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Encyclopedia > Battle of the Bulge
Battle of the Bulge
Part of World War II

American soldiers of the 75th Division photographed in the Ardennes during the Battle of the Bulge.
Date 16 December 194425 January 1945
Location The Ardennes, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Germany
Result Allied victory
Belligerents
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of Germany Germany
Commanders
Flag of the United States Dwight D. Eisenhower
Flag of the United States Omar N. Bradley
Flag of the United States George S. Patton
Flag of the United Kingdom Bernard Montgomery
Flag of Germany Walter Model
Flag of Germany Gerd von Rundstedt
Flag of Germany Jochen Peiper
Flag of Germany Hasso von Manteuffel
Flag of Germany Sepp Dietrich
Strength
830,000 men,
424 medium tanks and tank destroyers,
394 artillery guns
500,000 men,
500 medium tanks,
1,900 artillery guns and Nebelwerfers
Casualties and losses
American: 80,987
(19,276 killed,
41,493 wounded,
23,554 captured or missing)[1][2]

British: 200 dead, 1,400 wounded and missing Battle of the Bulge is a war film released in 1965. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Download high resolution version (807x624, 95 KB)American soldiers taking up defensive positions in the Ardennes during the Battle of the Bulge. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Ardennes (IPA pronunciation: ) (Dutch: Ardennen) is a volcanic region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 - April 8, 1981) was one of the main US Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during World War II. Bradley was born to a poor family near Clark, Missouri, the son of a schoolteacher. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... George Patton redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976) was a British Army officer, often referred to as Monty. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, a major turning point in World War II, and... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Otto Moritz Walter Model (IPA: ) (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945) was a German general and later field marshal during World War II. He is noted for his defensive battles in the latter half of the war, mostly on the Eastern Front but also in the west, and for his... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Jochen Peiper Joachim Peiper (1915 - 1976);more often known as Jochen Peiper from the common German nickname for Joachim; born on January 30, 1915 was a senior Waffen-SS officer, and commander in the Panzer campaigns of 1939-1945. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Hasso-Eccard Freiherr von Manteuffel (January 14, 1897 — September 24, 1978) was a German soldier and politician of the 20th century. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... SS-Obergruppenführer Sepp Dietrich Josef Sepp Dietrich also known as Ujac (May 28, 1892–April 21/22, 1966) was a German Waffen-SS general, an SS-Oberstgruppenführer, and one of the closest men to Hitler. ... A self-propelled anti-tank gun, or tank destroyer, is a type of armoured fighting vehicle. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Six barreled Nebelwerfer The Nebelwerfer (German for fog launcher, a code name to obscure the real nature of the weapon,) was a German towed rocket artillery piece, developed in the 1930s and used in World War II against light infantry targets. ...

84,834 casualties
(15,652 killed,
41,600 wounded,
27,582 captured or missing)

The Ardennes Offensive (16 December 194425 January 1945) was a major German offensive on the Western Front and was launched towards the end of World War II. This offensive was called Unternehmen Wacht am Rhein (Operation Watch on the Rhine) by the German armed forces (Wehrmacht). It was officially named the Battle of the Ardennes by the U.S. Army, but it is known to the general public simply as the Battle of the Bulge. This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... Combatants United States1 United Kingdom2 Free France3 Germany Commanders Lt. ... Operation Nordwind (North Wind) was an attack conducted by the German Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS during January 1945 in Alsace and Lorraine. ... Located near Alsace in Eastern France, the Colmar Pocket was the site of a ten-day battle during the Second World War that saw four divisions of the French Army and an entire Corps from the U.S. Army overwhelm German resistance. ... wtrwretqwt ... During the Battle for Berlin, the Red Flag was raised over the Reichstag, May 1945. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States Poland  France Canada Free France  Netherlands  Belgium Germany Italy Commanders Winston Churchill, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Harold Alexander, Bertram Ramsay, Bernard Montgomery, Lord Gort, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Franklin Roosevelt,, George Marshall, Dwight Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Jacob Devers, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski, Stanis... Combatants Kingdom of the Netherlands Germany Commanders Henry G. Winkelman, Jan Joseph Godfried baron van Voorst tot Voorst Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Strength 9 divisions, 676 guns, 1 tank (inoperational), 124 aircraft Total: 350,000 men 22 divisions, 1,378 guns, 759 tanks, 1150 aircraft Total: 750,000... This article is about a Second World War battle in 1940, for the 1658 battle of the same name see Battle of the Dunes (1658) Combatants United Kingdom France Belgium Germany Commanders Lord Gort General Weygand Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Ewald von Kleist (Panzergruppe von Kleist) Strength approx. ... Combatants  Canada  United Kingdom  United States  Germany Commanders Louis Mountbatten J. H. Roberts Gerd von Rundstedt Strength 6,086 1,500 Casualties Canada: 950 dead, 2,340 captured or wounded; United Kingdom: 600; United States:4+; 311 dead, 280 wounded The Dieppe Raid, also known as The Battle of Dieppe... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... Combatants United States1 United Kingdom2 Free France3 Germany Commanders Lt. ... American soldiers cross the Siegfried Line The drive to the Siegfried Line was one of the final Allied phases in World War II of the Western European Campaign. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States  Canada  Poland  Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Brian Horrocks Roy Urquhart James M. Gavin Maxwell Taylor StanisÅ‚aw Sosabowski Walter Model Wilhelm Bittrich Kurt Student Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 11,377 dead, wounded or missing 6,946 British MIA 2,000 Killed 6,000... The Battle of Overloon (Code named Operation Aintree) took place between September 30th and October 18th 1944. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Poland Belgium Norway Germany Commanders Guy Simonds (acting) (First Canadian Army) Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (German 15th Army) Strength  ?  ? Casualties 12,873 total; including 6,367 Canadian  ? The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of military operations which took place in northern Belgium and south... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Courtney Hodges Walter Model Strength 120,000 80,000 Casualties 33,000 casualties 12,000—16,000 deaths[1] (est. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders William Simpson Gerhard Wilck Strength 100,000 soldiers 12,000 soldiers Casualties 2,000 dead, 3,000 wounded 5,000 dead or wounded, 5,600 captured The Battle of Aachen was a battle in Aachen, Germany, that took place in October 1944 in World War... Located near Alsace in Eastern France, the Colmar Pocket was the site of a ten-day battle during the Second World War that saw four divisions of the French Army and an entire Corps from the U.S. Army overwhelm German resistance. ... Operation Nordwind (North Wind) was an attack conducted by the German Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS during January 1945 in Alsace and Lorraine. ... wtrwretqwt ... During the Battle for Berlin, the Red Flag was raised over the Reichstag, May 1945. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States Poland  France Canada Free France  Netherlands  Belgium Germany Italy Commanders Winston Churchill, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Harold Alexander, Bertram Ramsay, Bernard Montgomery, Lord Gort, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Franklin Roosevelt,, George Marshall, Dwight Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Jacob Devers, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski, Stanis... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ...


The offensive was launched in the Ardennes. The German offensive was supported by subordinate operations known as Unternehmen Bodenplatte, Unternehmen Greif, and Unternehmen Währung. Germany’s planned goal for these operations was to split the British and American Allied line in half, capturing Antwerp, Belgium, and then proceeding to encircle and destroy four Allied armies, forcing the Western Allies to negotiate a peace treaty in the Axis Powers’ favor.[citation needed] The Ardennes (IPA pronunciation: ) (Dutch: Ardennen) is a volcanic region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ... Operation Bodenplatte, launched on 1st January 1945, was an attempt to cripple Allied air forces in the Low Countries of Europe. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The 1st SS Panzer Divisions Dash Westward, and Operation Greif Operation Greif was a special false flag operation commanded by the notorious Waffen-SS commando Otto Skorzeny during the Battle of the Bulge. ... During the Battle of the Bulge in WWII, Operation Währung (Currency in German) was a special operation conducted as part of the Wacht am Rhein. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Encirclement is a military term for the situation when one sides force or target is isolated and surrounded by other sides forces. ... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States... A peace treaty is an agreement (a peace treaty) between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ...


The Ardennes Offensive was planned in total secrecy, in total radio silence. Although Ultra, the Allies’ reading of secret German radio messages, suggested a possible German offensive, and the United States Third Army predicted a major German offensive, the attack still achieved surprise. The degree of surprise achieved was compounded by the Allies’ overconfidence, their preoccupation with their own offensive plans, poor aerial reconnaissance, and the relative lack of combat contact in the area by the U.S. 1st Army. Almost complete surprise against a weak section of the Allies’ line was achieved during heavy overcast weather, when the Allies’ strong air forces would be grounded. In telecommunications, radio silence is a status maintained where all fixed or mobile radio stations in an area stop transmitting. ... Ultra (sometimes capitalized ULTRA) was the name used by the British for intelligence resulting from decryption of German communications in World War II. The term eventually became the standard designation in both Britain and the United States for all intelligence from high-level cryptanalytic sources. ... Distinctive Unit Insignia // Activation and World War I The Third U.S. Army was first activated as a formation during the First World War on November 7, 1918, at Chaumont, France, when the General Headquarters of the American Expeditionary Forces issued General Order 198 organizing the Third Army and announcing... Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... The First United States Army is a field army of the United States Army. ...


The “bulge” was the initial incursion the Germans put into the Allies’ line of advance, as seen in maps presented in contemporary newspapers.[3][4] In military terms, a salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory. ...


Most of the American casualties occurred within the first three days of battle, when two of the U.S. 106th Infantry Division’s three regiments were forced to surrender. The Battle of the Bulge was the bloodiest of the battles that U.S. forces experienced in World War II; the 19,000 American dead were unsurpassed by those of any other engagement[2]. For the U.S. Army, the battle incorporated more troops and engaged more enemy troops than any conflict before that time. The German objectives ultimately were unrealized. In the wake of the defeat, many experienced German units were left severely depleted of men and equipment, as German survivors retreated to the defenses of the Siegfried Line. The 106th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War II well known to be the hardest hit division of the Battle of the Bulge. ... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ... Map of the Siegfried line The original Siegfried line (Siegfriedstellung) was a line of defensive forts and tank defenses built by Germany as a section of the Hindenburg Line 1916-1917 in northern France during World War I. However, in English, Siegfried line more commonly refers to the similar World...

Contents

Background

After the breakout from Bastonge at the end of August 1944, coupled with landings in southern BUTT, the Allies advanced towards Germany faster than anticipated.[5] The rapid advance, coupled with an initial lack of deep water ports, presented the Allies with enormous supply problems. Over-the-beach supply operations using the Normandy landing areas and direct landing of LSTs on the beaches exceeded planning expectations, but the only deep water port in Allied hands was at Cherbourg near the original invasion beaches. Although the port of Antwerp, Belgium was captured fully intact in the first days of September, it could not be made operational until November 28 when the Scheldt, which gives access to the port, had been cleared from German control. This delay had been caused by the priority given to Operation Market Garden, which had mobilized the resources needed for expelling the German forces from the riverbanks of the Scheldt. German forces remained in control of several major ports on the English Channel coast until May 1945; those ports that did fall to the Allies in 1944 were sabotaged to deny their immediate use by the Allies. The extensive destruction of the French railroad system prior to D-Day, intended to deny movement to the Germans, proved equally damaging to the Allies as it took time to repair the system of tracks and bridges. A trucking system known as the “Red Ball Express” was instituted to bring supplies to front line troops; however, five times as much fuel as reached the front line near the Belgian border had to be expended delivering it. By early October, the Allies had to suspend major offensives in order to build up their supplies. Combatants USA Canada Free France Germany Commanders General Omar Bradley, General George S. Patton General Philippe Leclerc SS General Paul Hausser Strength 8 infantry divisions, 4 armoured divisions 2 infantry divisions, 11 infantry battlegroups, 2 Panzer Divisions, 1 Panzergrenadier Division Casualties 1. ... Canadian LST offloading an M4 Sherman during the Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943. ... For the Australian town and Aboriginal Mission, see Cherbourg, Queensland. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French Escaut) is a 350 km[1] long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States  Canada  Poland  Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Brian Horrocks Roy Urquhart James M. Gavin Maxwell Taylor StanisÅ‚aw Sosabowski Walter Model Wilhelm Bittrich Kurt Student Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 11,377 dead, wounded or missing 6,946 British MIA 2,000 Killed 6,000... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... Sign posted along the Red Ball route The Red Ball Express was an enormous convoy system created by Allied forces to supply their forces moving through Europe following the breakout from the D-Day beaches in Normandy. ...


Generals Omar N. Bradley, George S. Patton, and Bernard Montgomery, each pressed for priority delivery of supplies to their own respective armies, in order to continue advancing and keeping pressure on the Germans. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, however, preferred a broad-front strategy—though with priority for Montgomery’s northern forces, since their short-term goal included opening the urgently-needed port of Antwerp, and their long-term goal was the capture of the Ruhr area, the industrial heart of Germany. With the Allies paused, Gerd von Rundstedt was able to reorganize the disrupted German armies into a semi-coherent defense. Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 - April 8, 1981) was one of the main US Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during World War II. Bradley was born to a poor family near Clark, Missouri, the son of a schoolteacher. ... George Patton redirects here. ... Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976) was a British Army officer, often referred to as Monty. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, a major turning point in World War II, and... This article is about the United States Army rank General of the Army. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to... Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ...


Field Marshal Montgomery’s Operation Market Garden, a September offensive designed to cross the Rhine and bypass the Siegfried Line, was unsuccessful and left the Allies worse off than before. In October, the Canadian 1st Army fought the Battle of the Scheldt, clearing the Westerschelde by taking Walcheren and opening the ports of Antwerp to shipping. By the end of the month, the supply situation was easing. The Allied seizure of the large port of Marseille in the south greatly helped as well. Field Marshal Viscount Slim in his Field Marshals uniform, holding a marshals baton. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States  Canada  Poland  Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Brian Horrocks Roy Urquhart James M. Gavin Maxwell Taylor StanisÅ‚aw Sosabowski Walter Model Wilhelm Bittrich Kurt Student Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 11,377 dead, wounded or missing 6,946 British MIA 2,000 Killed 6,000... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... Map of the Siegfried line The original Siegfried line (Siegfriedstellung) was a line of defensive forts and tank defenses built by Germany as a section of the Hindenburg Line 1916-1917 in northern France during World War I. However, in English, Siegfried line more commonly refers to the similar World... The Canadian First Army was the overall command for the Canadian military forces in Europe during World War II. It was formed in early 1942 to command two corps composed of the three infantry divisions, two armoured divisions, and two armoured brigades that had assembled in England. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Poland Belgium Norway Germany Commanders Guy Simonds (acting) (First Canadian Army) Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (German 15th Army) Strength  ?  ? Casualties 12,873 total; including 6,367 Canadian  ? The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of military operations which took place in northern Belgium and south... Satellite image of the Scheldt delta showing the Western Scheldt (b) The Western Scheldt (Westerschelde) in the province Zeeland in the southwestern Netherlands, is an estuary of the Scheldt river. ... Satellite image of the Scheldt estuary Walcheren is a former island in the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands at the mouth of the Scheldt estuary. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines The Old Port of Marseille Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban...


Despite a lull along the front after the Scheldt battles, the German situation remained dire. While operations continued in the autumn, notably the Lorraine Campaign, the Battle of Aachen, and the fighting in the Hürtgen Forest, the strategic situation in the west changed little. Lorraine Campaign is a term used by U.S. Army historians to describe operations of the U.S. Third Army in northeastern France during World War II from September 1 through December 18, 1944. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders William Simpson Gerhard Wilck Strength 100,000 soldiers 12,000 soldiers Casualties 2,000 dead, 3,000 wounded 5,000 dead or wounded, 5,600 captured The Battle of Aachen was a battle in Aachen, Germany, that took place in October 1944 in World War... Battle of Hurtgen Forest (German: Schlacht im Hürtgenwald) is the name given to the series of fierce battles fought between the Americans and the Germans during World War II in the Hürtgen forest (or Huertgen forest). ...


On the Eastern Front, the Soviets' Operation Bagration destroyed much of Germany's Army Group Center (Heeresgruppe Mitte) during the summer. The progress of this operation was so fast that the offensive ended only when the advancing Red Army forces outran their supply lines. By November, it was clear the Soviet forces were preparing for a winter offensive. Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch (to 28 June), Walter Model (Army Group Centre) Georg-Hans Reinhardt (Third Panzer Army) Hans Jordan (Ninth Army) Kurt von Tippelskirch (Fourth Army) Walter Weiss (Second Army) Georgy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovsky (3rd Belorussian Front) Hovhannes Bagramyan (1st Baltic Front) Ivan Chernyakhovsky (1st Belorussian... Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was one of three German army formations assigned to the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, code-named Operation Barbarossa. ... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ...


Meanwhile, the Allied air offensive of early 1944 had effectively grounded the German Air Force (Luftwaffe), leaving it with little battlefield intelligence and no way to interdict Allied supplies. The converse was equally damaging: daytime movement of German forces was almost instantly noticed, and interdiction of supplies combined with the bombing of the Romanian oil fields starved Germany of oil and gasoline. The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ... Look up gasoline in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The advantage for the German forces by November 1944 was that they were no longer defending all of western Europe. The front lines in the west were considerably shorter and closer to the German heartland, dramatically improving their supply problems despite Allied control of the air. Additionally, their extensive telephone and telegraph network meant that radios no longer had to be used for communications, which deprived the Allies of one of their most powerful weapons, ULTRA intercepts. Ultra (sometimes capitalized ULTRA) was the name used by the British for intelligence resulting from decryption of German communications in World War II. The term eventually became the standard designation in both Britain and the United States for all intelligence from high-level cryptanalytic sources. ...


Drafting the offensive

German dictator Adolf Hitler felt that his armies still might be able to successfully defend Germany in the long term, if only they could somehow neutralize the Western Front in the short term. Further, Hitler believed that he could split the Allies and persuade the Americans and British to sue for a separate peace, independent of the Soviet Union. Success in the West would give the Germans time to design and produce more advanced weapons (such as jet aircraft, new U-boat designs, and super-heavy tanks) and permit the concentration of forces in the East. This assessment is generally regarded as unrealistic, given Allied air superiority throughout Europe and the ability to intervene significantly in German offensive operations. Hitler redirects here. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States Poland  France Canada Free France  Netherlands  Belgium Germany Italy Commanders Winston Churchill, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Harold Alexander, Bertram Ramsay, Bernard Montgomery, Lord Gort, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Franklin Roosevelt,, George Marshall, Dwight Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Jacob Devers, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski, Stanis... Jet aircraft are aircrafts with jet engines. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ...


Several senior German military advisors expressed their concern that favorable weather would permit Allied air power to effectively stop any offensive action. Hitler ignored or dismissed this, though the offensive was intentionally scheduled for late autumn, when northwestern Europe is often covered by heavy fog and low-lying cloud, to minimize the Allied air advantage.

The 82nd Airborne Division dropping on Grave, during Operation Market Garden.
The 82nd Airborne Division dropping on Grave, during Operation Market Garden.

When the Allied offensive in the Netherlands (Operation Market Garden) wound down in September 1944, at about the same time as the Soviet Operation Bagration, the strategic initiative briefly swung to the Germans.[citation needed] Given the reduced manpower of German land forces at the time, it was believed that the best way to take advantage of the initiative would be to attack in the West, against the smaller Allied forces, rather than against the vast Soviet forces. Even the unrealistic encirclement and destruction of entire Soviet armies would still have left the Soviets with a large numerical superiority 82d Airborne Division drop near Grave in the Netherlands during Operation MARKET-GARDEN. (National Archives) File links The following pages link to this file: Operation Market Garden U.S. 82nd Airborne Division ... 82d Airborne Division drop near Grave in the Netherlands during Operation MARKET-GARDEN. (National Archives) File links The following pages link to this file: Operation Market Garden U.S. 82nd Airborne Division ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States  Canada  Poland  Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Brian Horrocks Roy Urquhart James M. Gavin Maxwell Taylor StanisÅ‚aw Sosabowski Walter Model Wilhelm Bittrich Kurt Student Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 11,377 dead, wounded or missing 6,946 British MIA 2,000 Killed 6,000... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch (to 28 June), Walter Model (Army Group Centre) Georg-Hans Reinhardt (Third Panzer Army) Hans Jordan (Ninth Army) Kurt von Tippelskirch (Fourth Army) Walter Weiss (Second Army) Georgy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovsky (3rd Belorussian Front) Hovhannes Bagramyan (1st Baltic Front) Ivan Chernyakhovsky (1st Belorussian... Encirclement is a military term for the situation when one sides force or target is isolated and surrounded by other sides forces. ...


In the West, supply problems were beginning to significantly impede Allied operations, even though the opening of Antwerp in November 1944 did slightly improve the situation. The Allied armies were overextended—their positions ran from southern France to the Netherlands. German planning revolved around the premise that a successful strike against thinly-manned stretches of the line would halt Allied advances on the entire Western Front.


Several plans for major Western offensives were put forward, but the German High Command of the Armed Forces (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, or OKW) quickly concentrated on two. A first plan for an encirclement maneuver called for a two-pronged attack along the borders of the U.S. armies around Aachen, hoping to encircle the Ninth and Third Armies and leave the German forces back in control of the excellent defensive grounds where they had fought the U.S. to a standstill earlier in the year. A second plan called for a classic Blitzkrieg attack through the weakly-defended Ardennes Forest, mirroring the successful German offensive there during the Battle of France in 1940, aimed at splitting the armies along the U.S.-British lines and capturing Antwerp. This plan was named Wacht am Rhein or "Watch on the Rhine", after a popular German patriotic song; this name also deceptively implied that the Germans would be adopting a defensive posture in the Western Front. Oberkommando der Wehrmacht OKW most notably stands for Oberkommando der Wehrmacht - the high Command of the Third Reich armed forces. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... Shoulder sleeve insignia of the U.S. Ninth Army. ... This article is about the military term. ... The Ardennes is a region of extensive forests and rolling hill country (its highest point is under 700 m), primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région) and Germany, where this range is known as... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Canada  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Die Wacht am Rhein (English: The Watch/Guard on the Rhine) is a German patriotic anthem. ...


Hitler chose the second plan, believing that a successful encirclement would have little impact on the overall situation and finding the prospect of splitting the Anglo-American armies more appealing. The disputes between Montgomery and Patton were well known, and Hitler hoped he could exploit this perceived disunity. If the attack were to succeed in capturing the port of Antwerp four complete armies would be trapped without supplies behind German lines.


Both plans centered on attacks against the American forces; Hitler believed that the Americans were incapable of fighting effectively, and that the American home front was likely to crack upon hearing of a decisive American loss. There is no evidence that Hitler realized, or any of his military staff pointed out, that of all the major combatants, the United States was the least damaged and had the greatest restorative powers.


Tasked with carrying out the operation were Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) Walther Model, the commander of German Army Group B (Heeresgruppe B), and Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt, the overall commander of the German Army Command in the West (Oberbefehlshaber West). Replica of the marshals baton of Generalfeldmarschall von Richthofen (Third Reich) Generalfeldmarschall ( ) (general field marshal, usually translated simply as field marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Austrian Empire. ... Replica of the marshals baton of Generalfeldmarschall von Richthofen (Third Reich) Generalfeldmarschall ( ) (general field marshal, usually translated simply as field marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Austrian Empire. ... Otto Moritz Walter Model (IPA /mo:dÉ™l/) (January 24, 1891–April 21, 1945) was a German general, and later a Field Marshal, during World War II. He was noted for his defensive skills, and was nicknamed Hitlers fireman. Model served as an infantry officer in World War I... Army Group B was the name of three different German Army Groups that saw action during World War II. The first was involved in the western campaign in 1940 in Belgium and the Netherlands which was to be aimed to conquer the Maas bridges after the German airborne actions in... Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ... The German Army Command in the West (Oberbefehlshaber West (German: initials OB West) was the overall command of German armed forces (Wehrmacht) on the Western Front during World War II. It was directly subordinate to German Armed Forces High Command. ... The German Army Command in the West (Oberbefehlshaber West (German: initials OB West) was the overall command of German armed forces (Wehrmacht) on the Western Front during World War II. It was directly subordinate to German Armed Forces High Command. ...


Model and von Rundstedt both believed that aiming for Antwerp was too ambitious, given Germany’s scarce resources in late 1944. At the same time, they felt that maintaining a purely defensive posture (as had been the case since Normandy) would only delay defeat, not avert it. They thus developed alternative, less ambitious plans that did not aim to cross the Meuse River, Model’s being named Operation Autumn Mist (Unternehmen Herbstnebel) and von Rundstedt’s Case Martin (Fall Martin). The two Field Marshals combined their plans to present a joint "small solution" to Hitler, who rejected it in favour of his "big solution".[6] The Meuse (Maas) at Maastricht Meuse near Grave The Meuse (Dutch & German Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea. ... Unternehmen Herbstnebel (Operation Autumn Mist) was an offensive planned by Field Marshal Walter Model and his Army Group B operational staff in late 1944 during World War II. It envisaged an attack targeting the Allied forces in eastern Belgium and Luxembourg, east of the Meuse River. ... Unternehmen Herbstnebel (Operation Autumn Mist) was an offensive planned by Field Marshal Walter Model and his Army Group B operational staff in late 1944 during World War II. It envisaged an attack targeting the Allied forces in eastern Belgium and Luxembourg, east of the Meuse River. ... Fall Martin (Case Martin) was a plan created by Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt in late 1944 during World War II. Martin was part of operational planning to advance German troops towards the port of Antwerp during World War II. The detail in Martin was later incorporated into Operation Herbstnebel... Fall Martin (Case Martin) was a plan created by Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt in late 1944 during World War II. Martin was part of operational planning to advance German troops towards the port of Antwerp during World War II. The detail in Martin was later incorporated into Operation Herbstnebel...


Planning

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Planning the Counteroffensive
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Troops and Terrain
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Preparations
Situation on the Western Front as of 15 December 1944
Situation on the Western Front as of 15 December 1944

The German High Command of the Armed Forces (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, or OKW) decided by the middle of September, at Hitler’s insistence, that the offensive be mounted in the Ardennes, as was done in France in 1940. Many German generals objected, but the offensive was planned and carried out. While German forces in that battle had passed through the Ardennes before engaging the enemy, the 1944 plan called for battle to occur within the forest. The main forces were to advance westward until reaching the Meuse River, then turn northwest for Antwerp and Brussels. The close terrain of the Ardennes would make rapid movement difficult, though open ground beyond the Meuse offered the prospect of a successful dash to the coast. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (544x697, 85 KB) {{Information |Description=Western Front, Ardennes, 1944 |Source=US Army Center for Military History |Date=1944 |Author= |Permission= – US Army Center for Military History |other_versions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (544x697, 85 KB) {{Information |Description=Western Front, Ardennes, 1944 |Source=US Army Center for Military History |Date=1944 |Author= |Permission= – US Army Center for Military History |other_versions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages... Oberkommando der Wehrmacht OKW most notably stands for Oberkommando der Wehrmacht - the high Command of the Third Reich armed forces. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ...


Four armies were selected for the operation:

For the offensive to be successful, four criteria were deemed critical by the planners: Sixth SS Panzer Army The German Sixth SS Panzer Army, 6. ... SS-Obergruppenführer Sepp Dietrich Josef Sepp Dietrich also known as Ujac (May 28, 1892–April 21/22, 1966) was a German Waffen-SS general, an SS-Oberstgruppenführer, and one of the closest men to Hitler. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... The Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (Lifeguard Standarte of the SS Adolf Hitler) was a Waffen SS guard and combat formation which saw action on both the Eastern and Western fronts during the Second World War. ... The 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend ( Hitler Youth) was a German Waffen SS armoured division of World War II. It was one of only two German divisions to carry Hitlers name and was formed as an extension of 1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler. The 12th SS was... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... 5. ... Hasso-Eccard Freiherr von Manteuffel (January 14, 1897 — September 24, 1978) was a German soldier and politician of the 20th century. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... The German Seventh Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... General Erich Brandenberger Erich Brandenberger (1892-1955). ... The German Fifteenth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... Born in 1892, General Gustav-Adolf von Zangen was the commander of the German 15th Army in the Netherlands, 1944. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States  Canada  Poland  Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Brian Horrocks Roy Urquhart James M. Gavin Maxwell Taylor StanisÅ‚aw Sosabowski Walter Model Wilhelm Bittrich Kurt Student Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 11,377 dead, wounded or missing 6,946 British MIA 2,000 Killed 6,000...

  • The attack had to be a complete surprise;
  • The weather conditions had to be poor to neutralize Allied air superiority and the damage it could inflict on the German offensive and its supply lines;
  • The progress had to be rapid. Model had declared that the Meuse River had to be reached by day 4, if the offensive was to have any chance of success; and
  • Allied fuel supplies would have to be captured intact along the way because the Wehrmacht was short on fuel. The General Staff estimated they only had enough fuel to cover one-third to one-half of the ground to Antwerp in heavy combat conditions.

The plan originally called for just under 45 divisions, including a dozen panzer and panzergrenadier divisions forming the armoured spearhead and various infantry units to form a defensive line as the battle unfolded. The German army suffered from an acute manpower shortage by this time, however, and the force had been reduced to around 30 divisions. Although it retained most of its armour, there were not enough infantry units because of the defensive needs in the east. These thirty newly rebuilt divisions used some of the last reserves of the German Army (Wehrmacht Heer). Among them were Volksgrenadier units formed from a mix of battle-hardened veterans and recruits formerly regarded as too young or too old to fight. Training time, equipment, and supplies were inadequate during the preparations. German fuel supplies were precarious—those materials and supplies that could not be directly transported by rail had to be horse-drawn to conserve fuel—the mechanised and panzer divisions would depend heavily on captured fuel. The start of the offensive was delayed from November 27 to December 16 as a result. Panzer Division is the German term for armored division. ... This article needs cleanup. ... An armored spearhead is a formation of armored fighting vehicles, mostly tanks, that form the front of an offensive thrust during a battle. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Volksgrenadier was the name given to a type of German army division formed in the Fall of 1944 after the double loss of Army Group Center to the Soviets in Operation Bagration and the 6th Panzer Army to the Allies in Normandy. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Before the offensive, the Allies were virtually blind to German troop movement. During the reconquest of France, the extensive network of the French resistance had provided valuable intelligence about German dispositions. Once they reached the German border, this source dried up. In France, orders had been relayed within the German army using radio messages enciphered by the Enigma machine, and these could be picked up and decrypted by Allied codebreakers to give the intelligence known as ULTRA. In Germany such orders were typically transmitted using telephone and teleprinter, and a special radio silence order was imposed on all matters concerning the upcoming offensive. The major crackdown in the Wehrmacht after the July 20 Plot resulted in much tighter security and fewer leaks. The foggy autumn weather also prevented Allied reconnaissance planes from correctly assessing the ground situation. The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ... For a discussion of how Enigma-derived intelligence was put to use, see Ultra (WWII intelligence). ... Ultra (sometimes capitalized ULTRA) was the name used by the British for intelligence resulting from decryption of German communications in World War II. The term eventually became the standard designation in both Britain and the United States for all intelligence from high-level cryptanalytic sources. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... Teletype machines in World War II A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY for TeleTYpe/TeleTYpewriter) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... In telecommunications, radio silence is a status maintained where all fixed or mobile radio stations in an area stop transmitting. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ...


Thus, Allied High Command considered the Ardennes a quiet sector, relying on assessments from their intelligence services that the Germans were unable to launch any major offensive operations this late in the war. What little intelligence they had led the Allies to believe precisely what the Germans wanted them to believe—that preparations were being carried out only for defensive, not offensive operations. In fact, because of the Germans’ efforts, the Allies were led to believe that a new defensive army was being formed around Düsseldorf in the northern Rhine, possibly to defend against British attack. This was done by increasing the number of flak batteries in the area and the artificial multiplication of radio transmissions in the area. The Allies at this point thought the information was of no importance. All of this meant that the attack, when it came, completely surprised the Allied forces. Remarkably, the U.S. Third Army intelligence chief, Colonel Oscar Koch, the U.S. First Army intelligence chief, and the SHAEF intelligence officer all correctly predicted the German offensive capability and intention to strike the U.S. VIII Corps area. These predictions were largely dismissed by the U.S. 12th Army Group. Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and one of the economic and cultural centres of Germany and western Europe. ... FLAK was a punk rock side project of members of the band Machinae Supremacy in 2001. ... Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ...


Because the Ardennes was considered a quiet sector, economy-of-force considerations led it to be used as a training ground for new units and a rest area for units that had seen hard fighting. The U.S. units deployed in the Ardennes thus were a mixture of inexperienced troops (such as the rookie U.S. 99th and 106th Divisions), and battle-hardened troops sent to that sector to recuperate (the 2nd Infantry Division). The Rookie: Norman Rockwells cover for The Saturday Evening Post Rookie is a term for a person who is in their first year of play of their sport and has little or no professional experience. ... The 99th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War II. // Activated: 15 November 1942 Overseas: 30 September 1944 Campaigns: Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace, Central Europe Days of combat: 151 Distinguished Unit Citations: 2 Awards: MH-1 ; DSC-16 ; DSM-1 ; SS-252; LM-6; DFC... The 106th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War II well known to be the hardest hit division of the Battle of the Bulge. ... Patch of the United States Army 2nd Infantry Division. ...


Two major special operations were planned for the offensive. By October it was decided that Otto Skorzeny, the German commando who had rescued the former Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, was to lead a task force of English-speaking German soldiers in Operation Greif. These soldiers were to be dressed in American and British uniforms and wear dog tags taken from corpses and POWs. Their job was to go behind American lines and change signposts, misdirect traffic, generally cause disruption and to seize bridges across the Meuse River between Liège and Namur. By late November another ambitious special operation was added: Colonel Friedrich August von der Heydte was to lead a Fallschirmjäger (paratrooper) Kampfgruppe in Operation Stösser, a nighttime paratroop drop behind the Allied lines aimed at capturing a vital road junction near Malmedy. Special forces or special operations forces is a term used to describe relatively small military units raised and trained for reconnaissance, unconventional warfare and special operations. ... Otto Skorzeny (June 12, 1908 – July 6, 1975[1]) was a Standartenführer[2] in the German Waffen-SS during World War II. After fighting on the Eastern Front, he is known as the commando leader who rescued Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from imprisonment after his overthrow. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The 1st SS Panzer Divisions Dash Westward, and Operation Greif Operation Greif was a special false flag operation commanded by the notorious Waffen-SS commando Otto Skorzeny during the Battle of the Bulge. ... For other uses, see Uniform (disambiguation). ... For the tag worn by dogs, see dog tag. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Liège Coordinates , , Area 69. ... Namur (Nameûr in Walloon, Namen in Dutch) is a city and municipality, capital of the province of Namur and of the region of Wallonia in southern Belgium. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... Oberstleutnant von der Heydt, 1943 Friedrich August Freiherr von der Heydte was a German Luftwaffe officer who served with the Fallschirmjäger during World War II, reaching the rank of Oberstleutnant. ... Fallschirmjäger Fallschirmjäger photo taken from The Hague, Bezuidenhout during the invasion of the Low Countries, morning of May 10, 1940   (often rendered Fallschirmjager in English; from German Fallschirm parachute and Jäger, hunter; ranger a term for light infantry) are German paratroopers. ... The Kampfgruppe was a common combat formation used by the German Wehrmacht during the Second World War. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Verviers Coordinates , , Area 99. ...


German intelligence had set December 20 as the expected date for the start of the upcoming Soviet offensive, aimed at crushing what was left of German resistance on the Eastern Front and thereby opening the way to Berlin. It was hoped that Stalin would delay the start of the operation once the German assault in the Ardennes had begun and wait for the outcome before continuing. is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...


In the final stage of preparations, Hitler and his staff left their Wolf's Lair headquarters in East Prussia, in which they had coordinated much of the fighting on the Eastern Front. After a brief visit to Berlin, on December 11, they came to the Eagle's Nest, Hitler’s headquarters near Bad Nauheim in southern Germany, the site from which he had overseen the successful 1940 campaign against France and the Low Countries. One of larger bunkers in Wolfsschanze complex. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The name Eagles Nest has been used to describe many things. ... Bad Nauheim is a town in the Wetteraukreis district of Hesse state of Germany. ... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ...


Initial German assault

Sepp Dietrich led Sixth SS Panzer Army in the northernmost attack route
Sepp Dietrich led Sixth SS Panzer Army in the northernmost attack route
Hasso von Manteuffel led Fifth Panzer Army in the middle attack route
Hasso von Manteuffel led Fifth Panzer Army in the middle attack route
Erich Brandenberger led Seventh Army in the southernmost attack route
Erich Brandenberger led Seventh Army in the southernmost attack route

The German assault began on 16 December 1944, at 05:30, with a massive artillery barrage on the Allied troops facing the Sixth SS Panzer Army. By 08:00 all three German armies attacked through the Ardennes. In the northern sector Dietrich’s Sixth SS Panzer Army assaulted the Losheim Gap and the Elsenborn Ridge in an effort to break through to Liège. In the center von Manteuffel’s Fifth Panzer Army attacked towards Bastogne and St. Vith, both road junctions of great strategic importance. In the south, Sir Brandenberg's Seventh Army pushed towards Luxembourg in their efforts to secure the flank from Allied attacks. Download high resolution version (1500x854, 257 KB)German 6th Army progress during the Battle of the Bulge Source: Scanned from map insert in US Army in World War II - The Ardennes: The Battle of the Bulge License: US Government document. ... Download high resolution version (1500x854, 257 KB)German 6th Army progress during the Battle of the Bulge Source: Scanned from map insert in US Army in World War II - The Ardennes: The Battle of the Bulge License: US Government document. ... SS-Obergruppenführer Sepp Dietrich Josef Sepp Dietrich also known as Ujac (May 28, 1892–April 21/22, 1966) was a German Waffen-SS general, an SS-Oberstgruppenführer, and one of the closest men to Hitler. ... Download high resolution version (1500x914, 548 KB)German 5th Army progress during the Battle of the Bulge Source: Scanned from map insert in US Army in World War II - The Ardennes: The Battle of the Bulge License: US Government document. ... Download high resolution version (1500x914, 548 KB)German 5th Army progress during the Battle of the Bulge Source: Scanned from map insert in US Army in World War II - The Ardennes: The Battle of the Bulge License: US Government document. ... Hasso-Eccard Freiherr von Manteuffel (January 14, 1897 — September 24, 1978) was a German soldier and politician of the 20th century. ... Download high resolution version (1000x687, 246 KB)German 7th Army progress during the Battle of the Bulge Source: Scanned from map insert in US Army in World War II - The Ardennes: The Battle of the Bulge License: US Government document. ... Download high resolution version (1000x687, 246 KB)German 7th Army progress during the Battle of the Bulge Source: Scanned from map insert in US Army in World War II - The Ardennes: The Battle of the Bulge License: US Government document. ... General Erich Brandenberger Erich Brandenberger (1892-1955). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... The Losheim Gap was the opening in the US defences, which was the result of a strong thrust of German forces, in the opening phase of the Battle of the Bulge. ... Combatants United States 2nd Division 99th Division 1st Division 78th Division Nazi Germany The Elsenborn Ridge is a mountainous area in the Ardennes forest that is notable for its role in the Battle of the Bulge. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Liège Coordinates , , Area 69. ... For other uses, see Bastogne (disambiguation). ... Geography Country Belgium Region Walloon Region Community German-speaking Community Province Liège Arrondissement Verviers Coordinates Area 146. ...


The attacks by the Sixth SS Panzer Army’s infantry units in the north fared badly because of unexpectedly fierce resistance by the U.S. 2nd and 99th Infantry Divisions at the Elsenborn Ridge, stalling their advance; this caused Dietrich to make the decision to commit his panzer forces early. Starting on 16 December, however, snowstorms engulfed parts of the Ardennes area. While having the desired effect of keeping the Allied aircraft grounded, the weather also proved troublesome for the Germans because poor road conditions hampered their advance. Poor traffic control led to massive traffic jams and fuel shortages in forward units. is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the winter storm condition. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The Germans fared better in the center (the 20 mile (30 km) wide Schnee Eifel sector) as the Fifth Panzer Army attacked positions held by the U.S. 28th and 106th Infantry Divisions. The Germans lacked the overwhelming strength as had been deployed in the north; but they succeeded in surrounding two regiments (422nd and 423rd) of the 106th Division in a pincer movement and forced their surrender. That was a tribute to the way that Manteuffel’s new tactics had been applied.[7] The official U.S. Army history states: "At least seven thousand [men] were lost here and the figure probably is closer to eight or nine thousand. The amount lost in arms and equipment, of course, was very substantial. The Schnee Eifel battle, therefore, represents the most serious reverse suffered by American arms during the operations of 1944–45 in the European theater." The 28th Infantry Division [Mechanized] is a unit of the United States Army and is the oldest division in the armed forces of the United States. ...

Belgian civilians killed by the German Military during the offensive
Belgian civilians killed by the German Military during the offensive

Further south on Manteuffel’s front the main thrust was delivered by all attacking divisions crossing the River Our, then increasing the pressure on the key road centers of St. Vith and Bastogne. Panzer columns took the outlying villages. The struggle for these villages, and transport confusion on the German side, slowed the attack to allow the 101st Airborne Division (reinforced by elements from the 9th and 10th Armored Divisions) to reach Bastogne by truck on the morning of 19 December. The fierce defense of Bastogne, in which American paratroopers particularly distinguished themselves, made it impossible for the Germans to take the town with its important road junctions. The panzer columns swung past on either side, cutting off Bastogne on 20 December but failing to secure the vital crossroads. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 769 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2603 × 2030 pixel, file size: 908 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 769 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2603 × 2030 pixel, file size: 908 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Our (pronunciation [u:r]) is a river of Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany. ... For other uses, see Bastogne (disambiguation). ... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)—nicknamed the “Screaming Eagles”—is an airborne division of the United States Army primarily trained for air assault operations. ... Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 9th Armored Division. ... Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 10th Armored Division. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the extreme south, Brandenberger’s three infantry divisions were checked after an advance of four miles (6.5 km) by divisions of the U.S. VIII Corps; that front was then firmly held. Only the 5th Parachute Division of Brandenberger’s command was able to thrust forward 12 miles (19 km) on the inner flank to partially fulfill its assigned role. Route of march of the U.S. VIII Corps. ...


Eisenhower and his principal commanders realized by 17 December that the fighting in the Ardennes was a major offensive and not a local counter-attack, and they ordered vast reinforcements to the area. Within a week 250,000 troops had been sent. In addition, the 82nd Airborne Division was also thrown into the battle north of the bulge, near Elsenborn Ridge. December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was formed originally as the 82nd Infantry Division on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ...


Operation Stösser

Originally planned for the early hours of 16 December, Operation Stösser was delayed for a day because of bad weather and fuel shortages. The new drop time was set for 03:00 on December 17; their drop zone was 7 miles (11 km) north of Malmedy and their target was the "Baraque Michel" crossroads. Von der Heydte and his men were to take it and hold it for approximately twenty-four hours until being relieved by the 12th SS Panzer Division, thereby hampering the Allied flow of reinforcements and supplies into the area. is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Verviers Coordinates , , Area 99. ... The 12. ...


Just after midnight on 17 December, 112 Ju 52 transport planes with around 1,300 Fallschirmjäger (German paratroopers) on board took off amid a powerful snowstorm, with strong winds and extensive low cloud cover. As a result, many planes went off course, and men were dropped as far as a dozen kilometres away from the intended drop zone, with only a fraction of the force landing near it. Strong winds also took off-target those paratroopers whose planes were relatively close to the intended drop zone and made their landings far rougher. December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Junkers Ju 52 nicknamed Tante Ju (Auntie Ju) and Iron Annie was a civilian airliner and military transport aircraft and bomber manufactured between 1932 and 1945 by Junkers. ... Fallschirmjäger Fallschirmjäger photo taken from The Hague, Bezuidenhout during the invasion of the Low Countries, morning of May 10, 1940   (often rendered Fallschirmjager in English; from German Fallschirm parachute and Jäger, hunter; ranger a term for light infantry) are German paratroopers. ... Cumulus of fair weather A cloud is a visible mass of condensed water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere above Earths (or another planetary bodys) surface. ...


By noon a group of around 300 managed to assemble, but this force was too small and too weak to counter the Allies. Colonel von der Heydte abandoned plans to take the crossroads and instead ordered his men to harass the Allied troops in the vicinity with guerrilla-like actions. Because of the extensive dispersal of the jump, with Fallschirmjäger being reported all over the Ardennes, the Allies believed a major division-sized jump had taken place, resulting in much confusion and causing them to allocate men to secure their rear instead of sending them off to the front to face the main German thrust. Guerrilla redirects here. ...


Operation Greif and Operation Währung

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The 1st SS Panzer Division’s Dash Westward, and Operation Greif
Main articles: Operation Greif and Operation Währung

For Operation Greif, Otto Skorzeny successfully infiltrated a small part of his battalion of disguised, English-speaking Germans behind the Allied lines. Although they failed to take the vital bridges over the Meuse, the battalion’s presence produced confusion out of all proportion to their military activities, and rumors spread quickly. Even General Patton was alarmed and, on 17 December, described the situation to General Eisenhower as “Krauts… speaking perfect English… raising hell, cutting wires, turning road signs around, spooking whole divisions, and shoving a bulge into our defenses. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The 1st SS Panzer Divisions Dash Westward, and Operation Greif Operation Greif was a special false flag operation commanded by the notorious Waffen-SS commando Otto Skorzeny during the Battle of the Bulge. ... During the Battle of the Bulge in WWII, Operation Währung (Currency in German) was a special operation conducted as part of the Wacht am Rhein. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The 1st SS Panzer Divisions Dash Westward, and Operation Greif Operation Greif was a special false flag operation commanded by the notorious Waffen-SS commando Otto Skorzeny during the Battle of the Bulge. ... Otto Skorzeny (June 12, 1908 – July 6, 1975[1]) was a Standartenführer[2] in the German Waffen-SS during World War II. After fighting on the Eastern Front, he is known as the commando leader who rescued Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from imprisonment after his overthrow. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The German word Kraut is a generic term that is often used in compound nouns for cabbage, cabbage products and many herbs: Weißkraut = green cabbage Blaukraut or Rotkraut = red cabbage Sauerkraut The word is almost never used alone, but the plural form, Kräuter, translates to the English herbs...


Checkpoints were set up all over the Allied rear, greatly slowing the movement of soldiers and equipment. Military policemen drilled servicemen on things which every American was expected to know, such as the identity of Mickey Mouse’s girlfriend, baseball scores, or the capital of Illinois. This last question resulted in the brief detention of General Omar Bradley; although he gave the correct answer—Springfield—the GI who questioned him apparently believed that the capital was Chicago. Mickey Mouse is an Academy Award-winning comic animal cartoon character who has become an icon for The Walt Disney Company. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... : Home of President Abraham Lincoln United States Illinois Sangamon 60. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ...


The tightened security nonetheless made things harder for the German infiltrators, and some of them were captured. Even during interrogation they continued their goal of spreading disinformation; when asked about their mission, some of them claimed they had been told to go to Paris to either kill or capture General Eisenhower. Security around the general was greatly increased, and he was confined to his headquarters. Because these prisoners had been captured in American uniform, they were later executed by firing squad; this was the standard practice of every army at the time, although it was left ambiguous under the Geneva Convention, which merely stated that soldiers had to wear uniforms that distinguished them as combatants. In addition, Skorzeny was aware that under international law such an operation would be well within its boundaries as long as they were wearing their German uniforms when firing.[8] Skorzeny and his men were fully aware of their likely fate, and most wore their German uniforms underneath their Allied ones in case of capture. Skorzeny avoided capture, survived the war and may have been involved with the Nazi ODESSA escape network. For other uses, see Disinformation (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Third of May by Francisco Goya Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in times of war. ... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II...


For Operation Währung a small number of German agents infiltrated Allied lines in American uniforms. These agents were then to use an existing Nazi intelligence network to attempt to bribe rail and port workers to disrupt Allied supply operations. This operation was a failure. During the Battle of the Bulge in WWII, Operation Währung (Currency in German) was a special operation conducted as part of the Wacht am Rhein. ...


Malmedy massacre

The Malmedy massacre
The Malmedy massacre
Main article: Malmedy massacre

In the north, the main armored spearhead of the Sixth SS Panzer Army was Kampfgruppe Peiper, consisting of 4,800 men and 600 vehicles of the 1st SS Panzer Division under the command of Waffen-SS Colonel Joachim Peiper. Bypassing the Elsenborn ridge, at 07:00 on 17 December, they seized a U.S. fuel depot at Büllingen, where they paused to refuel before continuing westward. At 12:30, near the hamlet of Baugnez, on the height halfway between the town of Malmedy and Ligneuville, they encountered elements of the American 285th Field Artillery Observation Battalion. After a brief battle the Americans surrendered. They were disarmed and, with some other Americans captured earlier (approximately 150 people), sent to stand in a field near the crossroads where most were shot. It is not known what caused the shooting and there is no record of an SS officer giving an execution order; such shootings of prisoners of war (POWs); however, were more common by both sides on the Eastern Front. News of the killings raced through Allied lines. Captured SS soldiers who were part of Kampfgruppe Peiper were tried following the war for this massacre and several others during the Malmedy massacre trial. Download high resolution version (1024x705, 252 KB)Malmédy massacre - approximately 70 members of Battery B killed after captured . ... Download high resolution version (1024x705, 252 KB)Malmédy massacre - approximately 70 members of Battery B killed after captured . ... United States soldiers discover the aftermath of the Malmedy Massacre. ... The Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (German for Adolf Hitlers Bodyguard Regiment) was a unit of the SS. It was a Waffen SS security and combat formation which saw action on both the Eastern and Western fronts during World War II. As its name suggested, the Leibstandarte started life in... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... ... Joachim Peiper (January 30, 1915 - July 13, 1976) more often known as Jochen Peiper from the common German nickname for Joachim, was a senior Waffen-SS officer in World War II and a convicted war criminal. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Büllingen is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Verviers Coordinates , , Area 99. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... The Malmedy massacre The Malmedy massacre trial () was held in May–July 1946 in the Dachau concentration camp to try the German Waffen-SS soldiers accused of the Malmedy massacre of December 17, 1944. ...


The fighting went on and, by the evening, the spearhead had pushed north to engage the U.S. 99th Infantry Division and Kampfgruppe Peiper arrived in front of Stavelot. Peiper was already behind the timetable because it took 36 hours to advance from Eifel to Stavelot; it had taken just 9 hours in the Battle of France in 1940. As the Americans fell back they blew up bridges and fuel dumps, denying the Germans critically needed fuel and further slowing their progress. Stavelot is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... Not to be confused with Eiffel Tower. ... Stavelot is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Canada  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di...


Wereth 11

Main article: Wereth 11

Another, much smaller massacre was committed in Wereth, Belgium, approximately a thousand yards northeast of Saint-Vith, on 17 December 1944. Eleven African-American soldiers, after surrendering, were tortured and then shot by men of the 1st SS Panzer Division, belonging to Kampfgruppe Hansen. The identity of the murderers remains unknown, and the perpetrators were never punished for this crime. The Wereth 11 were 11 African-American soldiers who were brutally murdered in Wereth, Belgium on December 17th, 1944. ... Sankt Vith (French: Saint-Vith) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ...


Assault of Kampfgruppe Peiper

Peiper entered Stavelot on 18 December but encountered fierce resistance by the American defenders. Unable to defeat the American force in the area, he left a smaller support force in town and headed for the bridge at Trois-Ponts with the bulk of his forces, but by the time he reached it, the retreating U.S. engineers had already destroyed it. Peiper pulled off and headed for the village of La Gleize and from there on to Stoumont. There, as Peiper approached, the American engineers blew up the bridge, and the American troops were entrenched and ready to fight a bitter battle. is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Trois-Ponts is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... Stoumont is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ...


His troops were cut off from the main German force and supplies when the Americans recaptured the poorly defended Stavelot on 19 December. As their situation in Stoumont was becoming hopeless, Peiper decided to pull back to La Gleize where he set up his defenses waiting for the German relief force. Since no relief force was able to penetrate the Allied line, on 23 December Peiper decided to break through back to the German lines. The men of the Kampfgruppe were forced to abandon their vehicles and heavy equipment, although most of the unit was able to escape. is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kampfgruppe was a common combat formation used by the German Wehrmacht during the Second World War. ...


St. Vith

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St. Vith is lost

In the centre, the town of St. Vith, a vital road junction, presented the main challenge for both von Manteuffel’s and Dietrich’s forces. The defenders, led by the U.S. 7th Armored Division, and also including one regiment of the U.S. 106th Infantry Division, and additional elements of the U.S. 9th Armored Division and U.S. 28th Infantry Division, all under the command of General Bruce C. Clarke, successfully resisted the German attacks, thereby significantly slowing the German advance. Under orders from Montgomery, St. Vith was given up on 21 December; U.S. troops fell back to entrenched positions in the area, presenting an imposing obstacle to a successful German advance. By 23 December, as the Germans shattered their flanks, the defenders’ position became untenable, and U.S. troops were ordered to retreat west of the Salm River. As the German plan called for the capture of St. Vith by 18:00 on 17 December, the prolonged action in and around it presented a major blow to their timetable. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Geography Country Belgium Region Walloon Region Community German-speaking Community Province Liège Arrondissement Verviers Coordinates Area 146. ... Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 7th Armored Division. ... General Bruce Cooper Clarke was a commander of Continental Army Command from 1958-1960 and Commander, U.S. Army Europe from 1960-1962. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Salm is a river in eastern Belgium (provinces of Liège and Luxembourg), tributary to the river Amblève. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Bastogne

Wacht am Rhein—the German offensive, 16–25 December 1944
Wacht am Rhein—the German offensive, 16–25 December 1944
Main article: Battle of Bastogne

On 19 December, the senior Allied commanders met in a bunker in Verdun. Eisenhower, realizing that the Allies could destroy German forces much more easily when they were out in the open and on the offensive than if they were on the defensive, told the generals, "The present situation is to be regarded as one of opportunity for us and not of disaster. There will be only cheerful faces at this table." Patton, realizing what Eisenhower implied, responded, “Hell, let’s have the guts to let the bastards go all the way to Paris. Then, we’ll really cut ’em off and chew ’em up.” Eisenhower asked Patton how long it would take to turn his Third Army (located in northeastern France) north to counterattack. He said he could attack with two divisions within 48 hours, to the disbelief of the other generals present. Before he had gone to the meeting, however, Patton had ordered his staff to prepare three contingency plans for a northward turn in at least corps strength. By the time Eisenhower asked him how long it would take, the movement was already underway.[9] On 20 December, Eisenhower removed the U.S. First and Ninth Armies from Bradley’s 12th Army Group and placed them under Montgomery’s 21st Army Group command. Download high resolution version (557x900, 184 KB)Wacht am Rhein -- the German offensive, 16-25 December 1944 Source: US ARMY License: US Government document. ... Download high resolution version (557x900, 184 KB)Wacht am Rhein -- the German offensive, 16-25 December 1944 Source: US ARMY License: US Government document. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Anthony McAuliffe Hasso von Manteuffel Strength 101st Airborne Division, Combat Command B of 10th Armored Division Nine German divisions (mostly Panzer) (estimated) Wikisource has original text related to this article: THE ARDENNES: BATTLE OF THE BULGE. CHAPTER XIX: THE BATTLE OF BASTOGNE The Battle of... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... Verdun, (German: Wirten) sometimes also called Verdun-sur-Meuse, is a city and commune in northeast France, in the Meuse département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The First United States Army is a field army of the United States Army. ... (Redirected from 12th Army Group) The 12th Army Group was the largest and most powerful American formation ever to take to the field. ... The British 21st Army Group was an important Allied force in the European Theatre of World War II. // Normandy Commanded by General (later Field Marshal) Sir Bernard Montgomery, it initially controlled all ground forces in Operation Overlord. ...


By 21 December the German forces had surrounded Bastogne, which was defended by the 101st Airborne Division and Combat Command B of the 10th Armored Division. Conditions inside the perimeter were tough—most of the medical supplies and medical personnel had been captured. Food was scarce, and ammunition was so low that artillery crews were forbidden to fire on advancing Germans unless there was a large concentration of them. Despite determined German attacks, however, the perimeter held. The German commander sent this request to the American commander in Bastogne: is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Bastogne (disambiguation). ... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)—nicknamed the “Screaming Eagles”—is an airborne division of the United States Army primarily trained for air assault operations. ...

To the U.S.A. Commander of the encircled town of Bastogne.
The fortune of war is changing. This time the U.S.A. forces in and near Bastogne have been encircled by strong German armored units. More German armored units have crossed the river Our near Ortheuville, have taken Marche and reached St. Hubert by passing through Hompre-Sibret-Tillet. Libramont is in German hands.
There is only one possibility to save the encircled U.S.A. troops from total annihilation: that is the honorable surrender of the encircled town. In order to think it over a term of two hours will be granted beginning with the presentation of this note.
If this proposal should be rejected one German Artillery Corps and six heavy A. A. Battalions are ready to annihilate the U.S.A. troops in and near Bastogne. The order for firing will be given immediately after this two hours’ term.
All the serious civilian losses caused by this artillery fire would not correspond with the well known American humanity.
The German Commander.[10]

When General Anthony McAuliffe, acting commander of the 101st Airborne, was told of this German invitation to surrender, he responded "Nuts!" After turning to other pressing issues, his staff reminded him that they should reply to the German demand; one officer (Harry W. O. Kinnard, then a Lieutenant Colonel; see http://www.thedropzone.org/europe/Bulge/kinnard.html) recommended that the initial reply would be "tough to beat". Thus McAuliffe wrote on the paper delivered to the Germans: “NUTS!” That reply had to be explained, both to the Germans and to non-American Allies.[11] A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Rather than launching one simultaneous attack all around the perimeter, the German forces concentrated their assaults on several individual locations attacked in sequence. Although this compelled the defenders to constantly shift reinforcements in order to repel each attack, it tended to dissipate the Germans’ numerical advantage.


Meuse River

To protect the river crossings on the Meuse at Givet, Dinant and Namur, on 19 December Montgomery ordered those few units available to hold the bridges. This led to a hastily assembled force including rear echelon troops, military police and Army Air Forces personnel. The British 29th Armoured Brigade, which had turned in its tanks for re-equipping, was told to take back their tanks and head to the area. XXX Corps in Holland began their move to the area. is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 29th Armoured Brigade was a Second World War British Army brigade. ... The XXX Corps was an infantry corps in the British Army. ...


The furthest westward penetration made by the German attack was by the 2nd Panzer Division of the Fifth Panzer Army, coming to less than ten miles (16 km) of the Meuse by 24 December. The 2nd Panzer Division () was created in 1935, and stationed in Austria after the Anschluss. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Allied counter-offensive

The Germans fell far short of achieving their objectives
The Germans fell far short of achieving their objectives

On 23 December the weather conditions started improving, allowing the Allied air forces to attack. They launched devastating bombing raids on the German supply points in their rear, and P-47 Thunderbolts started attacking the German troops on the roads. The Allied air forces also helped the defenders of Bastogne, dropping much-needed supplies—medicine, food, blankets and ammunition. A team of volunteer surgeons flew in by glider and began operating in a tool room. Download high resolution version (1000x901, 169 KB)German progress during the Battle of the Bulge Source: Scanned from map insert in US Army in World War II - The Ardennes: The Battle of the Bulge License: US Government document. ... Download high resolution version (1000x901, 169 KB)German progress during the Battle of the Bulge Source: Scanned from map insert in US Army in World War II - The Ardennes: The Battle of the Bulge License: US Government document. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, also known as Jug, was the largest single-engined fighter of its day. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Blanket (disambiguation). ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Glider (disambiguation). ...


By 24 December the German advance was effectively stalled short of the Meuse River. Units of the British XXX Corps were holding the bridges at Dinant, Givet, and Namur and U.S. units were about to take over. The Germans had outrun their supply lines, and shortages of fuel and ammunition were becoming critical. Up to this point the German losses had been light, notably in armor, which was almost untouched with the exception of Peiper’s losses. On the evening of 24 December, General Hasso von Manteuffel recommended to Hitler’s Military Adjutant a halt to all offensive operations and a withdrawal back to the West Wall. Hitler rejected this. is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The XXX Corps was an infantry corps in the British Army. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hasso-Eccard Freiherr von Manteuffel (January 14, 1897 — September 24, 1978) was a German soldier and politician of the 20th century. ...


On Christmas, the Allied troops were giving each other presents like beer and a cigeratte to help comfort them in the hard times in the war.


Patton’s Third Army was battling to relieve Bastogne. At 16:50 on 26 December, the lead element of the 37th Tank Battalion of the 4th Armored Division reached Bastogne, ending the siege. is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An M1A1 Abrahms Main Battle Tank. ... Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 4th Armored Division. ...


Germans strike back

On 1 January, in an attempt to keep the offensive going, the Germans launched two new operations. At 09:15, the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) launched Operation Baseplate (Unternehmen Bodenplatte), a major campaign against Allied airfields in the Low Countries. Hundreds of planes attacked Allied airfields, destroying or severely damaging some 465 aircraft. However, the Luftwaffe lost 277 planes, 62 to Allied fighters and 172 mostly because of an unexpectedly high number of Allied flak guns, set up to protect against German V-1 flying bomb attacks, but also by friendly fire from the German flak guns that were uninformed of the pending large-scale German air operation. While the Allies recovered from their losses in just days, the operation left the Luftwaffe weak and ineffective.[12] Operation Bodenplatte, launched on 1st January 1945, was an attempt to cripple Allied air forces in the Low Countries of Europe. ... Operation Nordwind (North Wind) was an attack conducted by the German Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS during January 1945 in Alsace and Lorraine. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Operation Bodenplatte, launched on 1st January 1945, was an attempt to cripple Allied air forces in the Low Countries of Europe. ... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ... Flying machine redirects here. ... FLAK was a punk rock side project of members of the band Machinae Supremacy in 2001. ... The V-1 (German: Vergeltungswaffe 1) was the first guided missile used in war and the forerunner of todays cruise missile. ... The Vergeltungswaffe 1 Fi 103 / FZG-76 (V-1), known as the Flying bomb, Buzz bomb or Doodlebug, was the first modern guided missile used in wartime and the first cruise missile. ... For other uses, see Friendly Fire (disambiguation). ...


On the same day, German Army Group G (Heeresgruppe G) and Army Group Upper Rhine (Heeresgruppe Oberrhein) launched a major offensive against the thinly stretched, 70 mile (110 km) line of the U.S. 7th Army. This offensive, known as Operation North Wind (Unternehmen Nordwind), was the last major German offensive of the war on the Western Front. The offensive of the German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) soon had the weakened U.S. 7th Army in dire straits. The 7th Army had, at Eisenhower’s orders, sent troops, equipment, and supplies north to reinforce the American armies in the Ardennes. ... Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the U.S. Seventh Army. ... Operation Nordwind (North Wind) was an attack conducted by the German Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS during January 1945 in Alsace and Lorraine. ... Operation Nordwind (North Wind) was an attack conducted by the German Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS during January 1945 in Alsace and Lorraine. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States Poland  France Canada Free France  Netherlands  Belgium Germany Italy Commanders Winston Churchill, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Harold Alexander, Bertram Ramsay, Bernard Montgomery, Lord Gort, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Franklin Roosevelt,, George Marshall, Dwight Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Jacob Devers, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski, Stanis... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ...


By 15 January, the 7th Army’s VI Corps was fighting on three sides in Alsace. With casualties mounting, and running short on replacements, tanks, ammunition, and supplies, 7th Army was forced to withdraw to defensive positions on the south bank of the Moder River on 21 January. The German offensive drew to a close on 25 January. In the bitter, desperate fighting of Operation Nordwind, VI Corps, which had borne the brunt of the fighting, suffered a total of 14,716 casualties. The total for the 7th Army is unclear, but the total casualties included at least 9,000 wounded and 17,000 sick and injured.[13] is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the VI Corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, see VI Corps (ACW) The VI Corps took part in some of the most high profile operations in World War II. Its first combat was during the Allied invasion of Italy when it landed at Salerno with... Elsaß redirects here. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Allies prevail

While the German offensive had ground to a halt, they still controlled a dangerous salient in the Allied line. Patton’s Third Army in the south, centred around Bastogne, would attack north, Montgomery’s forces in the north would strike south, and the two forces planned to meet at Houffalize. Houffalize is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. ...


The temperature during January 1945 was unseasonably low. Trucks had to be run every half hour or the oil in them would freeze, and weapons would freeze. The offensive went forward regardless.

Erasing the Bulge—The Allied counterattack, 26 December – 25 January
Erasing the Bulge—The Allied counterattack, 26 December25 January

Eisenhower wanted Montgomery to go on the offensive on 1 January, with the aim of meeting up with Patton’s advancing Third Army and cutting off most of the attacking Germans, trapping them in a pocket. However, refusing to risk underprepared infantry in a snowstorm for a strategically unimportant area, Montgomery did not launch the attack until 3 January, by which time substantial numbers of German troops had already managed to successfully disengage, albeit with the loss of their heavy equipment. Download high resolution version (554x900, 177 KB)Erasing the Bulge -- The Allied counterattack, 26 December - 25 January Source: US ARMY License: US Government document. ... Download high resolution version (554x900, 177 KB)Erasing the Bulge -- The Allied counterattack, 26 December - 25 January Source: US ARMY License: US Government document. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the start of the offensive, the two armies were separated by about 25 miles (40 km). American progress in the south was also restricted to about a kilometer a day. The majority of the German force executed a successful fighting withdrawal and escaped the battle area, although the fuel situation had become so dire that most of the German armor had to be abandoned. On 7 January 1945, Hitler agreed to withdraw forces from the Ardennes, including the SS panzer divisions, thus ending all offensive operations. is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Controversy high command

As the Ardennes crisis developed, the commander of the First Army had gone to pieces under the strain and was incapable of issuing orders, while the Ninth Army couldn't communicate directly with Bradley. This resulted in Montgomery assuming command of the American First and Ninth Armies in a controversial move approved by Eisenhower.[14]


On the same day as Hitler’s withdrawal order, 7 January, Montgomery held a press conference at Zonhoven in which he said that he had “headed off ... seen off ... and ... written off” the Germans. “The battle has been the most interesting, I think possible one of the most tricky ... I have ever handled.” Montgomery said that he had “employed the whole available power of the British group of armies ... you thus have the picture of British troops fighting on both sides of the Americans who have suffered a hard blow.[15] is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Montgomery also gave credit to the “courage and good fighting quality” of the American troops, characterizing a typical American as a “very brave fighting man who has that tenacity in battle which makes a great soldier,” and went on to talk about the necessity of Allied teamwork, and praised Eisenhower, stating that “Teamwork wins battles and battle victories win wars. On our team, the captain is General Ike.” Despite these remarks, the overall impression given by Montgomery, at least in the ears of the American military leadership, was that he had taken the lion’s share of credit for the success of the campaign, and had been responsible for rescuing the besieged Americans.


His comments were interpreted as self-promoting, particularly his claiming that when the situation “began to deteriorate,” Eisenhower had placed him in command in the north. Patton and Eisenhower both felt this was a misrepresentation of the relative share of the fighting played by the British and Americans in the Ardennes (for every three British soldiers there were thirty to forty Americans in the fight), and that it belittled the part played by Bradley, Patton and other American commanders. In the context of Patton and Montgomery’s well-known antipathy, Montgomery’s failure to mention the contribution of any American general beside Eisenhower was seen as insulting. Focusing exclusively on his own generalship, Montgomery continued to say that he thought the counter-offensive had gone very well but did not explain the reason for his delayed attack on 3 January. He later attributed this to needing more time for preparation on the northern front. According to Winston Churchill, the attack from the south under Patton was steady but slow and involved heavy losses, and Montgomery claimed to be trying to avoid this situation. is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Churchill redirects here. ...


Montgomery subsequently recognized his error and later wrote: “I think now that I should never have held that press conference. So great were the feelings against me on the part of the American generals that whatever I said was bound to be wrong. I should therefore have said nothing.” Eisenhower commented in his own memoirs: “I doubt if Montgomery ever came to realize how resentful some American commanders were. They believed he had belittled them—and they were not slow to voice reciprocal scorn and contempt.


Bradley and Patton both threatened to resign unless Montgomery’s command was changed. Subsequently Bradley started to court the press, and it was stated that he would rarely leave headquarters “without at least fifteen newspapermen”; it has been suggested that he and Patton began to leak information detrimental to Montgomery. Eisenhower, encouraged by his British deputy Arthur Tedder, had decided to sack Montgomery. However, intervention by Montgomery’s and Eisenhower’s Chiefs of Staff, Major-General Freddie de Guingand, and Lieutenant General Walter Bedell Smith allowed Eisenhower to reconsider and Montgomery to apologize. Arthur William Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder (July 11, 1890–June 3, 1967) was a significant British Marshal of the Royal Air Force. ... The term Chief of Staff can refer to: The White House Chief of Staff, the highest-ranking member of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. ... Major General or Major-General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Major General Freddie De Guingand, 1900-1979, served with Montgomery from Alemain to the surrender of the Wermacht in the West. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... Walter Bedell Smith as U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union. ...


Strategic situation after the Bulge

Although the German advance was halted, the overall situation remained dangerous. On 6 January Churchill once again asked Stalin for support. On 12 January, the Red Army launched the Vistula-Oder Offensive in Poland and East Prussia. Soviet sources claim this was done ahead of schedule, while most Western sources doubt it, and instead claim the Soviet offensive was delayed because of the situation in the West, with Stalin waiting until both sides had militarily exhausted themselves. is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ...


The Battle of the Bulge officially ended when the two American forces met on 25 January 1945. is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Aftermath

Casualty estimates from the battle vary widely. The official U.S. account lists 80,987 American casualties, while other estimates range from 70,000 to 104,000. British losses totaled 1,400. The German High Command’s official figure for the campaign was 84,834 casualties, and other estimates range between 60,000 and 100,000. Image File history File linksMetadata Mardasson_Memorial_Bastogne. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mardasson_Memorial_Bastogne. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge Combatants United States United Kingdom Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower George Patton Bernard Montgomery Walther Model Gerd von Rundstedt Adolf Hitler Strength Dec 16 - start of the Battle: about 83,000 men; 242 Sherman tanks, 182... A casualty is a person who is the victim of an accident, injury, or trauma. ...


The Allies pressed their advantage following the battle. By the beginning of February 1945, the lines were roughly where they had been in December 1944. In early February, the Allies launched an attack all along the Western front: in the north under Montgomery toward Aachen; in the center, under Courtney Hodges; and in the south, under Patton. Montgomery’s behavior during the months of December and January, including the press conference on 7 January where he downplayed the contribution of the American generals, further soured his relationship with his American counterparts through the end of the war. Courtney Hicks Hodges (January 5, 1887 – January 16, 1966) was an American military officer, most prominent for his role in World War II, in which he commanded the U.S. First Army in Northwest Europe. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The German losses in the battle were critical in several respects: the last of the German reserves were now gone; the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) had been broken; and the German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) in the West was being pushed back. The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ...


See also

Combatants Germany Hungary Soviet Union Bulgaria Commanders Josef Dietrich (6th SS Panzer Army) Fyodor Tolbukhin (3rd Ukrainian Front) Strength 140,000 900 AFVs 465,000 Casualties 14,818 32,899 Launched in great secrecy on 6 March 1945, the Lake Balaton Offensive was the last major German offensive launched during...

Popular culture

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Battle of the Bulge

The Battle of the Bulge has been the setting of several movies, novels, and other media. Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ...


Films

  • The 1949 Oscar winning film Battleground, starring Van Johnson, depicts the 101st Airborne’s defense of Bastogne, told from the common soldier’s point of view, presenting the troops as weary but determined survivors.
  • The 1956 film Attack!, directed by Robert Aldrich, and starring Lee Marvin, Jack Palance and Eddie Albert is one of the few movies to show the dark side of Allied resistance during the Battle of the Bulge. It deals with the in-fighting in a platoon of American soldiers whose lives are constantly put at risk by an incompetent and cowardly commanding officer.
  • The 1965 film Battle of the Bulge, starring Robert Shaw and Henry Fonda. While filmed against sweeping vistas and with famous stars in the lead roles, the movie is notorious for countless major inaccuracies.
  • The 1969 film Castle Keep starring Burt Lancaster and Peter Falk features a group of GIs defending a Belgian castle during the Ardennes offensive. This surreal film was directed by Sydney Pollack.
  • The 1970 film Patton, starring George C. Scott and Karl Malden, deals with the Battle of the Bulge in its latter half.
  • The 1992 film A Midnight Clear, featuring Kevin Dillon, Ethan Hawke and Gary Sinise, is set on the eve of the Battle of the Bulge and depicts the beginning of the German offensive.
  • The 1994 PBS documentary “Battle of the Bulge,” written by Lennon and Mark Zwonitzer, was told from the perspective of American soldiers who survived. It received many awards, including the duPont-Columbia Journalism award.
  • The 2002 film Silent Night, takes place during the campaign and is based on a true story about a German woman named Elisabeth Vincken (played by Linda Hamilton) who was able to broker a truce between American and German soldiers who sought shelter in her cabin on Christmas Eve.
  • The 2002 film Hart's War, featuring Colin Farrell, Terrence Howard and Bruce Willis also depicts the beginning of the battle.
  • The 2004 film Saints and Soldiers depicts the Massacre at Malmedy with its opening scene.
  • Stephen Ambrose’s Band of Brothers is a factual account which follows the fortunes of Easy Company, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne. It was later made into the 2001 BBC/HBO television series, also called Band of Brothers, that includes the Company’s experiences in the Battle of the Bulge, particularly near Bastogne. Episode 6 of the television series, titled “Bastogne”, depicts the fighting around Bastogne during the Battle of the Bulge. Episode 7 of the series, titled “Breaking Point”, covers the end of the Battle of Bastogne, including an assault on Foy, a Belgian village about 5 km outside of Bastogne.
  • In 2005 the Discovery Channel series, "Battleground: The Art of War" featured an episode on the Battle of the Bulge.
  • In the TV series Moonlight, the main character Mick St. John stated that he had been a U.S. Army medic in World War II and was present at the Battle of the Bulge.

Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Battleground is a 1949 war film that tells the story of a platoon of the 3rd Battalion 327th Glider Infantry Regiment (formerly the 1st Battalion 401st GIR)101st Airborne Division trying to cope during the Battle of the Bulge at Bastogne, Belgium. ... Van Johnson (born Charles Van Johnson on August 25, 1916, in Newport, Rhode Island) is an American film and television actor and dancer. ... Robert Aldrich (August 9, 1918 – December 5, 1983) was a United States film director, writer and producer notable for a number of films including What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?, Hush, Hush, Sweet Charlotte, and The Dirty Dozen. ... Lee Marvin (February 19, 1924, New York City – August 29, 1987, Tucson, Arizona) was an American film actor. ... Jack Palance (February 18, 1919 - November 10, 2006) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor. ... Edward Albert Heimberger (April 22, 1906 – May 26, 2005) was a popular Oscar and Emmy Award-nominated American stage, film, character actor, gardener, and humanitarian activist, perhaps best known for playing Bing Edwards in the Brother Rat films, or for his role in the 1960s television comedy Green Acres. ... Battle of the Bulge is a war film released in 1965. ... Robert Shaw (August 9, 1927 – August 28, 1978) was an English stage and film actor and writer. ... Henry Jaynes Fonda (May 16, 1905 – August 12, 1982) was a highly acclaimed Academy Award-winning American film and stage actor, best known for his roles as plain-speaking idealists. ... Burt Lancaster (2 November 1913 – 20 October 1994) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor, noted for his athletic physique, distinct smile (which he called The Grin) and, later, his willingness to play roles that went against his initial tough guy image. ... Peter Michael Falk (born September 16, 1927) is an American actor. ... Patton (UK: Patton: Lust for Glory) is a 1970 epic biographical film which tells the story of General George S. Patton during World War II. It stars George C. Scott, Karl Malden, Michael Bates, and Karl Michael Vogler. ... George Campbell Scott (October 18, 1927 - September 22, 1999) was a stage and film actor, director, and producer. ... Karl Malden (born on March 22, 1912) is an Emmy Award-winning, Oscar-winning and Golden Globe-nominated American actor, known for his expansive manner. ... A Midnight Clear is a 1992 film directed by Keith Gordon. ... Kevin Dillon is a fictional character in Rodman Philbricks young adult novel, Freak the Mighty. ... Ethan Green Hawke (born November 6, 1970) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor, writer and film director. ... Gary Alan Sinise (born March 17, 1955) is an Emmy and Golden Globe winning, Golden Palm and Academy Award nominated American actor and film director. ... Silent Night is a fact-based 2002 television film set on Christmas Eve in 1944, during World War II. A German mother (Linda Hamilton), who had already lost her eldest son in the Battle of Stalingrad and whose husband is a cook serving in the German army, and her son... Linda Carroll Hamilton (born September 26, 1956) is an American movie actress born in Salisbury, Maryland. ... The Christmas Eve (1904-05), watercolor painting by the Swedish painter Carl Larsson (1853-1919) Christmas Eve, the evening of December 24th, the preceding day or vigil before Christmas Day, is treated to a greater or a lesser extent in most Christian societies as part of the Christmas season. ... Based on the novel by John Katzenbach Harts War is a 2002 film about a fictional World War II prisoner of war camp starring Bruce Willis, Colin Farrell and Terrance Howard. ... Colin James Farrell (born May 31, 1976) is an Irish actor who has appeared in several high-profile Hollywood films including Daredevil, Miami Vice, Minority Report, Phone Booth, Alexander, In Bruges. ... Terrence Dashon Howard (born March 11, 1969) is an Academy Award-nominated American film and stage actor. ... Walter Bruce Willis (born March 19, 1955) is a Golden Globe- and double Emmy-winning German-born American actor and singer. ... Saints and Soldiers is a war film released by Excel Entertainment in August, 2004. ... Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premiere of Band of Brothers Stephen Edward Ambrose (January 10, 1936 – October 13, 2002) was an American historian and biographer of U.S. Presidents Dwight Eisenhower and Richard M. Nixon. ... Band of Brothers: E Company, 506th Regiment, 101st Airborne from Normandy to Hitlers Eagles Nest is a factual account by historian Stephen Ambrose of the exploits of Easy Company of the 101st Airborne Division of the United States Army during their training and the latter days of World... E Company, 506th Infantry Regiment was a company of the 2nd Battalion of the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, U.S. 101st Airborne Division during World War II on the frontlines in the European Theater. ... During World War II, the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment (506th PIR) was a regiment of the 101st Airborne Division of the United States Army. ... Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 101st Airborne Division, the Screaming Eagles. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... HBO (Home Box Office) is a premium cable television network with headquarters in New York City. ... Band of Brothers is an acclaimed 10-part television World War II miniseries based on the book of the same title written by historian and biographer Stephen Ambrose. ... Foy is a village in Belgium, near Bastogne. ... Moonlight has several meanings: Moonlight is the light that is perceived as coming from the moon. ...

Computer games

The computer game Battlefield 1942 allows players to reenact the battle, as does the United Offensive expansion pack for Call of Duty, which also features one battle in the hurtgen, shortly before the Battle of the Bulge, but the games are generally considered focused too heavily on Bastogne to be considered a full reenactment, but United Offensive allows you to also be part of the battle for Foy and Noville. "Decisive Battles: The Ardennes Offensive" and Close Combat IV: Battle of the Bulge (1999 by SSI) are seen by many as the most accurate implementations of the full battle, though the latter focuses on platoon-sized battles translated onto a much larger strategic map and bear little resemblance to the actual battle. HPS Simulations' "Bulge '44" also makes a very detailed attempt to simulate the battle at operational (battalion and company) level. "Bulge '44" uses a turn-based system to implement many historical scenarios as well as some "what if?" scenarios. The game Axis and Allies also allows a reenactment of the Battle of the Bulge, though focused on Bastogne. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... Battlefield 1942 is a 3D World War II first-person shooter (FPS) computer game developed by Digital Illusions CE and published by Electronic Arts for Microsoft Windows (2002) and Apple Macintosh (2004). ... Call of Duty: United Offensive is an expansion pack for the popular first-person shooter computer game, Call of Duty. ... CoD redirects here. ... Call of Duty: United Offensive is an expansion pack for the popular first-person shooter computer game, Call of Duty. ... Close Combat is the name of a series of tactical RTS computer games by Atomic Games. ...


The WWII first person shooters Medal of Honor: European Assault Medal of Honor: Spearhead and Medal of Honor: Allied Assault also feature the battle. Hearts of Iron 2 and The Operational Art of War offer very well-designed representations of the strategic situation of that battle. Chris Crawford’s Patton Strikes Back (published by Broderbund in 1990) was an attempt to provide a simplified reenactment of the battle for new gamers. Along with these commercial games, ShootOut, a combined effort between The History Channel and Kuma Games has multiple levels dedicated to the Battle of the Bulge, all of which are located in Lanzareth, Germany. Medal of Honor: Allied Assault (MoH:AA) is a first-person shooter (FPS) computer game by Electronic Arts. ... Hearts of Iron 2 is a grand strategy computer war game for the PC based upon its predecessor, Hearts of Iron. ... The Operational Art of War (TOAW) is a series of computer wargames noted for their scope, detail, and flexibility in recreating, at an operational level, the major land battles of the 20th century. ... Chris Crawford is a noted computer game designer and writer, responsible for a number of important games in the 1980s, for founding The Journal of Computer Game Design and for organizing the Computer Game Developers Conference. ... Brøderbund (Danish for band of brothers) is a maker of computer games and educational software that was founded by Doug and Gary Carlston in 1980. ...


Board games

A number of other board games deal with this battle in various degrees of complexity. There are two Historical Modules for Advanced Squad Leader depicting the fighting by Kampfgruppe Peiper during the battle. Other games have included Battle of the Bulge (originally one of Avalon Hill’s 1960s "classics", reissued in new versions in 1981 and 1991) and Bitter Woods (1998) by The Avalon Hill Company; "Dark December" by Operational Studies Group; "Battle for the Ardennes Quad" (which also includes a scenario on the Franco-German battle for Sedan in 1940) and the monster "Wacht am Rhein" by SPI & Decision Games; Tigers in the Mist, Ardennes '44, and FAB: Bulge by GMT Games and "Ardennes" by The Gamers & MMP. Hasbro released a version of the Axis & Allies game focused on the Battle of the Bulge in 2006. Steve Jackson designed a wargame called One Page Bulge in 1980. It was one of the first three games published by Steve Jackson Games. The award-winning WWII-themed board game Memoir '44 by Days of Wonder also contains a scenario that reenacts the battle. Advanced Squad Leader 2nd Edition Rulebook Advanced Squad Leader (ASL) is a tactical-level board wargame that simulates actions of approximately company or battalion size in World War II. It is a detailed game system for two or more players (with solitaire play also possible). ... Hasbro (NYSE: HAS) is an American toy and game company. ... Axis and Allies and Axis & Allies redirects here. ... Steve Jackson Games (SJG) is a game company that creates and publishes role-playing, board, and card games. ... Memoir 44 is a light strategy board game, created by Richard Borg, for two to six players. ...


Novels

In Kurt Vonnegut’s novel Slaughterhouse-Five, main character Billy Pilgrim is a chaplain’s assistant in the 106th Infantry Division during the Battle of the Bulge. Because of his ineptitude as a soldier, he and his comrades are captured by the Germans. Vonnegut was an infantry scout with the 106th Division, captured on December 21st. Like the Pilgrim character in the novel, as a POW Vonnegut was a witness to the fire-bombing of Dresden. Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... Slaughterhouse-Five, or The Childrens Crusade: A Duty Dance With Death is a 1969 novel by best-selling author Kurt Vonnegut. ...


In Dean Hughes' 2001 novel, Soldier Boys, two boys from each side (American and German) end up fighting each other during the Battle of the Bulge. Dean Hughes is a prominent author of historical novels and childrens books. ...


Notes

  1. ^ http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/7-8/7-8_Cont.htm#pvii Military History of Battle of the Ardennes
  2. ^ a b http://www.helium.com/tm/336443/people-forget-memorial-truly Article on the Battle of the Bulge
  3. ^ This offensive has several other names, including the Von Rundstedt Offensive (in reality, von Rundstedt had little to do with it) and, officially to the U.S. Army, the Ardennes–Alsace Campaign. Several historical works (notably David Eggenberger’s Encyclopedia of Battles) describe this battle as the Second Battle of the Ardennes.
  4. ^ U.S. Military History of Battle of the Ardennes. Retrieved on 2006-10-14.
  5. ^ Operation Overlord planned for an advance to the line of the Seine by D+90 and an advance to the German frontier some time after D+120.
  6. ^ Danny Parker, The Battle of the Bulge, pp.95–100; Samuel Mitcham, Panzers in Winter, p.38; Steven Newton, Hitler’s Commander, pp.329–334. Wacht am Rhein was renamed Herbstnebel after the operation was given the go-ahead in early December, although its original name remains much better known.
  7. ^ B. H. Liddell Hart, History of the Second World War, p. 653.
  8. ^ Otto Skorzeny, Skorzeny's Special Missions (Greenhill Books, 1997) ISBN 1-85367-291-2
  9. ^ Citizen Soldiers, p 208
  10. ^ "NUTS!" Revisited
  11. ^ Nuts can mean several things in American English slang, including “dammit,” “crazy,” and testicles (similar to the British English bollocks). In this case, however, it signified rejection, as in “forget it,” and was explained to the Germans as meaning “Go to Hell!”
  12. ^ A World At Arms, p 769, Gerhard Weinberg
  13. ^ Smith and Clark, “Riviera To The Rhine,” p. 527
  14. ^ Urban, Mark ’Generals’ Pg194
  15. ^ Ryan, Cornelius. The Last Battle, (1966). pp. 204-205

Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Field Marshal of the German Army during World War II. He remains known as one of Germanys best generals, as well as for being apolitical throughout his career. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ...

References

  • "NUTS!" Revisited: An Interview with Lt. General Harry W. O. Kinnard
  • Bastogne: The First Eight Days CMH Pub 22-2: U.S. Army in Action Series: United States Army Center of Military History
  • United States Army in World War II: The European Theater of Operations: The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge. The US Army Center of Military History; 1964. See bibliographical note below
  • David Eggenberger (1985). An Encyclopedia of Battles: Accounts of over 1560 Battles from 1479 B.C. to the Present. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-24913-1. 
  • Charles MacDonald (1994). The Last Offensive. Alpine Fine Arts Collection. ISBN 1-56852-001-8. 
  • Charles MacDonald (1999). Company Commander. Burford Books. ISBN 1-58080-038-6. 
  • Stephen Ambrose (1998). Citizen Soldiers. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84801-5. 
  • Alex Kershaw (2004). The Longest Winter. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81304-1. 
  • Danny S. Parker (1991). Battle of the Bulge. Combined Books. ISBN 0-938289-04-7. 
  • Trevor N. Dupuy, David L. Bongard and Richard C. Anderson Jr. (1994). Hitler’s Last Gamble: The Battle of the Bulge, December 1944–January 1945. Harpercollins. ISBN 0-06-016627-4. 
  • Charles MacDonald (1984). A Time For Trumpets: The Untold Story of the Battle of the Bulge. Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-34226-6. 
  • B. H. Liddell Hart (1970) History of the Second World War. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.
  • Publications of Saint Vincent College Center for Northern Appalachian Studies, Richard David Wissolik, General Editor.
  • The Long Road: From Oran to Pilsen (ISBN 1-885851-13-8)
  • They Say There Was a War (ISBN 1-885851-51-0).
  • Oral Histories: 101st Airborne, 4th Armored Division, 28th Infantry Division, 25th Cavalry Recon, 704th Tank Destroyer Battalion, 691st Tank Destroyer Battalion, other units involved in the Battle of the Bulge, the relief of Bastogne, and the Battle of the Hurtgen Forest.
  • http://www.stvincent.edu/napp11
  • American Experience - The Battle of the Bulge - PBS Documentary, Produced by Thomas F. Lennon.
  • Ambrose, Stephen (1992). Band of Brothers. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671769227. 
  • Mitcham, Samuel W. (2006). Panzers in Winter: Hitler’s Army and the Battle of the Bulge. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0275971155. 
  • Newton, Steven H. (2006). Hitler’s Commander: Field Marshal Walter Model - Hitler’s Favorite General. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo. ISBN 0306813998. 
  • Parker, Danny S. (1999). The Battle of the Bulge, The German View: Perspectives from Hitler’s High Command. London: Greenhill. ISBN 1853673544. 

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ...

External links

  • [1] - Battle of the Bulge - ARMY.MIL Feature site


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