each casualty was sapping the experience and effectiveness of the German army. The senior German commander Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria stated, "What remained of the old first-class peace-trained German infantry had been expended on the battlefield." Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener of Khartoum (June 24, 1850 - June 5, 1916) was a British Field Marshal and statesman. ... Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria or Crown Prince Rupert of Bavaria (German: Kronprinz Rupprecht von Bayern) (18 May 1869- 2 August 1955) Rupprecht was the son of Louis III, the last King of Bavaria. ...


The Battle of the Somme damaged the German Army beyond repair, after which it was never able to adequately replace its casualties with the same calibre of soldier that doggedly held its ground during most of the battle. By the end of the battle, the British and German armies were closer to being equally matched; effectively militias. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


German commanders did not believe the army could endure continual battles of attrition like the Somme. On 24 February 1917, the German army made a strategic scorched earth withdrawal from the Somme battlefield to the prepared fortifications of the Hindenburg Line, thereby shortening the front line they had to occupy. In the grey area of gains and losses, it is therefore possible to claim that the Entente's territorial gain from the battle was greater than that which existed at the battle's close. A battle of attrition is a military engagement in which neither side has any tactical advantage, so that the only result of the fighting is the loss of men and materiel on both sides. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ... The Hindenburg Line was a vast system of defences in Northern France constructed by the Germans during the winter of 1916– 17 during World War I; the Germans called it the Siegfried Line. ...


The strategic effects of the Battle of the Somme cannot obscure the fact that it was one of the costliest battles of the First World War. A German officer, Friedrich Steinbrecher, wrote:

Somme. The whole history of the world cannot contain a more ghastly word.

Casualties

The original Allied estimate of casualties on the Somme, made at the Chantilly conference on 15 November, was 485,000 British and French casualties versus 630,000 German. These figures were used to support the argument that the Somme was a successful battle of attrition for the Allies. However, there was considerable scepticism at the time of the accuracy of the counts. After the war, a final tally showed that 419,654 British and 204,253 French were killed, wounded, or taken prisoner; of the 623,907 total casualties, 146,431 were either killed or missing.


The British official historian Sir James Edmonds maintained that German losses were 680,000, but this figure has been discredited. A separate statistical report by the British War Office concluded that German casualties on the British sector could be as low as 180,000 during the battle. Today commonly accepted figures for all German losses on the Somme are between 465,000 and 600,000. In compiling his biography of General Rawlinson, Major-General Sir Frederick Maurice was supplied by the Reichsarchiv with a figure of 164,055 for the German killed or missing. Brigadier General James Edward Edmonds (1861–1956) was a British First World War officer of the Royal Engineers who in the role of British official historian was responsible for the post-war compilation of the 28-volume History of the Great War. ... Old War Office Building, Whitehall, London - the former location of the War Office The War Office was a former department of the British Government, responsible for the administration of the British Army between the 17th century and 1963, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence. ... // Today, films and television programs surrounding the lives of famous people are a major part of the entertainment industry. ... General Henry Rawlinson at Fourth Army HQ, Querrieu Chateau, July 1916. ...


The average casualties per division (consisting of circa 10,000 soldiers) on the British sector up until 19 November was 8,026 — 6,329 for the four Canadian divisions, 7,408 for the New Zealand Division, 8,133 for the 43 British divisions and 8,960 for the three Australian divisions. The British daily loss rate during the Battle of the Somme was 2,943 men, which exceeded the loss rate during the Third Battle of Ypres but was not as severe as the two months of the Battle of Arras (1917) (4,076 per day) or the final Hundred Days offensive in 1918 (3,685 per day). Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to fifteen thousand soldiers. ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The New Zealand Division was a World War I division formed in Egypt in January 1916 following the evacuation of Gallipoli. ... Passchendaele village, before and after the Battle of Passchendaele The Battle of Passchendaele, otherwise known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was one of the major battles of World War I, fought by British, ANZAC, and Canadian soldiers against the German army near Ypres (Ieper in Flemish) in West Flanders... The Battle of Arras took place from 9 April to 16 May 1917. ... This article or section should be merged with Hundred Days Battle The Hundred Days offensive, as it was subsequently called, was a World War I offensive by Australian, British and Canadian forces that signalled the end of the war, but resulted in massive casualties for the British Expeditionary Force. ...


The Royal Flying Corps lost 782 aircraft and 576 pilots during the battle. The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of World War I. Origin and Early History Formed by Royal Warrant on May 13, 1912, the RFC superseded the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Doughty, Robert A. Pyrrhic Victory: French Strategy and Operation in the Great War. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University, 2005. p.291
  2. ^ Despite the concerns of some critics, there was military necessity for these orders. According to Mud, Blood and Poppycock by Gordon Corrigan (p.274):
Critics of the Somme make much of what they see as insistence on parade ground precision, with men being ordered to walk and keep in line. This had nothing to do with ceremonial parades, but was a perfectly sensible rule to ensure that control was not lost, that men were not shot by their own side, and that they all arrived on the objective together and in a fit state to engage the enemy. Scorn is also poured on the need for the attacking infantry to carry packs weighing sixty pounds. This is one of the enduring myths of the First World War, and derives from an imperfect reading of Field Service Regulations. In fact, it was everything that the man carried and wore that weighed sixty pounds: the uniform he stood up in, the boots on his feet, his weapon and its ammunition. In the attack large packs were left behind, and the small pack contained only the essentials for the operation. That said, each man still had to carry his entrenching tool, extra rations, two gas helmets, wire cutters, 220 rounds of ammunition, two grenades and two sandbags, while ten picks and fifty shovels were taken by each leading company." This was no light burden, and the follow up troops, coming immediately after those who carried out the actual assault, carried a great deal more. It is one thing to capture ground, quite another to hold it. Once into a German position the objective had to be consolidated and held against the inevitable counter attack. This meant that the existing defence works had to be turned round to face the other way, wire obstacles had to be constructed and communications had to be established. Ammunition, grenades and digging implements had to be there, to say nothing of signals cable, water and food, and there was no other way of making all this immediately available to the infantry than by having them carry it with them.

It was in the aftermath of the Somme that the use of divisional insignia on tunic sleeves, backs and even on helmets became widespread, helping to ease the problem of command and control during a battle.


References

The First Day on the Somme (ISBN 0141390719) is a First World War military history book by Martin Middlebrook, published in 1971. ... Martin Middlebrook is a British military historian and Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. ... Penguin Books is a British publisher founded in 1935 by Allen Lane. ... Somme (ISBN 0718122542, Dutch Version ISBN 9076431478) is a First World War military history book by Lyn MacDonald, published in 1983 by Penguin_Books. ... Biography Lyn MacDonald has established a popular reputation as an author and historian of the First World War. ... Penguin Books is a British publisher founded in 1935 by Allen Lane. ... Sir John Keegan (born 1934) is an English military historian. ... Penguin Books is a British publisher founded in 1935 by Allen Lane. ... Trevor Wilson (born March 16, 1968, in Los Angeles, California) is an American former professional basketball player in the NBA. He attended the University of California, Los Angeles where he played for the UCLA Bruins, and spent from 1990–1995 in the NBA with four different teams. ...

External links

  • New Zealand and the Battle of the Somme
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
World War I
Theatres Main events Specific articles Participants See also

Prelude:
Causes
Sarajevo assassination
The July Ultimatum Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg... European military alliances in 1915. ... A plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg were shot to death in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, a member of Young... The Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum to Serbia or July Ultimatum was an ultimatum or final list of demands delivered to the government of Serbia on July 23, 1914, following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo. ...


Main theatres:
Western Front
Eastern Front
Italian Front
Middle Eastern Theatre
Balkan Theatre
Atlantic Theatre Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... Combatants German Empire Austria-Hungary Russian Empire Romania Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Erich Ludendorff Conrad von Hötzendorf Nikolay II Grand Duke Nicholas Constantin Prezan The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. ... The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Italy and Austria Hungary along with their allies in northern Italy between 1915 and 1918. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Triple Entente Strength 2,850,000 2 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3 891,000 WIA 240,000 Sickness 103,731 MIO 250,000 POW 1 1 Ottoman casualties are from Republic of Turkey gov. ... Combatants Central Powers Triple Entente, Serbia, Romania The Balkans Campaign of World War I was fought between Serbia and later Romania who sided with the Allied Powers against the Central Powers, mostly Austria-Hungary and Germany as well as Bulgaria. ... The First Battle of the Atlantic (1914–1918) was a naval campaign of World War I, largely fought in the seas around the British Isles and in the Atlantic Ocean. ...


Other theatres:
African Theatre
Pacific Theatre Combatants Great Britian, South Africa, France, Belgium, Portugal Germany The African Theatre of World War I was a set of unrelated wars for control over German colonies in Africa: the German colonies of Kamerun, Togo, South-West Africa, and German East Africa. ... Combatants Japan, Great Britain, New Zealand, Australia Germany The Asian and Pacific Theatre of World War I was a largely bloodless conquest of a number of German controlled islands in the Pacific Ocean. ...


General timeline:
WWI timeline The following tables list the main events happened during World War I. // 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 Post-1920 Categories: | ...

1914:
Battle of Liège
Battle of Tannenberg
Invasion of Serbia
First Battle of the Marne
First Battle of Arras
Battle of Sarikamis
1915:
Mesopotamian Campaign
Battle of Gallipoli
Italian Campaign
• Conquest of Serbia
1916:
Battle of Verdun
Battle of the Somme
Battle of Jutland
Brusilov Offensive
Conquest of Romania
Great Arab Revolt
1917:
Second Battle of Arras (Vimy Ridge)
Battle of Passchendaele
Capture of Baghdad
• Conquest of Palestine
1918:
Spring Offensive
Hundred Days Offensive
• Meuse-Argonne Offensive
Armistice with Germany
Armistice with Ottoman Empire
The Battle of Liège was the opening battle of the German invasion into Belgium, and the first battle of World War I. // The plan In 1870, soon after the German military defeated the French in the Franco-Prussian War, German military leader Helmuth von Moltke began formulating a plan... Combatants Imperial Russia German Empire Commanders General Alexander Samsonov General Paul von Rennenkampf General Field Marshall Paul von Hindenburg General Erich Ludendorff Strength 150,000 210,000 Casualties 30,000 killed or wounded; 95,000 captured 20,000 The Battle of Tannenberg in 1914 was a decisive conflict between the... Combatants Austria-Hungary German Empire Bulgaria Triple Entente Serbia Greece Italy Commanders Oskar Potiorek Radomir Putnik Maurice Sarrail Adolphe Guillaumat Franchet dEsperey George Milne Panagiotis Danglis The Serbian Campaign was fought from August 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia, thus starting the First World War, until the end of... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Joseph Joffre John French Helmuth von Moltke Karl von Bulow Alexander von Kluck Strength 1,071,000 1,485,000 Casualties Approximately 263,000: 250,000 French casualties (80,000 dead) 13,000 British casualties (1,700 dead) Approximately 250,000 total The... Combatants France German Empire Commanders Louis Maudhuy Crown Prince Rupprecht Strength French Tenth Army Three corps of the German First, Second and Seventh Armies The Battle of Arras (also known as the First Battle of Arras), which began on October 1, 1914, was an attempt by the French Army... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders General Vorontsov General Yudenich Enver Pasha Strength 100,000 90,000 (plus aprox. ... The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Dominion of Canada France Turkey (Ottoman Empire) Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions The Battle of Gallipoli (sometimes referred to as the first D-Day) took place on... The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Italy and Austria Hungary along with their allies in northern Italy between 1915 and 1918. ... Combatants Austria-Hungary German Empire Bulgaria Triple Entente Serbia Greece Italy Commanders Oskar Potiorek Radomir Putnik Maurice Sarrail Adolphe Guillaumat Franchet dEsperey George Milne Panagiotis Danglis The Serbian Campaign was fought from August 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia, thus starting the First World War, until the end of... Combatants France Germany Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 dead 337,000; of whom 100,000 dead The Battle of Verdun was a major battle... Combatants Royal Navy (Grand Fleet) Kaiserliche Marine (High Seas Fleet) Commanders Sir John Jellicoe, Sir David Beatty Reinhard Scheer, Franz von Hipper Strength 28 battleships, 9 battlecruisers, 8 heavy cruisers, 26 light cruisers, 78 destroyers 16 battleships, 5 battlecruisers, 6 pre-dreadnoughts, 11 light cruisers, 61 torpedo-boats Casualties 6... Combatants Russian Empire Austro-Hungary German Empire Commanders Aleksei Brusilov Conrad von Hötzendorf Alexander von Linsingen Strength 40+ infantry divisions (573,000 men) 15 cavalry divisions (60,000 men) 39 infantry divisions (437,000 men) 10 Cavalry divisions (30,000 men) Casualties ~500,000 men killed and wounded 975... Combatants Central Powers, Bulgaria Romania, Russia Commanders General Falkenhayn General Mackensen General Averescu, General Zaionchovsky Strength 450,000 600,000 Casualties 60,000 roughly 330,000 (50% POWs) The Romanian Campaign was a campaign in the Balkans theatre of World War I fought between Romania and Russia against armies of... Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... Combatants Allies Central Powers Commanders Julian Byng Arthur Currie Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 30,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead 7,104 wounded 20,000 The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British campaign known as the Battle of Arras. ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Hubert Gough Herbert Plumer Arthur Currie Max von Gallwitz Erich Ludendorff Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 448,000 killed and wounded 260,000 killed and wounded The 1917 Battle of Passchendaele, also known as the Third... Combatants The Tigris Corps of British India Sixth Army of the Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Frederick Stanley Maude Khalil Pasha Strength 50,000 men 25,000 men Casualties unknown unknown, more than 9,000 were taken prisoner Baghdad was the southern capital of the Ottoman Empire in 1917. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, which marked the deepest advance by either side since 1914. ... The Hundred Days Offensive was the final offensive in World War I by the Allies against the Central Powers on the Western Front from August 8, 1918 to November 11, 1918. ... The Meuse-Argonne Offensive was a major battle of World War I. It was the biggest operation and victory of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) in that war. ... Front page of the New York Times on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918 The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in woods near Compiègne on November 11, 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. ... The Armistice of Mudros was signed between the Ottoman Empire (represented by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Beg) and the Allies (represented by the British Admiral Arthur Calthorpe), in the Mudros port in the island of Lemnos on 30 October 1918. ...

Military engagements
Naval warfare
Air warfare
Cryptography
People
Poison gas
Railways
Technology
Trench warfare
Partition of Ottoman Empire A German trench in the swamp area near the Mazuric Lakes on the Eastern Front. ... British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... Nieuport Fighter Aisne, France 1917 Aerial warfare was introduced alongside many other innovations in World War I. Previously wars had been fought on land and at sea, but the advent of aircraft technology allowed a third dimension: a war in the air. ... In cryptography, trench codes were codes used for secrecy by field armies in World War I. A reasonably-designed code is generally more difficult to crack than a classical cipher, but of course suffers from the difficulty of preparing, distributing, and protecting codebooks. ... A poison gas attack in World War I. The use of poison gas was a major military innovation of the First World War. ... The machine gun was one of the decisive technologies during World War I. Picture: British Vickers machine gun crew on the Western Front. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ...


Civilian impact and atrocities:
Armenian Genocide
Assyrian Genocide Armenian Genocide photo. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Aftermath:
Aftermath
Casualties
• Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Paris Peace Conference
Treaty of Versailles
• Treaty of St. Germain
• Treaty of Neuilly
Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Lausanne
League of Nations Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... Pie chart showing deaths by alliance and military/civilian. ... The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest, formerly Brest-Litovsk, between Russia and the Central Powers, marking Russias exit from World War I. The treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year but is significant as a chief... The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and the German Empire. ... The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new Republic of Austria on the other. ... The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine, dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers in World War I, was signed on the November 27, 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. ... The Grand Trianon at Versailles, site of the signing The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement imposed on Hungary after World War I by the victorious powers. ... The Treaty of Sèvres of August 10, 1920, was a peace treaty between the Entente and Associated Powers[1] and the Ottoman Empire after World War I. The treaty was signed by the Ottoman Government, but Sultan Mehmed VI never signed that treaty. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... The League of Nations was a international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ...

Entente Powers
Russian Empire
France
British Empire
  » United Kingdom
  » Australia
  » Canada
  » India
  » New Zealand
  » Newfoundland
  » South Africa
Italy
Romania
United States
Serbia
Portugal
China
Japan
Belgium
Montenegro
Greece
Armenia
more… European military alliances in 1914. ... Image File history File links Russian_Empire_1914_17. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1924) Area Approx. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada-1868-Red. ... Image File history File links Imperial-India-Blue-Ensign. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Newfoundland. ... National motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... Image File history File links South_Africa_Red_Ensign. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... File links The following pages link to this file: Axis Powers Flag of Romania Categories: Flag images ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flaf_of_Serbia_(1882-1918). ... KaraÄ‘orÄ‘e Petrović, leader of Serbian uprising in 1804 Serbia gained its autonomy from the Ottoman Empire in two revolutions in 1804 and 1815, though Turkish troops continued to garrison the capital, Belgrade until 1867. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China_1912-1928. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium. ... Image File history File links Old_Flag_of_Montenegro. ... The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, after the arrival of the Slavs into that part of the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... European military alliances in 1914. ...


Central Powers
German Empire
Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire
Bulgaria
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I   Capital Berlin Language(s) German (official) Polish (Posen, Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871-1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria-Hungary. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem At the height of its power (1683) Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Kostantiniyye (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... The flag of the Kingdom of Bulgaria. ...

• Category: World War I
A war to end all wars
Female roles
Literature
Total war
Spanish flu
Veterans
World War I (then known as The Great War) was at the time and in the years just after described as the war to end all wars (or, in the jargon of the French Poilus: la der des der, i. ... Rosie the Riveter: We Can Do It! - Many women first found economic strength in World War II-era manufacturing jobs. ... World War I has inspired great novels, drama and poetry. ... This article is about the military doctrine of total war. ... Public Notice The Spanish Flu Pandemic (less misleadingly called the 1918 flu pandemic) was a pandemic in 1918 and 1919 caused by an unusually severe and deadly strain of the subtype H1N1 of the species Influenza A virus (which apparently killed via cytokine storm, explaining the severe nature and unusual... The following is a list of known surviving veterans of the First World War (28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918). ...


Contemporaneous conflicts:
First Balkan War
Second Balkan War
Maritz Rebellion
Easter Rising
Russian Revolution
Russian Civil War
Finnish Civil War
North Russia Campaign
• Wielkopolska Uprising
Polish–Soviet War
Turkish War of Independence also known as the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)

// Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Montenegro Greece Serbia Commanders Nizam Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Esat Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Serbia: Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanović Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Strength 350,000 men Bulgaria... The Second Balkan War was fought in 1913 between Bulgaria on one side and Greece and Serbia on the other side. ... The Maritz Rebellion or the Boer Revolt or the Five Shilling Rebellion1, occurred in South Africa in 1914 at the start of World War I, in which men who supported the recreation of the old Boer republics rose up against the government of the Union of South Africa. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Pádraig Pearse, James Connolly General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the system of autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal Provisional Government (Duma), resulting in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755... Combatants Whites: White Guards, German Empire, Swedish volunteers Reds: Red Guards, Bolshevist Russia Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Ali Aaltonen, Eero Haapalainen, Eino Rahja, Kullervo Manner Strength 80,000-90,000 Finns, 550 Swedish volunteers, 13,000 Germans[1] 80,000-90,000 Finns, 4,000-10,000 Russians[1... North Russia Campaign Arkhangelsk Oblast May 1918 – Sept 1919 Polar Bear Expedition Russian Civil War North Russia Relief Force // Introduction The North Russia Campaign (also known as the Northern Russian Expedition or the Allied Intervention in North Russia) was the involvement of international troops part of the Allied Intervention in... Soldiers of the Great Polish Army Wielkopolska Uprising of 1918–1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918–19 roku) was a military insurrection of the Polish people in the Greater Poland region (also called the Grand Duchy of Poznań) against the German/Prussian forces. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 including reserves 5 million 360,000 including reserves 738,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000 - 150,000 Unknown, dead estimated at... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, Ismet Inonu, Mustafa Kemal, Fevzi Cakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus thousands more vollunteers) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The Greco–Turkish...

More information on World War I:

 World War I from Wiktionary
 WWI Textbooks from Wikibooks
 WWI Quotations from Wikiquote
 WWI Source texts from Wikisource
 WWI Images and media from Commons
 WWI News stories from Wikinews
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
First World War.com - Battles - The Battle of the Somme, 1916 (1956 words)
Comprising the main Allied attack on the Western Front during 1916, the Battle of the Somme is famous chiefly on account of the loss of 58,000 British troops (one third of them killed) on the first day of the battle, 1 July 1916, which to this day remains a one-day record.
The German Verdun offensive transformed the intent of the Somme attack; the French demanded that the planned date of the attack, 1 August 1916, be brought forward to 1 July, the aim chiefly being to divert German resources from Verdun in the defence of the Somme.
Meanwhile the British attack was renewed in north-east, the Battle of Flers-Courcelette, by the Fourth Army on 15 September.
A Death at the Battle of the Somme, 1916 (867 words)
A Death at the Battle of the Somme, 1916
In the summer of 1916 the line of trenches demarcating the Western Front stretched from west to east across the length of France.
The objective of the Somme offensive was to relieve the pressure on Verdun and to push the British line forward.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m