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Encyclopedia > Battle of the Plains of Abraham
Battle of the Plains of Abraham
Part of the Seven Years' War
French and Indian War

The Death of General Wolfe by Benjamin West. Oil on canvas, 1770.
Date September 13, 1759
Location Quebec City
Result Decisive British victory
Belligerents
Flag of the United Kingdom Kingdom of Great Britain Flag of France Kingdom of France
Commanders
James Wolfe  Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm 
Strength
4,800 regulars 4,000 regulars
300 militia
Casualties and losses
658 dead or wounded 644 dead or wounded

The Battle of the Plains of Abraham also known as the Battle of Quebec was a pivotal battle in the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War. The confrontation, which began on September 12, 1759, was fought between the British Army and Navy, and the French Army, on a plateau just outside the walls of Quebec City. The battle involved fewer than 10,000 troops between both sides, but proved to be a deciding moment in the conflict between France and Britain over the fate of New France, influencing the later creation of Canada. For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1441, 306 KB) Year 1770 Technique de: Öl auf Leinwand en: Oil on canvas Dimensions de: 151 × 213 cm Current location de: National Gallery of Canada, de: Ottawa Source The Yorck Project: DVD-ROM, 2002. ... The Death of General Wolfe is a well-known 1770 painting by artist Benjamin West depicting the final moments of General James Wolfe on the Plains of Abraham during the 1759 Battle of Quebec. ... Self Portrait of Benjamin West, ca. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Quebec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the administrative and social structures of early modern France, see Ancien Régime in France. ... Major General Wolfe. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... Portrait of Montcalm Image of Montcalm leading his troops by Toronto printer Ralph Clark Stone. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... Belligerents Kingdom of Great Britain Kingdom of France Commanders George Washington Joseph Coulon de Villiers de Jumonville # Strength 40 Casualties and losses 1 killed, 2-3 wounded 10 killed, 21 captured The Battle of Jumonville Glen, also known as the Jumonville affair, was a battle of the French and Indian... Combatants Britain France Commanders George Washington James Mackay Louis Coulon de Villiers Strength 100 regulars 193 militia, and natives 100 natives 600 marines, and militia Casualties 31 dead 70 wounded 192 captured 3 dead 19 wounded The Battle of the Great Meadows, also known as the Battle of Fort Necessity... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis Du Pont Duchambon de Vergor Robert Monckton Strength 162 2,000 Casualties 162 dead, wounded, or captured Unknown The Battle of Fort Beauséjour marked the opening of a British-American offensive in North America in the Seven Years War. ... Combatants France Indian Tribes Britain Commanders Liénard de Beaujeu † Jean-Daniel Dumas Charles de Langlade Edward Braddock † Strength 105 regulars 147 militia 600 natives 1,459 regulars and militia Casualties 23 killed 20 wounded 456 killed 521 wounded The Braddock expedition (also called Braddocks campaign) was a failed... Combatants Britain France Commanders William Johnson, 1st Baronet Johnson, King Hendrick † Jean Erdman, Baron Dieskau Strength 1,500 militia, 200 Mohawks 3,500 regulars, militia, and natives Casualties 331 killed, wounded or missing [1] 339 killed, wounded or missing [2] Seven Years War in North America: The French and Indian... Combatants France Britain Commanders Chaussegros de Léry James Wolfe Strength 259 regulars and militia 103 natives Unknown Casualties 1 dead 2 wounded 103 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Fort Bull was a French raid on the British-held Fort Bull on March 27, 1756. ... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis-Joseph de Montcalm James Mercer † Strength 3,000 2,000 Casualties 30 dead or wounded 80 dead 1,700 captured The Battle of Fort Oswego was one in a series of early French victories in the North American theater of the Seven Years War won... The Kittanning Expedition, also known as the Armstrong Expedition, was a raid during the French and Indian War that led to the destruction of the Native American village of Kittanning, which had served as a staging point for attacks by Delaware (Lenape) and Shawnee warriors against European-American colonists in... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis-Joseph de Montcalm Lieutenant-Colonel George Monro Strength 1,600 natives 6,000 regulars and militia 2,500 regulars and militia Casualties Unknown 297 dead or wounded 2,308 captured The Battle of Fort William Henry in August 1757 resulted in Britains loss of... Belligerents British regulars Mikmaq Acadians Commanders unknown unknown Strength 130 soldiers unknown, perhaps in the hundreds Casualties and losses 24 killed and wounded 12 killed and wounded The Second Battle of Bloody Creek was an episode in the French and Indian War, where a detachment of British soldiers from... Belligerents Kingdom of Great Britain Kingdom of France Commanders Jeffrey Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst Edward Boscawen (naval commander) Chevalier de Drucour Strength 14,000 soldiers,12,000 sailors and marines, 150 transport vessels, 40 men-o-war 3,500 soldiers, 3,500 sailors and marines, 5 ships of the line... Combatants France Britain Commanders M. de Bettetre Johan Jost Petrie Strength 300 French and Indian militia Casualties 40 dead On November 12, 1757 during the French and Indian War, German Flatts, in the Province of New York was attacked and destroyed by a combined force of French and Indians. ... The Battle of Carillon was fought at Fort Carillon (later known as Fort Ticonderoga), on the shore of Lake Champlain in what was then the British colony of New York, July 7-July 8, 1758 during the French and Indian War, and resulted in a victory of the French garrison... The Battle of Fort Frontenac took place from August 25 to August 27, 1758 near the end of the Seven Years War (referred to as the French and Indian War in the United States) between France and Britain. ... Combatants France Britain American Colonies Commanders François-Marie Le Marchand de Lignery James Grant Strength 500 natives and militia 400 regulars, 350 militia Casualties 8 killed, 8 wounded 104 killed, 220 wounded, 19 captured [1] The Battle of Fort Duquesne was a failed attempt by elements of [General John... The battle of fort Ligoneir was fought in 1758 and was a battle of the French-Indian war. ... The Battle of Ticonderoga of 1758 was an engagement of the French and Indian War (the North American theatre of the Seven Years War not so much a battle as an investment. ... Combatants France Britain Commanders Captain Francois de Lignery Lt. ... The Battle of Fort Niagara was one of the final battles in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War. ... The Battle of Beauport was fought on July 31, 1759 between a British fleet and French land forces. ... Combatants France Britain Commanders François Gaston de Lévis James Murray Strength 2,600 regulars 2,400 militia[1] 3,800 regulars 20 guns Casualties 833 dead or wounded 1,124 dead or wounded The Battle of Sainte-Foy, sometimes called the Battle of Quebec (1760), was fought on... Combatants Britain France Commanders Capt. ... The Battle of the Thousand Islands was fought between 16 August and 24 August 1760, in the upper St. ... Combatants France Great Britain Commanders Guillaume de Bellecombe William Amherst Strength 295 regulars 200 regulars and provincials Casualties 20–40 dead or wounded 4–5 dead 19 wounded The Battle of Signal Hill (September 15, 1762) was the final battle of the French and Indian War and forced the French... North American redirects here. ... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ... For other meanings, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Quebec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date...


The culmination of a three-month siege by the British, the battle lasted less than an hour. British troops commanded by General James Wolfe successfully resisted the column advance of French troops and New French militia under Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm. Both generals were mortally wounded during the battle; Wolfe died on the field and Montcalm passed away the next morning. In the wake of the battle, France's remaining military force in Canada and the rest of North America came under increasing pressure from British forces. Within four years, nearly all of France's possessions in eastern North America would be ceded to Great Britain. A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Major General Wolfe. ... A military column is a formation of soldiers, marching together single file, one behind another. ... Portrait of Montcalm Image of Montcalm leading his troops by Toronto printer Ralph Clark Stone. ...

Contents

Preparations

A portrait of Wolfe printed circa 1776.
A portrait of Wolfe printed circa 1776.

Through the summer siege, illness spread through the British camps, and in August, Wolfe himself was bedridden, causing already low morale to slump even further among the British troops.[1] With many men in camp hospitals, British fighting numbers were thinned, and Wolfe personally felt that action was needed by the end of September, or Britain's opportunity would be lost.[2] In addition, his frustration with Montcalm's defensive stance continued to grow. In a letter to his mother, Wolfe wrote, "The Marquis of Montcalm is at the head of a great number of bad soldiers, and I am at the head of a small number of good ones that wish for nothing so much as to fight him; but the wary old fellow avoids an action, doubtful of the behaviour of his army." Montcalm also expressed frustration over the long siege, relating that he and his troops slept clothed and booted, and his horse was always saddled in preparation for an attack.[3] Image File history File links General-james-wolfe. ... Image File history File links General-james-wolfe. ...


After considering and rejecting a number of plans for landings on the north shore, a decision was made in late August by Wolfe and his brigadiers to land upriver of the city. If successful, such a landing would force Montcalm to fight, as a British force on the north shore of the St. Lawrence would cut his supply lines to Montreal.[4] Initial suggestions for landing sites ranged as far as 32 kilometres up the St. Lawrence, which would have given the French troops one or two days to prepare for the attack.[5] Following the failed British assault on Montmorency, Montcalm altered his deployment, sending Bougainville and a column of approximately 1,500 regular troops, 200 cavalry, and a group of New French militia — some 3,000 men in all — upriver to Cap-Rouge to monitor the British ships upstream. He further strengthened his defences of the Beauport shore following the abandonment of the British camp at Montmorency, which he regarded as preparations for a descent on Beauport. In spite of warnings from local commanders, he did not view an upstream landing as a serious possibility.[6] Old Villages Church The Tracel Bridge Cap-Rouge (Meaning: Red Cape) is located in central Quebec, Canada on the Saint Lawrence River within Quebec City. ... Beauport is a borough of Quebec City, on the St. ...


The British, meanwhile, prepared for their risky descent upstream. Troops had already been aboard landing ships and drifting up and down the river for several days[7] when Wolfe on September 12, made a final decision on the British landing site, selecting L'Anse-au-Foulon. L'Anse-au-Foulon is a cove situated southwest of the city, three kilometres upstream from Cap Diamant. It lies at the bottom of a 53-metre high cliff leading to the plateau above, and was protected by a battery of guns. It is not known why Wolfe selected Foulon, as the original landing site was to be further up the river, in a position where the British would be able to develop a foothold and strike at Bougainville's force to draw Montcalm out of Quebec and onto the plains. Brigadier-General George Townshend wrote that "by some intelligence the General had, he has changed his mind as to the place he intended to land."[8] In his final letter, dated HMS Sutherland, 8:30 p.m. September 12, Wolfe wrote: is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lord Townshend George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend PC (28 February 1724–14 September 1807), known as the Viscount Townshend from 1764 to 1787, was a British soldier who reached the rank of field marshal. ...

I had the honour to inform you today that it is my duty to attack the French army. To the best of my knowledge and ability, I have fixed upon that spot where we can act with most force and are most likely to succeed. If I am mistaken I am sorry for it and must be answerable to His Majesty and the public for the consequences.[9]

Wolfe's plan of attack depended on secrecy and surprise. His plan required that a small party of men should land by night on the north shore, climb the tall cliff, seize a small road, and overpower the garrison that protected it, allowing the bulk of his army (5,000 men) to ascend the cliff and then deploy for battle on the plateau. Even if the first landing party succeeded in their mission and the army was able to follow, such a deployment would still leave his forces inside the French line of defense with no immediate retreat but the river. It is possible that Wolfe's decision to change the landing site was owing less to a desire for secrecy and more to his general disdain for his brigadiers (a feeling that was reciprocated); it is also possible that he was still suffering the effects of his illness and the opiates he used as painkillers.[10] For other uses see Opiate (disambiguation), or for the class of drugs see Opioid. ...


Landing

Bougainville, tasked with the defence of the large area between Cap Diamant and Cap Rouge, was upstream with his troops at Cap Rouge on the night of September 12, and missed seeing numerous British ships moving downstream. A camp of approximately 100 militia led by Captain Louis Du Pont Duchambon de Vergor, who had unsuccessfully faced the British four years previously at Fort Beauséjour, had been assigned to watch the narrow road at L'Anse-au-Foulon which followed a streambank, the Coulée Saint-Denis. On the night of September 12 and morning of September 13, however, the camp may have contained as little as 40 men, as others were off harvesting.[11] Vaudreuil and others had expressed their concern at the possibility of L'Anse-au-Foulon being used for a desent, but Montcalm dismissed them, saying 100 men would hold off the army until daylight, remarking, "It is not to be supposed that the enemies have wings so that they can in the same night cross the river, disembark, climb the obstructed acclivity, and scale the walls, for which last operation they would have to carry ladders."[12] is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Louis Du Pont Duchambon de Vergor (September 20, 1713 - 1755?) was a French military officer who served as a member of the French Army during the Seven Years War. ... Fort Beauséjour, also referred to as Fort Cumberland, is a National Historic Site located in Aulac, New Brunswick, Canada. ... This is a view upwards towards a section of the wall which sticks out in to the canyon. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pierre Francois de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal (1698–1778) was a French Canadian colonial governor in the Americas. ...


Sentries did detect boats moving along the river that morning, but they were expecting a French supply convoy to pass that night — a plan that had been changed without Vergor being notified.[13] When the boats, loaded with the first wave of British troops, were challenged, a French-speaking officer, either a Captain Fraser or Captain Donald McDonald of the 78th Fraser Highlanders battalion, was able to answer the challenge in excellent French, allaying suspicion.[14] For other uses, see Convoy (disambiguation). ... The 78th Fraser Highlanders, more properly the 78th Regiment, Second Highland Battalion of Foot was a British military unit raised in Scotland in 1757, to fight in the French and Indian War. ...


The boats, however, had drifted slightly off course: instead of landing at the base of the road, many soldiers found themselves at the base of a steep, rocky cliff. A group of volunteers with fixed bayonets were sent to clear the picket along the road, while three companies climbed the face of the cliff, a manoeuvre that allowed them to come up behind Vergor's camp and capture it quickly. Thus, by the time the sun rose over the Plains of Abraham, Wolfe's army had a solid foothold at the top of the cliffs.[15] “Precipice” redirects here. ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ...


Battle

Map of the Quebec City area showing disposition of French and English forces. The Plains of Abraham are located to the left.
Map of the Quebec City area showing disposition of French and English forces. The Plains of Abraham are located to the left.

Wolfe's success in gaining the heights was, in the opinion of many, owing to good luck. The plateau was undefended save for Vergor's camp, as Vaudreuil had ordered one of the French regiments to relocate to the east of the city not long before the landing. Had the immediate defenders been more numerous, the British might have been unable to deploy or even pushed back. An officer who would normally have patrolled the cliffs regularly through the night was unable to on the night of the 12th because one of his horses had been stolen and his two others were lame.[16] The first notice of the landing came from a runner who had fled from Vergor's camp, but one of Montcalm's aides felt the man was mad and sent him away, then went back to bed.[17] Saunders had staged a diversionary action off Montmorency, firing on the shore emplacements through the night and loading boats with troops, many of them taken from field hospitals; this preoccupied Montcalm.[18] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (1514 × 1002 pixels, file size: 684 KB, MIME type: image/png) Siege of Quebec from The New Students Reference Work, volume 4, page 79. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (1514 × 1002 pixels, file size: 684 KB, MIME type: image/png) Siege of Quebec from The New Students Reference Work, volume 4, page 79. ... Sir Charles Saunders, KB (c. ... 47th Combat Support Hospital, 2000 A field hospital is a large mobile medical unit that temporarily takes care of casualties on-site before they can be safely transported to more permanent hospital facilities. ...


Montcalm was taken aback to learn of the British descent, and his response has been regarded as precipitous.[19] Though he might have awaited reinforcement by Bougainville's column (allowing simultaneous frontal and rear attacks on the British position) or avoided battle while he concentrated his forces, or even yielded the city to Wolfe, he instead elected to confront Wolfe's force directly. Had he waited, the British would have been entirely cut off - they had nowhere to go but back down the Foulon, and would have been under fire the entire way.[20] To an artillery officer named Montbelliard, Montcalm explained his decision thus: "We cannot avoid action; the enemy is entrenching, he already has two pieces of cannon. If we give him time to establish himself, we shall never be able to attack him with the troops we have."[21]


First engagements

In total, Montcalm had 13,390 regular troops, Troupes de la Marine, and militia available in Quebec City and along the Beauport shore, as well as 200 cavalry, 200 artillery (including the guns of Quebec), 300 native warriors (including many Odawa under Charles de Langlade[22]), and 140 Acadian volunteers, but most of these troops did not participate in the action. Many of militia were inexperienced; the Acadian, Canadian, and indigenous irregulars were more used to guerilla warfare. By contrast, the British troops were almost all regulars. The troupes de la marine (Troops of The Marine) were French part of the French Navy in the 17th century, recruited specifically for Frances military efforts in New France. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Cavalry (from French cavalerie) were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ... The Ottawa (also Odawa or Odaawa) are a Native American people. ... Charles Michel de Langlade (1729–c. ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... A military volunteer is a person who enlists in military service by free will, and is not a mercenary or a foreign legionaire. ...


On the morning of September 13, Wolfe's army formed a line first with their backs to the river, then spread out across the Plains with its right anchored by the bluff along the St. Lawrence and its left by a bluff and thick wood above the St. Charles River. While the regular French forces were approaching from Beauport and Quebec, the Canadian militia and native sharpshooters engaged the British left flank, sheltering in the trees and scrub; the militia held these positions throughout the battle and fell back on this line during the general retreat, eventually holding the bridge over the St. Charles River.[23]


The British troops, numbering approximately 3,300, formed into a shallow horseshoe formation that stretched across the width of the Plains, the main firing line being roughly one kilometre long. In order to cover the entire plain, Wolfe was forced to array his soldiers two ranks deep, rather than the more conventional three ranks. On the left wing, regiments under Townshend exchanged fire with the militia in the scrub and captured a small collection of houses and gristmill to anchor the line. The defenders pushed the British from one house, but were repelled and, in retreat, lit several houses on fire to keep them out of enemy hands. Smoke from these fires wound up masking the British left, and may have confused Montcalm as to the width of the lines.[24] As Wolfe's men waited for the defenders, the steady fire became intense enough that Wolfe ordered his men to lie down amid the high grass and brush.[25] For other uses, see Horseshoe (disambiguation). ... Gristmill with water wheel, Skyline Drive, VA, 1938 A gristmill is a building where grain is ground into flour. ...

Montcalm leading his troops into battle. Watercolour by Charles William Jefferys (1869 - 1951).
Montcalm leading his troops into battle. Watercolour by Charles William Jefferys (1869 - 1951).

As French troops arrived from Beauport, Montcalm, one of few mounted men on the field, appears to have decided that a swift assault was the only way to dislodge the British from their position. Accordingly, he deployed the forces immediately available in and near Quebec City and prepared an immediate attack, without waiting for further reinforcements from the Beauport shore. Arraying his approximately 3,500 soldiers into place with the intention of attacking in column formation, at approximately 10 a.m., Montcalm, riding his dark horse and waving his sword to encourage his men,[26] ordered a general advance on the British line. Image File history File links Montcalm_leading_his_troops_at_the_Plains_of_Abraham. ... Image File history File links Montcalm_leading_his_troops_at_the_Plains_of_Abraham. ... A military column is a formation of soldiers, marching together single file, one behind another. ...


As a European-trained military leader, Montcalm's instinct was for large, set-piece battles in which regiments and soldiers moved in precision order. Such actions required a disciplined soldiery, painstakingly drilled for as long as 18 months on the parade ground, trained to march in time, change formation at a word, and retain cohesion in the face of bayonet charges and musket volleys.[27] Though his regular regiments (the "troupes de terre" or "metropolitans") were adept at such formal warfare, in the course of the campaign their ranks had been replenished with less professional militiamen, whose talents at forest warfare emphasised the individual: they tended to fire early and then drop to the ground to reload, thus reducing the effect of concentrated fire at close range.[28]


Militia were formed from settlers who carried their own rifles into battle. These civilian rifles had a longer range than smooth bore muskets, but the commanders of the day were trained to only allow both rifles and muskets to fire at musket range. Muskets were effective at about 50 yards (46 m). This meant that if two lines of infantry were approaching each other, at best, each line of musketry could fire twice before engaging in hand-to-hand combat. Civilian rifles could not accept bayonets. The militia either carried tomahawks and knives for hand-to-hand combat or were forced to use their good rifle as a club, ruining it for shooting. At the point of hand-to-hand combat, militias would often scatter to find cover behind stones, hillocks, or trees and deliver effective fire from a distance.


The ground also favoured Wolfe. Montcalm attacked from higher ground, and, as his lines moved forward, a rise near Montcalm's centre slightly impeded his troops' movement. Montcalm's centre weakened as ranks drifted, mainly to Montcalm's left. It would be the thin, sporadically-firing centre, which would take the brunt of Wolfe's opening volley.


The "most perfect volley"

As the French approached, the British lines held their fire. Wolfe had devised a firing method for stopping French column advances in 1755 that called for the centre — in this case, the 43rd and 47th Foot regiments — to hold fire while waiting for the advancing force to approach within 20 yards (18 m), then open fire at close range. Wolfe had ordered his soldiers to charge their muskets with two balls each in preparation for the engagement.[29] Captain John Knox, serving with the 43rd Foot, wrote in his journal that as the French came within range, the regiments "gave them, with great calmness, as remarkable a close and heavy discharge as I ever saw." After the first volley, the British lines marched forward a few paces towards the shocked French force and fired a second general volley that shattered the attackers and sent them into retreat.[30] A British Army historian later described the British fire thus: "With one deafening crash, the most perfect volley ever fired on a battlefield burst forth as from a single monstrous weapon."[31] It was, in terms of casualties inflicted, the most deadly single volley in history.[citation needed] The 42nd Regiment of Foot was also known as the 43rd Regiment of Foot between 1747 and 1749. ... The 47th (Lancashire) Regiment of Foot was a regiment of the British Army. ...


Wolfe, positioned with the 28th Foot and the Louisbourg Grenadiers, had moved to a rise to observe the battle; he had been struck in the wrist early in the fight, but had wrapped the injury and continued on. Volunteer James Henderson, with the Louisbourg Grenadiers, had been tasked with holding the hill, and reported afterwards that within moments of the command to fire, Wolfe was struck with two shots, one low in the stomach and the second, mortal wound in the chest.[32][33] Knox wrote that one of the soldiers near Wolfe shouted "They run, see how they run." Wolfe, upon being told that the French had broken, gave several orders, then turned on his side, said "Now, God be praised, I will die in peace," and died.[34] The 28th (North Gloucestershire) Regiment of Foot was a British infantry regiment from 1782 to 1881. ...


With Wolfe dead and several other key officers injured, British troops fell into a disorganised pursuit of the fleeing French troops. The 78th Fraser Highlanders were ordered by Brigadier-General James Murray to pursue the French with their swords, but were met near the city by a heavy fire from a floating battery covering the bridge over the St. Charles River as well as militia that remained in the trees. The 78th took the highest number of casualties of all British units in the battle.[35] Townshend took charge of the British forces and realised that Bougainville's column was approaching from the British rear, having taken some time to arrive from Cap Rouge. He quickly formed up two battalions from the confused troops on the field and turned them to meet the oncoming French, a day-saving manoeuvre; instead of attacking with a well-rested and ready force, Bougainville retreated while the rest of Montcalm's army slipped back across the St. Charles.[36] The 78th Fraser Highlanders, more properly the 78th Regiment, Second Highland Battalion of Foot was a British military unit raised in Scotland in 1757, to fight in the French and Indian War. ... Portrait of James Murray as a young man by Allan Ramsay (1742) (Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh) James Murray (Ballencrieff, East Lothian, Scotland, 21 January 1721– 18 June 1794 Battle) was a British military officer, whose lengthy career included service as colonial administrator and governor of Quebec. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


During the retreat, Montcalm, still mounted, was struck by either canister shot from the British artillery or repeated musket fire, suffering injuries to the lower abdomen and thigh. He was able to make it back into the city, but his wounds were mortal and he died early the next morning.[37] He was buried in a shell crater left in the floor of the Ursuline chapel by a British shell.[38] The battle resulted in similar numbers of casualties on both sides of the field; the French had 644 men killed or injured, while the British were left with 658 killed or wounded.[39] Canister shot was a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons. ... The abdomen in a human and an ant. ... In humans the thigh is the area between the pelvis and buttocks and the knee. ... A casualty is a person who is the victim of an accident, injury, or trauma. ...


Aftermath

General Montcalm, mortally wounded on the Plains of Abraham, is taken to Quebec. Watercolour by Charles William Jeffreys (1869 - 1951)
General Montcalm, mortally wounded on the Plains of Abraham, is taken to Quebec. Watercolour by Charles William Jeffreys (1869 - 1951)

In the wake of the battle, a state of confusion spread through the French troops. Vaudreuil, who later wrote to his government and put the full blame for the French rout on the deceased Montcalm,[40] decided to abandon Quebec and the Beauport shore, ordering all of his forces to march west and eventually join up with Bougainville, leaving the garrison in Quebec under the command of Jean-Baptiste-Nicolas-Roch de Ramezay.[41] Image File history File links Death_of_General_Montcalm. ... Image File history File links Death_of_General_Montcalm. ...


Meanwhile, the British, first under the command of Townshend and later with Murray in charge, settled in to besiege the city in conjunction with Saunders' fleet. Within days, on September 18, de Ramezay, Townshend and Saunders signed the Articles of Capitulation of Quebec and the city was turned over to British control.[42] The remaining French forces positioned themselves on the Jacques-Cartier River west of the city. is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Articles of Capitulation of Quebec were agreed upon between Jean-Baptiste-Nicolas-Roch de Ramezay, Admiral Sir Charles Saunders, and General George Townshend on behalf the French and British crowns during the French and Indian War. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


The British Navy was forced to leave the St. Lawrence shortly after the capture of Quebec due to pack ice closing the mouth of the St. Lawrence River. Before the ice left the rivers in April, the Chevalier de Lévis, Montcalm's successor as French commander, marched his 7,000 troops to Quebec. James Murray, the British commander, had experienced a terrible winter, in which scurvy had reduced his garrison to only 4,000. On April 28, 1760, Lévis' forces met and defeated the British at the Battle of Sainte-Foy, immediately west of the city (near the site of Université Laval today). This battle proved bloodier than the Plains of Abraham, with about 850 casualties on the French side and 1,100 on the British side. The British suffered a defeat in the battle, but were able to withdraw within the walls of Quebec, which was taken under siege. A lack of artillery and ammunition, combined with British improvements to the fortifications, meant that the French were unable to take the city before the arrival of the British fleet in mid-May.[43][44] A naval battle fought at Quiberon Bay, just off the coast of France, proved the decisive battle for New France. The Royal Navy destroyed the French Fleet, meaning France could not send a reserve force to save Canada.[45] The success of the French army's offensive against Quebec in the spring of 1760 depended on the dispatch of a French armada, with fresh troops and supplies.[46] An icebreaker navigates some through young (1 year) sea ice Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1760 (MDCCLX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants France Britain Commanders François Gaston de Lévis James Murray Strength 2,600 regulars 2,400 militia[1] 3,800 regulars 20 guns Casualties 833 dead or wounded 1,124 dead or wounded The Battle of Sainte-Foy, sometimes called the Battle of Quebec (1760), was fought on... The naval Battle of Quiberon Bay took place on 20 November 1759 during the Seven Years War in Quiberon Bay, off the coast of France near St. ...


At Montréal that September, Lévis and 2,000 troops confronted 17,000 British and American troops. The French capitulated on September 8, 1760, and the British took possession of Montreal. Canada passed into British hands. The Treaty of Paris was signed in 1763 to end the war and gave possession of New France to Great Britain. is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1760 (MDCCLX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty...


Legacy of the Plains

Picnic tables and Martello Tower in The Battlefields Park
Picnic tables and Martello Tower in The Battlefields Park

Today, while much of the foreshore along the base of the cliffs that were scaled by William Howe's men the morning of the battle has been taken over by industry, the Plains of Abraham themselves are preserved within one of Canada's National Urban Parks. The Battlefields Park was established in 1908 and combines the Plains of Abraham with Des Braves Park, within Quebec City. An interpretive centre and walking trails have been built on the site, and outdoor concerts are held within the park. There is a monument on the site of the Battle of Sainte-Foy, and a monument has been raised to Wolfe as well. In 1790, the Surveyor-General of Canada, Major Holland, raised an astronomic meridian marker on the site where Wolfe was said to have died. In 1913, the National Battlefields Commission placed a column identical to one that had been built on the site in 1849. As well, there is a Cross of Sacrifice that was constructed on the Plains to commemorate soldiers who were lost in World War I; it continues to be the location of Remembrance Day ceremonies every year.[47] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 326 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of picnic tables and a Martello tower in The Battlefields Park on the Plains of Abraham. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 326 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of picnic tables and a Martello tower in The Battlefields Park on the Plains of Abraham. ... The entrance to The Battlefields Park The Battlefields Park combines the Plains of Abraham with Des Braves Park, within Quebec City, and form one of the few Canadian national urban parks. ... The foreshore, also called the intertidal or littoral zone, is that part of a beach that lies between average high tide and average low tide. ... For the surrealist painter, see William Howe (painter). ... The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, fought September 13, 1759, was a decisive battle during the French and Indian War, the U.S. name for the North American phase of the Seven Years War. ... For the Korean family name Park, see Korean name. ... The entrance to The Battlefields Park The Battlefields Park combines the Plains of Abraham with Des Braves Park, within Quebec City, and form one of the few Canadian national urban parks. ... For other uses, see Monument (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Remembrance Day also known as Poppy Day, Armistice Day (the event it commemorates), or Veterans Day in the United States is a day to commemorate the sacrifices of members of the armed forces and of civilians in times of war, specifically since the First World War. ...


References

  1. ^ Hibbert, pp. 104-107
  2. ^ Eccles, Canadian Frontier, pp. 201
  3. ^ Casgrain, pp. 160
  4. ^ Eccles, Canadian Frontier, pp. 181
  5. ^ Reid, pp. 50
  6. ^ Chartrand, pp. 78
  7. ^ Hibbert, p. 125
  8. ^ Hibbert, pp. 121
  9. ^ Lloyd, pp. 117
  10. ^ Anderson, pp. 353
  11. ^ Lloyd, pp. 103
  12. ^ Casgrain, pp. 164
  13. ^ Reid, pp. 55
  14. ^ Reid, pp. 37; Lloyd, pp. 125
  15. ^ Reid, pp. 58-61
  16. ^ Eccles, France in America, pp. 123
  17. ^ Anderson, pp. 356
  18. ^ Anderson, pp. 355
  19. ^ Anderson, pp. 359
  20. ^ Eccles, France in America, pp. 203-204
  21. ^ Reid, pp. 72-73
  22. ^ Casgrain, pp.117
  23. ^ Reid, pp. 61
  24. ^ Hibbert, pp. 148
  25. ^ Reid. pp. 69
  26. ^ Chartrand, pp. 86
  27. ^ Eccles, France in America, pp. 197
  28. ^ Eccles, Canadian Frontier, pp. 182
  29. ^ Reid, pp. 74-75
  30. ^ Chartrand, pp. 88
  31. ^ Lloyd, pp. 135
  32. ^ Hibbert, pp. 151
  33. ^ Lloyd, pp. 139
  34. ^ Reid, pp. 76-77
  35. ^ Reid, pp. 82
  36. ^ Anderson, pp. 363
  37. ^ Chartrand, pp.90
  38. ^ Chartrand, pp.94. In 2001, his remains were moved to the military cemetery at the Hopital-General, near the St. Charles River, where they were placed in a mausoleum.Press release, Commission de la capitale nationale du Québec, retrieved April 26, 2007
  39. ^ Reid, pp. 83
  40. ^ Lloyd, pp. 149
  41. ^ Lloyd, pp. 142
  42. ^ Reid, pp. 84
  43. ^ Eccles, Canadian Frontier, pp. 182
  44. ^ Francis, Origins, pp. 142-143
  45. ^ Francis, Origins, pp. 142
  46. ^ Francis, Origins, pp. 142
  47. ^ Plains of Abraham - History of the Park, National Battlefield Commission. Retrieved January 30, 2007

St. ...

Bibliography

  • Anderson, Fred (2000). Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766. New York: Alfred A. Knopf ISBN 0-375-40642-5
  • Casgrain, H.R. (1964). Wolfe And Montcalm. Toronto: University of Toronto Press
  • Chartrand, Rene (1999). Quebec 1759. Oxford: Osprey Publishing ISBN 1-85532-847-X
  • Eccles, W.J. (1969). The Canadian Frontier, 1534-1760. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. ISBN 0-03-076540-4.
  • Eccles, W.J. (1972). France in America, New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1972. ISBN 06-011152-6
  • Eccles, W.J. (1994) "The Preemptive Conquest, 1749-1763", in Readings in Canadian History: Pre-Confederation, 4th edition, R. Douglas Francis and Donald B. Smith eds. Toronto: Harcourt Brace and Company): 180.
  • Francis, R. Douglas; Smith, Donald B. (1998). Readings in Canadian History, Pre-Confederation. Toronto, Harcourt-Brace Canada ISBN 0-7747-3546-5
  • Francis, R. Douglas; Jones, Richard; Smith, Donald B. (2000). Origins: Canadian History to Confederation. Toronto, Harcourt Canada ISBN 0-7747-3664-X
  • Frégault, Guy (1969). Canada: The War of the Conquest, Toronto, Oxford University Press, 427 pages ISBN 0175866342 (Trans. by Margaret M. Cameron)
  • Harris, R. Cole (ed) Historical Atlas of Canada, Volume I: From the Beginning to 1800. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987. ISBN 0-8020-2495-5
  • Hayes, Derek (2002). Historical Atlas of Canada. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre Ltd. ISBN 1-55054-918-9
  • Hibbert, Christopher (1959) Wolfe At Quebec. New York: The World Publishing Company
  • Kennett, Lee (1986). The French Armies in the Seven Years' War: A Study in Military Organization and Administration, Durham, Duke University Press, 165 pages ISBN 0822307375
  • Lloyd, Christopher (1959). The Capture of Quebec. London: B.T. Batsford, Ltd.
  • Reid, Stuart (2003). Quebec 1759: The Battle That Won Canada. Oxford: Osprey Publishing ISBN 1-85532-605-1
  • Stacey, C.P. (1959). Quebec 1759: The Siege and The Battle. Toronto: The Macmillan Company of Canada Ltd.
  • Zuehlke, Mark (2001). The Canadian military atlas: the Nation's battlefields from the French and Indian Wars to Kosovo. Toronto, Stoddart Publishing ISBN 0-7737-3289-6

Christopher Hibbert, MC, (born 1924) is an English writer and popular historian and biographer. ...

External links

Francis Parkman Francis Parkman (September 16, 1823 – November 8, 1893) was born in Boston, Massachusetts and died in Jamaica Plain, Boston, Massachusetts. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Quebec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date... This is a list of arrondissements (boroughs) in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. ... La Cité is a borough of Quebec City. ... Les Rivières is a borough of Quebec City. ... Sainte-Foy—Sillery is a borough of Quebec City. ... Charlesbourg is a borough of Quebec City, in the northeastern part of the city. ... Beauport is a borough of Quebec City, on the St. ... Limoilou is a borough of Quebec City. ... La Haute-Saint-Charles is a borough of Quebec City. ... Laurentien is a borough of Quebec City. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Quebec_City. ... Le Quartier gai de Québec (English : The Gay Quarter of Quebec) is a part from La Cité, in Quebec City. ... Old Quebec (French: Vieux-Québec) is a neighbourhood of Quebec City, the capital of the province of Quebec in Canada. ... Saint-Jean-Baptiste is a neighbourhood of Quebec City, the capital of the province of Quebec in Canada. ... Saint-Roch is a neighborhood in the borough of La Cité in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. ... The urban agglomeration of Quebec (French: agglomération urbaine de Québec) is formed by Quebec City, LAncienne-Lorette and Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Quebec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date... LAncienne-Lorette is a town in central Quebec, Canada, west of Quebec City. ... Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures is a town, formerly an incorporated municipality in central Québec, Canada on the St. ... // Quebec City was founded on July 3, 1608 by Samuel de Champlain. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

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