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Encyclopedia > Battle of the Niemen River
Battle of the Niemen
Part of the Polish-Soviet War
Battle of Niemen
Battle of the Niemen. Allegorical painting by Wojciech Kossak.
Date September 15-September 25, 1920
Location near Hrodna, along the Niemen River
Result Decisive Polish victory
Combatants
Russia Poland
Commanders
Mikhail Tukhachevsky Józef Piłsudski
Strength
~100,000 on the Western Front (September 1) 96,300 (September 15)
Casualties
uncertain, at least 40,000 POWs
Polish-Soviet War
1919
Target Vistula – Bereza Kartuska – Pińsk – Lida – Wilno – Minsk – 1st Berezina – Daugavpils

1920
Latyczów – Mozyr – Korosteń – Koziatyn – 2nd Berezina – Kiev – Wołodarka – Głębokie – Mironówka – Olszanica – Żywotów – Miedwiedówka – Dziunków – Wasylkowce – Bystrzyk – 1st Brześć – 1st Grodno – 1st Niemen – Boryspol – Auta – Dubno – Kobryn – Łomża – Brody – Dęblin – Nasielsk – Serock – Radzymin – Warsaw – Płock – Wkra – Cyców – Ciechanów – Lwów – Zadwórze – Mława – Białystok – Komarów – Dytiatyn – 2nd Niemen – 2nd Grodno – 2nd Brześć – Mołodeczno – 2nd Minsk Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... Download high resolution version (1120x704, 311 KB)Fragment of an allegorical painting Bitwa nad Niemnem (Battle of Niemen) by Wojciech Kossak This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative representation conveying a meaning other than and in addition to the literal. ... Wojciech Kossak, self-portrait. ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Hrodna City emblem Hrodna (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; Lithuanian: ) is a city in Belarus. ... External links Wikimedia Commons has multimedia related to: Neman Categories: Belarus-related stubs | Rivers of Belarus | Rivers of Lithuania | Russian rivers ... Image File history File links Flag_RSFSR_1918. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский, Polish: MichaÅ‚ Tuchaczewski) (February 16, 1893 [O.S. February 4] – June 12, 1937), Soviet military commander, was one of the most prominent victims of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman Political party none (see Sanacja for details), formerly PPS Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Poland RSFSR Commanders Józef PiÅ‚sudski Vladimir Lenin Strength ~100,000 troops >100,000 troops Casualties  ?  ? {{{notes}}} The Russian Westward offensive of 1918 — 1919 was part of general move of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic into the areas abandoned by the Ober-Ost garrisons, that were being... Battle of Bereza Kartuska (1919) Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date August, 1920 Place near Bereza Kartuska, near Brzesc, Belarus Result Polish victory Battle of Bereza Kartuska was one of the first conflicts between the organised forces of the Second Polish Republic and Soviet Russia and can be considered as one... Battle of Lida can refer to several conflicts around the city of Lida during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-1920. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevist Russia Commanders Józef PiÅ‚sudski WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Belina-Prażmowski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Unknown Strength 9 cavalry squadrons 3 infantry battalions artillery support local population Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown Operation Wilno refers to the Polish offensive and capture of Wilno (Vilnius) during the first... Combatants Poland Bolshevist Russia Commanders StanisÅ‚aw Szeptycki Unknown Strength 14,000 Unknown Casualties Unknown heavy Operation Minsk refers to the Polish offensive and capture of Minsk from the Bolshevik control in 1919. ... Combatants Poland, Latvia Bolshevist Russia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 2 infantry divisions, 1 tank regiment Battle of Daugavpils (also known as the Battle of Dyneburg) was the final battle of the joint Polish and Latvian Operation Winter against the Red Army. ... Main article: Polish-Soviet War Soviet Forces in early 1920 Soviet forces has recently been very successful against the White Russians, defeating Denikin, and signed peace treaties with Latvia and Estonia. ... The Battle of Latyczów or Letychiv took place between February 18 and 22, 1920, during the Polish-Soviet War. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevist Russia Commanders Jan Romer Strength 1 cavalry division 2 infantry divisions Casualties 2 officers and 7 soldiers killed, 33 men wounded unknown, roughly 8000 taken prisoner of war Battle of Koziatyn (also known as the Raid on Koziatyn and Koziatyn Envelopment) of April 25th-April 27th, 1920... The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an important military operation, carried out by Polish Army and allied Ukrainian forces during the Polish-Bolshevik War, from April 1920 to June of the same year. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Stefan Dab-Biernacki Aleksandr Yegorov Strength 2 infantry regiments, 1 cavalry regiment, 1 artillery group 4th Cavalry Division Casualties ? ? The Battle of WoÅ‚odarka was a clash between the Polish Army and Siemion Budionnyis First Cavalry Army. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Strength at least two regiments 11th Cavalry Division Casualties {{{notes}}} Battle of Bystrzyk happened on May 31, 1920, near the village of Bystryk near Kiev. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Strength 2 battalions (part of 1st Legions Infantry Regiment) 58th Rifle Division Casualties {{{notes}}} Battle of Boryspil happened on June 2, 1920, near the town of Boryspil near Kiev. ... Combatants Second Polish Republic Bolshevist Russia Commanders Strength Casualties The Battle of Nasielsk was fought on August 14 and August 15 of 1920 between Polish and Soviet forces. ... The Battle of Radzymin was part of the Battle of Warsaw during the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad WisÅ‚Ä…) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... During the Polish-Soviet War of 1920 the city of Lwów was attacked by the forces of Aleksandr Yegorov. ... Battle of Zadwórze (sometimes referred to as the Polish Thermopylae) was a battle of the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Juliusz Rómmel Semyon Budyonny Strength 6 regiments 17 500 men, 20 regiments Casualties 500 KIA, 700 horses Unknown. ...


The Battle of the Niemen River was the second-greatest battle of the Polish-Soviet War. It took place near the middle Neman River between the cities of Suwałki, Grodno and Białystok. After having suffered almost complete defeat in the Battle of Warsaw (August 1920), Mikhail Tukhachevski's Red Army forces tried to establish a defensive line, against Józef Piłsudski's counter-attacking Polish Army, running northward from the Polish-Lithuanian border to Polesie, and centering on Grodno. Between September 15 and September 25, 1920, the Poles outflanked the Soviets, once again defeating them. After the mid-October Battle of the Szczara River, the Polish Army had reached the Tarnopol-Dubno-Minsk-Drisa line. Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... The Neman (Belarusian: ; Lithuanian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; German: ) is a major Eastern European river rising in Belarus and flowing through Lithuania before draining into the Baltic Sea near KlaipÄ—da. ... Motto: none Voivodship Podlaskie Municipal government Rada miejska w SuwaÅ‚kach Mayor Józef Gajewski Area 65. ... Hrodna (or Grodno; Belarusian: Го́радня, Гро́дна; Grodno in Polish, Гродно in Russian, Gardinas in Lithuanian) is a city in Belarus on the Nemunas river, close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania... BiaÅ‚ystok (pronounced: , Belarusian: , Lithuanian: , Yiddish ביאַליסטאָק) is the largest city (pop. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad WisÅ‚Ä…) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (also spelled Tukhachevski, Tukhachevskii, Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский) (February 16, 1893 - June 11, 1937), Soviet military... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman Political party none (see Sanacja for details), formerly PPS Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... Polesie is one of the largest European swampy areas, located in the South-Western part of the Eastern-European Lowland, mainly within the territories of Belarus, Ukraine and partly also within Poland and Russia. ... Hrodna (or Grodno; Belarusian: Го́радня, Гро́дна; Grodno in Polish, Гродно in Russian, Gardinas in Lithuanian) is a city in Belarus on the Nemunas river, close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Ternopil (Тернопіль in Ukrainian, Tarnopol in Polish, Ternopol in Russian) is a city in Western Ukraine, located at the banks of the Seret river. ... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ...


Opposing forces

Photo of the battle.

Both the Polish Army and the opposing Red Army suffered heavy casualties in the course of war, and especially during the Russian summer offensive of 1920. Moreover, both opposing armies were still in the phase of organisation. By August, the Poles mobilised almost 1 million men, which allowed to reinforce most front-line units to approximately 50-60% of their nominal strength. Out of that number almost 350 000 were in active service on the eastern front, while the rest served in other units or were still training. The Polish brigades and divisions were usually ill-equipped, but were commanded by experienced officers, veterans of the Great War and the subsequent Polish-Ukrainian War. Moreover, with fresh forces arriving to the front almost every week the reserves of the Polish C-i-C were sufficient for waging an offensive war. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Poland West Ukrainian Peoples Republic The Polish-Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the forces of Poland and West Ukrainian Peoples Republic for the control over Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. ...


The Red Army suffered heavy casualties in the Battle of Warsaw in August and lacked organisation. Although the reserves of fresh, untrained recruits were almost unlimited, the Russian units lacked experienced officers. Also, in the course of the war the Soviet forces lost large parts of their artillery, which was usually used on the battlefield as a last stand against the assaulting enemy. This tactics allowed the Poles to outgun their enemies. Also, the Russian air forces were almost non-existent while the Polish Army could use its few aeroplanes to successfully disrupt enemy moves and conduct intelligence operations.


The Red Army was organised in several fronts. The Western Front facing the Poles had more than 700,000 soldiers in August. However, large part of its forces were either taken prisoner of war by the Poles, interned in East Prussia or routed. After the arrival of 68,000 reinforcements in August and additional 20,500 in September, the forces of Tukhachevski reached approximately 20 to 40% of their nominal strength. However, both the morale and the reinforcement abilities of the Russian troops were seriously harassed. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ...


Polish Army

The order of battle of the Polish Army as after the reorganisation of September 11. The position of units as of September 15, 1920. The armies and divisions are listed north to south. An order of battle (often abbreviated as ORBAT, OOB, or OB) is an organizational tool used by military intelligence to list and analyze enemy military units. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ...

Polish Army Army Operational Group Unit Remarks
 
Józef Piłsudski
HQ in Białystok
2nd Army
Edward Rydz
Shielding group
Left flank, facing Lithuania
Siberian Brigade
Rumsza
17th Greater Polish Division
Osiński
Wing Group / Assault Group
west of Grodno and in Suwałki area
1st Polish Legions Infantry Division
Dąb-Biernacki
1st Lithuanian-Belarusian Division
Rządkowski
II Cavalry Brigade
IV Cavalry Brigade
Nieniewski
Front Group
west of Grodno, ordered to hold out the enemy
22nd Volunteer Infantry Division
Koc
21st Mountain Infantry Division
Galica
Right Flank
Niemen river crossing in Mosty Zaniemeńskie
3rd Polish Legions Infantry Division
Berbecki
4th Army
Leonard Skierski
Main Forces 15th Greater Polish Division
Jung
Upper Rosia river
14th Greater Polish Division
Konarzewski
to the NE of Prużana
11th Infantry Division
Małachowski
to the NE of Kobryń
16th Pomeranian Division
Ładoś
Kobryń-Pińsk railroad and highway
Garrison of Brześć Fortress "Brześć" Fortified Area
?
ca. 1200 men
3rd Army
Władysław Sikorski
Left wing
Wołyń area
Bułak-Bałachowicz's Group
Bułak-Bałachowicz
ca. 1500 men, formed of deserters from the Red Army and other Russian and Belarusian volunteers
18th Infantry Division
Krajowski
Main forces
between Wołyń and Lwów
2nd Polish Legions Division
Żymierski
7th Infantry Division
Szubert
9th Infantry Division
Narbut-Łuczyński
10th Infantry Division
Żeligowski
Dreszer's Cavalry group
Dreszer
3rd and 9th cavalry brigades, later renamed to 2nd Cavalry Division
Haller's Operational Group
Haller von Hallenburg
1st Cavalry Division
Rómmel
temporarily attached
13th Infantry Division
Haller de Hallenburg
temporarily attached
Allied troops
Don Cossacks' Brigade
col. Salnikov
Only 251 soldiers and officers
Kuban Cossacks' Brigade
mjr. Yakovlev
Only 614 soldiers and officers
Garrison of Zamość
6th Ukrainian Division
Bezruchko
token forces left in the city after the Battle of Komarów
6th Army
Wacław Iwaszkiewicz
Januszajtis' Group
towards Płoskirów
12th Infantry Division
Żegota-Januszajtis
Latinik's Group
around Lwów
5th Infantry Division
Szymański?
8th Infantry Division
Burhardt-Bukacki
I Cavalry Brigade Narajówka river, Złota Lipa - east of Lwów
Jędrzejowski's Group
around Lwów
7th Infantry Division
K. Szubert?
13th Infantry Division
Pawlik
Organic cavalry
Ukrainian Army
Mykhailo Omelianovych-Pavlenko
1st to 5th Infantry Divisions and 1st Cavalry
Only nominally, en cadre and had 8189 officers and 8202 soldiers (mostly cavalrymen). Reserve of the 6th Army south of Lwów.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of the Niemen River - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (582 words)
The Battle of the Niemen River was the second-greatest battle of the Polish-Soviet War.
It took place near the middle Niemen River between the cities of Suwałki, Grodno and Białystok.
The Red Army suffered heavy casualties in the Battle of Warsaw in August and lacked organisation.
Battle of Warsaw (1920) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3550 words)
The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish: Cud nad Wisłą) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, begun soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasting until the Treaty of Riga (1921).
The Battle of Warsaw was fought from 13 to 25 August 1920 as Red Army forces commanded by Mikhail Tukhachevski approached the Polish capital of Warsaw and nearby Modlin Fortress.
Graves of Polish soldiers fallen at the Battle of Warsaw, Powązki Cemetery, Warsaw.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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