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Encyclopedia > Battle of the Little Bighorn

Coordinates: 45°33′54″N 107°25′44″W / 45.565, -107.42889 (Battle of the Little Big Horn) Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Battle of the Little Bighorn
Part of the Black Hills War

Custer Massacre at Big Horn, Montana —
June 25, 1876
, artist unknown
Date June 25June 26, 1876
Location Near the Little Big Horn River, Big Horn County, Montana
Result Native American Victory
Belligerents
Lakota
Northern Cheyenne
Arapaho
United States
7th Cavalry Regiment (United States)
Commanders
Sitting Bull,
Crazy Horse,
Chief Gall
George A. Custer †,
Marcus Reno,
Frederick Benteen,
James Calhoun †
Strength
Believed to be 949 lodges (probably 900 - 1,800 warriors) 31 officers,
566 troopers,
15 armed civilians,
~35-40 scouts
Casualties and losses
Believed to be at least 36 killed, ~168 wounded
(according to Sitting Bull); or 136 killed, 160 wounded (according to Red Horse)
~268 killed (16 officers, 242 troopers, 10 civilians/scouts),
~55 wounded

The Battle of the Little Bighorn—also known as Custer's Last Stand, and, in the parlance of the relevant Native Americans, the Battle of the Greasy Grass—was an armed engagement between a Lakota-Northern Cheyenne combined force and the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army. It occurred between June 25 and June 26, 1876, near the Little Bighorn River in the eastern Montana Territory. The Black Hills War was a United States civil war between the Lakota Native American tribe and the United States government from 1876 until 1877. ... Image File history File links Custer_Massacre_At_Big_Horn,_Montana_June_25_1876. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... The Little Bighorn River The Little Bighorn River is a tributary of the Bighorn River in the United States in the states of Wyoming and Montana. ... Big Horn County is a county located in the state of Montana. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870 The Cheyenne are a Native American nation of the Great Plains, closely allied with the Arapaho and loosely allied with the Lakota (Sioux). ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... Image File history File links US_flag_37_stars. ... The United States 7th Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage traces back to the mid-19th century. ... For the western film, see Sitting Bull (film). ... For other uses, see Crazy Horse (disambiguation). ... Gall (c. ... Custer redirects here. ... Marcus Reno Marcus Albert Reno was a career military officer in the American Civil War and in the Black Hills War against the Lakota (Sioux) and Northern Cheyenne. ... Frederick Benteen circa 1865 Frederick Benteen in his later years Frederick William Benteen (August 24, 1834-June 22, 1898) was a military officer during the American Civil War and then during the Black Hills War against the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne. ... James Calhoun James Calhoun was the brother-in-law to George Armstrong Custer and was killed in the Battle of the Little Bighorn with him. ... The Black Hills War was a United States civil war between the Lakota Native American tribe and the United States government from 1876 until 1877. ... Combatants Lakota Cheyenne United States Army Shoshone Crow Commanders Crazy Horse Little Wolf Col. ... Combatants Lakota Cheyenne United States Army Shoshone Crow Commanders Crazy Horse George Crook Strength 1,500 1,300 Casualties 36 dead 63 wounded 10-28 dead 21-56 wounded The Battle of the Rosebud (also known the Battle of the Rosebud Creek) occurred June 17, 1876, in the Montana Territory... Battle of Warbonnet Creek Conflict Black Hills War, Indian Wars Date July 17, 1876 Place Nebraska Result U.S. victory The Battle of Warbonnet Creek was at most a skirmish characterised by the duel between Buffalo Bill Cody and Yellow Hand and the battle is often referred to as the... Combatants Miniconjou Sioux Sans Arc Sioux United States Commanders American Horse Crazy Horse George Crook Strength 600-800 >1,000 Casualties 10 killed unknown number of wounded 23 captured 3 killed 13 wounded The Battle of Slim Buttes was fought on September 9–10, 1876, in the Dakota Territory between... Combatants Lakota United States Army Shoshone Crow Commanders Sitting Bull Nelson A. Miles Strength ~300 warriors 398 Casualties 5 dead unknown wounded 0 dead 2 wounded The Battle of Cedar Creek (also called Big Dry Creek or Big Dry River) occurred on October 21, 1876, in the Montana Territory between... Combatants Cheyenne United States Pawnee Commanders Dull Knife Little Wolf Ranald S. Mackenzie Strength 400 1,000 Casualties 40 killed ? wounded 6 killed 26 wounded The Dull Knife Fight was given its name from Chief Dull Knife, who led the Cheyenne warriors during the battle. ... Combatants Lakota Cheyenne United States Army Shoshone Crow Commanders Crazy Horse Two Moons Nelson A. Miles Strength ~500 436 Casualties 3 dead unknown wounded 2 dead 7 wounded The Battle of Wolf Mountain (also known the Battle of the Wolf Mountains, Miless Battle on the Tongue River, and the... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870 The Cheyenne are a Native American nation of the Great Plains, closely allied with the Arapaho and loosely allied with the Lakota (Sioux). ... 7th Cavalry Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia The 7th United States Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage traces back to the mid-19th century. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... The Little Bighorn River The Little Bighorn River is a tributary of the Bighorn River in the United States in the states of Wyoming and Montana. ... The Montana Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1864 and 1889. ...


The battle was the most famous action of the Indian Wars, and was a remarkable victory for the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne, led by Sitting Bull. The U.S. Seventh Cavalry, including a column of seven-hundred men led by George Armstrong Custer, was defeated; five of the Seventh's companies were annihilated and Custer himself was killed in the engagement along with two of his brothers and a brother-in-law. The battle, however, was not the highest infliction of casualties by Native Americans against U.S. forces. That record was set in 1791 at the Battle of the Wabash. For wars involving India, see Military history of India. ... For the western film, see Sitting Bull (film). ... Custer redirects here. ... The 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe was also once known as the Battle of the Wabash. ...

Contents

Prelude to the Battle of Little Bighorn

After the 1875 Sun Dance alliance, made by Sitting Bull between the Lakota and Cheyenne, thousands of Indians had slipped away from their reservations through early 1876. Military officials planned a summer campaign to corral them and force them back to the reservations, using both infantry and cavalry in three expeditions: Sketch of a Siouan Sun Dance by George Catlin The Sun Dance is a ceremony practiced by a number of native americans. ... This article is about Native Americans. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize...


Col. John Gibbon's column of six companies (A, B, E, H, I, and K) of the 7th Infantry and four (F, G, H, and L) of the 2nd Cavalry marched east from Fort Ellis in western Montana on March 30, patrolling the Yellowstone River. For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... John Gibbon John Gibbon (April 20, 1827 – February 6, 1896) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... The United States Army Seventh Infantry Regiment, known as The Cottonbalers from an incident that occurred during the Battle of New Orleans, while under the command of Andrew Jackson, when soldiers of the 7th Infantry Regiment held positions behind a breastwork of bales of cotton during the British attack. ... The 2d Cavalry Regiment (2d ACR) is a military unit within the United States Army. ... Fort Ellis was an early United States Army outpost established in 1867 to the eastern side of present-day Bozeman, Montana as settlers moved into the Gallatin Valley. ...


Brig. Gen. George Crook's column of ten companies (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, I, L, and M) of the 3rd Cavalry, five (A, B, D, E, and I) of the 2nd Cavalry, two companies (D and F) of the 4th Infantry, and three (C, G, and H) of the 9th Infantry, moved north from Fort Fetterman in the Wyoming Territory on May 29, marching toward the Powder River area. A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... George Crook (September 8, 1828 – March 21, 1890) was a career U.S. Army officer, most noted for his distinguished service during the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... The 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment is a regiment of the United States Army currently stationed at Fort Hood, near the city of Killeen, Texas. ... The 2d Cavalry Regiment (2d ACR) is a military unit within the United States Army. ... The U.S. 4th Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment in the United States Army. ... The 9th Infantry Regiment is one of the oldest and most decorated active units in the United States Army. ... Fort Fetterman, located approximately eleven miles northwest of Douglas, Wyoming, is situated on a plateau above the valleys of LaPrele Creek and the North Platte River. ... Wyoming Territory was an organized territory of the United States that was existed from 1868 until its admission to the Union as the State of Wyoming in 1890. ... Powder River The Powder River is a a tributary of the Yellowstone River, approximately 375 mi (603 km) long in the southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming in the United States. ...


Brig. Gen. Alfred Terry's command (the entire 7th Cavalry; Companies C and G, 17th U.S. Infantry; and the Gatling gun detachment of the 20th Infantry) departed westward from Fort Abraham Lincoln in the Dakota Territory on May 17. They were accompanied by teamsters and packers with 150 wagons and a large contingent of pack mules. Companies C, D, and I, 6th U.S. Infantry, moved up the Yellowstone from Fort Buford on the Missouri River to set up a supply depot, and joined Terry on May 29 at the mouth of the Powder River. Alfred Howe Terry (November 10, 1827 – December 16, 1890) was a Union general in the American Civil War and the military commander of the Dakota Territory from 1866 to 1869 and again from 1872 to 1886. ... Fort Abraham Lincoln was an important infantry and cavalry post about seven miles south of todays Mandan, North Dakota. ... Dakota Territory was the name of the northernmost part of the Louisiana Purchase of the United States. ... The 6th Infantry Regiment (“The Regulars”) was formed in 1812. ... Fort Buford was a former United States Army base located at the confluence of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers in the state of North Dakota. ...


The coordination and planning went awry on June 17 when Crook's column was delayed after the Battle of the Rosebud. Surprised and, according to some accounts, astonished by the unusually large numbers of Indians faced in the battle, Crook was essentially defeated in battle and forced to stop and regroup. Unaware of Crook's battle, Gibbon and Terry proceeded, joining forces in late June near the mouth of the Rosebud River. They formulated a plan, based on the discovery of a large Indian trail on June 15, that called for Custer's regiment to proceed up the Rosebud River, while Terry and Gibbon's united columns would move towards the Bighorn and Little Bighorn rivers. The officers hoped to trap the Indian village between these two forces. The 7th Cavalry split from the remainder of the Terry column on June 22 and began a rapid pursuit along the trail. Custer was offered the use of the Gatling guns but declined, saying they would slow his command.[1] He also declined the offer of two further companies of cavalry on the basis that his regiment could handle anything they found without additional assistance. is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Lakota Cheyenne United States Army Shoshone Crow Commanders Crazy Horse George Crook Strength 1,500 1,300 Casualties 36 dead 63 wounded 10-28 dead 21-56 wounded The Battle of the Rosebud (also known the Battle of the Rosebud Creek) occurred June 17, 1876, in the Montana Territory... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wind-Bighorn rivers The Bighorn River is a tributary of the Yellowstone, approximately 461 mi (742 km) long, in the western United States in the states of Wyoming and Montana. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

While the Terry/Gibbon column was marching toward the mouth of the Little Bighorn, on the evening of June 24 Custer's scouts arrived at an overlook known as the Crow's Nest, 14 miles (23 km) east of the Little Bighorn River. At sunrise on June 25, Custer's scouts reported to him they could see signs of the Indian village roughly 15 miles (24 km) in the distance. Custer's initial plan was a surprise attack on the village the following morning on June 26, but a report came to him that several hostile Indians had discovered the trail left by his troops. Assuming their presence had been exposed, Custer decided to attack the village without further delay. Unbeknownst to Custer, this group of Indians were actually leaving the encampment on the Big Horn and did not alert the village. Custer's scouts repeatedly warned him about the size of the village, with scout Mitch Bouyer saying, "General, I have been with these Indians for 30 years, and this is the largest village I have ever heard of." Custer's overriding concern was that the Indians would break up and scatter in different directions. The command began its approach to the Indian village at 12 noon and prepared to attack in full daylight.[2] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (875x528, 66 KB) This image (or all images in this article or category) was uploaded in the JPEG format. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (875x528, 66 KB) This image (or all images in this article or category) was uploaded in the JPEG format. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mitch Bouyer (sometimes spelled Bowyer or Buazer; or, in Creole, Boye- the proper French spelling is Boyer) (1837–1876) was an interpreter/guide in the Old West following the American Civil War. ...


Seventh Cavalry organization and deployment

The Seventh Cavalry was a veteran organization created just after the American Civil War. Many men were veterans of the war, including most of the leading officers. A significant portion of the regiment had previously served four-and-a-half years at Ft. Riley, Kansas, during which time it fought one major engagement and numerous skirmishes, experiencing casualties of 36 killed and 27 wounded. Six other troopers had died of drowning and 51 from cholera epidemics. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Fort Riley is a census-designated place and United States Army post, in Northeast Kansas, on the Kansas River. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ...

US Seventh Cavalry Battle Guidon‎
US Seventh Cavalry Battle Guidon‎

Half of the 7th Cavalry's companies had just returned from 18 months of constabulary duty in the deep South, having been recalled to Fort Abraham Lincoln to reassemble the regiment for the campaign. About 20 percent of the troopers had been enlisted in the prior seven months (139 of an enlisted roll of 718), were only marginally trained, and had no combat or frontier experience. A sizable number of these recruits were immigrants from Ireland, England and Prussia, just as many of the veteran troopers had been before their enlistments. Archaeological evidence also suggests that many of these troopers were malnourished and in poor physical condition. However, this was often the case in the army at this time.[3] The states in dark red comprise the Deep South. ... Fort Abraham Lincoln was an important infantry and cavalry post about seven miles south of todays Mandan, North Dakota. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ...


Of the 45 officers and 718 troopers then assigned to the 7th Cavalry (including a second lieutenant detached from the 20th Infantry and serving in Company L), 14 officers (including the regimental commander, Col. Samuel D. Sturgis) and 152 troopers did not accompany the 7th during the campaign. Among those left behind at Fort Abraham Lincoln was the regimental band. The ratio of troops detached for other duty (approximately 22%) was not unusual for expeditions of this size,[4] and part of the officer shortage was chronic, due to the Army's rigid seniority system: three of the regiment's 12 captains were permanently detached, and two had never served a day with the 7th since their appointment in July 1866.[5] Three second lieutenant vacancies (in E, H, and L Companies) were also unfilled. Samuel Davis Sturgis (June 11, 1822-September 28, 1889) was an American military officer who served as a Union general in the American Civil War. ...


Following a forced night march on June 24June 25 and the discovery of the Indian village the morning of June 25, Custer rode down into the valley of the Little Big Horn in preparation to attack. At roughly 12:15 p.m.,[6] he divided the 7th Cavalry into four groups: is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Custer's battalion consisted of Companies C, E, F, I, and L, personally led by Custer. It numbered 13 officers, 198 men (seven of whom would eventually be detached before the "last stand") and three civilians—newspaper reporter Mark Kellogg and two scouts. Commander of Company I and second-in-command of the Custer's battalion was Irishman, Captain Myles Keogh. Two of Custer's relatives later joined the column. Troop C was commanded by Custer's brother, Capt. Thomas Custer and L Company by his brother-in-law, 1st Lt. James Calhoun. This battalion marched along a ridge line on the east bank of the Little Bighorn in an attempt to enter the encampment from the north. Four of the battalion's officers (1st Lt. Algernon E. Smith, 2nd Lts. James G. Sturgis, John J. Crittenden, and William V. W. Reily) were on temporary duty that resulted in their deaths, and 2nd Lt. Charles C. DeRudio was detached from E Company and survived as a result (see 7th Cavalry officers at the Little Bighorn). A portrait of Mark Kellogg. ... Myles W. Keogh Myles Walter Keogh (March 25, 1840 – June 25, 1876) was an Irish soldier who was also an American Civil War military officer and later a member of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment during the Indian Wars of the 1870s. ... Please see Captain (military) for other versions of this rank Captain is a rank in the United States armed forces that ranks between a First Lieutenant and Major (O-3 in the United States Army, U.S. Air Force, and United States Marines), or a rank between a Commander and... Capt. ... First Lieutenant is a military rank. ... James Calhoun James Calhoun was the brother-in-law to George Armstrong Custer and was killed in the Battle of the Little Bighorn with him. ... , ) Belligerents Lakota Northern Cheyenne Arapaho United States 7th Cavalry Regiment (United States) Commanders Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, Chief Gall George A. Custer â€ , Marcus Reno, Frederick Benteen, James Calhoun â€  Strength Believed to be 949 lodges (probably 900 - 1,800 warriors) 31 officers, 566 troopers, 15 armed civilians, ~35-40 scouts Casualties...


Reno's battalion, led by Maj. Marcus Reno, was sent into the Little Bighorn valley to provoke an engagement. This battalion consisted of Companies A, G and M, and numbered 11 officers, 131 troopers and most of the approximately 35 Sioux, Ree/Arikara and Crow scouts. Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... Marcus Reno Marcus Albert Reno was a career military officer in the American Civil War and in the Black Hills War against the Lakota (Sioux) and Northern Cheyenne. ... Lough Ree (Loch Rí in Irish) is a lake in the midlands of Ireland, the second of the three major lakes on the River Shannon. ... It has been suggested that Arikara language be merged into this article or section. ... The Crow, also called the Absaroka or Apsáalooke, are a tribe of Native Americans who historically lived in the Yellowstone river valley and now live on a reservation south of Billings, Montana. ...


Benteen's battalion was led by a senior company commander, Capt. Frederick Benteen, and was made up of Companies D, H and K, with five officers and 110 men. Custer ordered Benteen to scout nearby valleys and attack any body of Indians he encountered. While he did so, Benteen would be out of supporting distance from the rest of the command.[7] Benteen himself described his mission to his wife in a letter days after the action, "General Custer divided the 7th Cavalry into three Battalions — about 15 miles (24 km) from an Indian village, the whereabout of which he did not know exactly. I was ordered with three Co's., D, H, & K, to go to the left for the purpose of hunting for the valley of the river—Indian camp—or anything I could find. I found nothing, and after marching 10 miles (16 km) or so in pursuit of the same determined to return to Custer's trail."[8] Frederick Benteen circa 1865 Frederick Benteen in his later years Frederick William Benteen (August 24, 1834-June 22, 1898) was a military officer during the American Civil War and then during the Black Hills War against the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne. ...


The last group was the regimental pack train, consisting of seven or eight troopers from each company and escorted by Company B. Commanded by Capt. Thomas McDougall, this sizable force had two officers, 127 troopers and seven civilian packers.


Each of the first three detachments was to seek out the Indian encampments, attack them, and hold them in place until the other two detachments arrived to support. Custer had employed similar tactics in 1868 during the Battle of the Washita. The Battle of Washita occurred on November 27, 1868 when George Armstrong Custer’s 7th U.S. Cavalry attacked Black Kettle’s Cheyenne village on the Washita River (near present day Cheyenne, Oklahoma). ...


Indian Village and arguments over its size

The unusually large village gathered along the banks of the Little Bighorn included Lakota, Northern Cheyenne and a small number of Arapaho. Estimates of the exact size of the village have been made since the day after the battle when Terry's column arrived on the scene. One of the reasons for disagreement over its size is that before the Battle, according to a number of Indian accounts, the Indians were in the process of preparing to move further up the Little Bighorn Village in search of antelope. Also, after a battle with casualties, it was Sioux custom to leave the dead in teepees or on lodge poles and immediately displace from the site where the dead were brought to. Thus, on the morning after the battle, significant numbers of Indians displaced further north west up the valley about 1-2 miles. By the time Terry's column arrived, all Indians had fled the scene. Mistaking the remains of two positions of the original village for one much larger village based on tepee sites at the two village positions and pole drag marks, many in Terry's column would report that the Indian village was 3-7 miles long. Indian accounts, however, place the south eastern boundary of the village only 100-200 yards from Reno's dismounted skirmish lines at the loop of the river just north of the present day site of Garryowen and the northern end of the village only one mile north, just south of the ford that crosses the Little Big Horn at Medicine Tail Coulee. [9] The ultimate size of the village is estimated to have been 949 lodges, with between 900 to 1,800 warriors.[10] Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870 The Cheyenne are a Native American nation of the Great Plains, closely allied with the Arapaho and loosely allied with the Lakota (Sioux). ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ...


Battle

Movement of the 7th Cavalry
A: Custer B: Reno C: Benteen D: Yates E: Weir

Reno's attack

The first detachment to attack was Major Reno's, conducted after receiving orders from Custer issued by Lt. William W. Cooke, as Custer's Crow scouts reported Sioux tribe members were alarming the village. Reno was ordered to charge and began that phase of the battle. The orders, made without accurate knowledge of the village's size, location, or propensity to stand and fight, had been to pursue the Indians and "bring them to battle." Reno's force crossed the Little Bighorn at the mouth of what is today Reno Creek around 3:00 p.m. [11] and immediately realized that the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne were present "in force and not running away." William W. Cooke William Cooke was the adjutant for George Armstrong Custer and was killed in the Battle of the Little Bighorn. ...


Reno advanced rapidly northeast. With trees and the river to his right, his left flank was the most exposed. Reno, however, put his least reliable forces, Arikara/Ree and Crow Indian scouts on that flank. They displayed more interest in capturing Sioux ponies than serving as a screen force.[citation needed] Reno, himself, however, suspected "a trap" and stopped a few hundred yards short of the encampment, dismounting and deploying in a skirmish line, as standard army doctrine called for. In a skirmish line, every fourth trooper handled the horses for the troopers taking firing positions, thus immediately reducing a fighting force by 25 percent. The troopers on the skirmish line were positioned five to ten yards apart, with officers to their rear and troopers with horses behind the officers. After an estimated 20 minutes of long distance firing, Reno's battalion had taken only one casualty, but the odds against him had become more obvious (Reno estimated five to one) and Custer had not reinforced him. Trooper Billy Jackson reported that by then, the Indians had massed for a mounted attack of more than 500 warriors,[12] turning Reno's exposed left flank and forcing him into a hasty withdrawal into the timber in a loop of the river.[13] Here the Indians pinned Reno and his men down, and after giving orders to mount, dismount and mount again, he then chose to make a disorderly retreat across the river to reach the high ground of the bluffs on the other side. The retreat was confused and immediately disrupted by Cheyenne attacks at close quarters. Reno later reported that three officers and 29 troopers were killed during the retreat and subsequent fording of the river, with another officer and 13-18 men missing. Most of these men were left behind in the timber, although many eventually rejoined the detachment. Skirmishers are infantry soldiers who are stationed ahead or to the sides of a larger body of friendly troops. ... A ford is a section of water (most commonly a section of a river) that is sufficiently shallow as to be traversable by wading. ...

The battlefield today.
The battlefield today.

The hasty retreat was believed to have been inspired by the death of Bloody Knife, a prominent Crow scout. While talking to Reno in the timber, he was shot in the head, with witnesses claiming some of his brain matter having actually splattered Reno. This shocking development is believed to have sufficiently unnerved Reno and to have inspired his disorganized retreat across the river. Several witnesses claimed Reno was in a panicked state for a considerable time following Bloody Knife's death. Atop the bluffs, known today as Reno Hill, Reno's shaken troops soon linked up with the detachment of Captain Benteen, arriving from the south. This force had been on a lateral scouting mission when it had been summoned by Custer's messenger, Italian bugler John Martin (Giovanni Martini) with the hand-written message "Come on...big village, be quick...bring pacs" ("pacs" referring to ammunition, meaning that by this time Custer was most likely aware of the large numbers of Indians they were having to face). Benteen's coincidental arrival on the bluffs was just in time to save Reno's men from possible annihilation. Their detachments were then reinforced by McDougall and the pack train. The 14 officers and 340 troopers on the bluffs organized an all-around defense and dug rifle pits using whatever implements they had among them, including knives. little bighorn memorial overview with clouds by Durwood Brandon. ... little bighorn memorial overview with clouds by Durwood Brandon. ... Bloody Knife Bloody Knife was an American Indian scout with the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment that was killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. ... There are many types of defensive fighting positions (DFPs), more commonly known in U.S. military slang as foxholes. ...


Despite hearing heavy gunfire from the north, including distinct volleys at 4:20 p.m., Benteen concentrated on reinforcing Reno's badly wounded and hard-pressed battalion, rather than continuing on toward Custer. Benteen's apparent reluctance to reach Custer prompted later criticism that he had failed to follow orders. Around 5:00 p.m., Capt. Thomas Weir and Company D moved out against orders to make contact with Custer. They advanced a mile, to what is today Weir Ridge, and could see in the distance Indian warriors on horseback shooting at objects on the ground. By this time, roughly 5:25 p.m., Custer's battle had concluded, and what Weir witnessed was most likely warriors finishing off the wounded and shooting at dead bodies on the Custer battlefield. The other companies eventually followed by assigned battalions, first Benteen, then Reno, and finally the pack train. Growing Indian attacks around Weir Ridge forced all seven companies to return to the bluff before the pack train, with the ammunition, had moved even a quarter mile. There, they remained pinned down for another day, but the Indians were unable to breach this tightly held position. Thomas Weir (Carluke, South Lanarkshire 1599 -Edinburgh 1670) was a Scottish soldier and presumed occultist, executed for witchcraft. ...


Benteen displayed calmness and courage by exposing himself to Indian fire and even being hit in the heel of his boot by an Indian bullet. At one point, he personally led a counterattack to push back Indians who had continued to crawl through the grass ever closer to the soldier's positions.[citation needed]


Custer's fight

Interpretations of Custer's fight are conjecture, since none of his men survived the battle, while the accounts of surviving Indians are conflicting and unclear. The gunfire heard on the bluffs by Reno and Benteen's men was from Custer's fight. His force of roughly 210 men was engaged by the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne about 3.5 miles (6 km) to the north. Having isolated Reno's force and driven them away from the encampment, the bulk of the warriors were free to pursue Custer. The route taken by Custer to his "Last Stand" remains a subject of debate. One possibility is that after ordering Reno to charge, Custer continued down Reno Creek to within about a half mile (800 m) of the Little Bighorn, but then turned north, and climbed up the bluffs, reaching the same spot to which Reno would soon retreat. From this point on the other side of the river, he could see Reno charging the village.

Lieutenant Colonel Custer on horseback and his U. S. Army troops make their last charge at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. It inaccurately shows Custer with a cavalry saber and wearing a blue uniform {bottom center}.
Lieutenant Colonel Custer on horseback and his U. S. Army troops make their last charge at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. It inaccurately shows Custer with a cavalry saber and wearing a blue uniform {bottom center}.
Lieutenant Colonel Custer and his U. S. Army troops are defeated in battle with Native American Lakota Sioux and Northern Cheyenne, on the Little Bighorn Battlefield, June 25, 1876 at Little Bighorn River, Montana.
Lieutenant Colonel Custer and his U. S. Army troops are defeated in battle with Native American Lakota Sioux and Northern Cheyenne, on the Little Bighorn Battlefield, June 25, 1876 at Little Bighorn River, Montana.
"Custer's Last Stand." Lieutenant Colonel Custer standing center, wearing buckskin, with few of his soldiers of the Seventh Cavalry still standing. Inaccurately shows Custer with a Cavalry saber and long hair.
"Custer's Last Stand." Lieutenant Colonel Custer standing center, wearing buckskin, with few of his soldiers of the Seventh Cavalry still standing. Inaccurately shows Custer with a Cavalry saber and long hair.

Custer then rode north along the bluffs, and descended into a drainage called Medicine Tail Coulee, which led to the river. Some historians believe that part of Custer's force descended the coulee, going west to the river and attempting unsuccessfully to cross into the village. According to some accounts, a small contingent of Indian sharpshooters opposed this crossing. It is possible that Custer himself was seriously wounded by one of these marksmen. Some Indian accounts claim that one of the leaders of this advance was wounded, along with a soldier carrying a company guidon. [14] Troopers had to dismount to help the wounded men back onto their horses.[15] The fact, however, that both of the non-mutilation wounds to Custer's body (a bullet wound below the heart and a shot to the left temple) would have been instantly fatal casts doubt on the proposition that either remounted wounded soldier was he. [16] Image File history File links X-33628. ... Image File history File links X-33628. ... Image File history File links X-33633. ... Image File history File links X-33633. ... Image File history File links X-33630. ... Image File history File links X-33630. ... A coulee (or coulée) is a deep steep-sided ravine formed by erosion, commonly found in the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. ...


This scenario might explain Custer's purpose for Reno's attack, indicating he may have intended to coordinate a "hammer-and-anvil" tactic, with Reno holding the Indians at bay at the southern end of the camp, while Custer drove them against Reno's line from the north. Other historians have noted that if Custer did attempt to cross the river near Medicine Tail Coulee, he may have been inspired by the belief that it was the north end of the Indian camp, when in fact it was only the middle. The exact location of the north end of the village remains in dispute.


Some traditional historians claim that Custer never approached the river, but rather continued north across the coulee and up the other side, where he gradually came under attack. According to this theory, by the time Custer realized he was badly outnumbered, it was too late to break back to the south where Reno and Benteen could have provided assistance. Two men from the 7th Cavalry later claimed to have seen Custer engage the Indians, including the young Crow scout Ashishishe, known by his translated name Curley, and the trooper Peter Thompson, who allegedly fell behind Custer's column. The accuracy of their recollections remains controversial, with battle participants and historians almost universally discrediting Thompson's claim. Curley, by D.F. Barry, 1878 Curley (or Curly), is the English name for Ashishishe (var. ... CHOKE ME SPANK ME PULL MY HAIR CHOKE ME SPANK ME PULL MY HAIR CHOKE ME SPANK ME PULL MY HAIR CHOKE ME SPANK ME PULL MY HAIR CHOKE ME SPANK ME PULL MY HAIR CHOKE ME SPANK ME PULL MY HAIR CHOKE ME SPANK ME PULL MY HAIR CHOKE...


A new interpretation is based on recent archeological evidence and Indian testimony. In the 1920s, battlefield investigators discovered hundreds of .45-70 shell cases along the ridge line, known today as Nye-Cartwright Ridge, between South Medicine Tail Coulee and the next drainage at North Medicine Tail (also known as Deep Coulee). Historians believe Custer divided his battalion into two (and possibly three) companies, retaining personal command of one while presumably delegating Captain George W. Yates to command the second.


One of the companies made a feint attack down Medicine Tail Coulee to Minneconjou Ford (the north and south forks are shaped like a "V"), with the intent of relieving the pressure on Reno's detachment, possibly last seen by Custer withdrawing the skirmish line into the timber on the edge of the Little Bighorn River. The second company, on the heights, would have provided long range cover fire. Warriors could have been drawn to the feint attack, forcing the battalion back towards the heights, up the north fork drainage, away from the troops providing cover fire above. The covering company would have moved towards a reunion, delivering heavy volley fire and leaving the trail of expended cartridges discovered 50 years later.


Custer's fight, from this point, is difficult to follow. According to the location of the bodies found on the battlefield, Companies I and L, under Captain Keogh's command, were possibly detached and dismounted to provide a rear guard, and may have been the last organized defense. The remaining companies were forced up the ridge to the top of what is known today as Custer Hill. The hilltop itself was probably too small to accommodate the survivors and wounded. According to Indian testimony, the command structure rapidly broke down, although smaller "last stands" were apparently made by several groups.


By almost all accounts, within less than an hour Custer's force was completely annihilated.[17][18][19] David Humphries Miller, who between 1935 and 1955 interviewed the last Indian survivors of the battle, wrote that the Custer fight lasted less than one-half hour.[20] The Lakota asserted that Crazy Horse personally led one of the large groups of warriors that eventually overwhelmed the cavalrymen in a surprise charge from the northeast, causing a breakdown in the command structure and panic among the troops. Many of these men threw down their weapons while Cheyenne and Sioux warriors rode them down. Some Indian accounts recalled this segment of the fight as a "buffalo run."[21][22] Eyewitness accounts from Indians, long ignored by traditional historians, were collected for many years after the battle and continue to be analyzed. For other uses, see Crazy Horse (disambiguation). ...


The exact number of Indian warriors participating in the battle has never been determined and remains controversial. It has been estimated that in the overall battle the warriors outnumbered the 7th Cavalry by approximately three to one, or roughly 1800 against 600.[23] In Custer's fight, this ratio could have increased to as high as nine to one (1800 against 200) after his isolated command became the main focus of the fighting. Some historians, however, claim the ratio of the Custer fight to be as low as three to one. By almost all accounts, Custer's detachment was certainly outnumbered and was caught in the open on unfamiliar terrain.


Debate over effectiveness of cavalry weapons

It has been claimed in defense of Custer that some of the Indians were armed with repeating Spencer, Winchester rifles and Henry rifles, while the 7th Cavalry carried single-shot Springfield Model 1873 carbines, caliber .45-70.[24] These rifles had a slower rate of fire than the aforementioned repeating rifles and tended to jam when overheated. The carbines had been issued with a copper cartridge, and troopers soon discovered that the copper expanded in the breech when heated upon firing, thus jamming the rifle. Troopers were forced to extract the cartridges manually with a knife blade, rendering the carbines useless in combat except as a club. The Spencer repeating rifle was a manually operated lever-action, repeating rifle fed from a tube magazine with cartridges. ... Winchester Rifle refers to an early family of repeating rifles manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company that was used widely in the United States during the latter half of the 19th century. ... The Henry repeating rifle is a lever-action breech-loading rifle. ... The Model 1873 Trapdoor Springfield was the first ever standard issued Breech-loading rifle for the United States Army. ...


The Springfield Model 1873 was selected by the Army Ordnance Board after extensive testing in competition with other rifles. It was considered to be the most reliable rifle after multiple weathering tests. The choice of a single-shot rifle over repeat-firing rifles was a deliberate attempt to prevent overuse of ammunition, following the Army's emphasis at that time on marksmanship and taking into account the expenses associated with the fact that every cartridge arrived at the end of a 1,000-mile (1,600 km) supply line. While Indian accounts of the Custer fight note men throwing down their rifles, possibly in fear or anger, allegations of jammed rifles do not appear in other confrontations during the Indian Wars.


Indian accounts, documented in paintings on buffalo hides, indicate a fight between bows and arrows and cavalry pistols.[25] While this representation may support the claims of the Army's carbines malfunctioning, the single-shot Springfield rifles used by the 7th had a much greater range than the Winchester and Henry rifles of the Indians, and by use of skirmishers covering fixed arcs of fire, the soldiers were able to keep the Indians at bay for some time. Indian leaders spoke of several repulsed attempts to charge the soldiers positions. Each time they were forced to return to their starting points.


However, as more Indians joined the fight, fire on Company L and Company C's two positions increased steadily in intensity. Indian accounts describe warriors deliberately rushing army positions with bright robes to induce panic in the cavalry mounts.[26] Another account related that soldiers (probably I Company, held initially in reserve over the crest of Finley Ridge) were rushed by warriors waving blankets and by lone warrior "bravery runs," which forced some to chose between holding horse reins or letting go of them and returning fire. Soldiers aiming at oncoming Indians often had their hands involuntarily pulled upwards by the frightened mounts, resulting in weapons discharged upwards as horses reared. When horses carrying ammunition packs were driven off, the Indians quickly gained control of them.


In addition to rifles (including antiquated muzzle-loaders and Army Sharps carbines, which the Indians acquired years earlier in trades with the settlers along the South Platte), opposing warriors carried a large variety of primitive weapons including bows and arrows and several styles of heavy, stone-headed war clubs. It is believed that at least half of the Indian warriors were armed only with bows and "many arrows," making it the primary weapon.[27] Many Indians, including the thirteen year-old Black Elk, claimed to have acquired their first gun from dead troopers at the battle.[28] The Sioux warrior White Bull described the Indians as systematically stripping slain troopers of their guns and cartridge belts so that as the losses mounted among Custer's men, the gunfire from the Indians steadily increased.[29] The Cheyenne participants gave similar testimony: the Indians' firepower was increased by the new carbines they took off the soldiers, and the large amounts of ammunition they were constantly recovering from the saddlebags of the troopers' horses. A bow is a weapon that shoots arrows powered by the elasticity of the bow and/or the string. ... Black Elk (Hehaka Sapa) (c. ...


The exposed terrain of the battlefield gave Lakota and Cheyenne bows and arrows a deadly advantage. The heights above the Little Bighorn River, unlike the valley itself, are considered completely unsuited for mounted troops. Custer's men were essentially trapped on higher ground from which direct fire at the Indians through the brush would have been difficult. On the other hand, the Lakota and Cheyenne would have been able to shoot their arrows from heavy sagebrush (below the ridge where Custer's men were making their stand) by aiming an arch over obstacles at the puffs of smoke from the troopers' weapons. A large volume of arrows could have ensured severe casualties and, in fact, many of the slain troopers discovered were found to have multiple arrows protruding from their bodies. Many of the dead cavalrymen also appeared to have their skulls crushed, possibly by the stone-headed war clubs.[30] It is unknown if these injuries occurred during the battle or post-mortem. Indirect fire is a characteristic unique to artillery in which the fire is adjusted out of sight of the guns. ... Indirect fire is a characteristic unique to artillery in which the fire is adjusted out of sight of the guns. ...


Custer's resistance

Recent archaeological work at the battlefield site indicates that organized resistance in the form of skirmish lines probably took place. The remainder of the battle possibly took on the nature of a running fight. Modern archeology and historical Indian accounts indicate that Custer's force may have been divided into three groups, with the Indians attempting to prevent them from effectively reuniting. Indian accounts describe warriors (including women) running up from the village to wave blankets in order to scare off the soldiers' horses. Fighting dismounted, the soldiers' skirmish lines were most likely overwhelmed. Studies show that it would have taken an hour to cover the long stretch over which the troopers died and by most accounts, the battle was over within this time. Army doctrine would have called for one man in four to be a horseholder on the skirmish lines and, in extreme cases, one man in eight. As the Custer field is unique, in that markers were placed where men were believed to have fallen a couple of years after the battle, the placements of troops have been roughly construed. The troops evidently died in several groups, including on Custer Hill, around Captain Myles Keogh and strung out towards the Little Big Horn River. As individual troopers were wounded or killed, initial defensive positions would have become untenable. Myles W. Keogh Myles Walter Keogh (March 25, 1840 – June 25, 1876) was an Irish soldier who was also an American Civil War military officer and later a member of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment during the Indian Wars of the 1870s. ...


Recent documentaries suggest that there may not have been a "Last Stand," as traditionally portrayed in popular culture. Instead, archaeologists suggest that Custer's troops were not surrounded but rather overwhelmed by a single charge. This scenario corresponds to several Indian accounts stating Crazy Horse's charge swarmed the resistance, with the surviving soldiers fleeing in panic. At this point, the fight became a rout with warriors riding down the fleeing troopers and hitting them with lances and coup sticks.[31] Many of these troopers were believed to have ended up in a deep ravine 300-400 yards away from what is known today as Custer Hill. At least 28 bodies, including scout Mitch Bouyer, were discovered in the gulch, their deaths possibly the battle's final actions. According to other Indian accounts, about 40 men made a desperate stand around Custer on Custer Hill, delivering volley fire.[32] Many of the Indian casualties were believed to have been suffered during this closing segment of the battle. Mitch Bouyer (sometimes spelled Bowyer or Buazer; or, in Creole, Boye- the proper French spelling is Boyer) (1837–1876) was an interpreter/guide in the Old West following the American Civil War. ...


Indian casualties have never been determined and estimates vary widely, from as few as 36 dead (from Indian listings of the dead by name) to as many as 300. The Sioux Chief Red Horse told Col. W. H. Wood that the Indians suffered 136 dead and 160 wounded during the battle.[33] Many historians do not agree with these categorical numbers, since Indians were not known to keep such statistics. It is also believed that many Indian participants simply fabricated casualty numbers to appease frustrated historians.


The aftermath

After the Custer force was annihilated, the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne regrouped to attack Reno and Benteen. The fight continued until dark (approximately 9:00 p.m.) and for much of the next day, with the outcome in doubt. Reno credited Benteen's leadership with repulsing a severe attack on the portion of the perimeter held by Companies H and M.[34] On June 26, the column under General Terry approached from the north, and the Indians drew off in the opposite direction. The Crow scout White Man Runs Him was the first to tell General Terry's officers that Custer's force had "been wiped out." Reno and Benteen's wounded troops were given what treatment was available at that time; five later died of their wounds. Two of the regiment's three surgeons had been with Custer's column; the remaining doctor was assisted by interpreter Fred Gerard. is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward S. Curtis portrait of White Man Runs Him, c. ... Fredrick Frances Gerard (1823 – 1913) was a frontiersman, army scout, and civilian interpreter for George Armstrong Custers 7th U.S. Cavalry during the Little Bighorn Campaign. ...


The soldiers on Reno Hill were unaware of what had happened to Custer until Terry's arrival and were reportedly stunned by the news. An examination was immediately made of the Custer battle site, but soldiers could not determine what exactly had transpired. There was evidence of organized resistance including what appeared to be breastworks made of dead horses on Custer Hill.[35] The Indian dead had mostly been removed from the field. The 7th's dead were identified as best as possible and hastily buried where they fell. Custer was found to have been shot in the left chest and left temple. Either wound would have been fatal, though he appeared to have bled from only the chest wound, meaning his head wound may have been delivered post-mortem. He also suffered a wound to the arm. Some Lakota oral histories assert that Custer committed suicide to avoid capture and subsequent torture. Several Indian accounts do note multiple soldiers committing suicide near the end of the battle, but the claim of Custer's suicide is usually discounted since he was right-handed. His body was found near the top of Custer Hill, also known as "Last Stand Hill," where a large obelisk inscribed with the names of the 7th's casualties now stands. Most of the dead had been stripped of their clothing, mutilated, and were in an advanced state of decomposition making identification of many of the bodies impossible.[36]


Several days after the battle, Curley, Custer's Crow scout who was relieved of duty near Medicine Tail Coulee, gave an account of the battle which indicated that Custer had attacked the village after attempting to cross the river, but had been driven back, retreating towards the hill where his body was found.[37] The scenario seemed compatible with Custer's aggressive style of warfare and with evidence found on the ground, forming the basis of many popular accounts of the battle. The story of Custer's purported heroic attack across the river, however, was undermined by the account of participant Chief Gall, who told Lt. Edward Godfrey that Custer never came close to the river.[38] Gall's account, however, was criticized by Cheyenne and Sioux participants.[39] Curley, by D.F. Barry, 1878 Curley (or Curly), is the English name for Ashishishe (var. ... Gall (c. ...


The 7th Cavalry suffered 52 percent casualties: 16 officers and 242 troopers killed or died of wounds, 1 officer and 51 troopers wounded. Every soldier in the five companies with Custer was killed, although for years rumors persisted of survivors.[40] The sole surviving animal reportedly discovered on the battlefield by General Terry's troops was Captain Keogh's horse Comanche.[41] Comanche Comanche was a mixed Mustang Morgan horse who survived General George Armstrong Custers detachment of the US 7th Cavalry at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. ...

Comanche in 1887
Comanche in 1887
Scene of Custer's last stand, looking in the direction the Indian village and the deep ravine. Photo by Stanley J. Morrow, spring 1879.
Scene of Custer's last stand, looking in the direction the Indian village and the deep ravine. Photo by Stanley J. Morrow, spring 1879.

In 1878, the army awarded 24 Medals of Honor to participants in the fight on the bluffs for bravery, most for risking their lives to carry water from the river up the hill to the wounded.[42] Few questioned the conduct of the enlisted men, but many questioned the tactics, strategy and conduct of the officers. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (800 × 640 pixel, file size: 65 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) horse Comanche - the only survivor from Little Big Horn Battle from: http://geekphilosopher. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (800 × 640 pixel, file size: 65 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) horse Comanche - the only survivor from Little Big Horn Battle from: http://geekphilosopher. ... Scene of Gen. ... Scene of Gen. ... For other uses, see Medal of Honor (disambiguation). ...


Beginning in July, the 7th Cavalry was assigned new officers[43] and recruiting efforts begun to fill the depleted ranks. The regiment, reorganized into eight companies, remained in the field as part of the Terry Expedition, now based on the Yellowstone River at the mouth of the Big Horn and reinforced by Gibbon's column. On August 8, 1876, after Terry was further reinforced with the 5th Infantry, the expedition moved up Rosebud Creek in pursuit of the Lakota. It met with Crook's command, similarly reinforced, and the combined force, almost 4,000 strong, followed the Lakota trail northeast toward the Little Missouri River. Persistent rain and lack of supplies forced the column to dissolve and return to its varying starting points. The 7th Cavalry returned to Fort Lincoln to reconstitute. Yellowstone River, Fishing Bridge, July 1959. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... The Little Missouri River can refer to two rivers in the United States: The Little Missouri River in Arkansas The Little Missouri River in Wyoming, South Dakota, and North Dakota This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The Army as a whole was expanded by 2,500 men to meet the emergency resulting from the disaster befalling the 7th Cavalry. The Democratic Party-controlled House of Representatives actually abandoned for a session its campaign to drastically curtail the size of the Army. Word of Custer's fate reached the 44th United States Congress as a conference committee was attempting to reconcile opposing appropriations bills approved by the House and the Republican Senate. A measure originally sponsored by the Texas delegation to increase the size of cavalry companies to 100 enlisted men was approved on July 24, and the ceiling on the size of the Army temporarily lifted by 2,500 on August 15.[44] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... // Forty-fourth United States Congress Dates of Sessions December 6, 1875 to March 3, 1877. ... GOP redirects here. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


Battle controversies

The Battle Of The Little Bighorn was the subject of an 1879 U.S. Army Court of Inquiry, made at Reno's request, in Chicago, during which his conduct was scrutinized. Some testimony was presented suggesting that he was drunk and a coward, but since none of this came from army officers, Reno's conduct was found to be without fault. The charge of cowardice has been leveled at Reno throughout the years due to his hastily ordered retreat. Reno defenders point out that while the retreat was disorganized, Reno did not withdraw from his position until it was clear that he was outnumbered and outflanked. For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ...


Benteen has been criticized for "dawdling" on the first day of the fight, and supposedly disobeying Custer's written orders to bring "pacs" (ammunition). However, Benteen has also been acknowledged by many historians for supporting and defending Reno's men on Reno Hill.


Critics believe Custer made strategic errors from the start of the campaign, refusing the use of a battery of Gatling guns and General Terry's offer of an additional battalion of the 2nd Cavalry led by Capt. James S. Brisbin. Custer's reasoning was that the Gatling guns would impede his march up the Rosebud and hamper his mobility. Considering his rapid march en route to the Little Big Horn, averaging almost 30 miles (48 km) a day, this was an accurate assessment. Each gun was hauled by four horses and it often became necessary for soldiers to drag the guns by hand over obstacles. Custer also believed that the 7th Cavalry could handle any Indian force encountered, and the addition of the four companies of the 2nd would not alter the outcome. When the offer of the men of the 2nd Cavalry was made, he reportedly replied to Brisbin that the 7th "could handle anything."[45] It is believed Custer suspected that he would be outnumbered by the Indians, although he did not know by how much.


The division of his force into four smaller detachments (including the pack train) is believed to be evidence of inadequate reconnaissance on his part in determining the size and location of the Indian village. By the time the battle began, Custer's men were widely scattered and unable to support each other.[46][47] It is believed one of Custer's greatest fears before the battle was the combined tribes escaping to the south and scattering into different groups, thus he considered an immediate attack to be the course of action. Criticism of Custer was not universal, as Lieutenant General Nelson A. Miles wrote in 1877 while investigating the battlefield, "The more I study the moves here [on the Little Big Horn], the more I have admiration for Custer."[48] Nelson Appleton Miles (August 8, 1839 – May 15, 1925) was an American soldier who served in the American Civil War, Indian Wars, and the Spanish-American War. ...


For years, a debate raged as to whether Custer had disobeyed Terry's orders by attacking the village before his reinforcements arrived. Almost 100 years after the battle, a document surfaced indicating Terry had actually given Custer considerable freedom to attack the Indians if he deemed the action necessary.

Death of Custer - A dramatic portrayal of Sitting Bull stabbing Custer, with dead Native Americans lying on ground, in scene by Pawnee Bill's Wild West Show performers. c.1905
Death of Custer - A dramatic portrayal of Sitting Bull stabbing Custer, with dead Native Americans lying on ground, in scene by Pawnee Bill's Wild West Show performers. c.1905

Custer's widow Elizabeth Bacon Custer actively affected the history of the battle by suppressing criticism of her husband. A number of participants decided to wait for her death before disclosing what they knew; however, she outlived almost all of them. As a result, the event was recreated along tragic Victorian lines in numerous books, films and other media. Custer's legend was soon embedded in the American imagination as a heroic officer fighting valiantly against savage forces, an image popularized in Wild West extravaganzas hosted by showman "Buffalo Bill" Cody, Pawnee Bill, and others. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... George and Libbie Custer Elizabeth Bacon Custer (April 8, 1842 - April 6, 1933) was the wife of General George Armstrong Custer. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... // Today, the American West has a certain wild image of adventure filled with cowboys, Indians, wild animals, outlaws, and stagecoach ambushes. ... For other uses, see Buffalo Bill (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Gordon William Lillie be merged into this article or section. ...


In November 2006, an ethnologist theory by Thomas Bailey Marquis in his 1933 book The Cheyennes of Montana was revived. Marquis stated that the Indians present at Little Bighorn (and on the Plains in general) considered the Sioux War of 1876 to be a misnomer, that in actuality the Lakota participated not as the main antagonist of the U.S. government but only as allies of the Cheyenne, whom they considered the actual objective of the military campaign. Had the Lakota, who did not have the tribal unity and central authority epitomizing the Cheyenne, not taken this view, the theory concludes that the close alliance between the peoples would not have occurred and the outcomes of the campaign could have been greatly different.[49] Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning people) is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyses the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the racial or national divisions of humanity. ...


By the end of the 20th century, the general recognition of the mistreatment of the various Indian tribes in the settling of the American West, and the perception of U.S. Cavalry's role in it, have altered the image of the battle (and by extension, of Custer) to that of a confrontation between relentless U.S. westward expansion and Native Americans defending their traditional lands and way of life. The Western United States, also referred to as the American West or simply The West, traditionally refers to the region constituting the westernmost states of the United States (see geographical terminology section for further discussion of these terms). ... The United States Cavalry was a horse-mounted cavalry force that existed in various forms between 1775 to 1942. ...


Battlefield preservation

Indian Memorial
Indian Memorial

The site was first preserved as a national cemetery in 1879, to protect graves of the 7th Cavalry troopers buried there. It was redesignated Custer Battlefield National Monument in 1946, and later renamed Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument in 1991. Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument preserves the site of the June 26, 1876 Battle of the Little Bighorn, near Crow Agency, Montana. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 270 pixelsFull resolution (842 × 284 pixel, file size: 94 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original Reworked version of Image:Little-bighorn-memorial-sculpture. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 270 pixelsFull resolution (842 × 284 pixel, file size: 94 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original Reworked version of Image:Little-bighorn-memorial-sculpture. ... A National Cemetery is a designation for nationally important cemeteries in the United States. ... Navajo National Monument Devils Tower National Monument Statue of Liberty National Monument Fort Matanzas National Monument A National Monument is a protected area of the United States that is similar to a national park (specifically a U.S. National Park) except that the President of the United States can quickly...

Marker stone on the battlefield.
Marker stone on the battlefield.
Marker stone on the battlefield.
Marker stone on the battlefield.

Memorialization on the battlefield began in 1879 with a temporary monument to U.S. dead. This was replaced with the current marble obelisk in 1881. In 1890 the marble blocks that dot the field were added to mark the place where the U.S. cavalry soldiers fell. The bill that changed the name of the national monument also called for an Indian Memorial to be built near Last Stand Hill. On Memorial Day 1999, two red granite markers were added to the battlefield where Native American warriors fell. As of December 2006, there are now a total of ten warrior markers (three at the Reno-Benteen Defense Site, seven on the Custer Battlefield).[50]


7th Cavalry officers at the Little Bighorn

An obelisk commemorates the U.S. Army dead.
An obelisk commemorates the U.S. Army dead.

Lt. Smith (A Company) was temporarily commanding E Company, whose captain was not in the field. Lt. DeRudio (E Company) replaced Smith in A Company, and Lt. Sturgis (M Company) replaced him. Lt. Calhoun (C Company) was temporary commander of L Company, which had no officers in the field. Lt. Crittenden (20th U.S. Infantry) was on temporary duty with L Company for the same reason. Lt. Reily was unassigned and on temporary duty with F Company. little bighorn memorial obelisk by Durwood Brandon, File links The following pages link to this file: Battle of the Little Bighorn Categories: Free use images ... little bighorn memorial obelisk by Durwood Brandon, File links The following pages link to this file: Battle of the Little Bighorn Categories: Free use images ... Custer redirects here. ... Marcus Reno Marcus Albert Reno was a career military officer in the American Civil War and in the Black Hills War against the Lakota (Sioux) and Northern Cheyenne. ... William W. Cooke William Cooke was the adjutant for George Armstrong Custer and was killed in the Battle of the Little Bighorn. ... George Edwin Lord (February 17, 1846 - June 25, 1876) was a U.S. Army Assistant Surgeon in the 7th Cavalry who was killed in the Battle of the Little Big Horn in Montana Territory during the Black Hills War. ... Dr. James Madison DeWolf (January 14, 1843 – June 25, 1876) was an acting Assistant Surgeon in the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment who was killed in the Battle of the Little Big Horn. ... Henry Rinaldo Porter (February 3, 1848 – March 3, 1903) was an Acting Assistant Surgeon in the 7th U.S. Cavalry at the Battle of the Little Big Horn. ... Charles Albert Varnum (June 21, 1849 – February 26, 1936) was a career United States Army officer. ... Luther Rector Hare (August 24, 1851 – December 22, 1929) was an officer in the 7th U.S. Cavalry, best known for participating in the Battle of the Little Big Horn. ... Charles Camillo DeRudio (August 26, 1832 – November 1, 1910) was an Italian aristocrat, attempted assassin, and later a U.S. Army officer who fought in the 7th U.S. Cavalry at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. ... Capt. ... Henry Moore Harrington (April 30, 1849 – June 25, 1876) was a military officer in the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment who perished with George Armstrong Custer at the Battle of Little Big Horn in the Montana Territory. ... Thomas Weir (Carluke, South Lanarkshire 1599 -Edinburgh 1670) was a Scottish soldier and presumed occultist, executed for witchcraft. ... Algernon Smith was an officer in the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment that was killed in the Battle of the Little Bighorn. ... George Yates George Yates (February 26, 1843– June 25, 1876) was an officer in the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment and was killed in the Battle of the Little Bighorn. ... Donald McIntosh (September 4, 1838 – June 25, 1876) was an officer in the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment who was killed at the Battle of Little Big Horn in the Montana Territory. ... Frederick Benteen circa 1865 Frederick Benteen in his later years Frederick William Benteen (August 24, 1834-June 22, 1898) was a military officer during the American Civil War and then during the Black Hills War against the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne. ... Myles W. Keogh Myles Walter Keogh (March 25, 1840 – June 25, 1876) was an Irish soldier who was also an American Civil War military officer and later a member of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment during the Indian Wars of the 1870s. ... James Ezekiel Porter (1846-1876) was one of General Custers officers killed at the Battle of Little Bighorn, also known as Custers Last Stand. ... James Calhoun James Calhoun was the brother-in-law to George Armstrong Custer and was killed in the Battle of the Little Bighorn with him. ...

Photo taken in 1894 by H.R. Locke on Battle Ridge looking toward Last Stand Hill top center. Wooden Leg Hill can be seen at the far top right.
Photo taken in 1894 by H.R. Locke on Battle Ridge looking toward Last Stand Hill top center. Wooden Leg Hill can be seen at the far top right.

Image File history File links Littlebighorn_HR_Locke. ... Image File history File links Littlebighorn_HR_Locke. ... Photo of Calamity Jane Henry R. Locke was an American photographer in the 19th century who photographed the Wild West. ...

Civilians killed

Boston Custer (October 31, 1848–June 26, 1876) was the younger brother of U.S. Army General George Armstrong Custer and two-time Medal of Honor winner Captain Thomas Custer. ... A portrait of Mark Kellogg. ... Henry Armstrong Reed Henry Armstrong Reed was the nephew of George Armstrong Custer and was killed with his uncle at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. ...

Notable scouts/interpreters in the battle

Lonesome Charley Reynolds was a scout in the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment who was killed in the Battle of the Little Bighorn in the Montana Territory. ... Bloody Knife Bloody Knife was an American Indian scout with the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment that was killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. ... Curley, by D.F. Barry, 1878 Curley (or Curly), is the English name for Ashishishe (var. ... Mitch Bouyer (sometimes spelled Bowyer or Buazer; or, in Creole, Boye- the proper French spelling is Boyer) (1837–1876) was an interpreter/guide in the Old West following the American Civil War. ... Isaiah Dorman (c 1820? – June 25, 1876) was a former slave who served as an interpreter for the United States Army during the Indian Wars. ... Fredrick Frances Gerard (1823 – 1913) was a frontiersman, army scout, and civilian interpreter for George Armstrong Custers 7th U.S. Cavalry during the Little Bighorn Campaign. ... Edward S. Curtis portrait of White Man Runs Him, c. ... Goes Ahead (d. ... Hairy Moccasin (also known as Esh-sup-pee-me-shish) was a Crow scout for George Armstrong Custer’s Seventh Cavalry during the 1876 campaign against the Sioux and Northern Cheyenne. ...

Native American Leaders in the battle

  • Hunkpapa: Sitting Bull, Four Horns, Crow King, Gall, Black Moon, Rain-in-the-Face
  • Sihasapa (Blackfoot Lakota):
  • Minneconjou: Hump, Black Moon, Red Horse, Makes Room, Lame Deer
  • Oglala: Crazy Horse, He Dog
  • Brule:
  • Northern Cheyenne: Two Moons

For the western film, see Sitting Bull (film). ... Gall (c. ... Rain-in-the-Face (also known as Ito-na-gaju or Exa-ma-gozua) (c. ... For other uses, see Crazy Horse (disambiguation). ... Born around 1830 on the Laramie plains, He Dog was a member of the Oglala people, one of several groups calling themselves Lakota, but best known by a contradiction of their French nickname - Sioux, the enemy. ... Two Moons was a chief of the Cheyenne Native American tribe. ...

Battle of the Little Big Horn in popular culture

  • Soon after the battle, Anheuser-Busch commissioned a painting of "Custer's Last Stand" which was distributed as a print to saloons all over America. The painting itself was so common as to became a cultural icon. It is reputed to still be in some bars today.
  • The 1936 film serial Custer's Last Stand is a heavily fictionalised version of events leading up to the battle.
  • The 1956 novel The Dice of God written by Hoffman Birney features a fictionalised account of the battle. It was filmed by Levy-Gardner-Laven in 1965 as The Glory Guys
  • The 1958 Walt Disney Studios film Tonka is a highly fictionalized history of the horse Comanche that survived the battle. This was the first film to tell the story from the Indian point of view, with a fairly accurate version of the battle taking place near the end of the film.
  • In 1960, country singer Johnny Horton released the album "Johnny Horton Makes History" featuring the song Comanche (The Brave Horse) about the only animal to survive the Battle of Little Big Horn.
  • That same year, 1960, Larry Verne released a hit song entitled Please, Mr. Custer about a fictitious cavalryman who asked Custer not to join the battle after a nightmare he experienced the night before. This song was later re-recorded by Marty Robbins.
  • Published in 1964, Thomas Berger's novel "Little Big Man" (on which the later movie was based) follows the life story of one Jack Crabb, as he becomes the sole white survivor of the Custer battle.
  • A 1967 television series Custer, starring Wayne Maunder in the title role, lasted 17 episodes before cancellation.
  • The 1967 film Custer of the West stars Robert Shaw as Custer and concludes with the Little Big Horn battle.
  • The 1970 film Little Big Man portrays a manic and somewhat psychotic Custer (Richard Mulligan) realizing to his horror that he and his command are "being wiped out."
  • The 1977 television film The Court-Martial of George Armstrong Custer, starring James Olson as Custer, was based on a controversial best-selling novel by Douglas C. Jones in which Custer survives the battle and must explain his actions in court.
  • The 2005 TV miniseries Into the West shows a version of the battle.
  • George MacDonald Fraser places his fictional anti-hero, Flashman at the battle in the book Flashman and the Redskins. Flashman survives the battle thanks to an Oglala Indian girl (Walking Blanket Woman) who takes pity on him in her eagerness to join the main battle, and to his illegitimate son, Frank Standing Bear, who had grown up among the Sioux. Flashman elsewhere comments that the Battle of the Little Big Horn is more proof that any sane person should run the other way from any military action where the Irish tune Garryowen is played beforehand. The drinking song was also popular among British soldiers at the Charge of the Light Brigade, which he also survived, barely.
  • A short story by Frederick Forsyth, in his collection "The Veteran", concerns a fictional survivor of the battle.
  • The Histeria! episode "Megalomaniacs!" featured a sketch about Custer's Last Stand in which the Kid Chorus, misled by its name, think that Custer is running a custard stand. (This sketch only appeared in network reruns to replace a controversial sketch about the Spanish Inquisition.)
  • The battle appears on a level of the computer game Age of Empires III: The War Chiefs where the player must kill Custer and his troops as part of the Indian army.

See also Cultural depictions of George Armstrong Custer. DVD front cover for The Adventures of Captain Marvel, one of the most celebrated serials for both Republic Pictures and of the sound era in general. ... Custers Last Stand (1936) is an independant film serial based on the historical Custers Last Stand at the Little Bighorn River. ... They Died with Their Boots On is a 1941 western film directed by Raoul Walsh and starring Errol Flynn and Olivia de Havilland. ... Errol Leslie Thomson Flynn (June 20, 1909 – October 14, 1959) was an Australian film actor, most famous for his romantic swashbuckler roles in Hollywood films and his flamboyant lifestyle. ... Old logo from 1985-2006 Walt Disney Pictures refers to several different entities associated with The Walt Disney Company: Walt Disney Pictures, the film banner, was established as a designation in 1983, prior to which Disney films since the death of Walt Disney were released under the name of the... Comanche Comanche was a mixed Mustang Morgan horse who survived General George Armstrong Custers detachment of the US 7th Cavalry at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. ... Johnny Horton (April 30, 1925 – November 4, 1960) was an American country music singer who was most famous for his semi-folk, so-called saga songs. With them, he had several major crossover hits, most notably in 1959 with The Battle of New Orleans which won the 1960 Grammy Award... The Twilight Zone is a television series created by Rod Serling. ... “The 7th Is Made Up of Phantoms” is an episode of the American television anthology series The Twilight Zone. ... Little Big Man is a 1970 film directed by Arthur Penn and based on the 1964 novel by Thomas Berger. ... Phillip Carey, in a still from One Life to Live. ... William Lyle Richardson (May 7, 1922 – February 25, 2006), who adopted the name Darren McGavin, was an American actor best known for playing the title role in the television horror series Kolchak: The Night Stalker, and also his portrayal in the movie A Christmas Story of the grumpy father given... Custer of the West was a 1968 Western film about the life and death of George Armstrong Custer. ... Robert Shaw (August 9, 1927 – August 28, 1978) was an English stage and film actor and writer. ... Little Big Man is a 1970 film directed by Arthur Penn and based on the 1964 novel by Thomas Berger. ... Richard Mulligan (November 13, 1932 - September 26, 2000) was an American television and film actor whose career spanned 34 years. ... James Olson (born October 8th, 1930) is an american actor from Evanston, Illinois and graduate of Northwestern University who did stage work in and around Chicago before his 1956 film debut in The Sharkfighters. ... Son of the Morning Star is a 1984 book, a 1991 television film based on the book, and a 2007 feature film also based on the book. ... Evan S. Connell (b. ... Gary Cole (born September 20, 1956) is an American actor, known for numerous roles, including the television series Fatal Vision, The West Wing, Midnight Caller, American Gothic, Wanted and Crusade, and the films Office Space, In the Line of Fire, Kiss the Sky, Dodgeball, The Brady Bunch Movie, A Very... For other uses, see Into the West. ... George MacDonald Fraser, OBE (born 2 April 1926 in Carlisle) is a British author of both historical novels and non-fiction books. ... Harry Paget Flashman is a fictional character originally created by the author Thomas Hughes in his semi-autobiographical work Tom Browns Schooldays, first published in 1857. ... Flashman and the Redskins is a 1982 novel by George MacDonald Fraser. ... For other uses, see Garryowen (disambiguation). ... For the poem about the charge, see The Charge of the Light Brigade (poem). ... Frederick Forsyth, CBE (born August 25, 1938) is an English author and occasional political commentator. ... Blazon Stone is a 6th album by German band Running Wild. ... This article is about the sub-genre of heavy metal music. ... Running Wild is one of a few German heavy metal bands to emerge in the early/mid 1980s (along with Helloween, Gamma Ray, Rage, Blind Guardian, Grave Digger, etc). ... Histeria! was an animated television series of the late-1990s, created by Tom Ruegger (who also created Tiny Toon Adventures, Animaniacs, and Pinky and the Brain) at Warner Bros. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... George Armstrong Custer (1839 – 1876) was a United States Army cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ...


Eye Witness Accounts

From the Indian Village

Hunkpapa

  • Afraid of Eagle
  • Circling Hawk
  • Moving Robe Woman (known later as Mary Crawler)
  • Crow King

Siasapa (Blackfoot Lakota) Moving Robe Woman (Sioux name Tashna Mani), also known as Mary Crawler, Her Eagle Robe and She Walks With Her Shawl, was a Hunkpapa Sioux woman who fought against Custer during the Battle of Little Big Horn to avenge her brother, One Hawk, who had been killed. ...

  • All Yellow
  • Bear's Ghost

Oohenonpa (Two Kettle Lakota)

  • Runs the Enemy

Oglala

  • Bad Heart Bull, Amos
  • Bear Lays Down
  • Black Bear
  • Black Elk
  • He Dog
  • Short Bull, Grant

Sicangru (Brule Lakota) Bad Heart Bull, Amos (c1868-1913). ... Black Elk (Hehaka Sapa) (c. ... Born around 1830 on the Laramie plains, He Dog was a member of the Oglala people, one of several groups calling themselves Lakota, but best known by a contradiction of their French nickname - Sioux, the enemy. ... Grant Short Bull Tatanka Ptecela (ca. ...

  • Charging Hawk
  • Crow Dog

Minneconjou

  • Bear, Dewey
  • Charging Hawk

Sans Arc

  • Elk Head
  • Two Bears

Lakota, tribe unknown

  • Bobtail Bear

Yankton/Yanktonai

  • Bears Heart

Northern Cheyenne

  • American Horse
  • Big Beaver

Southern Cheyenne

  • Brave Bear

7th Cavalry

Headquarters


Indian Scouts


Company A


Company B


Quartermaster Employees


Burial Party

References

  • Sklenar, Larry, To Hell with Honor, General Custer and the Little Big Horn, Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 2000
  • Barnard, Sandy, Digging into Custer's Last Stand. Huntington Beach, California: Ventana Graphics, 1998. ISBN 0-9618087-5-6.
  • Brininstool, E. A., Troopers With Custer. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 1994. ISBN 0-8177-1742-9.
  • Connell, Evan S., Son of the Morning Star. New York: North Point Press, 1984. ISBN 0-86547-510-5.
  • Dustin, Fred, The Custer Tragedy: Events Leading Up to and Following the Little Big Horn Campaign on 1876. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Edwards Brothers, 1939.
  • Elliot, M.A. Custerology: The Enduring Legacy of the Indian Wars and George Armstrong Custer. University of Chicago Press, 2007. ISBN 0-226-20146-5.
  • Fox, Richard Allan, Jr., Archaeology, History, and Custer's Last Battle. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8061-2496-2.
  • Goodrich, Thomas. Scalp Dance: Indian Warfare on the High Plains, 1865-1879. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1997.
  • Graham, Col. William A., The Custer Myth: A Source Book for Custeriana. New York: Bonanza Books, 1953.
  • Grinnell, George Bird (1915). The Fighting Cheyennes. The University of Oklahoma Press reprint 1956, 296-307. ISBN 0-7394-0373-7. 
  • Hammer, Kenneth. Men with Custer: Biographies of the 7th Cavalry: June 25, 1876. (Ronald H. Nichols, editor). Hardin, Montana: Custer Battlefield Historical and Museum Association, 2000.
  • Hardoff, R. G. (editor), Camp, Custer and the Little Big Horn. El Segundo, California: Upton and Sons, 1997.
  • Mails, Thomas E. Mystic Warriors of the Plains. New York: Marlowe & Co., 1996.
  • Michno, Gregory F., Lakota Noon, the Indian narrative of Custer's defeat, Mountain Press, 1997.
  • Miller, David, H., Custer's Fall, the Indian Side of the Story, University of Nebraska Press, 1985.
  • Neihardt, John G. (editor), Black Elk Speaks. University of Nebraska Press, 1979.
  • Nichols, Ronald H. (editor), Reno Court of Inquiry. Hardin, Montana: Custer Battlefield Historical and Museum Association, 1996.
  • Panzeri, Peter, Little Big Horn, 1876: Custer’s Last Stand. London, UK: Osprey, 1995. ISBN 185532458X.
  • Perrett, Bryan. Last Stand: Famous Battles Against the Odds. London: Arms & Armour, 1993.
  • Reno, Marcus A., The official record of a court of inquiry convened at Chicago, Illinois, January 13, 1879, by the President of the United States upon the request of Major Marcus A. Reno, 7th U.S. Cavalry, to investigate his conduct at the Battle of the Little Big Horn, June 25-26, 1876. on-line in the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
  • Sarf, Wayne Michael, The Little Bighorn Campaign, Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: Combined Books, 1993.
  • Vestal, Stanley. Warpath: The True Story of the Fighting Sioux Told in a Biography of Chief White Bull. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1934.
  • Viola, Herman J., Little Bighorn Remembered: The Untold Indian Story of Custer's Last Stand. Westminster, Maryland: Times Books, 1999, ISBN 0-812932-5-6-0.
  • Wert, Jeffry D. Custer: The Controversial Life of George Armstrong Custer. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.

Son of the Morning Star is a 1984 book, a 1991 television film based on the book, and a 2007 feature film also based on the book. ... Fred Dustin (October 12, 1866 – May 15, 1957) was a writer focusing on the American West, in particular George Armstrong Custer and The Battle of the Little Bighorn. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ See Panzeri.
  2. ^ Gray, John (1991). "Custer's Last Campaign". University of Nebraska Press, 243. ISBN 0-8032-7040-2. 
  3. ^ Barnard, pp. 121-136.
  4. ^ The 7th U.S. Cavalry Regiment Fought in Battle of the Little Bighorn. HistoryNet.com. Retrieved on 18 Jan 2008.
  5. ^ Capt. Sheridan (Company L), the brother of Lt. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan, served only 7 months in 1866-67 before becoming permanent aide to his brother but remained on the rolls until 1882. Capt. Ilsley (Company E) was aide to Maj. Gen John Pope from 1866 to 1879, when he finally joined his command. Capt. Tourtelotte (Company G) never joined the 7th. A fourth captain, Owen Hale (Company K), was the regiment's recruiting officer in St. Louis and rejoined his company immediately.
  6. ^ Gray, John (1991). "Custer's Last Campaign". University of Nebraska Press, 244-245. ISBN 0-8032-7040-2. 
  7. ^ For an alternative theory concerning Custer's intentions in deploying Benteen to the left based on detailed examination of the terrain using Google Earth see this web articleGoogle Earth analysis which also refutes accusations of Benteen travelling slowly.
  8. ^ Benteen letter to his wife, 2 July 1876, Graham, Col. W. A, "The Custer Myth" New York, Bonanza Books, 1953, pg 187,
  9. ^ Michno, 1997, pgs 10-20
  10. ^ Elliot, pp. 23-36. (excerpt).
  11. ^ Battle of the Little Bighorn Timeline, http://www.seedwiki.com/wiki/lbha/timeline?wikiPageId=576395 based on time tables developed Gray, John S. Custer's Last Campaign,
  12. ^ Goodrich, Thomas. Scalp Dance: Indian Warfare on the High Plains, 1865-1879. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1997. p. 242
  13. ^ Perrett, Bryan. Last Stand: Famous Battles Against the Odds. London: Arms & Armour, 1993; p.8
  14. ^ White Cow Bull's Story of the Battle of the Little Bighorn #1
  15. ^ Michno, 1997, pp. 117-119
  16. ^ Wert, 1996, p355
  17. ^ Miller, David Humphries, "Custer's Fall", Lincoln, Nebraska, University of Nebraska Press, 1985, pg 158
  18. ^ Graham, Benteen letter to Capt. R.E. Thompson, pg 211
  19. ^ Graham, Gall's Narrative, p. 88
  20. ^ Miller, David Humphreys, Custer's Fall, the Indian Side of the Story. Lincoln, Nebraska, University of Nebraska Press, 1985, (reprint of 1957 edition) pg 158
  21. ^ Graham, pp. 45-56.
  22. ^ Michno, 1997
  23. ^ cf Michno's account of the numbers, pp. 10-20. He gives a low estimate of about 1000 warriors. Other scholars have given much higher numbers, upwards of 3000. A moderate number, 1800-2000, has been advocated by Fox and Utley.
  24. ^ Michno, 1997, pp. 212, 226
  25. ^ Michno, 1997, p. 221: testimony of Iron Hawk; also, Grinnell, 1915, pp. 300-301.
  26. ^ "Gall's Account of the Battle of the Little Big Horn", [1]
  27. ^ Testimony of American Horse, in Grinnell, p. 302, fn. 4.
  28. ^ Michno, 1997, pp. 85, 98.
  29. ^ Vestal, Stanley. Warpath: The True Story of the Fighting Sioux Told in a Biography of Chief White Bull. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1934; also, Michno, 1997, p. 216-217: testimony of Red Hawk; p. 221: testimony of Iron Hawk.
  30. ^ cf. Goodrich, p. 246. For illustrations of the war clubs, see Mails, Thomas E. Mystic Warriors of the Plains. New York: Marlowe & Co., 1996. pp. 464-71.
  31. ^ Michno, 1997, p. 215: testimony of Yellow Nose.
  32. ^ Michno, 1997, pp. 284-285
  33. ^ Graham, Col. W. A. The Custer Myth. NY, Bonanza Books, 1953, pg 60.
  34. ^ Reno Court of Inquiry
  35. ^ Michno, "Lakota Noon", Mountain Press Publishing.
  36. ^ Brininstool, 60-62.
  37. ^ Fox, pp. 10-13.
  38. ^ Godfrey incorporated this into his important publication in 1892 in The Century Magazine
  39. ^ see above
  40. ^ Graham, 146. Lt. Edward Godfrey reported finding a dead 7th Cavalry horse (shot in the head), a grain sack, and a carbine at the mouth of the Rosebud River. He conjectured that a soldier had escaped Custer's fight and rafted across the river, abandoning his played out horse.
  41. ^ Badly wounded, the horse had been overlooked or left behind by the Native Americans, who had taken the other surviving horses. Comanche was taken back to the steamer Far West and returned to Fort Abraham Lincoln to be nursed back to health.
  42. ^ U.S. Army Medal of Honor website.
  43. ^ Records of Living Officers of the United States Army (1884). eBay.com. Retrieved on 17 Jan 2008. Major Elmer I. Otis of the 1st Cavalry was promoted to replace Custer effective 25 June 1876, but did not report until February 1877. Two 1876 West Point graduates designated for the 7th Cavalry were advanced to 1st lieutenant effective 10 days after their graduation. Four others appointed to other regiments, along with eight experienced 2nd lieutenants, were transferred and designated one to each company of the 7th. However five declined the appointment, replaced by 2nd lieutenants of infantry and unappointed new officers in July and August 1876. Only three replacements were able to report while the 7th was still in the field.
  44. ^ Utley, Robert M. (1973) Frontier Regulars: The United States Army and the Indian 1866-1890, pp. 64 and 69 note 11.
  45. ^ Connell, Evan S. (1997). Son of the Morning Star. New York: HarperPerennial, p. 257.
  46. ^ Goodrich, Thomas (1984). Scalp Dance: Indian Warfare on the High Plains, 1865-1879. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, p. 233.
  47. ^ Wert, Jeffry D. (1964/1996) Custer: The controversial life of George Armstrong Custer. New York: Simon & Schuster, p. 327.
  48. ^ Sklenar, page 341.
  49. ^ Liberty, Dr. Margot. Cheyenne Primacy: The Tribes' Perspective As Opposed To That Of The United States Army; A Possible Alternative To "The Great Sioux War Of 1876. Friends of the Little Bighorn. Retrieved on 13 Jan 2008.
  50. ^ National Park Service website for the Little Bighorn Battlefield
  51. ^ Sturgis was the son of the 7th Cavalry's Colonel. Samuel Davis Sturgis. Arlington National cemetery. Retrieved on 14 Jan 2008.
  52. ^ John Jordan Crittenden (1854 - 1876) - Find A Grave Memorial
  53. ^ Above table based upon Nichols, Men With Custer...

Notable people named John Gray include: John Gray (LSE), Professor of European Thought at the London School of Economics, who has written numerous books on political philosophy. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Philip Sheridan Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888), a military man and one of the great generals in the American Civil War. ... Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... Notable people named John Gray include: John Gray (LSE), Professor of European Thought at the London School of Economics, who has written numerous books on political philosophy. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States 1st Cavalry Regiment is a unit in the U.S. Army that can trace its lineage to the early 19th Century when it had its genesis as the United States Regiment of Dragoons. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Chiaventone, Frederick J., A Road We Do Not Know: A Novel of Custer at the Little Bighorn. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.
  • Connell, Evan S., Son of the Morning Star: Custer and the Little Bighorn. New York: North Point Press, 1984.
  • Gray, John S., Custer's Last Campaign: Mitch Bouyer and the Little Bighorn Reconstructed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991.
  • Hammer, Kenneth. Men with Custer: Biographies of the 7th Cavalry: June 25, 1876. (Ronald H. Nichols, editor). Hardin, Montana: Custer Battlefield Historical and Museum Association, 2000.
  • Hammer, Kenneth (editor), Custer in ’76: Walter Camp’s notes on the Custer Fight. Provo: Brigham Young University, 1976.
  • Sklenar, Larry, To Hell with Honor, Custer and the Little Bighorn. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2000.
  • Michno, Gregory F., Lakota Noon: The Indian Narratives of Custer's Defeat. Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press Publishing, 1997.
  • Sandoz, Mari., The Battle of the Little Bighorn. Lippincott Major Battle Series. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1966.
  • Utley, Robert, Custer: Cavalier in Buckskin. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press; Revised edition, 2001.
  • Welch, James w/Stekler, Paul, Killing Custer - The Battle of the Little Bighorn and the Fate of the Plains Indians. New York: Norton, 1994.

Evan S. Connell (b. ... Son of the Morning Star is a 1984 book, a 1991 television film based on the book, and a 2007 feature film also based on the book. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... Mari Sandoz (1896 — 1966) was a Nebraska author, historian and teacher of creative writing. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of the Little Bighorn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4359 words)
The Battle of the Little Bighorn — which is also called Custer's last stand and Custer Massacre and, in the parlance of the relevant Native Americans, the Battle of the Greasy Grass — was an armed engagement between a Lakota-Northern Cheyenne combined force and the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army.
Sandoz, Mari., The Battle of the Little Bighorn.
The Battle of the Little Bighorn, 1876: EyeWitness to History.com
The Battle of the Little Bighorn, 1876 (1172 words)
Quickly finding themselves in a desperate battle with little hope of any relief, Reno halted his charging men before they could be trapped, fought for ten minutes in dismounted formation, and then withdrew into the timber and brush along the river.
After the battle, the Indians came through and stripped the bodies and mutilated all the uniformed soldiers, believing that the soul of a mutilated body would be forced to walk the earth for all eternity and could not ascend to heaven.
Immediately after the battle, the myth emerged that they left him alone out of respect for his fighting ability, but few participating Indians knew who he was to have been so respectful.
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